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California Criminal Law Procedure and Practice 2018

Widely known as the “crim law bible,” this CEB classic answers virtually every question about criminal law practice in California.

 

"Even after almost 20 years of practice, it is the first place I start when I have a new issue and the first place I recommend that new lawyers look to help guide them in their research and practice."

   —Sangeeta Sinha, Deputy Public Defender, San Francisco Public Defender's Office

"CEB's Criminal Procedure and Practice, it's my bible."
Mark Geragos, The Law Offices of Geragos & Geragos, Los Angeles
"There is a reason that CCLPP is known as the 'bible' for practitioners. . . . Even after almost 20 years of practice, it is the first place I start when I have a new issue and the first place I recommend that new lawyers look to help guide them in their research and practice."
Sangeeta Sinha, Deputy Public Defender, San Francisco Public Defender's Office

Widely known as the “crim law bible,” this CEB classic answers virtually every question about criminal law practice in California. This is the most comprehensive portable guide to California criminal law available.

  • Effectively manage deadlines with charts included throughout
  • Get right to the information you need using the thorough index with commonly used shorthand phrases
  • Benefit from the work of more than 60 attorneys and judges
  • Follow the latest developments in the application of Proposition 47
  • Understand the procedure for seeking resentencing under Proposition 36
  • Familiarize yourself with the new pretrial diversion law
  • Learn the provisions of Proposition 57
  • Discover the benefits of Proposition 64
  • Familiarize yourself with your obligations to immigrant defendants
OnLAW CR94110

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softcover, replaced annually, 2018

 

If you are signed in and a new attorney, your adjusted cost appears below.

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Add OnLAW to print CR94110(40)
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"CEB's Criminal Procedure and Practice, it's my bible."
Mark Geragos, The Law Offices of Geragos & Geragos, Los Angeles
"There is a reason that CCLPP is known as the 'bible' for practitioners. . . . Even after almost 20 years of practice, it is the first place I start when I have a new issue and the first place I recommend that new lawyers look to help guide them in their research and practice."
Sangeeta Sinha, Deputy Public Defender, San Francisco Public Defender's Office

Widely known as the “crim law bible,” this CEB classic answers virtually every question about criminal law practice in California. This is the most comprehensive portable guide to California criminal law available.

  • Effectively manage deadlines with charts included throughout
  • Get right to the information you need using the thorough index with commonly used shorthand phrases
  • Benefit from the work of more than 60 attorneys and judges
  • Follow the latest developments in the application of Proposition 47
  • Understand the procedure for seeking resentencing under Proposition 36
  • Familiarize yourself with the new pretrial diversion law
  • Learn the provisions of Proposition 57
  • Discover the benefits of Proposition 64
  • Familiarize yourself with your obligations to immigrant defendants

1

Criminal Law Practice Management

E. Thomas Dunn, Jr.

Alan J. Crivaro

  • I.  OVERVIEW  1.1
  • II.  SOURCES OF CLIENTS
    • A.  Court-Appointed Cases  1.2
    • B.  Court Referrals  1.3
    • C.  Private Referrals  1.4
    • D.  Social Service Organizations  1.5
    • E.  United States Military  1.6
    • F.  Advertising  1.7
  • III.  FIRST INTERVIEW  1.8
  • IV.  THE JAIL KIT  1.9
  • V.  LIST OF FREQUENTLY USED PHONE NUMBERS AND WEBSITES  1.10
  • VI.  OPENING, CLOSING, AND RETRIEVING FILES  1.11
  • VII.  TIME MANAGEMENT
    • A.  Court Appointments  1.12
    • B.  Jail Visiting Hours  1.13
    • C.  Telephone Calls  1.14
    • D.  Calendar Management
      • 1.  Attorney Availability; Setting Up Calendars  1.15
      • 2.  Deadlines for Filing Court Papers; Computation of Calendar Days and Court Days  1.16
      • 3.  Calendar Conflicts  1.17
  • VIII.  STANDARD FORMS AND LETTERS  1.18
  • IX.  REQUIREMENT THAT COUNSEL KEEP CLIENTS REASONABLY INFORMED CONCERNING CASE  1.19
  • X.  RUNNING AN EFFICIENT CRIMINAL APPELLATE PRACTICE  1.20

2

Professional Responsibility

William Woods

  • I.  OVERVIEW  2.1
  • II.  SOURCES OF PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY
    • A.  California Statutes and Rules of Professional Conduct  2.2
    • B.  Additional Sources of Professional Responsibility  2.3
    • C.  California Legal Ethics Opinions  2.4
    • D.  Ethics Hotline and Alcohol/Drug Abuse Hotline  2.5
  • III.  GENERAL ETHICS REQUIREMENTS  2.6
  • IV.  WHEN ATTORNEY MISCONDUCT MUST BE REPORTED TO STATE BAR  2.7
  • V.  DUTY TO AVOID CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
    • A.  Prescreening for Conflicts  2.8
    • B.  Multiple Representation
      • 1.  Codefendants  2.9
      • 2.  Concurrent and Former Clients, Who Are Not Codefendants, in Same Proceeding  2.10
    • C.  When Attorney Fees Are Paid by Other Than Client  2.11
    • D.  Attorney’s Relationship With Another Party’s Lawyer  2.12
    • E.  Other Possible Conflicts of Interest  2.13
    • F.  Attorney Business Transactions Adverse to Client  2.14
    • G.  Conflicts That May Disqualify Defense Attorney’s Firm  2.15
    • H.  Conflicts Confronting Prosecutor  2.16
  • VI.  ATTORNEY ADVERTISING AND SOLICITATION  2.17
  • VII.  ATTORNEY AS WITNESS  2.18
  • VIII.  DUTY TO KEEP CLIENT INFORMED  2.19
  • IX.  DUTY TO PROVIDE EFFECTIVE REPRESENTATION
    • A.  Obligations and Standards for Effective Representation  2.20
    • B.  Examples of Representation Challenged as Ineffective  2.21
  • X.  DUTY TO MAINTAIN CLIENT’S CONFIDENCES AND SECRETS  2.22
  • XI.  DUTY TO RETAIN FORMER CLIENT’S FILES  2.22A
  • XII.  DUTY TO COMPLY AND TO ADVISE COMPLIANCE WITH LAW
    • A.  Assisting in Violation of Rules of Professional Conduct  2.23
    • B.  Counseling Commission of Crime  2.24
    • C.  Conditioning Return of Stolen Property on Agreement Not to Prosecute  2.25
    • D.  Suppressing, Concealing, Destroying, or Removing Evidence  2.26
    • E.  Interfering With Witnesses; Paying Witnesses  2.27
    • F.  Making False Representations and Presenting False Evidence in Court  2.28
  • XIII.  ATTORNEYS WHO ARE UNABLE TO PROCEED  2.29
  • XIV.  PERJURY BY CLIENT OR WITNESS
    • A.  Defendant’s Perjury  2.30
    • B.  Witness’s False Testimony  2.31
  • XV.  MATTERS CONCERNING JUDGES
    • A.  Improper Communications With Judges  2.32
    • B.  Gifts and Campaign Contributions to Judges  2.33
    • C.  Comments Regarding Judges and Judicial Rulings  2.34
  • XVI.  IMPROPER CONTACTS WITH REPRESENTED PARTY  2.35
  • XVII.  IMPROPER CONTACTS WITH JURORS  2.36
  • XVIII.  PRETRIAL AND TRIAL PUBLICITY  2.37
  • XIX.  TRIAL CONDUCT  2.38
  • XX.  RESPONDING TO SUBPOENA OF CLIENT’S RECORDS  2.39
  • XXI.  PROSECUTOR’S SPECIAL PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES
    • A.  When Prosecutor Personally Believes Defendant to Be Innocent  2.40
    • B.  Duty When Charges Not Supported by Probable Cause  2.41
    • C.  Threatening Criminal, Administrative, or Disciplinary Charges  2.42
    • D.  Duty to Disclose Exculpatory Evidence  2.43
    • E.  Tampering With Official Jury Lists  2.43A
    • F.  Informing Crime Victims of Possible Civil Remedies  2.44
    • G.  Checklist: Prosecutorial Misconduct  2.45

