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Family Law Financial Discovery

Successfully obtain all the information needed to divide community property, confirm separate property, determine support, and claim attorney fees and costs.

Successfully obtain all the information needed to divide community property, confirm separate property, determine support, and claim attorney fees and costs.

  • Identify and gather all financial data, including ESI
  • Leverage mandatory disclosure rules to uncover income, assets, and debts
  • Create focused discovery plans for specific property
  • Determine when and how to use key civil discovery tools
  • Learn to use experts as discovery consultants and witnesses at trial
  • Use mediation and collaborative methods without compromising discovery
  • Understand privacy and privilege-based discovery limits
  • Obtain protective orders against improper discovery
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Successfully obtain all the information needed to divide community property, confirm separate property, determine support, and claim attorney fees and costs.

  • Identify and gather all financial data, including ESI
  • Leverage mandatory disclosure rules to uncover income, assets, and debts
  • Create focused discovery plans for specific property
  • Determine when and how to use key civil discovery tools
  • Learn to use experts as discovery consultants and witnesses at trial
  • Use mediation and collaborative methods without compromising discovery
  • Understand privacy and privilege-based discovery limits
  • Obtain protective orders against improper discovery

1

General Planning Considerations for Financial Discovery

Sandra I. Blair

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  1.1
    • B.  Importance of Financial Discovery in Family Law Cases  1.2
  • II.  DISCOVERY PLANNING AS PART OF CLIENT REPRESENTATION
    • A.  Attorney’s General Ethical Obligations in Representing Family Law Client  1.3
    • B.  Beginning the Matter: Retainer Agreement  1.4
    • C.  Client as Source of Information  1.5
      • 1.  In-Depth Client Interview  1.6
      • 2.  Use of Questionnaires and Forms for Client to Complete  1.7
    • D.  How to Finance Discovery
      • 1.  Court Order for Attorney Fees and Costs From Other Party  1.8
      • 2.  Court’s Role in Controlling Discovery Costs  1.9
      • 3.  Family Law Attorney’s Real Property Lien  1.10
  • III.  INFORMAL DISCOVERY AND MANDATORY DISCLOSURE  1.11
    • A.  Informal Discovery  1.12
    • B.  Parties’ Fiduciary Duty to Disclose Information on Assets and Debts  1.13
    • C.  Disclosure Statutes and Declarations  1.14
      • 1.  Preliminary Declaration of Disclosure  1.15
      • 2.  Final Declaration of Disclosure  1.16
  • IV.  GENERAL FACTORS AFFECTING NEED FOR FORMAL DISCOVERY
    • A.  Litigation Versus Mediation or Collaborative Methods of Case Resolution  1.17
    • B.  Client’s Knowledge of Parties’ Financial Affairs
      • 1.  Importance of Client’s Overall Knowledge and Access to Financial Information  1.18
      • 2.  Representing Less Knowledgeable Party  1.19
    • C.  Lack of Cooperation, Mistrust, and Need for Deadlines  1.20
    • D.  Other Factors
      • 1.  Probable Size and Complexity of Community or Separate Estate  1.21
      • 2.  Need for Outside Experts to Compile and Analyze Financial Information  1.22
      • 3.  Existence of Third Parties Who Provide Funds to Either Party  1.23
      • 4.  Existence of Trusts, Partnerships, and Corporations  1.24
  • V.  FORMULATING FORMAL DISCOVERY PLAN  1.25
    • A.  Use of Formal Discovery Methods
      • 1.  Family Law Form Interrogatories  1.26
      • 2.  Other Interrogatories and Document Inspection Demands  1.27
      • 3.  More Expensive Discovery Tools  1.28
    • B.  Use of Experts  1.29
    • C.  Weighing Costs and Benefits of Formal Discovery  1.30
    • D.  How Discovery Needs May Vary by Stage of Proceeding
      • 1.  Before Entry of Pendente Lite (Temporary) Orders  1.31
      • 2.  Before Trial in Main Proceedings
        • a.  Matters Not Under Family-Centered Case Resolution  1.32
        • b.  Matters Under Family-Centered Case Resolution
          • (1)  Family-Centered Case Resolution  1.33
          • (2)  Court-Imposed Case Management [Deleted]  1.34
      • 3.  Postjudgment Proceedings
        • a.  Simplified Procedures if No Motion Pending to Modify or Terminate Support  1.35
        • b.  Other Postjudgment Proceedings  1.36
    • E.  Time Element in Completing Discovery; Effect of Discovery Cutoffs
      • 1.  Time Element  1.37
      • 2.  Effect of Discovery Cutoffs
        • a.  Original Proceedings  1.38
        • b.  Postjudgment Modification Proceedings  1.39
  • VI.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample General Questionnaire for Assets and Debts  1.40
    • B.  Form: Sample Monthly Expense Questionnaire  1.41
    • C.  Form: Sample Retainer Agreement Provision on Hiring Additional Professionals  1.42

2

Role of Informal Discovery and Disclosure Declarations in Obtaining Financial Information

Michael A. Fisher

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  2.1
    • B.  Overview  2.2
  • II.  OBTAINING FINANCIAL INFORMATION USING INFORMAL DISCOVERY METHODS
    • A.  Client as Source for Discovery  2.3
      • 1.  Tax Returns  2.4
      • 2.  Bank and Credit Card Statements  2.5
      • 3.  Income Information  2.6
    • B.  Informal Exchange of Information Between Parties
      • 1.  Benefits and Drawbacks to Informal Exchanges  2.7
      • 2.  Use of Informal Request for Production of Documents  2.8
    • C.  Public Records and News Sources  2.9
      • 1.  Public Record Searches Using State Websites
        • a.  General California State Website  2.10
        • b.  Department of Tax and Fee Administration   2.11
        • c.  California Business Portal  2.12
        • d.  Department of Consumer Affairs  2.13
        • e.  Department of Business Oversight  2.14
        • f.  Department of Motor Vehicles  2.15
      • 2.  Public Record Searches Using County Websites  2.16
      • 3.  Public News Sources  2.17
    • D.  Private Databases  2.18
    • E.  Voluntary Information From Employers  2.19
    • F.  Investigative and Appraisal Reports  2.20
    • G.  Special Postjudgment Informal Discovery and Simplified Modification Procedure in Support Cases
      • 1.  Request for Information From Party or Employer  2.21
      • 2.  Simplified Procedure for Support Modification  2.22
    • H.  Remedies for Noncompliance With Informal Discovery Requests
      • 1.  Possibility of Fees and Costs Award Under Fam C §§271 and 2107  2.23
      • 2.  Family Code §§721, 2100(c) Demand Letter  2.24
  • III.  DECLARATIONS OF DISCLOSURE
    • A.  Purpose  2.25
    • B.  Fiduciary Duties Associated With Disclosure  2.26
    • C.  Preliminary Declaration of Disclosure  2.27
      • 1.  Requirements for Declaration  2.28
      • 2.  Time and Manner of Service  2.29
    • D.  Final Declaration of Disclosure
      • 1.  Requirements for Declaration  2.30
      • 2.  Time and Manner of Service; Effect on Judgment  2.31
      • 3.  Exceptions
        • a.  Default Cases  2.32
        • b.  Mutual Waiver  2.33
        • c.  Summary Dissolutions  2.34
    • E.  Remedies for Noncompliance With Disclosure Requirements
      • 1.  Request for Compliance  2.35
      • 2.  Motions to Compel Further Response and Prevent Presentation of Evidence  2.36
      • 3.  Monetary Sanctions  2.37
      • 4.  Set-Aside of Judgment  2.38
  • IV.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Request for Transcript of Tax Return (IRS Form 4506-T)  2.39
    • B.  Form: Request for Social Security Statement (Form SSA-7004-SM) [Deleted]  2.40
    • C.  Form: Sample Letter Requesting Information Under Fam C §§721, 2100(c)  2.41
    • D.  Form: Declaration of Disclosure (Family Law) (Judicial Council Form FL-140)  2.42
    • E.  Form: Schedule of Assets and Debts (Family Law) (Judicial Council Form FL-142)  2.43
    • F.  Form: Declaration Regarding Service of Declaration of Disclosure and Income and Expense Declaration (Family Law) (Judicial Council Form FL-141)  2.44
    • G.  Form: Sample Letter Requesting Declaration of Disclosure  2.45
    • H.  Form: Stipulation and Waiver of Final Declaration of Disclosure (Judicial Council Form FL-144)  2.46

3

Using Formal Discovery Methods in Family Law Cases

Katie Burke

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  3.1
  • II.  FREQUENTLY USED FORMAL DISCOVERY METHODS
    • A.  Interrogatories
      • 1.  Definition and Purpose; Objections  3.2
      • 2.  Types of Interrogatories  3.3
        • a.  Family Law Form Interrogatories  3.4
        • b.  Special Interrogatories  3.5
      • 3.  Propounding Interrogatories
        • a.  Timing  3.6
        • b.  Service and Other Requirements  3.7
        • c.  Format  3.8
        • d.  Directing Interrogatories to Documents or Other Tangibles  3.9
      • 4.  Responding to Interrogatories
        • a.  Time for Response; Service  3.10
        • b.  Manner and Format of Response  3.11
        • c.  Signature of Party; Oath  3.12
        • d.  Signature of Party’s Attorney  3.13
        • e.  Effect of Failure to Respond  3.14
    • B.  Demands for Production or Inspection
      • 1.  Nature of Demand  3.15
      • 2.  Propounding Demand
        • a.  Only Parties Are Subject to Demand  3.16
        • b.  Service and Timing of Production or Inspection  3.17
        • c.  Content and Format  3.18
      • 3.  Responding to Demand
        • a.  Time and Manner of Response; Service  3.19
        • b.  Signature of Party and Attorney  3.20
        • c.  Effect of Failure to Respond  3.21
    • C.  Requests for Admission
      • 1.  Definition and Use  3.22
      • 2.  Numerical Limitations
        • a.  Genuineness of Documents  3.23
        • b.  Limit of 35 if Other Than Genuineness of Documents  3.24
      • 3.  Timing Limitations on Requests for Admission
        • a.  First Opportunity to Serve  3.25
        • b.  Application to Serve Requests Early  3.26
        • c.  Deadline to Serve  3.27
        • d.  Deadline to Respond  3.28
      • 4.  Must Not Combine Requests for Admission With Other Discovery Method in Same Document  3.29
      • 5.  Content of Requests for Admission
        • a.  Overall Format; Attachments  3.30
        • b.  Permissible Requests  3.31
      • 6.  Methods of Service  3.32
      • 7.  Preparing and Serving Responses
        • a.  Responding Party’s Duty to Respond  3.33
        • b.  Content and Format of Response  3.34
        • c.  Objections  3.35
        • d.  Service of Response  3.36
        • e.  Time to Respond
          • (1)  Statutory Time Limits  3.37
          • (2)  Effect of Failure to Serve Timely Response  3.38
      • 8.  Motions Related to Requests for Admission  3.39
      • 9.  Effect and Use of Requests for Admission at Trial  3.40
    • D.  Oral Depositions
      • 1.  Background
        • a.  Nature of Deposition and Who May Be Deposed  3.41
        • b.  One-Deposition Rule  3.42
      • 2.  Timing of Service of Deposition Notices
        • a.  By Petitioner  3.43
        • b.  By Respondent  3.44
        • c.  Time to Complete Taking Depositions  3.45
      • 3.  Location of Deposition
        • a.  Convenience of Witness  3.46
        • b.  Statutory Distance Rules
          • (1)  Natural Persons  3.47
          • (2)  Organizations  3.48
        • c.  Depositions Outside California  3.49
      • 4.  Deposition by Telephone, Video Conference, or Other Electronic Means  3.50
      • 5.  Compelling Attendance
        • a.  Overview  3.51
        • b.  Deposition Notice to Party Sufficient to Compel Attendance  3.52
        • c.  Deposition of Expert and Other Nonparties Requires Subpoena  3.53
      • 6.  Content and Timing of Deposition Notices and Subpoenas
        • a.  Deposition Notices  3.54
        • b.  Deposition Subpoenas  3.55
      • 7.  Payment of Witness Fees and Mileage
        • a.  Nonparty Deponents in General  3.56
        • b.  Nonparty Government Employee Deponents  3.57
      • 8.  Asserting Privilege Against Self-Incrimination  3.58
      • 9.  Motions Pertaining to Depositions  3.59
    • E.  Deposition Subpoena for Personal Records
      • 1.  Background  3.60
      • 2.  Definitions  3.61
      • 3.  Procedures for Subpoenaing Party
        • a.  Scheduling Date of Production  3.62
        • b.  Preparing Subpoena and Notice to Consumer
          • (1)  Preparing Subpoena  3.63
          • (2)  Preparing Notice to Consumer  3.64
        • c.  What to Serve on Consumer and Witness
          • (1)  Service on Consumer
            • (a)  Items to Serve  3.65
            • (b)  Timing and Method of Service  3.66
          • (2)  Service on Witness
            • (a)  Items to Serve  3.67
            • (b)  Timing and Method of Service  3.68
      • 4.  Consumer’s Opposition and Subpoenaing Party’s Response
        • a.  Motion to Quash by Party Consumer  3.69
        • b.  Written Objection by Nonparty Consumer  3.70
        • c.  Subpoenaing Party’s Response to Opposition  3.71
      • 5.  Subpoenaing Party’s Noncompliance With Statute Excuses Witness’s Compliance  3.72
      • 6.  Treatment of Employment Records
        • a.  Private Employees in General  3.73
        • b.  Government Employees  3.74
  • III.  ADAPTING DISCOVERY TO ELECTRONIC SOURCES OF INFORMATION
    • A.  Expanding Presence of Electronic Data; Discovery  3.75
    • B.  Nature of Stored Electronic Data  3.76
    • C.  Overview of Issues Concerning Electronic Data
      • 1.  Need for Caution to Avoid Altering Data  3.77
      • 2.  Preservation of Electronic Data  3.78
      • 3.  Identifying and Collecting Electronic Data
        • a.  Identifying Relevant Data  3.79
        • b.  Use of Team to Collect Data in Certain Cases  3.80
      • 4.  Processing and Reviewing Electronic Information  3.81
    • D.  Inclusion of Electronic Data in Demand for Production or Inspection  3.82
      • 1.  Party’s Awareness of Need to Preserve Electronic Data  3.83
      • 2.  Deciding What to Demand  3.84
      • 3.  Describing Documents Stored Electronically  3.85
      • 4.  Authentication and Translation Issues
        • a.  Authentication  3.86
        • b.  Requesting Translation of Electronic Data Into “Reasonably Usable Form”  3.87
      • 5.  Coordinating Production Demand With Other Discovery  3.88
      • 6.  Seeking Preservation Order or Preservation Through Demand Letter
        • a.  Preservation Order  3.89
        • b.  Demand Letter  3.90
      • 7.  Dealing With Data on Particular Computers and Other Devices
        • a.  Home and Laptop Computers  3.91
        • b.  Personal Digital Assistants and Other Devices  3.92
      • 8.  Using Experts in Connection With Demand for Production or Inspection of Electronic Documents  3.93
      • 9.  Responding to Demand for Inspection of Electronic Data That Requires Translation  3.94