3

Right to Counsel; the Attorney-Client Relationship

C. Bradley Patton

Sanders Patton

  • I.  OVERVIEW  3.1
  • II.  RIGHT TO COUNSEL
    • A.  When Right Applies  3.2
    • B.  Right of Indigent Defendants to Have Counsel Appointed
      • 1.  Generally  3.3
      • 2.  Right to Select Appointed Counsel  3.4
      • 3.  Appointment of Co-Counsel in Capital Cases  3.5
      • 4.  Payment for Ancillary Defense Services  3.6
    • C.  Defendant’s Right to Represent Self
      • 1.  When Self-Representation Permitted; Termination of Self-Representation; Court Obligation  3.7
      • 2.  Inquiry Required Before Ruling on Motion; Second Inquiry Required After Preliminary Hearing  3.8
      • 3.  Time for Making Motion  3.9
      • 4.  Advisory Counsel, Standby Counsel, Co-Counsel; Defendant’s Participation as “Co-Counsel”; Ancillary Services  3.10
      • 5.  Standard of Review  3.11
    • D.  Representation by Certified Law Students  3.12
  • III.  BEGINNING THE RELATIONSHIP
    • A.  Interviewing Client  3.13
    • B.  Fees and Retainer Agreements
      • 1.  Retained Counsel
        • a.  Written Attorney Retainer Agreements  3.14
        • b.  Potentially Tainted Fee Money  3.15
        • c.  Fees May Not Be Illegal or Unconscionable  3.16
        • d.  Ways of Setting Fees  3.17
        • e.  Referral Fees  3.18
      • 2.  Appointed Counsel  3.19
    • C.  Accepting Employment
      • 1.  Considerations Before Accepting Employment  3.20
      • 2.  Becoming Attorney of Record  3.21
      • 3.  Associating Counsel; Counsel Pro Hac Vice  3.22
    • D.  Authority of Attorney  3.23
  • IV.  DISCHARGE, SUBSTITUTION, AND WITHDRAWAL OF COUNSEL
    • A.  Retained Counsel  3.24
    • B.  Discharge of Appointed Counsel (Marsden Motion)
      • 1.  In General; Right to Hearing; Remedy  3.25
      • 2.  Conduct of Hearing; Role of Defense Counsel  3.26
      • 3.  Showing Required  3.27
      • 4.  Discharge Initiated by Court  3.28
    • C.  Prosecution Interference With Right to Counsel  3.29

4

Arrest and Bench Warrants, Summonses, Subpoenas

Lindsey B. Mercer

C. Bradley Patton

  • I.  OVERVIEW  4.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  4.2
  • III.  ARREST WARRANT
    • A.  Prosecutor’s Role in Obtaining Arrest Warrant  4.3
    • B.  Nature and Purpose of Warrant; Judges and Magistrates  4.4
    • C.  Requirements for Issuance
      • 1.  Probable Cause  4.5
      • 2.  Failure to Appear on Citation  4.6
    • D.  Form of Arrest Warrant  4.7
    • E.  Contents of Warrant  4.8
    • F.  Execution of Warrants
      • 1.  Nighttime Service  4.9
      • 2.  Duty to Execute  4.10
      • 3.  Time Limit on Service of Warrant  4.11
      • 4.  Arrest Warrant Execution at Residence  4.12
      • 5.  Location of Arrest Warrant After It Is Served  4.13
      • 6.  Duty to Bring Arrestee Before Magistrate  4.14
    • G.  Surrendering Defendant on Arrest Warrant  4.15
  • IV.  CONSEQUENCES OF INVALID ARREST WARRANT
    • A.  No Effect on Personal Jurisdiction of Defendant  4.16
    • B.  Possible Effect on Admissibility of Evidence  4.17
  • V.  SUMMONS IN PLACE OF ARREST WARRANT  4.18
  • VI.  PROBABLE CAUSE FOR WARRANTLESS ARRESTS  4.19
  • VII.  CORPORATE SUMMONS  4.20
  • VIII.  BENCH WARRANT
    • A.  Purpose  4.21
    • B.  Requirements for Issuance
      • 1.  Failure of Defendant to Appear When Required  4.22
      • 2.  Order Increasing Defendant’s Bail  4.23
    • C.  Form and Contents of Warrant  4.24
    • D.  Execution of Warrant  4.25
    • E.  Duty to Bring Arrestee Before Court or Magistrate  4.26
  • IX.  SEARCH WARRANT  4.27
  • X.  SUBPOENAS
    • A.  Forms, Issuance, and Service  4.28
    • B.  Geographic Factors Affecting Issuance and Service  4.29
    • C.  Subpoenaing Law Enforcement Officers  4.30
    • D.  Witness Fees  4.31
    • E.  Quashing Subpoena
      • 1.  Subpoena for Witness  4.32
      • 2.  Subpoena Duces Tecum  4.33
      • 3.  Alternatives to Motion to Quash  4.34
    • F.  Mandate When Motion to Quash Denied  4.35
    • G.  Counsel’s Options When Witness Fails to Appear  4.36

5

Securing or Preventing Out-of-Custody Status

Lori S. Stuart

  • I.  OVERVIEW  5.1
  • II.  RELEASE BEFORE ARRAIGNMENT: DUTIES OF DEFENSE COUNSEL
    • A.  Client Interview  5.2
    • B.  Contacting Bail Bond Representative  5.3
    • C.  Contacting Law Enforcement and Prosecution Agency  5.4
    • D.  Surrendering the Defendant  5.5
    • E.  Effect of Holds  5.6
  • III.  CHART: PHONE NUMBERS OF O.R. PROJECTS, DUTY JUDGES, AND BAIL MAGISTRATES IN SELECTED COUNTIES [Deleted]  5.7
  • IV.  CITATION (NOTICE TO APPEAR)
    • A.  Citation Generally  5.8
    • B.  Citable Offenses
      • 1.  Infraction and Misdemeanor Arrests: Non-Vehicle Code  5.9
      • 2.  Infraction and Misdemeanor Arrests: Vehicle Code  5.10
      • 3.  Wobblers  5.11
    • C.  Prosecutor’s and Magistrate’s Duties  5.12
    • D.  Defendant’s Compliance With Notice to Appear  5.13
    • E.  Optional Bail Forfeiture in Infraction Cases  5.14
    • F.  Effect of Failure to Appear in Misdemeanor Cases  5.15
  • V.  OWN RECOGNIZANCE (O.R.) RELEASE
    • A.  O.R. Generally  5.16
    • B.  Guidelines for Granting O.R.  5.17
    • C.  Own Recognizance (O.R.) Hearing: When Required, Conduct of Hearing, and Conditions of Release  5.18
    • D.  County O.R. Offices  5.19
    • E.  Defendant’s O.R. Agreement  5.20
    • F.  Revoking O.R. Release Order
      • 1.  Requiring Defendant to Post Bail  5.21
      • 2.  Placing Defendant in Custody  5.22
  • VI.  RELEASE ON BAIL
    • A.  Bail Defined  5.23
    • B.  Prosecution Procedures  5.24
    • C.  Chart: Deadlines  5.25
    • D.  When Defendant Is Entitled to Bail  5.26
    • E.  Duration of Bail  5.27
    • F.  Fixing Amount of Bail
      • 1.  Bail Schedules  5.28
      • 2.  Discretionary Authority; Bail Hearing  5.29
      • 3.  Permissible Guidelines for Setting Bail
        • a.  California Constitution Article I, §12  5.30
        • b.  Additional Guidelines for Setting Bail  5.31
      • 4.  Increasing or Reducing Bail  5.32
      • 5.  Hearing to Determine if Bail Deposit Feloniously Obtained  5.33
      • 6.  Excessive Bail Prohibited  5.34
      • 7.  Bail When Defendant Extradited  5.34A
    • G.  Conditions of Bail  5.35
    • H.  Methods of Posting Bail
      • 1.  Deposit of Cash, Check, Money Order, Traveler’s Check  5.36
      • 2.  Government Bonds; Equity in Real Property  5.37
      • 3.  Undertaking of Bail (Bail Bond)  5.38
      • 4.  Electronic Monitoring in Lieu of Bail  5.39
    • I.  When Judge Can Place Defendant Who Is on Bail in Custody
      • 1.  After Appearance for Trial  5.40
      • 2.  After Adverse Verdict  5.41
      • 3.  On Appeal  5.42
      • 4.  After Appeal  5.43
      • 5.  Other Reasons for Placing Defendant in Custody  5.44
    • J.  Bail Forfeiture; Bench Warrant; Defendant Appearing Through Counsel  5.45
    • K.  Relief Against Bail Forfeiture  5.46
    • L.  Exoneration of Bail; Forfeiture of Bail  5.47
    • M.  Habeas Corpus  5.48

6

Arraignment

Elena Condes

  • I.  OVERVIEW  6.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  6.2
  • III.  CHECKLIST: ARRAIGNMENT  6.3
  • IV.  PROCEEDINGS ON ARRAIGNMENT
    • A.  Purpose of Arraignment  6.4
    • B.  Procedures Generally Applicable to Arraignments  6.5
    • C.  Arraignment on Citation  6.6
    • D.  Arraignment on Complaint
      • 1.  When Complaint Used  6.7
      • 2.  Time for Arraignment  6.8
      • 3.  Consequences of Delay  6.9
    • E.  Arraignment on Information or Indictment in Felony Prosecutions  6.10
    • F.  Record of Arraignment  6.11
  • V.  DUTIES OF MAGISTRATE OR JUDGE AT ARRAIGNMENT
    • A.  Informing Defendant of Charges  6.12
    • B.  Ascertaining Defendant’s True Name  6.13
    • C.  Advising Defendant of Right to Counsel  6.14
      • 1.  Mass Advisement  6.15
      • 2.  Televised Arraignment and Advisements  6.16
    • D.  Appointment of Counsel
      • 1.  Duties of Court  6.17
      • 2.  Procedures for Assigning Cases to Public Defender  6.18
      • 3.  Advisement of Other Trial Rights  6.19
    • E.  Taking Defendant’s Plea
      • 1.  Grounds for Postponing Entry of Plea  6.20
      • 2.  Prior-Conviction Allegations  6.21
      • 3.  Entering Plea of Guilty or No Contest  6.22
    • F.  Determining Probable Cause  6.23
    • G.  Setting Bail; Own Recognizance (O.R.) Release  6.24
  • VI.  OTHER MATTERS THAT MAY BE ADDRESSED AT ARRAIGNMENT
    • A.  Deferred Entry of Judgment or Diversion  6.25
    • B.  Mentally Ill and Developmentally Disabled Defendants  6.26
    • C.  Setting Next Court Appearance
      • 1.  Misdemeanor Cases  6.27
      • 2.  Felony Cases  6.28
    • D.  Selecting Trial Date  6.29
  • VII.  OUT-OF-COUNTY ARREST AND ARRAIGNMENT  6.30
  • VIII.  INFRACTION CASES
    • A.  Limitations of Rights of Defendant  6.31
    • B.  Offenses That May Be Charged Alternatively as Misdemeanors or Infractions  6.32
  • IX.  PROCEDURE ON FAILURE TO APPEAR  6.33

7

Pleadings; Joinder and Severance

Jason M. Cox

  • I.  OVERVIEW  7.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  7.2
  • III.  PLEADINGS
    • A.  Complaint; Citation  7.3
    • B.  Information; Indictment  7.4
    • C.  Form and Content
      • 1.  Summary of Form and Content; Sample Charging Document  7.5
      • 2.  Name of Court and Parties  7.6
      • 3.  Manner of Statement of Offense  7.7
      • 4.  Time of Offense  7.8
      • 5.  Court Jurisdiction; When Signed and Sworn To  7.9
    • D.  Statute of Limitations  7.10
  • IV.  CRIME-CHARGING DISCRETION
    • A.  Broad Discretion in Charging  7.11
    • B.  Alternative Misdemeanor/Felony (“Wobbler”)  7.12
    • C.  Checklist: Limitations on Prosecutorial Discretion  7.13
  • V.  AMENDING ACCUSATORY PLEADINGS
    • A.  Allowable Reasons for Amending Pleadings  7.14
    • B.  Time to Amend Pleadings  7.15
    • C.  Procedure  7.16
    • D.  Effect of Amendment  7.17
    • E.  Procedure After Amendment  7.18
  • VI.  DEMURRER
    • A.  Function and Grounds  7.19
      • 1.  Lack of Jurisdiction (Pen C §1004(1))  7.20
      • 2.  Uncertainty (Pen C §1004(2))  7.21
      • 3.  Misjoinder (Pen C §1004(3))  7.22
      • 4.  No Offense Stated (Pen C §1004(4))  7.23
      • 5.  Prosecution Barred (Pen C §1004(5))  7.24
    • B.  Procedure; Format, Service, and Filing  7.25
    • C.  Court’s Ruling  7.26
  • VII.  JOINDER AND SEVERANCE
    • A.  Checklists: Grounds for Severance
      • 1.  Checklist: Grounds for Severing Counts  7.27
      • 2.  Checklist: Grounds for Severing Codefendants  7.28
    • B.  Separate Juries as Alternative to Severance  7.29
    • C.  Defense Procedures for Challenging Multiple Counts or Defendants  7.30
    • D.  Single Defendant; Multiple Charges
      • 1.  Permissible Joinder (Consolidation)
        • a.  In General  7.31
        • b.  Offenses Connected Together May Be Joined  7.32
        • c.  Different Statements of Same Offense May Be Joined  7.33
        • d.  Unrelated Offenses of Same Class May Be Joined  7.34
      • 2.  Mandatory Joinder (Kellett Rule)  7.35
      • 3.  Court’s Discretion to Sever Counts: In Interests of Justice, for Good Cause Shown  7.36
    • E.  Multiple Defendants, Same Offense
      • 1.  Joint Trial of Codefendants Contemplated  7.37
      • 2.  Grounds for Severance  7.38
      • 3.  Effect of Codefendant’s Implicating Confession
        • a.  Statement of Aranda-Bruton Rules  7.39
        • b.  Determining Whether Aranda-Bruton Rule Applies  7.40
    • F.  Multiple Defendants, Multiple Offenses  7.41
    • G.  Appellate Review of Severance Issues  7.42

8

Preliminary Hearings

Gary Gibson

  • I.  OVERVIEW  8.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  8.2
  • III.  DESCRIPTION OF HEARING  8.3
  • IV.  PROPER VENUE  8.4
  • V.  DEFENSE ALTERNATIVES TO PRELIMINARY HEARING
    • A.  Waiver of Preliminary Hearing  8.5
    • B.  Prehearing Guilty or No Contest Plea  8.6
  • VI.  DEFENDANT’S RIGHTS BEFORE AND DURING PRELIMINARY HEARING
    • A.  Rights to Counsel and Self-Representation  8.7
    • B.  Right to Interpreter  8.8
    • C.  Defendant’s Right to Be Present  8.9
    • D.  Right to Discovery  8.10
    • E.  Right to Have Preliminary Hearing Transcribed  8.11
    • F.  Right to Confront and Cross-Examine Prosecution Witnesses  8.12
    • G.  Right to Present Defense Witnesses and Affirmative Defenses  8.13
    • H.  Right to Freedom From Shackles  8.14
    • I.  Special Considerations When Codefendants Have Joint Preliminary Hearing  8.15
  • VII.  TIMING OF PRELIMINARY HEARING
    • A.  When Preliminary Hearing Must Be Held  8.16
    • B.  Time to Prepare for Preliminary Hearing  8.17
    • C.  One-Session Requirement; Continuances  8.18
    • D.  Postponement for Child Witness or Dependent Person  8.19
    • E.  Relief by Expedited Writ Proceeding  8.20
  • VIII.  PRESENCE OF WITNESSES AND SPECTATORS AT PRELIMINARY HEARING
    • A.  Defense Motion to Exclude Public  8.21
    • B.  Prosecution Motion to Exclude Public  8.22
    • C.  Motion to Exclude Witnesses Under Pen C §867  8.23
    • D.  Right of Prosecuting Witness in Certain Cases to Have Persons of Own Choosing Present While Testifying  8.24
    • E.  Contemporaneous Examination of Minor Victim  8.25
    • F.  Video Recording of Developmentally Disabled or Young Victims of Certain Sex Crimes  8.26
  • IX.  EVIDENTIARY ISSUES
    • A.  Proof of Corpus Delicti; Sufficiency of Evidence  8.27
    • B.  Uncorroborated Accomplice Evidence  8.28
    • C.  Elements That Must Be Proved  8.29
    • D.  Application of Rules of Evidence  8.30
    • E.  Motion to Suppress Evidence  8.31
    • F.  Other Motions at Preliminary Hearing
      • 1.  Discovery Motions  8.32
      • 2.  Other Evidentiary Motions  8.33
    • G.  Notice Required for Motions  8.34
    • H.  Taking Evidence Outside Court  8.35
  • X.  MAGISTRATE’S ROLE
    • A.  Who May Be a Magistrate  8.36
    • B.  Challenges to Magistrates  8.37
    • C.  Standard for Sufficiency of Evidence; Magistrate’s Duty to Weigh Evidence  8.38
    • D.  Factual Versus Legal Findings  8.39
    • E.  Reducing Felony to Misdemeanor (“Wobblers”); Pen C §17(b)(5)  8.40
    • F.  Lesser Included and Related Offenses  8.41
    • G.  Magistrate Who Hears Refiled Complaint  8.42
  • XI.  UNCHARGED OFFENSES AND ENHANCEMENTS  8.43
  • XII.  EFFECT OF DISMISSAL
    • A.  Prosecution Remedies After Dismissal  8.44
    • B.  Defense Remedies After Holding Order  8.45
    • C.  Effect on Defendant’s Custody Status of Reinstatement of Complaint Following Dismissal  8.46
  • XIII.  USES OF PRELIMINARY HEARING TESTIMONY  8.47
  • XIV.  PROCEDURE WHEN DEFENDANT’S MENTAL COMPETENCE IN DOUBT  8.48