4

Privileges, Privacy, and Other Limitations on Discovery

Esther Rosenfeld

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  4.1
    • B.  Importance of Considering Issue of Privilege  4.2
  • II.  ATTORNEY-CLIENT PRIVILEGE AND RELATED WORK PRODUCT DOCTRINE
    • A.  Attorney-Client Privilege
      • 1.  Nature of Privilege  4.3
      • 2.  Confidential Communication
        • a.  Statutory Definition  4.4
        • b.  Scope of Protected Communications  4.5
        • c.  Must Be Professional Relationship  4.6
        • d.  Persons “Reasonably Necessary” to Accomplish Purpose of Representation  4.7
      • 3.  Who May Claim Privilege  4.8
      • 4.  Joint Client Exception; Other Exceptions  4.9
      • 5.  Waiver of Privilege  4.10
      • 6.  Inadvertent Disclosure of Privileged Matter  4.10A
    • B.  Work Product Doctrine
      • 1.  Statutory Definition; Purpose  4.11
      • 2.  Persons Covered  4.12
      • 3.  Treatment of Derivative Versus Nonderivative Material  4.13
      • 4.  Absolute Versus Qualified Protection  4.14
      • 5.  Doctrine Applies Only to Work Performed for Client’s Benefit  4.15
      • 6.  Effect of Terminating Attorney-Client Relationship  4.16
      • 7.  Waiver of Work Product Doctrine  4.17
  • III.  OTHER PRIVILEGES
    • A.  Marital Privileges Not Applicable in Family Law Cases  4.18
    • B.  Physician-Patient, Psychotherapist-Patient, Educational Psychologist-Patient Privileges
      • 1.  Statutory Authority for Privileges; Purpose  4.19
      • 2.  Physician and Psychotherapist Defined  4.20
      • 3.  Patient Defined  4.21
      • 4.  Confidential Communication Defined  4.22
      • 5.  Presence of Third Parties May Waive Privilege; Exception  4.23
      • 6.  Persons Who May Claim Privilege
        • a.  Patient or Patient’s Legal Representative  4.24
        • b.  Joint Holders of Privilege  4.25
      • 7.  Exceptions to Privilege
        • a.  Privilege Waived if Patient Puts Condition in Issue  4.26
        • b.  Waiver by Voluntary Disclosure  4.27
        • c.  “Dangerous Patient” Exception  4.28
        • d.  Exception for Child Abuse or Neglect  4.29
    • C.  Privilege Against Self-Incrimination
      • 1.  Nature of Privilege  4.30
      • 2.  Exceptions to Privilege  4.31
        • a.  Tax Returns in Support Proceedings  4.32
        • b.  Disclosure of Child’s Whereabouts  4.33
    • D.  Clergy-Penitent Privilege  4.34
    • E.  Domestic Violence Victim-Counselor Privilege  4.35
    • F.  Tax Return Privilege  4.36
  • IV.  CONFIDENTIALITY IN CONCILIATION COURT PROCEEDINGS AND MEDIATION
    • A.  Conciliation Court Proceedings  4.37
    • B.  Mediation  4.38
  • V.  RIGHT OF PRIVACY
    • A.  Right May Overcome Policy of Disclosure  4.39
    • B.  No Privacy Right in Spousal Communications About Financial Matters  4.40
    • C.  Balancing Test if Third Party Privacy Rights Involved  4.41
      • 1.  Businesses  4.42
      • 2.  Individual Third Parties  4.43
  • VI.  OTHER POLICY-BASED LIMITATIONS ON DISCOVERY
    • A.  Settlement Communications  4.44
    • B.  Personnel Records of Peace Officer  4.45
    • C.  “Lifestyle” Evidence in High-Earner Child Support Cases  4.46

5

Discovery Issues Raised by Use of Mediation and Collaborative Practice

Cheryl A. Sena

Michael C. Tobriner

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  5.1
    • B.  Mediation and Collaborative Practice Contrasted With Litigation  5.2
      • 1.  Mediation  5.3
      • 2.  Collaboration  5.4
      • 3.  Rationale for Choosing Mediation or Collaboration and Identifying Appropriate Clients
        • a.  Nonadversarial Approach  5.5
        • b.  Appropriate Clients  5.6
      • 4.  Litigation Compared  5.7
  • II.  DISCOVERY METHODS USED IN MEDIATION AND COLLABORATIVE PRACTICE
    • A.  Assumption of Full Disclosure  5.8
    • B.  Information-Gathering and Exchange  5.9
    • C.  Level of Detail in Providing Information  5.10
    • D.  Developing Discovery Plan  5.11
    • E.  Using Divorce Coaches and Experts  5.12
    • F.  Waiver of Final Disclosures  5.13
    • G.  Remedies for Noncompliance
      • 1.  No Compelled Disclosure; Possibility of Fees, Sanctions  5.14
      • 2.  Setting Aside Agreement Reached in Mediation or Collaboration  5.15
    • H.  Standard of Care in Conducting Discovery in Mediation and Collaborative Practice  5.16
  • III.  CONFIDENTIALITY OF INFORMATION IN MEDIATION AND COLLABORATIVE PRACTICE
    • A.  Governing Standards in General  5.17
    • B.  Mediation
      • 1.  Statutory Framework
        • a.  Evid C §1119  5.18
        • b.  Mediation Defined  5.19
        • c.  Legislative Policy  5.20
        • d.  Printed Disclosure and Signed Acknowledgment Required  5.20A
        • e.  Confidentiality Distinguished From Privilege  5.21
        • f.  Scope of Protection  5.22
      • 2.  Limitations on Statutory Protection
        • a.  Evidence Otherwise Admissible  5.23
        • b.  Agreements to Mediate  5.24
        • c.  Settlement Agreements  5.25
        • d.  Waiver
          • (1)  Statutory Authority  5.26
          • (2)  Contractual Waivers
            • (a)  Purposes of Waivers  5.27
            • (b)  Scope of Waiver  5.28
      • 3.  Tactical Limitation of Mediation Confidentiality  5.29
      • 4.  Requirements for Waiver of Confidentiality  5.29A
    • C.  Collaborative Practice
      • 1.  Two Distinct Contexts  5.30
      • 2.  Inapplicability of Mediation Confidentiality and Bilateral Privilege to Collaborative Practice
        • a.  Inapplicability of Mediation Confidentiality  5.31
        • b.  Inapplicability of Traditional Bilateral Privilege  5.32
      • 3.  Collaborative Law Enabling Statute Does Not Address Confidentiality  5.33
      • 4.  Evidence Code §1152 May Provide Partial Confidentiality in Collaborative Cases  5.34
      • 5.  Confidentiality by Collaborative Contract  5.35