9

Grand Jury

Dmitry Gorin

  • I.  OVERVIEW  9.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  9.2
  • III.  SELECTION PROCESS FOR GRAND JURORS
    • A.  Method of Selection  9.3
    • B.  Staggered Terms; Holdovers  9.4
    • C.  Challenges to Composition of Grand Jury  9.5
  • IV.  GRAND JURY PROCEDURES IN CRIMINAL CASES
    • A.  Origin of Grand Jury [Deleted]  9.6
    • B.  Differences Between Grand Jury and Preliminary Hearing  9.7
    • C.  Types of Cases Prosecutor Is Most Likely to Bring to Grand Jury; Prosecution Safeguards in Presenting Case  9.8
    • D.  Indictment of Minor  9.9
    • E.  Indictment for Misdemeanor Offenses  9.10
    • F.  Role of Counsel in Representing Witness or Potential Defendant
      • 1.  Checklist: Challenges to Indictment  9.11
      • 2.  Preparing Witnesses, Deciding Whether Privileges Apply, and Negotiating Immunities  9.12
      • 3.  Representation While Witness Is Testifying  9.13
      • 4.  Defense Counsel Preparation  9.14
      • 5.  Report That Witness Is Not Target  9.15
      • 6.  Forcing Defense Counsel to Testify  9.16
    • G.  Right to Refuse to Testify  9.17
    • H.  Immunity and Contempt  9.18
    • I.  Presentation of Exculpatory Evidence by Prosecutor  9.19
    • J.  Deliberations of Grand Jury  9.20
    • K.  Finding and Presenting Indictment  9.21
    • L.  Bench Warrant, Commitment, Bail, and Release on Own Recognizance on Indictment  9.22
    • M.  Admissibility of Evidence  9.23
    • N.  Secret Indictment; Disclosure of Indictment and Testimony  9.24
    • O.  Transcript of Grand Jury Proceedings  9.25
  • V.  CIVIL GRAND JURY
    • A.  Scope of Inquiry  9.26
    • B.  Accusations Against Local Officers
      • 1.  Authority; Grounds  9.27
      • 2.  Service of Accusation on Defendant  9.28
      • 3.  Accusation; Trial Court Procedure  9.29
    • C.  Final Report  9.30
  • VI.  GRAND JURY’S SUBPOENA POWER
    • A.  Subpoena  9.31
    • B.  Subpoena Duces Tecum  9.32
  • VII.  SUING GRAND JURY MEMBERS  9.33

10

Client Interview

E. Thomas Dunn, Jr.

Alan J. Crivaro

  • I.  CLIENT INTERVIEW FORM  10.1
  • II.  HOW INTERVIEW QUESTIONS RELATE TO COUNSEL’S CASE AND TO BOOK  10.2

11

Discovery

Hon. Teresa Caffese

  • I.  OVERVIEW  11.1
  • II.  CHECKLIST: SPECIAL DEFENSE AND PROSECUTION DISCOVERY MOTIONS AND PROCEDURES AVAILABLE UNDER “OTHER” STATUTES AND THE CONSTITUTION  11.2
  • III.  CALIFORNIA’S STATUTORY DISCOVERY SCHEME: PEN C §§1054–1054.10
    • A.  Discovery in General  11.3
    • B.  Discovery by Defense
      • 1.  Summary of Discovery to Be Provided to Defense  11.4
      • 2.  Identity, Whereabouts, and Statements of Witnesses, Including Experts  11.5
      • 3.  Real Evidence  11.6
      • 4.  Information on Arrests and Convictions  11.7
      • 5.  Constitutionally Mandated Discovery  11.8
      • 6.  Discovery Under California’s Due Process Clause  11.8A
    • C.  Discovery by Prosecution
      • 1.  Summary of Discovery to Be Provided to Prosecution  11.9
      • 2.  Identity, Whereabouts, and Statements of Witnesses, Including Experts  11.10
      • 3.  Real Evidence  11.11
      • 4.  Court-Ordered Mental Health Examinations of Defendant by Prosecution Experts  11.11A
    • D.  Nontestimonial Evidence  11.12
    • E.  Counsel’s Informal Request for Discovery  11.13
    • F.  Work Product and Privileged Information  11.14
    • G.  Timing of Disclosures  11.15
    • H.  Ex Parte Discovery Orders  11.16
    • I.  Motions for Sanctions  11.17
    • J.  Pretrial Review of Orders Granting Discovery  11.18
  • IV.  DISCOVERY UNDER OTHER STATUTES
    • A.  Pitchess Motion: Motion to Discover Personnel File of Law Enforcement or Custodial Officer
      • 1.  Purpose of Pitchess Motion  11.19
      • 2.  Requirements  11.20
      • 3.  Proceedings on Motion  11.21
      • 4.  Scope of Disclosure  11.22
      • 5.  Sanctions for Failure to Comply With Order of Disclosure  11.23
      • 6.  Appellate Review  11.24
    • B.  Subpoena Duces Tecum  11.25
    • C.  Conditional Examination  11.25A
  • V.  CONSTITUTIONALLY MANDATED DISCOVERY
    • A.  Evidence Favorable to Accused (Brady Discovery)  11.26
    • B.  Duty to Preserve Favorable Evidence (Trombetta-Youngblood Motion)
      • 1.  Nature of Motion  11.27
      • 2.  When to Make Motion; Method of Review  11.28
    • C.  Motion to Obtain Privileged Psychiatric Records (Hammon-Reber Motion)  11.29
  • VI.  DISCOVERY OF RECORDS REVEALING DISCRIMINATORY LAW ENFORCEMENT (MURGIA MOTIONS)  11.30
  • VII.  POSTJUDGMENT DISCOVERY  11.31

12

Public Records

Garrick A. Byers

  • I.  OVERVIEW  12.1
  • II.  CALIFORNIA PUBLIC RECORDS ACT AND RELATED STATUTES
    • A.  General Description of Act  12.2
    • B.  Definition of Public Record  12.3
    • C.  Specific California Public Records That Can Be Sought Under Public Records Act or Other State Statutes
      • 1.  Law Enforcement Records  12.4
      • 2.  State and Local Summary Criminal History Information (Rap Sheets)  12.5
      • 3.  Coroner’s Inquest, Protocol, and Register  12.6
      • 4.  Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) Records  12.7
      • 5.  Other California Public Records  12.8
    • D.  Location and Accessibility of Records  12.9
    • E.  Procedures for Obtaining Public Records
      • 1.  Procedures Applicable to General Public  12.10
      • 2.  Special Access by Prosecutor  12.11
      • 3.  Agency Response to Public Records Request  12.12
      • 4.  Reasons for Nondisclosure  12.13
      • 5.  Effect of Disclosure: Loss of Ability to Deny Subsequent Request for Disclosure  12.14
      • 6.  Court Enforcement of the Right to Public Records  12.15
  • III.  COURT AND JUDICIAL BRANCH RECORDS
    • A.  General Rule of Availability  12.16
    • B.  Arrest Warrants, Search Warrants, and Supporting Affidavits  12.17
    • C.  Inspection or Administrative Warrants  12.18
    • D.  Court Hearings, Records of Proceedings, and Filings  12.19
    • E.  Probation Reports  12.20
    • F.  Juror Information  12.21
    • G.  Standards and Procedures for Sealing Other Court Records  12.22