6

Use of Experts as Consultants and Witnesses in the Financial Discovery Process

Christopher C. Melcher

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  6.1
  • II.  ASSESSING NEED FOR EXPERT  6.2
    • A.  Primary Factors and Issues  6.3
    • B.  Ability of Client to Provide Information and Opinion on Property Values  6.4
    • C.  Property Will Be Sold or Divided  6.5
  • III.  HIRING OWN EXPERT AND DEFINING EXPERT’S ROLE
    • A.  Persons Qualifying as “Experts”; Limitations on Testimony  6.6
    • B.  Timing of Hiring Expert  6.7
    • C.  Defining Scope of Expert’s Assignment  6.8
    • D.  Communicating With Own Expert  6.9
    • E.  Distinguishing Between Consultants and Other Experts
      • 1.  Importance of Distinction  6.10
      • 2.  Retained Experts
        • a.  Expert’s Role as Consultant  6.11
        • b.  Communications Protected From Discovery; Limitations
          • (1)  Protected Communications  6.12
          • (2)  Limitations on Discovery Protection
            • (a)  Communications Unrelated to Retention  6.13
            • (b)  No Protection for Consultant Retained by Client  6.14
        • c.  Tips for Maintaining Confidentiality of Consultant’s Opinions  6.15
        • d.  Evaluating Whether to Have Consultant Testify  6.16
        • e.  Rule Against Communicating With Other Party’s Experts  6.17
    • F.  Status of Own Consultant as Designated Expert
      • 1.  No Discovery Protection if Consultant Listed as Trial Witness  6.18
      • 2.  Exception for Limited Work Product Protection  6.19
      • 3.  Effect of Party’s Self-Designation as Expert  6.20
      • 4.  Effect of Withdrawing Expert Before Deposition by Opposing Party  6.21
  • IV.  JOINT AND COURT-APPOINTED EXPERTS; NONRETAINED EXPERTS DISTINGUISHED
    • A.  Joint Experts  6.22
    • B.  Court-Appointed Experts  6.23
    • C.  Expert Who Is Percipient Witness or Not Retained Distinguished  6.24
  • V.  USING EXPERTS TO ANALYZE FINANCIAL INFORMATION  6.25
    • A.  Real Property Appraiser  6.26
      • 1.  Qualifications
        • a.  Licensing and Liability Insurance  6.27
        • b.  Professional Standards  6.28
      • 2.  Valuation Issues
        • a.  Valuation Date  6.29
        • b.  Types of Valuations and Methodology
          • (1)  Types of Valuations  6.30
          • (2)  Methodology
            • (a)  Non-Income-Producing Property  6.31
            • (b)  Income-Producing Property  6.32
      • 3.  Cost of Appraisal  6.33
    • B.  Personal Property Appraiser  6.34
    • C.  Forensic Accountant  6.35
      • 1.  Qualifications and Limitations on Testimony as Expert
        • a.  Qualifications  6.36
        • b.  Limitations on Accountant’s Testimony as Expert
          • (1)  Opinion Must Be Within Accountant’s Knowledge, Training, or Experience  6.37
          • (2)  Accountant’s Reliance on Appraiser’s Opinion  6.38
      • 2.  Use of Forensic Accountant
        • a.  Valuation of Business Interests
          • (1)  Party’s Active Participation in Business Presents Special Need for Accountant  6.39
          • (2)  Valuation Date  6.40
          • (3)  Measure of Value and Methodology  6.41
          • (4)  Replacement Value of Owner’s Services  6.42
        • b.  Determination of Income for Support  6.43
        • c.  Tracing  6.44
        • d.  Reimbursements and Credits  6.45
        • e.  Equitable Apportionment  6.46
    • D.  Tax Accountant or Tax Attorney  6.47
    • E.  Vocational Examiner  6.48
    • F.  Actuary  6.49
    • G.  Pension Attorney or Accountant
      • 1.  Determining Employee Benefits in General  6.50
      • 2.  Determining Employee Stock Options and Executive Compensation  6.51
    • H.  Insurance Broker  6.52
    • I.  Computer Expert
      • 1.  Need for Expert  6.53
      • 2.  Related Privacy and Privilege Issues  6.54
    • J.  Questioned Document Examiner  6.55
  • VI.  EXCHANGING EXPERT WITNESS INFORMATION
    • A.  Need to Follow Procedure for Simultaneous Exchange of Information  6.56
    • B.  Making Demand  6.57
    • C.  Response to Demand
      • 1.  Motion for Protective Order
        • a.  Motion Preferable to Simply Objecting to Demand  6.58
        • b.  Basing Motion on Untimeliness or Conditions Relating to Demand  6.59
        • c.  Basing Motion on Designating Multiple Experts on Single Issue  6.60
      • 2.  Compliance With Demand  6.61
    • D.  Supplemental Expert Witness Designation  6.62
    • E.  Motion to Augment or Amend Expert Witness Disclosure  6.63
    • F.  Leave to Submit Late Designation of Experts  6.64
    • G.  Right to Call Impeachment Experts  6.65
    • H.  Right to Call Other Party’s Experts  6.66
    • I.  Sanctions for Failure to Comply With Exchange Requirements  6.67
  • VII.  CONDUCTING EXPERT WITNESS DISCOVERY
    • A.  Creating Discovery Plan  6.68
    • B.  Deadline for Conducting Expert Discovery  6.69
    • C.  Depositions of Experts
      • 1.  Timing, Scheduling, and Priority  6.70
      • 2.  Place of Deposition  6.71
      • 3.  Deposition Questions  6.72
      • 4.  Demand for Production of Documents at Deposition  6.73
      • 5.  Video Recorded Depositions  6.74
      • 6.  Deposition Subpoena  6.75
      • 7.  Deposition Fees
        • a.  Timing of Payment  6.76
        • b.  Travel or Preparation Fees  6.77
        • c.  Charging for Actual Time; Daily Fees  6.78
        • d.  Fees Caused by Tardy Counsel  6.79
        • e.  Fees May Not Exceed Actual Charges to Party  6.80
        • f.  Objecting to Reasonableness of Expert Fees  6.81
    • D.  Remedies for Failure to Comply With Discovery Obligations
      • 1.  Motion to Compel  6.82
      • 2.  Exclusion of Expert Opinion  6.83
        • a.  Expert Unprepared to Express Opinion at Deposition  6.84
        • b.  Expert Changes Opinion After Deposition  6.85
    • E.  Protecting Expert Discovery From Pretrial Disclosure to Third Parties  6.85A
  • VIII.  EXPERT FEES
    • A.  Fee Payment Permitted by Automatic Temporary Restraining Orders  6.86
    • B.  Liability of Counsel for Expert Fees  6.86A
    • C.  Fee Contribution by Other Party  6.87
    • D.  Court Must Fix and Apportion Fees for Own Expert  6.88
  • IX.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Stipulation and Order for Appointment of Joint Expert  6.89
    • B.  Form: Demand for Exchange of Expert Witness Information  6.90
    • C.  Form: Designation of Expert Witnesses  6.91
    • D.  Form: Expert Witness Declaration  6.92
    • E.  Form: Notice of Deposition of Expert Witness  6.93
    • F.  Form: Notice of Intent to Videotape Deposition and Use at Trial  6.94
    • G.  Form: Stipulated Protective Order With Provision for Necessary Disclosure to Parties’ Experts  6.95

7

Child and Spousal Support Issues

Sharon F. Mah

Lance A. Russell

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  7.1
    • B.  Assessing Need for Discovery
      • 1.  Child Support  7.2
      • 2.  Spousal Support  7.3
  • II.  CHILD SUPPORT DISCOVERY ISSUES
    • A.  Legal Background
      • 1.  Authority to Award Support  7.4
      • 2.  Standard for Award Under Statewide Guideline and Exceptions
        • a.  Guideline Standard for Award  7.5
        • b.  Exceptions to Guideline: Rebuttal Factors  7.6
          • (1)  Stipulation to Nonguideline Amount  7.7
          • (2)  Deferred Sale of Residence  7.8
          • (3)  Extraordinarily High Income of Payer  7.9
          • (4)  Insufficient Contributions in Relation to Custodial Time to Meet Child’s Needs  7.10
          • (5)  Guideline Amount Unjust or Unfair Because of Special Circumstances  7.11
      • 3.  Determining Income Available to Pay Support
        • a.  Broad Statutory Definition of “Income”  7.12
        • b.  Treatment of Depreciation Expenses  7.13
        • c.  Imputed Income  7.14
          • (1)  Earnings Attributions From Employment  7.15
          • (2)  Earnings From Assets  7.16
    • B.  Discovery of Income Based on Party’s Employment Circumstances
      • 1.  Salaried Employee  7.17
      • 2.  Owner/Shareholder of Business  7.18
      • 3.  Self-Employed Party  7.19
      • 4.  Retired Party  7.20
    • C.  Discovery Time Limitations  7.21
    • D.  Discovery in Child Support Modification Proceedings  7.22
    • E.  Obtaining Discovery With No Modification Action Pending  7.23
    • F.  Checklists of Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools
      • 1.  Based on Parties’ Employment Circumstances
        • a.  Checklist: Salaried Employee  7.24
        • b.  Checklist: Owner/Shareholder or Partner  7.25
        • c.  Checklist: Self-Employed Party  7.26
      • 2.  Based on Other Criteria
        • a.  Checklist: Ownership of Assets  7.27
        • b.  Checklist: Earning Capacity  7.28
  • III.  SPOUSAL SUPPORT DISCOVERY ISSUES
    • A.  Legal Background
      • 1.  Interim or Temporary Support Awards  7.29
      • 2.  Long-Term (“Permanent”) Spousal Support Awards  7.30
      • 3.  Specific Types of Spousal Support Orders
        • a.  Step-Down Orders  7.31
        • b.  Richmond Orders  7.32
      • 4.  Modification and Termination of Spousal Support
        • a.  Modification  7.33
        • b.  Termination  7.34
    • B.  Discovery Checklists Relevant to Statutory Support Factors
      • 1.  Marital Standard of Living
        • a.  Marital Standard of Living Described  7.35
        • b.  Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Marital Standard of Living  7.36
      • 2.  Earning Capacity Sufficient to Maintain Marital Standard of Living
        • a.  Marketable Skills
          • (1)  Marketable Skills and Related Factors Described  7.37
          • (2)  Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Marketable Skills  7.38
        • b.  Impairment of Supported Party’s Earning Capacity by Domestic Duties
          • (1)  Impairment of Earning Capacity Described  7.39
          • (2)  Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Impairment of Earning Capacity  7.40
      • 3.  Contributions by Supported Party to Supporting Party’s Education or Training
        • a.  Contributions as Factor Described  7.41
        • b.  Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Contributions to Education or Training  7.42
      • 4.  Ability of Supporting Party to Pay Support
        • a.  Ability to Pay Described; Imputed Income  7.43
        • b.  Checklist: Discovery Tools—Ability to Pay  7.44
      • 5.  Financial Needs of Each Party
        • a.  “Needs” Described  7.45
        • b.  Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Financial Needs  7.46
      • 6.  Each Party’s Obligations and Assets
        • a.  Obligations and Assets Described  7.47
        • b.  Checklist: Discovery Tools—Obligations and Assets  7.48
      • 7.  Duration of Marriage
        • a.  Significance of Duration of Marriage as Factor  7.49
        • b.  Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Duration of Marriage  7.50
      • 8.  Supported Party’s Ability to Engage in Gainful Employment
        • a.  Ability to Engage in Gainful Employment as Factor  7.51
        • b.  Checklist: Discovery Tools—Ability to Engage in Gainful Employment  7.52
      • 9.  Age and Health of Parties
        • a.  Significance of Age and Health as Factors  7.53
        • b.  Medical and Vocational Evidence  7.54
        • c.  Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Age and Health of Parties  7.55
      • 10.  Domestic Violence
        • a.  Domestic Violence as Factor  7.56
        • b.  Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Domestic Violence  7.57
      • 11.  Tax Consequences to Each Party
        • a.  Immediate and Specific Tax Consequences as Factor  7.58
        • b.  Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Tax Consequences  7.59
      • 12.  Balance of Hardships to Each Party
        • a.  Balance of Hardships Described  7.60
        • b.  Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Balance of Hardships  7.61
      • 13.  Goal That Supported Party Become Self-Supporting
        • a.  Supported Party’s Becoming Self-Supporting as Factor  7.62
        • b.  Checklist: Discovery Tools—Goal of Self-Support by Supported Party  7.63
      • 14.  Criminal Conviction of Abusive Spouse
        • a.  Criminal Conviction as Factor When Abusive Spouse Seeks Support  7.64
        • b.  Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Abusive Spouse’s Criminal Conviction  7.65
      • 15.  Other Just and Equitable Factors
        • a.  Undefined “Catchall” Factor Described  7.66
        • b.  Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Other Factors  7.67
  • IV.  FORM: SAMPLE DEMAND FOR PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS  7.68

8

Date of Separation and General Property Division Issues

Neil M. E. Forester

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  8.1
    • B.  Overview  8.2
  • II.  DATE OF SEPARATION
    • A.  Legal Background
      • 1.  Significance of Separation Date  8.3
      • 2.  Determining Separation Date  8.4
    • B.  Discovery Checklist: Date of Separation Evidence  8.5
  • III.  PROPERTY DIVISION (ASSETS AND LIABILITIES)
    • A.  Legal Background
      • 1.  Equal Division of Community Property Estate and Exceptions  8.6
      • 2.  Reimbursement Issues  8.7
        • a.  Payment of Debt  8.8
        • b.  Separate Property Contributions  8.9
        • c.  Epstein Credits and Watts Charges  8.10
      • 3.  Commingling and Tracing
        • a.  Commingling  8.11
        • b.  Tracing
          • (1)  Direct Tracing  8.12
          • (2)  Family Expense Tracing  8.13
      • 4.  Transmutation  8.14
      • 5.  Valuation  8.15
        • a.  Expert and Other Opinion Testimony  8.16
        • b.  Recent Sales Price  8.17
        • c.  Alternate Valuation Date  8.18
        • d.  Valuation of Real Property in General  8.19
        • e.  Valuation of Personal Property
          • (1)  Business or Professional Practice Owned by Marital Community
            • (a)  Identifying Elements of Value in General  8.20
            • (b)  Goodwill  8.21
          • (2)  Insurance Policies  8.22
          • (3)  Promissory Notes  8.23
          • (4)  Retirement Benefits  8.24
          • (5)  Stock  8.25
    • B.  Discovery Checklist: Evidence Regarding Property Interests in General  8.26
  • IV.  FORM: SAMPLE ATTACHMENT TO DEMAND FOR PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS  8.27

9

Attorney Fees, Costs, and Sanctions Issues

Robert A. Goodman

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  9.1
  • II.  GENERAL JURISDICTION OF COURT TO AWARD FEES AND COSTS  9.2
  • III.  AWARDS BASED ON PARTIES’ RELATIVE FINANCIAL CIRCUMSTANCES
    • A.  Overview  9.3
    • B.  Awards of Fees and Costs in Litigating Specific Issues
      • 1.  Child Custody and Visitation  9.4
      • 2.  Child and Spousal Support  9.5
      • 3.  Domestic Violence  9.6
      • 4.  Parentage Actions  9.7
      • 5.  Other Proceedings  9.8
    • C.  Court’s Exercise of Discretion in Assessing Need and Ability to Pay
      • 1.  Factors Court May Consider  9.9
      • 2.  Improper Exercise of Discretion in Assessing Factors  9.10
  • IV.  AWARDS OF FEES AND COSTS AS SANCTIONS
    • A.  Statutory and Case Authority  9.11
    • B.  Awards Based Partially on Sanctions and Partially on Need  9.12
    • C.  Sanctionable Conduct Under Fam C §271  9.13
    • D.  Sanctions for Bad Faith Actions or Tactics  9.14
  • V.  EVIDENCE TO DISCOVER AND RELATED DISCOVERY METHODS
    • A.  Evidence on Amount of Need-Based Attorney Fees and Costs  9.15
    • B.  Determining Reasonable Value  9.16
    • C.  Evidence Concerning Need  9.17
    • D.  Evidence Concerning Ability to Pay  9.18
    • E.  Evidence on Sanctions  9.19
    • F.  Related Discovery Methods; Checklist  9.20
  • VI.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Attorney’s Declaration in Support of Award of Attorney Fees and Costs  9.21
    • B.  Form: Sample Declaration of Moving Party in Support of Award of Attorney Fees and Costs  9.22
    • C.  Form: Sample Declaration of Party Opposing Request for Attorney Fees and Costs  9.23
    • D.  Form: Income and Expense Declaration (Judicial Council Form FL-150)  9.24
    • E.  Form: Form Interrogatories—Family Law (Judicial Council Form FL-145)  9.25

10

Income and Benefits From Employment

Lynne Yates-Carter

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  10.1
    • B.  Consideration of Financial Issues in Which Discovery Is Needed  10.2
  • II.  TAILORING DISCOVERY PLAN TO ASCERTAIN INCOME AND BENEFIT INFORMATION
    • A.  Importance of Tailoring Plan  10.3
    • B.  Discovery Needs May Differ Between Employed and Self-Employed Parties  10.4
  • III.  DISCOVERY OF EMPLOYMENT INCOME
    • A.  Distinguishing “Income” From “Assets”  10.5
    • B.  Documentary Sources to Consider in Creating Discovery Plan
      • 1.  Payroll Vouchers (“Pay Stubs”)  10.6
      • 2.  W-2, 1099, and Similar Tax Reporting Forms  10.7
      • 3.  Income Tax Returns  10.8
      • 4.  Balance Sheet of Small Business or Practice  10.9
      • 5.  Other Documentary Sources
        • a.  Banking Records  10.10
        • b.  Brokerage Account Statements  10.11
        • c.  IRA Account Statements  10.12
        • d.  Check Registers  10.13
  • IV.  DISCOVERY OF EMPLOYMENT BENEFITS
    • A.  Wide Range of Possible Benefits  10.14
    • B.  General Documents Evidencing Benefits
      • 1.  Benefit Account Statements  10.15
      • 2.  Summary Plan Descriptions  10.16
      • 3.  Employment Agreements  10.17
      • 4.  Partnership and Similar Agreements  10.18
      • 5.  Payroll Vouchers and W-2 Forms  10.19
    • C.  Pension- and Retirement-Related Benefits
      • 1.  Types of Employee Benefit Plans
        • a.  Defined Benefit Plans  10.20
        • b.  Defined Contribution Plans  10.21
        • c.  Hybrid Plans  10.22
        • d.  Tax-Qualified Versus Nonqualified Plans  10.23
      • 2.  Survivor Benefits Within Plans  10.24
      • 3.  Disability Pay as Substitute for Retirement Pay  10.25
      • 4.  Information Sources for Discovery of Pension-Related Benefits
        • a.  Importance of Considering Benefits From All Employers  10.26
        • b.  Obtaining Information on Pension Benefits From Plan  10.27
    • D.  Health and Life Insurance  10.28
      • 1.  Health Insurance
        • a.  Significance to Case  10.29
        • b.  Information Sources for Discovery of Employee Health Insurance  10.30
      • 2.  Life Insurance
        • a.  Significance to Case  10.31
        • b.  Information Sources for Discovery of Employee Life Insurance  10.32
    • E.  Tax-Deferred Savings Vehicles  10.33
      • 1.  Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs)  10.34
      • 2.  401(k) Plans  10.35
      • 3.  Profit-Sharing Plans  10.36
      • 4.  Other Savings Vehicles  10.37
    • F.  Company Stock and Employee Stock Purchase Plans
      • 1.  Description  10.38
      • 2.  Information Sources for Discovery of Employee Stock Purchase Plan  10.39
    • G.  Stock Options
      • 1.  Description  10.40
      • 2.  Terminology  10.41
      • 3.  Vesting Methods That Affect Determination of Community Interest
        • a.  Cumulative Vesting  10.42
        • b.  Sequential Vesting  10.43
      • 4.  Information to Discover  10.44
    • H.  Severance Benefits
      • 1.  Description and Significance to Case  10.45
      • 2.  Information to Discover  10.46
    • I.  Vacation Pay Swaps and Sick Leave Exchanges
      • 1.  Vacation Pay Swaps  10.47
      • 2.  Sick Leave Exchanges  10.48
      • 3.  Paid Time Off  10.49
      • 4.  Payout on Term  10.50
      • 5.  Information to Discover  10.51
    • J.  Bonus Payments
      • 1.  Description  10.52
      • 2.  Support and Property Aspects
        • a.  Support Aspect  10.53
        • b.  Property Aspect  10.54
      • 3.  Information to Discover  10.55
    • K.  Expense Account Reimbursement
      • 1.  Description  10.56
      • 2.  Information to Discover  10.57
    • L.  Other Employee Entitlements
      • 1.  Perquisites May Take Many Forms  10.58
      • 2.  Information to Discover  10.59
  • V.  USING FINANCIAL EXPERTS TO ANALYZE INCOME AND BENEFIT INFORMATION
    • A.  Forensic Accountant  10.60
    • B.  Actuary  10.61
    • C.  Business Opportunities Broker  10.62
    • D.  Stockbroker  10.63
    • E.  Financial Planner  10.64
  • VI.  FORM: SAMPLE ATTACHMENT TO DEMAND FOR PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS FROM EMPLOYER  10.65

11

Investments, Rents, Royalties, and Miscellaneous Income Sources

Charlotte L. Keeley

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  11.1
    • B.  Potential Need for Other Qualified Professionals to Analyze Income Sources  11.2
  • II.  DISCOVERY OF SPECIFIC INCOME SOURCES
    • A.  Investment Income
      • 1.  Bank and Other Investment Accounts in General
        • a.  Overview  11.3
        • b.  Discovery Issues  11.4
        • c.  Form: Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Bank Accounts)  11.5
        • d.  Form: Sample Language for Interrogatories (Bank Accounts)  11.6
      • 2.  Private IRA Accounts
        • a.  Characterization and Discovery Issues  11.7
        • b.  Form: Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (IRA Accounts)  11.8
      • 3.  Private Stock Accounts and Stock Clubs
        • a.  Characterization and Discovery Issues  11.9
        • b.  Form: Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Stock Accounts, Clubs)  11.10
      • 4.  Treasury Bonds (Certificates of Deposit)
        • a.  Characterization and Discovery Issues  11.11
        • b.  Form: Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Treasury Bonds/Certificates of Deposit)  11.12
      • 5.  U.S. Savings Bonds
        • a.  Characterization and Discovery Issues  11.13
        • b.  Form: Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (U.S. Savings Bonds)  11.14
      • 6.  Income From Private Business Entities
        • a.  Characterization and Discovery Issues  11.15
        • b.  Form: Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents to Party (Investment in Business Entity)  11.16
    • B.  Rent and Royalty Income
      • 1.  Rental Income
        • a.  Characterization and Discovery Issues  11.17
        • b.  Form: Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Rental Income)  11.18
      • 2.  Royalty Income
        • a.  Characterization and Discovery Issues  11.19
        • b.  Form: Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Royalty Income)  11.20
    • C.  Private Insurance Proceeds
      • 1.  Receipt of Proceeds as Policy Beneficiary or Insured  11.21
      • 2.  Receipt of Proceeds From Third Party’s Insurer to Settle Private Claim  11.22
      • 3.  Private Disability Insurance Proceeds
        • a.  Characterization and Discovery Issues  11.23
        • b.  Form: Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Private Disability Insurance Proceeds)  11.24
    • D.  Personal Injury Damages  11.25
    • E.  Workers’ Compensation Award
      • 1.  Characterization and Discovery Issues  11.26
      • 2.  Form: Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Workers’ Compensation Award)  11.27
    • F.  Social Security Benefits
      • 1.  Characterization and Discovery Issues  11.28
      • 2.  Form: Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Social Security Benefits)  11.29
    • G.  Other Miscellaneous Income Sources  11.30
      • 1.  Choses in Action  11.31
      • 2.  Frequent Flyer Miles
        • a.  Characterization and Discovery Issues  11.32
        • b.  Form: Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Frequent Flyer Miles)  11.33
      • 3.  Gambling Winnings
        • a.  Characterization and Discovery Issues  11.34
        • b.  Form: Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Gambling Winnings)  11.35
        • c.  Form: Sample Language for Interrogatories (Gambling Winnings)  11.36
      • 4.  Promissory Notes
        • a.  Characterization and Discovery Issues  11.37
        • b.  Form: Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Promissory Notes)  11.38
      • 5.  Tax Refunds
        • a.  Characterization and Discovery Issues  11.39
        • b.  Form: Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Tax Refunds)  11.40

12

Financial Interests in Small Businesses or Professional Practices

Terry M. Hargrave

Lawrence E. Leone

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  12.1
    • B.  Overview; Standard of Care  12.2
  • II.  CHARACTERIZATION AND VALUATION ISSUES IN PLANNING DISCOVERY
    • A.  Premarital Separate Business Generally Remains Separate Property  12.3
    • B.  Transmutation and Other Agreements in General  12.4
    • C.  Effect of Agreements Between Principals of Business or Practice  12.5
    • D.  Possible Need for Pereira or Van Camp Apportionment of Interests  12.6
    • E.  Conduct of Business Owner-Operator That Makes Valuation Difficult  12.7
  • III.  ROLE OF BUSINESS VALUATION THEORY IN PLANNING DISCOVERY; APPLICATION OF PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS
    • A.  Background  12.8
    • B.  Business Valuation Theory as Foundation for Discovery Requests
      • 1.  Defining “Value” of Ownership Interest  12.9
      • 2.  Income-Based Approach  12.10
        • a.  Capitalization of Benefits  12.11
        • b.  Discounted Future Benefits  12.12
      • 3.  Market-Based Approach  12.13
      • 4.  Cost- or Asset-Based Approach  12.14
        • a.  Excess Earnings Method  12.15
        • b.  Adjusted Net Assets Method  12.16
    • C.  Valuation Discounts or Premiums  12.17
    • D.  Business Valuation Professional Standards
      • 1.  Background  12.18
      • 2.  Appraisal Foundation  12.19
      • 3.  American Institute of Certified Public Accountants  12.20
      • 4.  National Association of Certified Valuation Analysts  12.21
      • 5.  American Society of Appraisers  12.22
      • 6.  Institute of Business Appraisers  12.23
      • 7.  IRS Business Valuation Standards  12.24
  • IV.  SPECIFIC DISCOVERY ISSUES
    • A.  Documents and Related Information  12.25
    • B.  Management Interview and Site Inspection  12.26
  • V.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Checklist for Working With Business Appraiser  12.27
    • B.  Form: Short-Form Checklist of Documents to Initially Request From Small Business or Practice  12.28
    • C.  Form: General Checklist of Documents to Initially Request From Corporation  12.29
    • D.  Form: Checklist of Documents to Include in Demand for Production of Documents  12.30
    • E.  Form: Sample Attachment to Demand for Production of Documents—Law Practice  12.31
    • F.  Form: Sample Management Questionnaire  12.32

13

Nonbusiness Real and Personal Property

William R. Russell

Jennifer F. Wald

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  13.1
    • B.  Planning for Formal Discovery  13.2
    • C.  Determining Property Subject to Division
      • 1.  Defining “Property” and Assessing Parties’ Interests
        • a.  Defining “Property”  13.3
        • b.  Assessing Parties’ Interests in Property  13.4
      • 2.  Characterization  13.5
        • a.  Client Information  13.6
        • b.  Particular Characterization Issues
          • (1)  Transmutation  13.7
          • (2)  Commingling and Tracing  13.8
  • II.  DISCOVERABLE INTERESTS IN NONBUSINESS REAL AND PERSONAL PROPERTY
    • A.  Real Property Interests
      • 1.  Typical Interests in Real Property  13.9
      • 2.  Documentation Relating to Real Property  13.10
    • B.  Personal Property
      • 1.  Typical Personal Property Items  13.11
      • 2.  Documentation Relating to Personal Property  13.12
  • III.  POTENTIAL NEED FOR EXPERTS  13.13
  • IV.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample General Demand for Production of Documents Concerning Real and Personal Property  13.14
    • B.  Form: Sample Attachment to Demand for Production of Documents Concerning Specific Real Property  13.15
    • C.  Form: Sample Special Interrogatories Concerning Specific Real Property  13.16