13

Motion to Set Aside Information or Indictment

Michael McCormick

  • I.  OVERVIEW  13.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  13.2
  • III.  NATURE OF PEN C §995 MOTION
    • A.  Challenging Information or Indictment  13.3
    • B.  Evidence on Which Motion May Be Based and Decided; Obtaining Transcript  13.4
  • IV.  IMPORTANCE OF MAKING PEN C §995 MOTION  13.5
  • V.  GROUNDS FOR MAKING PEN C §995 MOTION
    • A.  Information or Indictment Not Based on Reasonable or Probable Cause (Sufficiency of Evidence)
      • 1.  Standard of Review  13.6
      • 2.  Challenging Sufficiency of Evidence  13.7
      • 3.  Holding Order or Indictment Based on Illegally Obtained Evidence  13.8
      • 4.  Common Sufficiency-of-Evidence Issues  13.9
    • B.  Defendant Not Legally Committed by Magistrate  13.10
      • 1.  Preliminary Examination Held Beyond Time Limits  13.11
      • 2.  Rights to Counsel and Self-Representation  13.12
      • 3.  Defense Right to Cross-Examine  13.13
      • 4.  Defense Right to Present Evidence  13.14
      • 5.  Defendant Was Mentally Incompetent at Preliminary Examination  13.15
      • 6.  Reduction of Felony to Misdemeanor and Dismissal of Complaint in Interest of Justice  13.16
      • 7.  Factual Findings  13.17
      • 8.  Identity of Informant  13.18
      • 9.  Failure to Provide Discovery Before or During Preliminary Examination  13.19
      • 10.  Failure to File Information Within 15 Days After Holding Order  13.20
      • 11.  Chart: Issues That Need Not or Cannot Be Reviewed by Pen C §995 Motion  13.21
    • C.  Errors Peculiar to Indictments  13.22
    • D.  Defense Counsel Ineffective at Preliminary Examination  13.23
  • VI.  WHEN OBJECTION REQUIRED AT PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION TO PRESERVE ISSUE  13.24
  • VII.  TIME AND MANNER OF MAKING MOTION
    • A.  Setting Motion  13.25
    • B.  Time When Motion Made and Heard  13.26
    • C.  Supporting Memorandum and Response  13.27
    • D.  Renewing Motion  13.28
    • E.  Hearing on Pen C §995 Motion  13.29
  • VIII.  EFFECT OF COURT’S PEN C §995 RULING
    • A.  Bail  13.30
    • B.  Subsequent Proceedings; When Two-Dismissal Rule Applies  13.31
  • IX.  REVIEW UNDER PEN C §871.5
    • A.  When Pen C §871.5 Motion Is Available  13.32
    • B.  Noticing and Preparing Pen C §871.5 Motion  13.33
    • C.  Penal Code §871.5 Hearing  13.34
    • D.  Proceedings Following Reinstatement  13.35
    • E.  Effect of Denial of Pen C §871.5 Motion  13.36
  • X.  CHARGING AND RECHARGING UNDER PEN C §739  13.37
  • XI.  CHART: AVAILABILITY AND COMPARISON OF PEN C §§739, 871.5  13.38
  • XII.  REMANDING CASE TO MAGISTRATE; CORRECTING ERRORS IN TRIAL COURT  13.39
  • XIII.  REMEDIES FOLLOWING RULING ON PEN C §995 MOTION
    • A.  If Motion Is Denied
      • 1.  Pretrial Petition for Writ of Prohibition  13.40
      • 2.  Pretrial Petition for Writ of Habeas Corpus  13.41
      • 3.  No Defense Right to Pretrial Appeal of Pen C §995 Ruling; Preserving Issue for Posttrial Appeal  13.42
    • B.  If Motion Is Granted
      • 1.  Appeal  13.43
      • 2.  Writ of Mandate  13.44
      • 3.  Recharge  13.45
      • 4.  Dual Remedies: Recharge and Appeal  13.46

14

Pretrial and Trial Publicity; Access to Courts and Court Files

John T. Philipsborn

Edward J. Bronson

  • I.  OVERVIEW  14.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  14.2
  • III.  CHECKLIST: MINIMIZING PREJUDICIAL PUBLICITY  14.3
  • IV.  ETHICAL GUIDELINES FOR LAWYERS: CAL RULES OF PROF COND 5–120  14.4
  • V.  APPROACHES TO TALKING TO THE MEDIA
    • A.  In General  14.4A
    • B.  Defense Relations With the Media  14.5
    • C.  Prosecution Relations With the Media  14.6
    • D.  Grand Jury  14.7
  • VI.  ACCESS TO COURT RECORDS
    • A.  Introduction  14.8
    • B.  Court Files  14.8A
    • C.  Publication of Identity of Sexual Assault Victims  14.9
    • D.  Extended Coverage Provisions (Recording and Broadcasting)  14.10
    • E.  Sealing Court Records and Restricted Access
      • 1.  Grand Jury Transcripts  14.11
      • 2.  Sealing Court Records  14.11A
  • VII.  ACCESS AND RIGHT TO PUBLIC HEARINGS, AND RIGHT TO CLOSE THEM
    • A.  Criminal Proceedings That Are Presumptively Open  14.12
    • B.  Parties’ Right to Public Hearings  14.13
    • C.  Defense Right to Close Trial  14.14
    • D.  Defense Right to Close Suppression Hearing  14.15
    • E.  Closing Preliminary Hearing  14.16
    • F.  Juvenile Delinquency Proceedings  14.17
    • G.  Grand Jury Proceedings  14.18
    • H.  Related Civil Proceedings  14.19
  • VIII.  REMEDIES
    • A.  Pretrial and Trial Publicity Orders (Protective, Restraining, or “Gag” Orders)
      • 1.  Collecting Media Information  14.19A
      • 2.  Scope of Order; Procedure  14.20
      • 3.  Restraining Defense  14.21
      • 4.  Restraining News Media  14.22
      • 5.  Restraining Prosecution  14.23
      • 6.  Restraining Witnesses and Others  14.24
      • 7.  Enforcement: Contempt  14.25
      • 8.  Review of Order  14.26
    • B.  Change of Venue; Continuance  14.27
    • C.  Court Trial  14.28
    • D.  Jury Voir Dire  14.29
    • E.  Jury Instructions  14.30
    • F.  Sequestering Jury  14.31

15

Change of Venue

Edward J. Bronson

Bryan Edelman

John T. Philipsborn

  • I.  OVERVIEW  15.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  15.2
  • III.  VENUE AND JURISDICTION DISTINGUISHED  15.3
  • IV.  CHANGE OF VENUE MOTION BASED ON FAIR AND IMPARTIAL TRIAL REQUIREMENT
    • A.  Legal Standard for Change of Venue Because No Fair and Impartial Trial Can Be Had
      • 1.  Reasonable Likelihood Standard  15.4
      • 2.  The Five Factors
        • a.  Use of Five Factors  15.5
        • b.  First Factor: Nature and Gravity of Offense  15.6
        • c.  Second Factor: Nature and Extent of News Coverage  15.7
        • d.  Third Factor: Size and Characteristics of Community  15.8
        • e.  Fourth Factor: Status of Defendant in Community  15.9
        • f.  Fifth Factor: Status of Victim in Community  15.10
      • 3.  Additional Factors Considered by Court  15.10A
    • B.  Proceedings in Trial Court on Motion
      • 1.  Tactical Considerations
        • a.  Defense Tactics
          • (1)  Deciding Whether to Make Motion  15.11
          • (2)  Defense Use of Public Opinion Surveys  15.12
          • (3)  Steps to Reduce Publicity  15.13
          • (4)  Documenting Media Coverage  15.14
          • (5)  Making Motion  15.15
        • b.  Prosecution Tactics  15.16
      • 2.  Timing of Bringing Change of Venue Motion  15.17
      • 3.  Format and Filing of Change of Venue Motion  15.18
      • 4.  Prosecutor’s Response  15.19
      • 5.  Public Opinion Surveys  15.20
      • 6.  Nature of Hearing on Change of Venue Motion
        • a.  Presentation of Evidence  15.21
        • b.  Trial Court Response  15.22
      • 7.  Further Actions if Pretrial Motion Is Denied
        • a.  Pretrial Writ Review  15.23
        • b.  Requesting Expanded Jury Voir Dire  15.24
        • c.  Renewing Motion After Voir Dire  15.25
        • d.  Exhaustion of Peremptory Challenges  15.26
        • e.  Seeking Additional Peremptory Challenges  15.27
    • C.  Proceedings After Change of Venue Motion Is Granted
      • 1.  Notifying Administrative Director of Courts  15.28
      • 2.  Hearing to Determine New Venue  15.29
      • 3.  Procedures if Case Is Moved to Another County  15.30
      • 4.  Procedures if Jury Is Chosen in Another Venue to Sit in Original County  15.31
      • 5.  Setting Aside Order Changing Venue  15.32
      • 6.  Motion for Return of Action to Original Place of Trial  15.32A
  • V.  OTHER GROUNDS FOR CHANGE OF VENUE
    • A.  Jury Panel Exhausted  15.33
    • B.  Parties’ and Court’s Convenience  15.34
  • VI.  PROCEEDINGS IN APPELLATE COURTS
    • A.  Pretrial Review of Trial Court Ruling
      • 1.  Availability of Pretrial Review  15.35
      • 2.  Pretrial Standards of Review and Reversibility  15.36
    • B.  Review of Trial Court Ruling on Appeal
      • 1.  Actions Necessary to Preserve Issue on Appeal  15.37
      • 2.  Showing Required for Reversal on Appeal  15.38
  • VII.  CHART: CALIFORNIA APPELLATE DECISIONS AFTER MAINE V SUPERIOR COURT  15.39
  • VIII.  CHECKLIST: ALTERNATIVES TO CHANGE OF VENUE  15.40