14

Personal Expenses and Debts Unsecured by Real Property

Terry S. Wheeler

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  14.1
    • B.  Discovery Approaches
      • 1.  Examining Parties’ Financial Disclosures  14.2
      • 2.  Seeking Undisclosed Information
        • a.  Motions Specifically Addressing Disclosure Declarations  14.3
        • b.  Other Discovery Methods
          • (1)  Interrogatories  14.4
          • (2)  Requests for Admission  14.5
          • (3)  Oral Deposition  14.6
          • (4)  Demand for Inspection or Production  14.7
          • (5)  Deposition Subpoena for Production of Business Records  14.8
      • 3.  Postjudgment Discovery  14.9
  • II.  REPRESENTATIVE DEBTS TO DISCOVER
    • A.  Loans From Party’s Business or Professional Practice  14.10
    • B.  Loans From IRA or Similar Tax-Deferred Plans  14.11
    • C.  Educational Loans  14.12
    • D.  Attorney Fees and Costs  14.13
    • E.  Child or Spousal Support Payments  14.14
    • F.  Credit Card Debt
      • 1.  Discovery Considerations  14.15
      • 2.  Form: Sample Language to Obtain Credit Card Statements  14.16
      • 3.  Form: Sample Attachment to Deposition Subpoena for Production of Business Records  14.17
  • III.  REPRESENTATIVE EXPENSES TO DISCOVER
    • A.  Consideration of Support Context and Role of Income and Expense Declaration  14.18
    • B.  Verification of Party’s Claimed Expenses
      • 1.  Examination of Relevant Documents  14.19
      • 2.  Form: Sample Request for Documents Concerning Expenses  14.20

15

Ability to Earn, Medical or Psychological Condition, and Vocational Prospects

Robert E. Blevans

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  15.1
    • B.  Need for Analysis of Earning Ability and Related Discovery Issues
      • 1.  Importance of Examining Parties’ Financial Circumstances  15.2
      • 2.  Relevance of Earning Ability as Element of “Ability to Pay” in Awarding Support and Attorney Fees and Costs
        • a.  Child Support  15.3
        • b.  Spousal Support
          • (1)  Temporary Spousal Support  15.4
          • (2)  Trial and Postjudgment Determination of Spousal Support  15.5
        • c.  Attorney Fees and Costs  15.6
      • 3.  Need for Discovery of Evidence on Ability to Earn  15.7
  • II.  LEGAL BASIS FOR DISCOVERY OF PARTY’S MEDICAL OR PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITION OR VOCATIONAL PROSPECTS
    • A.  Scope of Permissible Discovery  15.8
    • B.  Request for Financial Relief Places Ability to Earn at Issue
      • 1.  Earning Ability Becomes Relevant in Context of Motion for Relief  15.9
      • 2.  Either Party May Be Subject of Discovery on Earning Ability  15.10
    • C.  Authority for Vocational Examination  15.11
  • III.  INITIAL DISCOVERY AND CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT ACTUAL EARNINGS
    • A.  Determining Whether Party’s Actual Earnings Reflect “Ability to Earn”  15.12
    • B.  Initial Information-Gathering and Discovery on Actual Earnings
      • 1.  Role of Informal Information-Gathering  15.13
      • 2.  Income and Expense Declaration  15.14
      • 3.  Employment Records
        • a.  Value of Seeking Records  15.15
        • b.  Subpoena Duces Tecum for Employment Records
          • (1)  Authority for Use of Subpoena  15.16
          • (2)  Procedure for Subpoenaing Employee Records  15.17
      • 4.  School Records
        • a.  Value of Seeking School Records  15.18
        • b.  Subpoena Duces Tecum for School Records
          • (1)  Authority for Use of Subpoena  15.19
          • (2)  Procedure for Issuance of Subpoena for School Records  15.20
      • 5.  Other Discovery Procedures  15.21
    • C.  Evaluating Information on Current Employment, Experience, Education, and Training; Use of Consulting Experts  15.22
  • IV.  INITIAL DISCOVERY CONCERNING ABILITY TO EARN
    • A.  Discovery of Other Party’s Contentions on Ability to Earn  15.23
    • B.  Discovery Methods
      • 1.  Family Law Form Interrogatories  15.24
      • 2.  Special Interrogatories  15.25
      • 3.  Request for Admissions
        • a.  Use in General  15.26
        • b.  Effect of Admission  15.27
        • c.  Withdrawal or Amendment of Admission  15.28
      • 4.  Follow-Up With Special and General Civil Form Interrogatories  15.29
  • V.  DISCOVERY OF MEDICAL OR PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITION AFFECTING ABILITY TO EARN
    • A.  Relevance of Medical or Psychological Condition  15.30
    • B.  Privilege and Privacy Issues
      • 1.  Need to Address Issues  15.31
      • 2.  Privilege
        • a.  Physician-Patient and Psychotherapist-Patient Privileges  15.32
        • b.  Waiver of Privilege by Asserting Claim or Defense Related to Medical or Psychological Condition  15.33
      • 3.  Privacy Issues
        • a.  Constitutional Right Raised  15.34
        • b.  Burden Rests With Party Seeking Discovery  15.35
        • c.  Balancing Interests When Privacy Rights Asserted  15.36
      • 4.  Protective Orders for Records Sought From Third Party Witnesses  15.37
    • C.  Discovery Methods for Information on Medical Condition
      • 1.  Requests for Admission Served With Form Interrogatory 17.1  15.38
      • 2.  Special Interrogatories  15.39
      • 3.  Request for Production of Documents  15.40
      • 4.  Depositions  15.41
      • 5.  Motion for Order for Physical or Mental Examinations
        • a.  Authority for Order  15.42
        • b.  Procedure to Obtain Order for Physical or Mental Examination
          • (1)  Order Based on Stipulation or After Noticed Hearing  15.43
          • (2)  Order Limited to Scope of Examination Needed  15.44
          • (3)  Showing Required  15.45
          • (4)  Motion Must Include Details Concerning Requested Examination  15.46
          • (5)  Contents of Court Order
            • (a)  Overview  15.47
            • (b)  Time and Place of Examination  15.48
            • (c)  Designation of Examiner  15.49
            • (d)  Manner, Diagnostic Tests, Procedures, Conditions, Scope, and Nature of Examination  15.50
              • (i)  Specification of Tests and Procedures  15.51
              • (ii)  Additional X Rays  15.52
    • D.  Conduct of Physical or Mental Examination; Protective Orders
      • 1.  Limitations  15.53
      • 2.  Physical Examination
        • a.  Attorney’s Right to Be Present With Examinee  15.54
        • b.  Recording Physical Examination  15.55
        • c.  Seeking Protective Orders for Physical Examination  15.56
      • 3.  Mental Examination
        • a.  No Right of Attorney Attendance  15.57
        • b.  Recording Mental Examination  15.58
    • E.  Reports of Examination and Other Medical Records
      • 1.  Examinee’s Right to Reports
        • a.  Written Demand for Reports  15.59
        • b.  Waiver of Privilege and Work Product Protections by Making Demand  15.60
        • c.  Examinee’s Motion to Compel for Failure to Timely Deliver Reports Demanded Under CCP §2032.610  15.61
        • d.  Sanctions for Failure to Deliver Existing or Later Reports  15.62
      • 2.  Mutual Exchange of Reports  15.63
  • VI.  DISCOVERY REGARDING VOCATIONAL PROSPECTS
    • A.  Privilege and Privacy Issues Involving Vocational Information
      • 1.  Generally No Privilege Issues  15.64
      • 2.  Privacy Issues
        • a.  Privacy Interests Usually Outweighed by Need for Vocational Information  15.65
        • b.  Protective Order Considerations  15.66
    • B.  Obtaining Information on Vocational Prospects
      • 1.  Employment History and Records  15.67
      • 2.  Job Search Efforts  15.68
      • 3.  Other Vocational Counseling  15.69
      • 4.  School Records  15.70
      • 5.  Educational History and Other Records  15.71
  • VII.  THE VOCATIONAL EXAMINATION
    • A.  Statutory Authority  15.72
    • B.  Qualifications of Vocational Training Counselor  15.73
    • C.  Procedure
      • 1.  Motion  15.74
      • 2.  Scope of Examination and Contents of Order
        • a.  Scope of Examination  15.75
        • b.  Contents of Order  15.76
      • 3.  Conduct of Examination  15.77
      • 4.  No Statutory Right to Copies of Reports  15.78
      • 5.  Sanctions for Failing to Comply With Order for Vocational Examination  15.79
      • 6.  Costs of Further Counseling, Retraining, or Education  15.80
  • VIII.  USE OF EXPERTS TO ANALYZE AND PRESENT EVIDENCE ON ABILITY TO EARN
    • A.  Consulting Experts
      • 1.  Health Care Providers  15.81
      • 2.  Vocational Training Consultants  15.82
    • B.  Trial Experts  15.83
      • 1.  Medical and Psychological Experts  15.84
      • 2.  Vocational Training Consultants  15.85
  • IX.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Declaration of Attorney in Support of Motion for Physical or Psychological Examination  15.86
    • B.  Form: Sample Declaration of Physician in Support of Motion to Order Physical Examination  15.87
    • C.  Form: Sample Order for Physical or Psychological Examination  15.88
    • D.  Form: Sample Declaration of Attorney in Support of Motion for Vocational Examination  15.89
    • E.  Form: Sample Declaration of Attorney in Opposition to Motion for Vocational Examination  15.90
    • F.  Form: Sample Order for Vocational Examination  15.91
    • G.  Form: Sample Special Interrogatories on Ability to Earn  15.92

16

Court-Supervised and -Compelled Discovery

Hon. Barrett J. Foerster

Hon. Gretchen W. Taylor

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  16.1
    • B.  Applicability of Civil Discovery Procedures  16.2
    • C.  Court-Ordered Discovery  16.3
    • D.  Court-Supervised Discovery  16.4
  • II.  COURT SUPERVISION OF DISCOVERY
    • A.  Family-Centered Case Resolution  16.5
      • 1.  Use of Direct Calendaring for Case Assignments  16.6
      • 2.  Informal Case Resolution  16.7
      • 3.  Settlement Issues
        • a.  Keeping Settlement Discussions “Off the Record”  16.8
        • b.  Keeping All Settlement Discussions “On the Record”  16.9
        • c.  Requiring Separate Judicial Officer to Hear Mandatory Settlement Discussions  16.10
      • 4.  Creating Family-Centered Case Resolution Plan for Discovery and Other Purposes
        • a.  Statutory Options for Plan  16.11
        • b.  Cases Involving Complex or Substantial Issues of Fact or Law  16.12
    • B.  Discovery Referees
      • 1.  Authority for Appointment
        • a.  Stipulated Appointment  16.13
        • b.  Appointment by Court Order  16.14
      • 2.  Nature of Appointment  16.15
    • C.  Special Masters  16.16
    • D.  Private Judges  16.17
    • E.  Local Rules on Exchange of Exhibits and Motions In Limine  16.18
  • III.  OBTAINING COURT-ORDERED DISCOVERY
    • A.  Motion to Compel
      • 1.  Motion to Compel Defined  16.19
      • 2.  Obligation to Meet and Confer Before Bringing Motion
        • a.  When Required  16.20
        • b.  When Not Required  16.21
        • c.  Effort Required  16.22
        • d.  Effect of Failure to Meet and Confer  16.23
        • e.  Informal Discovery Conference  16.23A
      • 3.  When Motion to Compel May Be Filed  16.24
      • 4.  Who Can File Motion  16.25
      • 5.  Procedural Considerations for Motion to Compel
        • a.  Time Limitations  16.26
        • b.  Moving Party’s Papers
          • (1)  Documents Required  16.27
          • (2)  Format of Notice and Motion  16.28
          • (3)  Separate Statement
            • (a)  Defined  16.29
            • (b)  When Required  16.30
            • (c)  Content of Separate Statement  16.31
        • c.  Responding Party’s Papers  16.32
        • d.  Discovery Burdens  16.33
      • 6.  Court Orders Compelling Discovery After Hearing  16.34
    • B.  Motion for Sanctions
      • 1.  Purpose  16.35
      • 2.  Conduct Subject to Sanctions  16.36
      • 3.  Court’s Discretion  16.37
      • 4.  Willfulness as a Prerequisite to Sanctions  16.38
      • 5.  Statutory Authorization for Sanctions
        • a.  Under Discovery Statutes  16.39
        • b.  Under Family Code  16.40
        • c.  Other Sanction Provisions  16.41
      • 6.  Issue, Evidence, and Terminating Sanctions  16.42
        • a.  Defined
          • (1)  Issue Sanction  16.43
          • (2)  Evidence Sanction  16.44
          • (3)  Terminating Sanction  16.45
        • b.  General Requirements  16.46
        • c.  Limitations on Sanctions
          • (1)  Evidence Sanctions  16.47
          • (2)  Issue Sanctions  16.48
          • (3)  Terminating Sanctions  16.49
      • 7.  Monetary Sanctions Under Civil Discovery Act
        • a.  Sanctions Described  16.50
        • b.  Mandatory and Discretionary Monetary Sanctions  16.51
        • c.  Limitations  16.52
          • (1)  Justifiable Circumstances  16.53
          • (2)  Amount  16.54
        • d.  Improper Recipients  16.55
      • 8.  Other Monetary Sanctions Available for Discovery Misuses  16.56
      • 9.  Contempt Sanctions
        • a.  Statutory Authorization  16.57
        • b.  Use of Contempt Proceedings  16.58
        • c.  Requirements  16.59
        • d.  Unique Features in Discovery Context  16.60
        • e.  Punishment  16.61
      • 10.  Other Sanctions Allowed  16.62
      • 11.  Procedural Considerations for Discovery Sanctions
        • a.  Notice Requirements  16.63
        • b.  Timing Considerations
          • (1)  Timely Request  16.64
          • (2)  Untimely Response  16.65
        • c.  Moving Party’s Papers
          • (1)  How Filed  16.66
          • (2)  Documents Required  16.67
          • (3)  Need for Specificity  16.68
          • (4)  Separate Statement  16.69
      • 12.  How Sanctions Are Imposed  16.70
  • IV.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Declaration in Support of Motion to Compel Discovery  16.71
    • B.  Form: Sample Declaration in Support of Motion for Sanctions  16.72
    • C.  Form: Family Centered Case Resolution Order (Judicial Council Form FL-174)  16.73
    • D.  Form: Sample Order Appointing Discovery Referee  16.74

17

Setting Aside Judgment for Disclosure Violations

Shanon K. Quinley

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  17.1
    • B.  Overview
      • 1.  Legislative Findings and Public Policy  17.2
      • 2.  Choosing Appropriate Basis for Relief  17.3
        • a.  Setting Aside Judgment Under CCP §473  17.4
        • b.  Setting Aside Support Orders Under Fam C §§3690–3693  17.5
        • c.  Setting Aside Judgment on Basis of Traditional Equitable Relief  17.6
  • II.  SETTING ASIDE JUDGMENTS AND ORDERS UNDER FAM C §§2120–2129 FOR NONDISCLOSURE AND RELATED GROUNDS
    • A.  Considerations in Choosing Fam C §§2120–2129  17.7
    • B.  Necessary Elements for Relief  17.8
    • C.  Grounds for Setting Aside Judgment
      • 1.  Perjury in Disclosure Declarations  17.9
      • 2.  Noncompliance With Disclosure Requirements  17.10
        • a.  Statute of Limitations  17.11
        • b.  Prejudicial Error Not Required  17.12
        • c.  Improper Waiver of Final Declaration of Disclosure  17.13
      • 3.  Fraud
        • a.  Nature of Fraud  17.14
        • b.  Statute of Limitations  17.15
        • c.  Award of Attorney Fees and Costs Concurrent With Set-Aside  17.16
      • 4.  Mistake
        • a.  Nature of Mistake  17.17
        • b.  Statute of Limitations  17.18
      • 5.  Other Grounds for Setting Aside Judgment: Duress and Mental Incapacity  17.19
    • D.  Other Remedies Not Precluded by Set-Aside Statutes
      • 1.  Viability of Independent Tort Action Unclear  17.20
      • 2.  Award for Breach of Fiduciary Duty  17.21
      • 3.  Division of Omitted or Unadjudicated Asset  17.22
    • E.  Inequitability of Judgment or Attorney Negligence Does Not Require Setting Aside Judgment
      • 1.  Inequitability of Judgment  17.23
      • 2.  Attorney Negligence  17.24
    • F.  Extent of Judgment Set Aside  17.25
    • G.  Effect of Setting Aside Judgment
      • 1.  Date of Valuation  17.26
      • 2.  Existing Support Order  17.27
      • 3.  Bona Fide Lessee, Purchaser, or Encumbrancer for Value of Real Property  17.28
    • H.  Procedure
      • 1.  Order to Show Cause or Notice of Motion  17.29
      • 2.  Service Requirements and Deadlines  17.30
    • I.  Statement of Decision  17.31
    • J.  Checklist for Setting Aside Judgment Under Fam C §§2120–2129  17.32
  • III.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Declaration in Support of Motion to Set Aside Judgment for Disclosure Violations  17.33
    • B.  Form: Sample Declaration Opposing Motion to Set Aside Judgment for Disclosure Violations  17.34

18

Obtaining Protective Orders

Roberta B. Bennett

Jeffrey W. Erdman

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  18.1
    • B.  Right to Discovery; Limitations That May Require Protective Orders  18.2
  • II.  PROTECTIVE ORDERS FOR SPECIFIC DISCOVERY APPLICATIONS
    • A.  Introduction  18.3
    • B.  Interrogatories
      • 1.  Family Law Form Interrogatories  18.4
      • 2.  Special Interrogatories  18.5
    • C.  Inspection Demands
      • 1.  Protective Order Provisions Generally Applicable  18.6
      • 2.  Protective Order Provisions for Electronic Discovery  18.6A
    • D.  Depositions
      • 1.  Oral Depositions  18.7
      • 2.  Deposition by Written Questions  18.8
      • 3.  Deposition Subpoenas
        • a.  Protective Order Provisions Generally Applicable  18.8A
        • b.  Protective Order Provisions for Electronic Discovery  18.8B
      • 4.  Depositions Outside California  18.9
    • E.  Requests for Admission  18.10
    • F.  Demands for Exchange of Expert Witness Information  18.11
  • III.  PROCEDURAL MATTERS
    • A.  Time in Which to Apply for Protective Order  18.12
    • B.  “Meet and Confer” Requirement  18.13
    • C.  How to Apply for Protective Order
      • 1.  Motion Requirement  18.14
      • 2.  Moving Party’s Papers  18.15
      • 3.  Responding Party’s Papers  18.16
    • D.  Sanctions
      • 1.  When Mandatory  18.17
      • 2.  Exception to Mandatory Imposition of Sanctions  18.18
      • 3.  Effect of Failure to Oppose Motion for Protective Order  18.19
  • IV.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Declaration in Support of Motion for Protective Order  18.20
    • B.  Form: Sample Declaration Opposing Motion for Protective Order  18.21

19

Sealing Court Records Having Financial Information

Leslee J. Newman

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  19.1
    • B.  Background  19.2
  • II.  LEGAL AUTHORITY TO SEAL COURT RECORDS
    • A.  Family Code Sealing Statute Held Unconstitutional
      • 1.  Sealing Statute (Fam C §2024.6) Described  19.3
      • 2.  Family Code §2024.6 Held Unconstitutional in Burkle  19.4
    • B.  Redaction Under Fam C §2024.5  19.5
    • C.  Authority Under Case Law and Court Rules to Seal Documents  19.6
  • III.  PROCEDURE TO REQUEST SEALING OR OTHERWISE KEEP INFORMATION PRIVATE
    • A.  Uncontested Matters  19.7
      • 1.  Collaborative Cases  19.8
      • 2.  Mediated Cases  19.9
      • 3.  Attorney-Assisted and Pro Se Cases  19.10
    • B.  Contested Cases
      • 1.  Motion to Seal  19.11
      • 2.  Closing Hearing  19.12
      • 3.  Use of Private Hearings  19.13
    • C.  Taking Measures to Help Protect Privacy
      • 1.  Background  19.14
      • 2.  Checklist: Measures to Help Protect Privacy  19.15
  • IV.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Stipulation and Order to Seal Financial Records in Uncontested Matter  19.16
    • B.  Form: Sample Declaration in Support of Motion to Seal Financial Records  19.17

FAMILY LAW FINANCIAL DISCOVERY

(1st Edition)

December 2018

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

File Name

Book Section

Title

CH01

Chapter 1

General Planning Considerations for Financial Discovery

01-040

§1.40

Sample General Questionnaire for Assets and Debts

01-041

§1.41

Sample Monthly Expense Questionnaire

01-042

§1.42

Sample Retainer Agreement Provision on Hiring Additional Professionals

CH02

Chapter 2

Role of Informal Discovery and Disclosure Declarations in Obtaining Financial Information

02-041

§2.41

Sample Letter Requesting Information Under Fam C §§721, 2100(c)

02-045

§2.45

Sample Letter Requesting Declaration of Disclosure

CH06

Chapter 6

Use of Experts as Consultants and Witnesses in the Financial Discovery Process

06-089

§6.89

Stipulation and Order for Appointment of Joint Expert

06-090

§6.90

Demand for Exchange of Expert Witness Information

06-091

§6.91

Designation of Expert Witnesses

06-092

§6.92

Expert Witness Declaration

06-093

§6.93

Notice of Deposition of Expert Witness

06-094

§6.94

Notice of Intent to Videotape Deposition and Use at Trial

06-095

§6.95

Stipulated Protective Order With Provision for Necessary Disclosure to Parties’ Experts

CH07

Chapter 7

Child and Spousal Support Issues

07-024

§§7.24-7.28

Checklist: Salaried Employee

 

§7.25

Checklist: Owner/Shareholder or Partner

 

§7.26

Checklist: Self-Employed Party

 

§7.27

Checklist: Ownership of Assets

 

§7.28

Checklist: Earning Capacity

07-036

§§7.36-7.67

Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Marital Standard of Living

 

§7.38

Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Marketable Skills

 

§7.40

Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Impairment of Earning Capacity

 

§7.42

Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Contributions to Education or Training

 

§7.44

Checklist: Discovery Tools—Ability to Pay

 

§7.46

Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Financial Needs

 

§7.48

Checklist: Discovery Tools—Obligations and Assets

 

§7.50

Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Duration of Marriage

 

§7.52

Checklist: Discovery Tools—Ability to Engage in Gainful Employment

 

§7.55

Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Age and Health of Parties

 

§7.57

Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Domestic Violence

 

§7.59

Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Tax Consequences

 

§7.61

Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Balance of Hardships

 

§7.63

Checklist: Discovery Tools—Goal of Self-Support by Supported Party

 

§7.65

Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Abusive Spouse’s Criminal Conviction

 

§7.67

Checklist: Evidence to Seek and Discovery Tools—Other Factors

07-068

§7.68

Form: Sample Demand for Production of Documents

CH08

Chapter 8

Date of Separation and General Property Division Issues

08-005

§8.5

Discovery Checklist: Date of Separation Evidence

08-026

§8.26

Discovery Checklist: Evidence Regarding Property Interests in General

08-027

§8.27

Form: Sample Attachment to Demand for Production of Documents0

CH09

Chapter 9

Attorney Fees, Costs, and Sanctions Issues

09-020

§9.20

Related Discovery Methods; Checklist

09-021

§9.21

Sample Attorney’s Declaration in Support of Award of Attorney Fees and Costs

09-022

§9.22

Sample Declaration of Moving Party in Support of Award of Attorney Fees and Costs

09-023

§9.23

Sample Declaration of Party Opposing Request for Attorney Fees and Costs

CH10

Chapter 10

Income and Benefits From Employment

10-065

§10.65

Form: Sample Attachment to Demand for Production of Documents From Employer

CH11

Chapter 11

Investments, Rents, Royalties, and Miscellaneous Income Sources

11-005

§11.5

Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Bank Accounts)

11-006

§11.6

Sample Language for Interrogatories (Bank Accounts)

11-008

§11.8

Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (IRA Accounts)

11-010

§11.10

Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Stock Accounts, Clubs)

11-012

§11.12

Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Treasury Bonds/Certificates of Deposit)

11-014

§11.14

Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (U.S. Savings Bonds)

11-016

§11.16

Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents to Party (Investment in Business Entity)

11-018

§11.18

Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Rental Income)

11-020

§11.20

Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Royalty Income)

11-024

§11.24

Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Private Disability Insurance Proceeds)

11-027

§11.27

Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Workers’ Compensation Award)

11-029

§11.29

Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Social Security Benefits)

11-033

§11.33

Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Frequent Flyer Miles)

11-035

§11.35

Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Gambling Winnings)

11-036

§11.36

Sample Language for Interrogatories (Gambling Winnings)

11-038

§11.38

Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Promissory Notes)

11-040

§11.40

Sample Language for Demand for Production of Documents (Tax Refunds)

CH12

Chapter 12

Financial Interests in Small Businesses or Professional Practices

12-027

§12.27

Checklist for Working With Business Appraiser

12-028

§12.28

Short-Form Checklist of Documents to Initially Request From Small Business or Practice

12-029

§12.29

General Checklist of Documents to Initially Request From Corporation

12-030

§12.30

Checklist of Documents to Include in Demand for Production of Documents

12-031

§12.31

Sample Attachment to Demand for Production of Documents—Law Practice

12-032

§12.32

Sample Management Questionnaire

CH13

Chapter 13

Nonbusiness Real and Personal Property

13-014

§13.14

Sample General Demand for Production of Documents Concerning Real and Personal Property

13-015

§13.15

Sample Attachment to Demand for Production of Documents Concerning Specific Real Property