16

Search and Seizure Motions

Carlie Ware

  • I.  OVERVIEW  16.1
  • II.  RECOGNIZING WHEN A SUPPRESSION MOTION IS AVAILABLE
    • A.  In General  16.2
    • B.  Legitimate Expectation of Privacy Is Prerequisite to Fourth Amendment Claim  16.3
    • C.  Statutory Protection: The California Electronic Communications Privacy Act  16.3A
    • D.  Motion Generally Not Available to Suppress Statements  16.4
    • E.  Defendants Subject to “Search Conditions”  16.5
    • F.  Motion to Suppress in Connection With Charge of Resisting Arrest  16.6
    • G.  “Fruit of the Poisonous Tree”  16.7
  • III.  PLEADING REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  Warrantless Searches  16.8
    • B.  Searches Supported by Warrant
      • 1.  “Good Faith” Exception  16.9
      • 2.  Controverting (or Traversing) Warrant (Franks Motion)  16.10
      • 3.  Obtaining Information About Informant (Luttenberger Motion)  16.11
      • 4.  Sealed Affidavits (Hobbs Motion)  16.12
  • IV.  CHART: DEADLINES  16.13
  • V.  WHEN TO MAKE MOTION
    • A.  Misdemeanor Cases  16.14
    • B.  Felony Cases  16.15
    • C.  Other Situations  16.16
  • VI.  APPLICATION OF FEDERAL SEARCH AND SEIZURE LAW IN CALIFORNIA
    • A.  Hierarchy of Authority  16.17
    • B.  Search Incident to Unlawful Arrest: Interplay Between Federal and State Law  16.17A
  • VII.  PROSECUTION RESPONSE  16.18
  • VIII.  EVIDENTIARY HEARING
    • A.  Burdens of Proof and of Going Forward  16.19
    • B.  Evidentiary Rules and Production of Evidence  16.20
  • IX.  REVIEW OF PEN C §1538.5 RULING IN MISDEMEANOR CASES  16.21
  • X.  DEFENSE OPTIONS WHEN PEN C §1538.5 MOTION IS DENIED AT PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION
    • A.  Types of Review Available  16.22
    • B.  Penal Code §995 Motion Compared With Pen C §1538.5 Motion After Preliminary Examination  16.23
  • XI.  PROSECUTION OPTIONS WHEN MOTION IS GRANTED AT PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION
    • A.  Case Dismissed Following Successful Defense Pen C §1538.5 Motion at Preliminary Examination
      • 1.  Two-Dismissal Rule  16.24
      • 2.  Discharge and Refile  16.25
    • B.  Motion Granted but Defendant Held to Answer  16.26
    • C.  Motion Denied but Magistrate Ruled Against Prosecution on Issue  16.27
    • D.  Motion to Reinstate Complaint (Pen C §871.5)  16.28
    • E.  Motion for De Novo Special Hearing (Pen C §1538.5(j))  16.29
  • XII.  APPELLATE REVIEW OF RULINGS IN FELONY CASES
    • A.  Review Sought by Prosecution
      • 1.  Dismissal Following Special Hearing  16.30
      • 2.  Motion Granted but No Dismissal Following Special Hearing  16.31
      • 3.  Review in Defense Appeal  16.32
    • B.  Review Sought by Defense
      • 1.  Pretrial Writ Review
        • a.  Court of Appeal  16.33
        • b.  California Supreme Court  16.34
      • 2.  Postconviction Appeal  16.35

17

Motion to Disclose Informer’s Identity

Garrick A. Byers

  • I.  OVERVIEW  17.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  17.2
  • III.  DEFENSE MOTION
    • A.  Defendant’s Right to Seek Discovery  17.3
    • B.  Remedy for Refusal to Disclose  17.4
    • C.  Facts in Case That Alert Counsel to Need for Motion  17.5
    • D.  Format, Service, and Filing Requirements  17.6
    • E.  Making the Required Showing; Supporting Memorandum  17.7
    • F.  Time to Make Defense Motion  17.8
    • G.  Relationship to Pen C §1538.5 Motion  17.9
  • IV.  PROSECUTION MOTION TO DENY, RESTRICT, OR DEFER  17.10
  • V.  PROSECUTION RESPONSE TO DEFENSE MOTION
    • A.  Prosecutor’s Three Main Lines of Argument  17.11
    • B.  Arguing That Informant’s Identity Need Not Be Disclosed  17.12
    • C.  Claiming Evid C §1041 Privilege  17.13
  • VI.  IN-CUSTODY INFORMANTS TESTIFYING AS WITNESSES  17.14
  • VII.  HEARINGS ON MOTION
    • A.  First Hearing: Defense Must Show Materiality  17.15
    • B.  In Camera Hearing  17.16
    • C.  Third Hearing; Resolution of Claim of Privilege  17.17
    • D.  Hearing on Requirement That Informant’s Present Location Be Revealed (Eleazer Hearing)  17.18
  • VIII.  PROSECUTION’S REFUSAL TO DISCLOSE IDENTITY OF INFORMANT WHEN ORDERED ALMOST ALWAYS REQUIRES ADVERSE FINDING, AND OFTEN DISMISSAL OR REDUCTION OF CHARGES  17.19
  • IX.  APPELLATE REVIEW OF ORDER CONCERNING INFORMANT  17.20

18

Selected Pretrial Motions

Christopher Lamiero

Romany E. McNamara

  • I.  OVERVIEW  18.1
  • II.  PRETRIAL MOTION PRACTICE
    • A.  Chart: Timing of Pretrial Motions  18.2
    • B.  Relying on Authority  18.3
    • C.  Checklist: Common Pretrial Motions  18.4
    • D.  Form, Service, and Filing of Pretrial Motions
      • 1.  Form of Motion  18.5
      • 2.  Setting Motion for Hearing  18.6
      • 3.  Service and Filing Requirements  18.7
    • E.  Responding to Pretrial Motion  18.8
    • F.  Reply by Moving Party  18.9
    • G.  Motion for Appointment of Expert
      • 1.  Nature of Motion  18.10
      • 2.  Timing of Motion  18.11
      • 3.  Burden of Proof  18.12
      • 4.  Effect of Appointment on Confidentiality  18.13
      • 5.  Appointment of Experts in Capital Cases  18.14
      • 6.  Appellate Review  18.15
    • H.  Murgia Motion: Dismissal Based on Discriminatory Prosecution
      • 1.  Nature of Motion  18.16
      • 2.  Standing  18.17
      • 3.  Discovery Motion
        • a.  Timing of Motion  18.18
        • b.  Burden of Proof  18.19
        • c.  Appellate Review  18.20
      • 4.  Motion to Dismiss
        • a.  Burden of Proof  18.21
        • b.  Required Showing  18.22
        • c.  Nature of Evidence  18.23
        • d.  Timing of Motion  18.24
        • e.  Appellate Review  18.25
    • I.  Motion to Recuse Prosecutor
      • 1.  Nature of Motion  18.26
      • 2.  Standing  18.27
      • 3.  Timing of Motion  18.28
      • 4.  Burden of Proof and Evidentiary Hearing  18.29
      • 5.  Illustrative Cases  18.30
      • 6.  Appellate Review  18.31
    • J.  Vindictive (Retaliatory) Prosecution
      • 1.  Nature of Motion  18.32
      • 2.  Timing of Motion  18.33
      • 3.  Standing  18.34
      • 4.  Burden of Proof  18.35
      • 5.  Showing Vindictiveness  18.36
      • 6.  Appellate Review  18.37
    • K.  Petition for HIV Testing  18.38

19

Right to Speedy Trial

James P. Lambe

  • I.  OVERVIEW  19.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  19.2
  • III.  CONSTITUTIONAL CLAIMS
    • A.  Preaccusation Delay: Due Process  19.3
    • B.  Postaccusation Delay: Speedy Trial
      • 1.  Federal and State Constitutions Apply  19.4
      • 2.  United States Constitution  19.5
      • 3.  California Constitution  19.6
    • C.  Motion to Dismiss: Oral or Written  19.7
    • D.  Tactical Considerations in Bringing Motion to Dismiss  19.8
    • E.  Evidence to Prove Speedy Trial or Due Process Violation
      • 1.  Rules of Evidence Apply But Subject to Greater Flexibility  19.9
      • 2.  Proof of Prejudice  19.10
      • 3.  Justification for Delay  19.11
      • 4.  Attacking Showing of Justification  19.12
  • IV.  STATUTORY CLAIMS
    • A.  Statute of Limitations  19.13
      • 1.  Determining Applicable Statute of Limitations  19.14
      • 2.  Burden of Showing Prosecution Is Not Barred by Statute of Limitations; Pleading Requirements  19.15
      • 3.  Raising Issue of Failure to Comply With Statute of Limitations; Waiver  19.16
    • B.  Time for Arraignment  19.17
    • C.  Preliminary Hearing
      • 1.  Time Limits; Remedy for Failure to Comply With Pen C §859b  19.18
      • 2.  Release of Defendant When Good Cause for Continuance Shown Under Pen C §859b  19.19
    • D.  Filing of Information After Preliminary Hearing  19.20
    • E.  Trial and Posttrial
      • 1.  Statutory Deadlines for Trials in Felony Cases  19.21
      • 2.  Statutory Deadlines for Trials in Misdemeanor Cases  19.22
      • 3.  Statutory Deadlines When New Trial Is Granted  19.23
      • 4.  Waiver of Statutory Deadline  19.24
      • 5.  Defendant Requests or Consents to Trial Date Beyond 60 Days  19.25
      • 6.  Limited Time Waiver and 10-Day “Trailing Period”  19.26
      • 7.  Other Exceptions to Statutory Time Limits
        • a.  Good Cause  19.27
        • b.  Defendant Fails to Appear  19.28
        • c.  Change of Venue  19.29
      • 8.  Effect on Speedy Trial Deadlines of Amending Charging Document  19.30
      • 9.  When Trial Begins in Relation to Statutory Speedy Trial Claims  19.31
      • 10.  Motion to Dismiss Because of Failure to Bring Case to Trial Within Pen C §1382 Deadlines; Waiver  19.32
    • F.  California Prisoner Serving State Time, With Another State Case Pending  19.33
    • G.  Federal Prisoner in California With California State Case Pending  19.34
    • H.  Out-of-State Prisoner With California Detainer  19.35
  • V.  WHEN SPEEDY TRIAL ISSUES SHOULD BE RAISED  19.36
  • VI.  SANCTIONS  19.37
  • VII.  APPELLATE REVIEW
    • A.  Remedies Available to Defense
      • 1.  Review of Motions to Dismiss Before Judgment and After Trial  19.38
      • 2.  Review of Motions to Dismiss in Misdemeanor Cases  19.39
      • 3.  Review of Motions to Dismiss in Felony Cases Following Guilty Plea  19.40
      • 4.  Review of Preliminary Hearing Speedy Trial Issues  19.41
      • 5.  Pretrial Review of Trial Date  19.42
    • B.  Remedies Available to Prosecution  19.43