13-016

§13.16

Sample Special Interrogatories Concerning Specific Real Property

CH14

Chapter 14

Personal Expenses and Debts Unsecured by Real Property

14-016

§14.16

Sample Language to Obtain Credit Card Statements

14-017

§14.17

Sample Attachment to Deposition Subpoena for Production of Business Records

14-020

§14.20

Sample Request for Documents Concerning Expenses

CH15

Chapter 15

Ability to Earn, Medical or Psychological Condition, and Vocational Prospects

15-086

§15.86

Sample Declaration of Attorney in Support of Motion for Physical or Psychological Examination

15-087

§15.87

Sample Declaration of Physician in Support of Motion to Order Physical Examination

15-088

§15.88

Sample Order for Physical or Psychological Examination

15-089

§15.89

Sample Declaration of Attorney in Support of Motion for Vocational Examination

15-090

§15.90

Sample Declaration of Attorney in Opposition to Motion for Vocational Examination

15-091

§15.91

Sample Order for Vocational Examination

15-092

§15.92

Sample Special Interrogatories on Ability to Earn

CH16

Chapter 16

Court-Supervised and -Compelled Discovery

16-071

§16.71

Sample Declaration in Support of Motion to Compel Discovery

16-072

§16.72

Sample Declaration in Support of Motion for Sanctions

16-074

§16.74

Sample Order Appointing Discovery Referee

CH17

Chapter 17

Setting Aside Judgment for Disclosure Violations

17-032

§17.32

Checklist for Setting Aside Judgment Under Fam C §§2120–2129

17-033

§17.33

Sample Declaration in Support of Motion to Set Aside Judgment for Disclosure Violations

17-034

§17.34

Sample Declaration Opposing Motion to Set Aside Judgment for Disclosure Violations

CH18

Chapter 18

Obtaining Protective Orders

18-020

§18.20

Sample Declaration in Support of Motion for Protective Order

18-021

§18.21

Sample Declaration Opposing Motion for Protective Order

CH19

Chapter 19

Sealing Court Records Having Financial Information

19-015

§19.15

Checklist: Measures to Help Protect Privacy

19-016

§19.16

Sample Stipulation and Order to Seal Financial Records in Uncontested Matter

19-017

§19.17

Sample Declaration in Support of Motion to Seal Financial Records

 

Selected Developments

December 2018 Update

Summarized below are some of the more important developments in the law related to financial discovery in family law cases since publication of the 2017 update.

Attorney Fees, Costs, and Sanctions

Family Code §271 does not preclude an order allowing the supporting party to deduct sanctions from a spousal support award, as long as the reduction does not create an unreasonable financial burden for the payee. Marriage of Pearson (2018) 21 CA5th 218. See §9.13.

A party moving for sanctions must comply with all of the procedural requirements in CCP §128.7(c), including the 21-day safe harbor waiting provision. Sanctions sought based on a purportedly frivolous complaint, written motion, or court filing that could be withdrawn or on some other alleged action or tactic that could be appropriately corrected are properly denied when the opportunity to correct has not been provided. Nutrition Distribution, LLC v Southern SARMs, Inc. (2018) 20 CA5th 117. See §9.14.

Child and Spousal Support

A child is excused from the requirement to be a full-time high school student if he or she has a medical condition documented by a physician that prevents full-time school attendance. Fam C §3901(a)(2). See §7.4.

An appellate court properly disallowed a deduction for the depreciation of motor vehicles in the calculation of business income available to pay child support, as the asset depreciation did not actually reduce the father’s available income and did not otherwise come within the scope of any specific deduction permitted under Fam C §4058 or §4059. In addition, the court properly raised the child support award above guideline, based on evidence of childrens’ special needs, including their functional difficulties, the high level of care required for them at home and school, and the out-of-pocket medical expenses required for their care. Marriage of Rodriguez (2018) 23 CA5th 625. See §§7.11, 7.13, 10.9.

Legislation effective January 1, 2019, has revised Fam C §4058(b) so that a court may, when exercising its discretion to consider the earning capacity of the parent for purposes of awarding child support, take into consideration the overall welfare and developmental needs of the children and the time that parent spends with the children. See Stats 2018, ch 178. See §7.14.

Spousal support. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 repealed IRC §§71 and 215, eliminating the tax deduction for a spousal support payor. See Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (Pub L 115–97, §11051, 131 Stat 2054). The Act eliminates tax deduction for the payor, and spousal support payments will no longer be taxable to the recipient. This change in tax treatment applies to any divorce or separation instrument executed after December 31, 2018. Existing spousal support orders and agreements are not affected by this change, although a couple may expressly modify an existing agreement to adopt the tax treatment of the Act. See §7.58.

Confidentiality in Mediation

Effective January 1, 2019, new Evid C §1129 requires that an attorney representing a client participating in a mediation or a mediation consultation must, as soon as reasonably possible before the client agrees to participate in the mediation or mediation consultation, provide that client with a printed disclosure containing the confidentiality restrictions described in Evid C §1119. In addition, the attorney must obtain a printed acknowledgment signed by that client stating that the client has read and understands the confidentiality restrictions. These provisions are designed to ensure that clients understand that mediation confidentiality might impede their later ability to use communications and writings to support a claim that their attorney committed malpractice or engaged in other misconduct during a mediation. See §5.20A.

Legislation effective January 1, 2019, revises Evid C §1122(a), adding a condition that may be used to waive confidentiality of a communication or writing made or prepared for the purpose of, or in the course of, or pursuant to, a mediation or a mediation consultation, namely that “the communication, document, or writing is related to an attorney’s compliance with the requirements under Evid C §1129 and does not disclose anything said or done or any admission made in the course of the mediation, in which case the communication, document, or writing may be used in an attorney disciplinary proceeding to determine whether the attorney has complied with Evid C §1129.” See §5.29A.

Discovery

Although federal law prohibits the trial court from compensating a former spouse for the loss of her share of her husband’s military retired pay after he elected to receive combat-related special compensation, the trial court may modify spousal support, provided the modification is based on the relevant factors and not as compensation. Marriage of Cassinelli (2018) 20 CA5th 1267. See §10.25.

A trial court properly awarded the proceeds of a private disability insurance policy to a husband, based on evidence of the intent of the parties that it was intended to replace earned income, not act as part of a retirement plan. The court is not required to infer an intent to provide retirement benefits based on an assumed retirement date. Marriage of Marshall (2018) 23 CA5th 477. See §11.23.

Privileges and Privacy

Absent the consent of the party claiming the attorney-client privilege, a trial court assessing a claim that information contained in an invoice is privileged is not permitted to examine the invoice to determine whether specific billing entries reveal anything about legal consultation or provide insight into litigation strategy. County of Los Angeles Bd. of Supervisors v Superior Court (2017) 12 CA5th 1264. See §4.5.

An attorney’s previous employer, a law firm, and not the attorney himself, is the holder of the attorney work product privilege under CCP §2018.030 that attached to documents created by the former attorney employee during and in the scope of his employment. Tucker Ellis LLP v Superior Court (2017) 12 CA5th 1233. See §4.12.

In an employment case in which a plaintiff sought identifying information regarding fellow coworkers, the California Supreme Court held that privacy concerns could not support a complete bar against disclosure of such information, which is “routinely discoverable as essential prerequesite to effectively seeking group relief, without any requirement that the plaintiff first show good cause.” Williams v Superior Court (2017) 3 C5th 531. See §4.39.

Procedure

A trial court improperly considered the income and expense declaration of a wife who failed to appear at a hearing to determine her needs, over the objection of a husband who asserted his right under Fam C §217 to cross-examine her. Marriage of Swain (2018) 21 CA5th 830. See §1.31.

If parties are unable to resolve a discovery dispute through meet and confer, the court may conduct an informal discovery conference upon request by a party or on the court’s own motion for the purpose of discussing discovery matters in dispute between the parties. CCP §2016.080. See §§16.23A, 18.13.

Rules of Professional Conduct

On May 10, 2018, the California Supreme Court issued an order approving new Rules of Professional Conduct, which went into effect on November 1, 2018. The revised rules and citations have been reflected throughout this title.

Set-Asides

The legislative intent behind Fam §1101(g), which provides that the value of the asset is to be “determined to be its highest value at the date of the breach of the fiduciary duty, the date of the sale or disposition of the asset, or the date of the award by the court,” dictates that when the value of the asset in question fluctuates, an award is properly calculated as of the date of the undisclosed transfer, rather than the date of the asset’s highest value. Marriage of Kamgar (2017) 18 CA5th 136. See §17.21.

About the Authors

Roberta B. Bennett, Esq., is a partner in the law firm of Bennett & Erdman in Los Angeles. She has been in private practice since 1979 and is a Certified Family Law Specialist with a practice limited to family law and estate planning. She has played a key role in Los Angeles County in developing standards for child custody and visitation rights as well as adoption, and continues to work with the judiciary to formulate and implement adoption procedures and forms. Ms. Bennett is a frequent lecturer, has published numerous articles, and is an active member of many community organizations. She was also a contributing author to CEB’s now-discontinued title, California Domestic Partnerships and Same-Sex Marriage (Cal CEB). Ms. Bennett received her J.D. in 1978 from San Fernando Valley College of Law.

Sandra I. Blair, Esq., maintains a law practice in San Francisco. She is a Certified Family Law Specialist who mediates family law disputes as well as represents clients on a full range of family law issues. She is active in the field of collaborative law and also serves as a private judge. Ms. Blair is a frequent lecturer on family law matters and is both a contributing author and editorial consultant to California Marital Settlement and Other Family Law Agreements (3d ed Cal CEB), and was a contributing author to CEB’s now-discontinued title, California Domestic Partnerships and Same-Sex Marriage (Cal CEB). She received her J.D. from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Ms. Blair is both a contributing author and consultant for this publication.

Robert E. Blevans, Esq., is a partner in the Napa family law firm of Lewis & Blevans, LLP. He is a Certified Family Law Specialist and has extensive experience handling complex and high-asset cases, particularly those involving issues of valuation and disposition of real estate investments and small businesses and professional practices. Mr. Blevans, a Fellow and former Chapter President of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers, served as the chair of the Family Law Section of the Napa County Bar Association from 1998 to 2002. He also has served as a judge pro tem and mediator for the family law department of the Los Angeles County Superior Court. More recently, he was selected as one of the “Top 100 Northern California Lawyers” and has lectured extensively on family law topics. Mr. Blevans earned both his undergraduate degree and J.D. from Western State University College of Law.

Katie Burke, Esq., maintains a solo law practice in San Francisco, specializing in family law cases. Ms. Burke worked as a family law litigation associate for several San Francisco firms before opening her own practice in 2006. She is co-chair of the Domestic Violence Committee of Queen’s Bench in San Francisco, as well as a volunteer attorney for the Homeless Advocacy Project of Glide Memorial Church Legal Clinic in San Francisco. Ms. Burke is an active member of the family law sections of the Bar Association of San Francisco and of the State Bar, as well as a current member of CEB’s Family Law Advisory Committee. She earned her undergraduate degree from Fairfield University (Connecticut), her master’s degree from Arizona State University, and her J.D. from the University of San Francisco School of Law.

Jeffrey W. Erdman, Esq., is a partner in the law firm of Bennett & Erdman in Los Angeles. His practice focuses on civil litigation, including business and contract disputes, as well as domestic partnership matters. He is chair of the California State Bar Committee on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Discrimination and has served as an officer of the Lesbian and Gay Lawyers Association of Los Angeles. He is active in a variety of other community organizations as well. Mr. Erdman,received his J.D. from Southwestern University School of Law in 1995. He was a contributing author to CEB’s now-discontinued title, California Domestic Partnerships and Same-Sex Marriage (Cal CEB).

Michael A. Fisher, Esq., maintains a law practice in Santa Ana. He is a Certified Family Law Specialist and a Fellow of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers, serving as the Secretary of the Southern California chapter. Mr. Fisher is Vice-Chair of the State Bar’s Family Law Advisory Commission for 2007–2008. He has lectured on family law issues for CEB, the Orange County Bar Association, and other organizations. He earned his undergraduate degree from the University of Washington and his J.D. from Western State University College of Law.

The late Hon. Barrett J. Foerster served as a judge of the Imperial County Superior Court and formerly was the Presiding Family Law Judge of that court. Judge Foerster began his service as a judge in November 2003, after serving as a Probate Referee and Inheritance Tax Referee, as well as a judge pro tem in family court, while also in private practice (since 1970). During his career as a private attorney, he became a Certified Family Law Specialist and was the attorney of record in several published appellate decisions. In 2004, Judge Foerster was recognized for outstanding service as a Family Law Specialist and Superior Court Judge by the State Bar’s Board of Legal Specialization. Judge Foerster was active in community affairs, as well as serving as a panelist in family law and domestic violence seminars in Imperial County. He also wrote articles for scholarly journals and was a contributing author to California Child and Spousal Support: Establishing, Modifying, and Enforcing (Cal CEB). Judge Foerster earned his undergraduate degree from the University of Pennsylvania, his J.D. from the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law, and an LL.M in labor and employment law from the University of San Diego School of Law.

Neil M. E. Forester, Esq., is an associate attorney with Downey Brand, LLP in Sacramento. He has successfully negotiated marital settlement agreements involving complex community property, business valuation, and accounting issues, as well as handled a variety of other family law matters. He is a contributing author to California Child Custody Litigation and Practice (Cal CEB) as well as a member of CEB’s Family Law Advisory Committee. He earned his undergraduate degree (with highest honors) from California State University, Sacramento, and his J.D. (with distinction) from the University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law.

Robert A. Goodman, Esq., is the managing partner of a five-attorney family law firm in Oakland. He is a Certified Family Law Specialist and the current chair of the Executive Committee of the Family Law Section of the Alameda County Bar Association. Mr. Goodman also has served as a judge pro tem in Alameda County Superior Court and is a member of numerous professional associations. He earned his undergraduate degree from the University of California, Berkeley, and his J.D. from the University of San Francisco School of Law.

Terry M. Hargrave, CPA/ABV, CFE, is a forensic accountant and principal of Hargrave & Hargrave, an accountancy corporation in Santa Monica. Ms. Hargrave’s practice includes work in business valuation and investigative accounting in family law cases, and she has qualified as an expert witness in the superior courts of at least four California counties. She is a frequent lecturer on forensic accounting and business valuation techniques for both accountants and attorneys and is a member of numerous professional associations. Before joining her current firm, she was the chief financial officer for an investment holding company as well as a real estate development and management company. Ms. Hargrave earned her undergraduate degree (with high honors) from the University of California, Los Angeles.

Charlotte L. Keeley, Esq., maintains a law practice in Sacramento, where she handles all aspects of family law cases. She is a Certified Family Law Specialist and is a past chair of the Family Law Section of the Sacramento County Bar Association. Ms. Keeley has lectured on various family law issues, including in programs for CEB, and is an active member of several professional associations. She earned her undergraduate degree from the University of California and her J.D. from the University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law.

Lawrence E. Leone, Esq., is a Certified Family Law Specialist and partner in the Los Angeles family law firm of Trope and Trope. Mr. Leone has played prominent roles with the family law sections of the Los Angeles County and the Beverly Hills bar associations. He has written extensively for the annual Los Angeles County Bar Association Family Law Symposium and is an ongoing editorial consultant for the California Family Law Monthly. Mr. Leone has also served as a judge pro tem in Los Angeles and Santa Monica, as well as a family law mediator. He was named a “Southern California Super Lawyer” by Los Angeles Magazine in 2004 and 2005. He is a contributing author to the following publications: Dissolution Strategies: From Intake to Judgment (Cal CEB), California Child Custody Litigation and Practice (Cal CEB), and Dividing Pensions and Other Employee Benefits in California Divorces (Cal CEB). Mr. Leone earned his undergraduate degree from the University of California, Los Angeles, and his J.D. from Loyola University of Los Angeles School of Law.

Sharon F. Mah, Esq., maintains a family law practice in San Rafael. She is a Certified Family Law Specialist and Fellow of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers. She has been a frequent speaker on family law topics for CEB and has served as an adjunct professor for a domestic relations course at the University of California, Hastings College of the Law, as well as an associate at law at the University of California, Davis, School of Law. Ms. Mah formerly served on the Executive Committee of the State Bar’s Family Law Section and was a member of the State Bar’s Family Law Advisory Commission. She earned her undergraduate degree from the University of California, Berkeley, and her J.D. from the University of California, Davis, School of Law.

Christopher C. Melcher, Esq., is a partner with the law firm of Walzer & Melcher, LLP, with offices in Woodland Hills and Beverly Hills. Mr. Melcher’s practice is focused exclusively on family law. He is a current member of the Executive Committee of the State Bar’s Family Law Section as well as a member of the Judicial Elections Evaluation Committee of the Los Angeles County Bar Association. Mr. Melcher has lectured extensively on family law topics and served as a continuing moderator for CEB’s annual Family Law Conference. He earned his undergraduate degree from California State University, Northridge, and his J.D. from Pepperdine University School of Law.

Leslee J. Newman, Esq., is a Certified Family Law Specialist, with a solo practice in the city of Orange. Her practice embraces all areas of family law, but emphasizes the use of mediation and collaborative techniques, and she is the founding president of Collaborative Divorce Solutions, Orange County—a nonprofit organization that promotes public education on alternatives to traditional divorce litigation. Ms. Newman has been a director-at-large for the Family Law Executive Committee of the Orange County Bar Association since 2004 and is a member of numerous other professional and civic organizations. She has lectured and written articles on family law topics, served as an on-call judge pro tem for the Orange County Superior Court, and has been an instructor at both Los Angeles Valley College and California State University, Northridge. Ms. Newman earned undergraduate and master’s degrees from the University of California, Los Angeles, and her J.D. from Valley University School of Law (North Hollywood).

Shanon K. Quinley, Esq., maintains a solo law practice in Pasadena, with an emphasis on family law. She is an active member of the family law sections of the Los Angeles County Bar Association and the State Bar, as well as a member of the Pasadena Bar Association. Ms. Quinley also is a member of CEB’s Family Law Advisory Committee. She earned her undergraduate degree from the University of California, Santa Barbara, and her J.D. from Southwestern University School of Law.

Esther Rosenfeld, Esq., is the owner and principal of Rosenfeld Family Law, P.C., in San Mateo and practices exclusively family law in San Mateo and Santa Clara counties—offering both litigation and mediation services. She is a past president of the Family Law Section of the San Mateo County Bar Association, and also is a member of the Family Law Advisory Committee of the San Mateo County Family Court. She serves on the Santa Clara County judge pro tem panel and is a member of the Santa Clara County Bar Association. She formerly served on the Executive Committee of the State Bar’s Family Law Section, and has been a featured speaker on radio station KALW’s “Your Legal Rights” program, discussing family law issues. She was named a Northern California “Super Lawyer” in 2012, and has a Martindale-Hubbell “AV” rating. In addition to her contributions to this publication, she also is a contributing author of California Child and Spousal Support: Establishing, Modifying, and Enforcing (Cal CEB). Ms. Rosenfeld earned her undergraduate degree from Columbia University and her J.D. from the University of California, Davis, School of Law.

Lance A. Russell, Esq., maintains a law practice in San Rafael, with an emphasis on family law. In addition to traditional family law litigation, he handles mediation and appeals. Mr. Russell was an attorney of record in the following published family law cases: Marriage of Pearlstein (2006) 137 CA4th 1361 and Marriage of Eben-King & King (2000) 80 CA4th 92. He earned his undergraduate degree (with highest honors) from Duke University, and his J.D. from Georgetown University Law Center.

William R. Russell, Esq., maintains a law practice in San Francisco. He has been a Certified Family Law Specialist for over 20 years and focuses his practice on litigation of complex family law matters. He is a member of numerous bar associations, in addition to the Family Law Section of the State Bar. Mr. Russell earned his undergraduate degree (with honors) from the University of California, Berkeley, and his J.D. from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law.

Cheryl A. Sena, Esq., is a Certified Family Law Specialist who practices in San Francisco with the Law Offices of Cullum & Sena. She specializes in complex marital property issues, domestic partnership disputes, and collaborative law and mediation, as well as traditional family law litigation. Ms. Sena has practiced for over 30 years and lectured extensively in family law, including for workshops on rights of unmarried couples. She is a member of numerous legal and civic organizations and is a recipient of the Bar Association of San Francisco’s “Outstanding Volunteer in Public Service” award. Ms. Sena earned her undergraduate degree from the College of Staten Island, City University of New York, and her J.D. from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law.

Hon. Gretchen W. Taylor has served as family law Commissioner of the Los Angeles County Superior Court since 2003. She formerly served as a family law Commissioner for 6 years in Riverside County. From 1982 until becoming a bench officer in 1997, Commissioner Taylor practiced law in Encino, West Los Angeles, and Beverly Hills, handling complex family law matters, during which time she became a Certified Family Law Specialist. Before becoming an attorney, she worked for many years with the Los Angeles County Department of Children’s Services. Commissioner Taylor is a contributing author to Dissolution Strategies: From Intake to Judgment (Cal CEB). She earned her undergraduate degree from Marymount College (Palos Verdes) and her J.D. from Southwestern University School of Law. Commissioner Taylor is both a contributing coauthor and consultant for this publication.

Michael C. Tobriner, Esq., maintains a law practice in San Francisco. He is a Certified Family Law Specialist and Fellow of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers, and has practiced for over 30 years. For the past decade, he has emphasized the use of mediation and collaborative approaches in his practice. He has served as a settlement conference judge in the family law departments of both the San Francisco and Marin County superior courts, and as a judge pro tem in San Francisco. In addition to his numerous other professional affiliations, Mr. Tobriner is a member of Collaborative Practice San Francisco and the International Association of Collaborative Professionals. He has long served as a seminar lecturer on family law topics as well as an adjunct professor at both the University of California, Hastings College of the Law and the University of San Francisco School of Law. Mr. Tobriner earned undergraduate and master’s degrees from Stanford University, and his J.D. from Harvard University Law School.

Jennifer F. Wald, Esq., is a member of the Family Law Group at Lakin Spears, LLP in Palo Alto. She is a Certified Family Law Specialist and her practice is devoted exclusively to family law, with an emphasis on complex financial issues. She is the coauthor of the article “Equitable Apportionment of a Separate Property Business,” published by the Family Law News, and has spoken at numerous family law seminars. She is an active member of the State Bar regional subcommittee on family law legislation and also serves as a judge pro tem for the Santa Clara County Superior Court. Ms. Wald is a member of numerous professional and civic organizations. She earned both her undergraduate and law degrees from Stanford University.

Terry S. Wheeler, Esq., practices law in Oakland as an associate of the Law Office of Sylvia Woods, with an emphasis in family law. She is a contributing author to Dissolution Strategies: From Intake to Judgment (Cal CEB). She earned her undergraduate degree from the University of San Francisco, and her J.D. from Golden Gate University School of Law, San Francisco.

Lynne Yates-Carter, Esq., is a Certified Family Law Specialist, with a family law practice in San Jose. She is a Fellow (and past chair, Northern California) of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers, and has served on the Executive Committee of the Family Law Section of the Santa Clara County Bar Association. During her over 35 years of practice, she has served as a Chair of the Executive Committee of the State Bar’s Family Law Section. In addition to her practice, Ms. Yates-Carter serves as a case manager, discovery referee, and private judge in family law cases. She has been named a “Northern California Super Lawyer” for the past several years. She earned both her undergraduate and law degrees from the University of Santa Clara.

About the 2018 Update Authors

Roberta B. Bennett, Esq., is update coauthor for chapter 18. See her biography in the About the Authors section of this book.

Olga B. Ginzburg, Esq., is a partner with Bennett & Ginzburg, a boutique firm in Beverly Hills, CA. She is a member of the Family Law Section of the State Bar of California, the Los Angeles County Bar, and the Beverly Hills Bar Association. Ms. Ginzburg’s practice focuses solely on family law. She has extensive litigation experience dealing with all aspects of family law matters including restraining orders, custody, property division, paternity actions, and dissolution of domestic partnerships. Ms. Ginzburg received her B.A. in Political Science from University of California, Los Angeles in 2002 and her J.D. from University of West Los Angeles School of Law in 2007, graduating cum laude. Ms. Ginzburg is update coauthor for chapter 18.

Edward M. Lyman, Esq., is a solo practitioner in Santa Monica. He is a plaintiff’s and family law attorney who handles litigation, trial, and appeals. He received his B.S.C. from the University of Miami (Florida) in 2003 (cum laude, honors program), and his J.D. from the University of Florida, Levin College of Law, in 2006 (with honors). He is a member of the State Bar of California, the Family Law Section of the California Lawyers Association, the Los Angeles County Bar Association, the Family Law Section of the Beverly Hills Bar Association, the Consumer Attorneys Association of Los Angeles, and the California Employment Lawyers Association. He currently serves as the Trial Practice & Techniques Chair of the American Bar Association, Family Law Section. Mr. Lyman is update author for chapters 3 and 14.

Christopher C. Melcher, Esq.,is the update author for chapter 6. See his biography in the About the Authors section of this book.

Shanon K. Quinley, Esq., is the update author for chapter 17. See her biography in the About the Authors section of this book.

Esther Rosenfeld, Esq., is the update author for chapter 4. See her biography in the About the Authors section of this book.

Jennifer F. Wald, Esq., is the update author for chapter 13. See her biography in the About the Authors section of this book.

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