20

Continuances

Michael C. McMahon

  • I.  OVERVIEW  20.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  20.2
  • III.  TIME, FORM, AND SERVICE OF MOTION
    • A.  Timeliness; Written and Oral Motions
      • 1.  Pretrial  20.3
      • 2.  Trial  20.4
    • B.  Service on Parties; Notice to Witnesses  20.5
  • IV.  GOOD CAUSE  20.6
    • A.  Continuance to Secure Counsel; Defendant’s Financial Statement  20.7
    • B.  Time to Prepare  20.8
    • C.  Absence of Witnesses  20.9
      • 1.  Particular and Obtainable Witness; Witness Available Within Reasonable Time  20.10
      • 2.  Material or Necessary Testimony; Testimony Not Cumulative  20.11
      • 3.  Due Diligence  20.12
    • D.  Incapacity of Defendant, Counsel, or Judge; Defendant’s Failure to Appear  20.13
    • E.  Other Court Commitments; Legislative Commitments
      • 1.  Defense Attorney  20.14
      • 2.  Prosecuting Attorney  20.15
      • 3.  Member of Legislature  20.16
    • F.  Prejudicial Publicity  20.17
    • G.  Motion to Suppress  20.18
    • H.  Desire to Try Felony First  20.19
    • I.  Codefendants Joined  20.20
    • J.  Judicial Diversion  20.21
    • K.  Court Unavailable  20.22
    • L.  Testimony of Defendant or Defense Witness  20.23
    • M.  Amending Pleadings  20.24
    • N.  Request for Continuance During Trial  20.25
    • O.  Request for Continuance at Sentencing  20.25A
    • P.  Cases Involving Sex Offenses and Cases Involving Minor Victims or Witnesses  20.26
    • Q.  Convenience of Parties; Stipulations  20.27
  • V.  PROOF; COURT’S RULING
    • A.  Form of Proof  20.28
    • B.  Court’s Ruling  20.29
  • VI.  LENGTH OF CONTINUANCE
    • A.  Time Requirements  20.30
    • B.  “Last Day” Cases  20.30A
    • C.  Preliminary Hearings  20.31
  • VII.  SANCTIONS  20.32
  • VIII.  EFFECT OF CONTINUANCE ON DEFENDANT’S CUSTODY STATUS  20.33
  • IX.  REVIEW
    • A.  Penal Code §995 Motion  20.34
    • B.  Writ  20.35
    • C.  Appeal  20.36

21

Disqualification of Judge

Alex Landon

  • I.  OVERVIEW  21.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  21.2
  • III.  PEREMPTORY DISQUALIFICATION
    • A.  Who Can Be Disqualified; Effect of Disqualification Under CCP §170.6  21.3
    • B.  Who May Exercise Challenge; Grounds  21.4
    • C.  Number of Challenges
      • 1.  One Motion for Each Side; Codefendants With Adverse Interests  21.5
      • 2.  One Motion in Any One Action  21.6
    • D.  Form, Notice, Content, and Proof of Motion
      • 1.  Form and Notice of Oral and Written Motions  21.7
      • 2.  Content of Motion; No Proof Required  21.8
    • E.  Time for Motion
      • 1.  In General  21.9
      • 2.  Trier of Fact Must Not Have Determined Contested Issue of Fact  21.10
        • a.  Examples: When Judge May Be Challenged Following Particular Judicial Determination  21.11
        • b.  Examples: When Judge May Not Be Challenged Following Particular Judicial Determination  21.12
      • 3.  Determining Timeliness Under Different Calendaring Systems
        • a.  Rule When Case Assigned From Master Calendar  21.13
        • b.  Rule When Case Assigned to Judge for All Purposes  21.14
        • c.  Rule When Case Neither Assigned From Master Calendar Nor Assigned to Judge for All Purposes (10-Day/5-Day Rule)  21.15
        • d.  Rule in One-Judge Courts  21.16
        • e.  Rule in Other Cases  21.17
    • F.  Availability of Motion in Case Involving Plea Bargain  21.17A
    • G.  Availability of Motion in Supplemental Proceedings  21.18
    • H.  Availability of Motion in Retrial Following Reversal  21.18A
    • I.  Availability of Motion in Juvenile and Civil Proceedings  21.19
    • J.  Stating Peremptory Challenge in Court (Attorney)  21.20
    • K.  Strategy Considerations
      • 1.  Advantages  21.21
      • 2.  Disadvantages  21.22
      • 3.  Discovering Information About Judges  21.23
      • 4.  Judge’s View of Peremptory Challenge (CCP §170.6)  21.24
      • 5.  Defense Considerations in Cases Involving Multiple Defendants  21.25
      • 6.  Tactical Timing of Motion  21.26
  • IV.  DISQUALIFICATION FOR CAUSE
    • A.  Who Can Be Disqualified; Grounds; Exceptions  21.27
    • B.  Statement of Disqualification (Challenge for Cause)  21.28
    • C.  Possible Responses by Judge Being Challenged  21.29
    • D.  Powers of Judge Either Disqualified or Being Challenged  21.30
    • E.  Procedure After Challenge for Cause and Any Response Filed  21.31
    • F.  Waiving Disqualification; Exceptions  21.32
    • G.  Hearing on Challenge for Cause  21.33
  • V.  DISQUALIFICATION UNDER DUE PROCESS CLAUSE  21.34
  • VI.  REVIEW OF DISQUALIFICATION ORDER  21.35

22

Lineups and Identification

Douglas W. Otto

Brentford J. Ferreira

  • I.  OVERVIEW  22.1
  • II.  TERMS  22.2
  • III.  IDENTIFICATION PROCEEDINGS
    • A.  Lineups
      • 1.  Description of Lineups  22.3
      • 2.  Right to Counsel at Lineup  22.4
      • 3.  Advantages of Fair Lineup  22.5
      • 4.  What Defense Counsel Should Do at Lineup
        • a.  Theory of Representation at Lineups; What to Bring  22.6
        • b.  Lineup Team  22.7
        • c.  Activities Before Lineup Begins
          • (1)  In General  22.8
          • (2)  Procedure if Counsel Will Be Late in Arriving  22.9
          • (3)  Interviewing Client  22.10
          • (4)  Client’s Refusal to Participate in Lineup  22.11
          • (5)  Defense Counsel’s Actions to Help Ensure Fair Lineup  22.12
        • d.  Defense Counsel’s Activities During Lineup  22.13
        • e.  Defense Counsel’s Activities After Lineup  22.14
    • B.  Photo Identifications  22.15
    • C.  One-Person Showups  22.16
    • D.  Defense (Evans) Lineups  22.17
    • E.  Identification Secured or Improved Through Hypnosis  22.18
    • F.  Dog-Tracking Evidence  22.19
    • G.  Voice Identifications  22.20
  • IV.  CHALLENGING EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATION
    • A.  Summary of Defense Counsel’s Remedies for Failure to Hold Lineup or for Tainted Identification Proceeding  22.21
    • B.  Gathering Information
      • 1.  Viewing Crime Scene  22.22
      • 2.  Interviewing and Investigating Witnesses  22.23
    • C.  Challenging Eyewitness Identification at Preliminary Hearing  22.24
    • D.  In Limine Motion at Trial  22.25
    • E.  Challenging Eyewitness Identification Before Trier of Fact
      • 1.  Lineup Held but Defendant Not Identified  22.26
      • 2.  Client Identified at Lineup; Procedure Held Lawful  22.27
      • 3.  Defense Witnesses and Strategies
        • a.  Possible Defense Witnesses  22.28
        • b.  Eyewitness Identification Expert  22.28A
        • c.  Cross-Examination of Identification Witness  22.29
      • 4.  Instructions  22.30
      • 5.  Closing Argument  22.31
  • V.  PROSECUTION PRESENTATION OF EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATION  22.32
  • VI.  PROSECUTION PRESENTATION OF VICTIM PHOTOGRAPHS  22.33
  • VII.  APPELLATE REVIEW  22.34

23

Confessions and Admissions

Hon. Joseph A. Brandolino

Jason M. Cox

  • I.  OVERVIEW  23.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  23.2
  • III.  CONFESSIONS AND ADMISSIONS: DEFINITIONS AND DIFFERENCES  23.3
  • IV.  HOW DEFENSE COUNSEL CAN PREVENT STATEMENTS BY DEFENDANT  23.4
  • V.  SPOTTING ISSUES CONCERNING DEFENDANT’S STATEMENT  23.5
  • VI.  ISSUES REGARDING THE INTRODUCTION OF STATEMENTS
    • A.  Hearsay Problems  23.6
    • B.  Authentication  23.7
    • C.  Secondary-Evidence Rule  23.8
  • VII.  PROCEDURES REGARDING THE EXCLUSION OF STATEMENTS
    • A.  Statements Related to Fourth Amendment Issues
      • 1.  Statements Resulting From Fourth Amendment Violations Must Be Raised by Pen C §1538.5 Motion  23.9
      • 2.  Burden to Be Satisfied in Pen C §1538.5 Motion Concerning Statement  23.10
    • B.  Statements Not Involving Fourth Amendment Issues
      • 1.  Procedures for Raising Statement Errors Not Involving Fourth Amendment Issues  23.11
      • 2.  Tactical Considerations in Choosing Appropriate Procedural Vehicle  23.12
      • 3.  Burden of Proof for Voluntariness and Miranda Issues  23.13
      • 4.  Burden of Proof for Sixth Amendment Issues  23.14
    • C.  Calling Defendant as Witness at Common Law Suppression Hearing or at Pen C §1538.5 Hearing Challenging Statement  23.15
  • VIII.  MIRANDA V ARIZONA
    • A.  Miranda Rule  23.16
    • B.  Requirement of Interrogation  23.17
    • C.  Requirement That Questioning Be by Police Officer or Agent  23.18
    • D.  Requirement That Suspect Be in Police Custody  23.19
    • E.  Sufficiency and Form of Advice of Rights  23.20
    • F.  Assertion of Miranda Rights  23.21
    • G.  Sufficiency of Waiver; Capacity to Waive  23.22
    • H.  Effect of Request for Counsel Versus Invocation of Right to Remain Silent; Difference Between Fifth and Sixth Amendment Right to Counsel  23.23
    • I.  Multiple Interrogations and Admonitions  23.24
    • J.  Exceptions to Miranda Requirement: Rescue, Public Safety, and Officer Safety Doctrines  23.25
    • K.  Interrogating Police Officers and Other Public Employees  23.26
    • L.  Interrogation in Another Country  23.27
    • M.  Application of Miranda to Juveniles  23.28
    • N.  Application of “Fruit of the Poisonous Tree” Doctrine: Subsequent Statement  23.29
    • O.  Application of “Fruit of the Poisonous Tree” Doctrine: Physical Evidence  23.30
  • IX.  VOLUNTARINESS
    • A.  Involuntary Statements Obtained by Police Are Inadmissible  23.31
    • B.  When Statements Are Involuntary  23.32
  • X.  CHALLENGING CODEFENDANT’S STATEMENT
    • A.  Fifth Amendment Challenges
      • 1.  Defendant May Challenge Voluntariness of Third Party’s Statement  23.33
      • 2.  Defendant May Not Raise Violation of Another’s Miranda Rights  23.34
    • B.  Confrontation Clause Challenges
      • 1.  Crawford v Washington  23.35
      • 2.  Aranda-Bruton Rule  23.36
    • C.  Fourth Amendment Challenge  23.37
  • XI.  SPECIAL PROBLEMS
    • A.  Providing Defendant’s Statement to Prosecution  23.38
    • B.  Polygraphs (Lie Detectors)  23.39
    • C.  Effect of Statements Provided by Counsel During Plea Negotiations  23.40
  • XII.  CORPUS DELICTI REQUIREMENT
    • A.  Corpus Delicti Need Not Be Proved Before Statement Can Be Introduced  23.41
    • B.  Corpus Delicti Requirements for Homicides, Similars, Conspiracies  23.42
  • XIII.  EFFECT OF DELAY IN ARRAIGNMENT ON ADMISSIBILITY OF STATEMENT  23.43
  • XIV.  SCOPE OF THE SIXTH AMENDMENT RIGHT TO COUNSEL  23.44
  • XV.  USING EXCLUDED STATEMENTS
    • A.  Involuntary Statements  23.45
    • B.  Statement Obtained in Violation of Miranda  23.46
    • C.  Statement Excluded Because of Fourth Amendment Error  23.47
    • D.  Statement Excluded Because of Sixth Amendment Error  23.48
    • E.  Prosecution Bound by Defendant’s Statement (Toledo Doctrine)  23.49
    • F.  Counsel Opens Door to Admission of Otherwise Inadmissible Statement  23.50
    • G.  Defendant’s Right Not to Take Stand and Not to Testify; Griffin Error  23.51
  • XVI.  PROSECUTORS’ ETHICAL DUTIES CONCERNING REPRESENTED DEFENDANTS  23.52
  • XVII.  ENSURING COMPLIANCE WITH EXCLUSION ORDERS  23.53
  • XVIII.  REQUESTING JURY INSTRUCTIONS CONCERNING STATEMENTS  23.54

24

Prior Convictions and Uncharged Misconduct

Brent Riggs

James P. Cooper III

  • I.  OVERVIEW  24.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  24.2
  • III.  USING PRIOR TO ELEVATE STATUS OF CRIME OR TO ENHANCE SENTENCE
    • A.  What Qualifies as Prior in Charging and Sentencing
      • 1.  When Prior Occurred; Effect of Appeal, Pronouncement of Judgment, Pen C §654, and Expungement  24.3
      • 2.  Foreign Priors  24.4
      • 3.  Offenses by Juveniles  24.5
      • 4.  No Jeopardy Attaches to Earlier Rulings on Priors; Pen C §654; Collateral Estoppel; Res Judicata  24.6
    • B.  How Priors May Be Used to Elevate Crime or Enhance Sentence  24.7
      • 1.  Using Priors in New Misdemeanor Prosecutions
        • a.  Enhancing Sentence  24.7A
        • b.  Mandatory Minimum Jail or Prison Sentences  24.8
        • c.  Drunk Driving Cases: License Restrictions; Notice to Convicting Court of New Case  24.9
        • d.  Elevation of Infraction to Misdemeanor; Diversion  24.10
      • 2.  Using Priors in New Felony Prosecutions
        • a.  Priors That Make Innocent Acts Into Crimes  24.11
        • b.  Elevation of Misdemeanors to Felonies  24.12
        • c.  Elevation of Wobblers to Straight Felonies  24.13
        • d.  Enhancing Sentence  24.14
        • e.  Denying Probation  24.15
        • f.  Selecting Prison Term; Consecutive or Concurrent Sentence; Death Penalty  24.16
        • g.  Miscellaneous Consequences  24.17
    • C.  Charging and Plea Bargaining Prior
      • 1.  Chart: When Priors Must Be Pleaded and Proved or Admitted in Felony Cases  24.18
      • 2.  Decision on Whether to Charge  24.19
      • 3.  How to Plead Prior  24.20
      • 4.  Amending Pleading to Add Charge of Prior  24.21
      • 5.  Dismissing Priors  24.22
    • D.  Confessing Prior  24.23
    • E.  Trying Prior
      • 1.  Speedy Trial Rules; Court or Jury Trial  24.24
      • 2.  Unification Versus Bifurcation
        • a.  When Priors That Must Be Proved to Jury Can and Cannot Be Tried Separately From Current Offense; Conditional Bifurcation  24.25
        • b.  Chart: Bifurcation of Proof of Prior Convictions [Deleted]  24.26
      • 3.  Evidence  24.27
    • F.  Challenging Prior
      • 1.  Differences Between Challenging Constitutionality and Other Challenges to Use of Prior Conviction  24.28
      • 2.  Challenging Truth or Use of Prior Conviction  24.29
      • 3.  Challenging Constitutionality of Prior Conviction
        • a.  Grounds for Challenging Constitutionality of Prior
          • (1)  Summary of Grounds  24.30
          • (2)  Boykin-Tahl Challenges to Prior Convictions Based on Guilty Pleas
            • (a)  Boykin-Tahl Advisements Required for Both Felony and Misdemeanor Pleas  24.31
            • (b)  Alleging Denial of Boykin-Tahl Rights Sufficient to Challenge Allegation of Prior Conviction  24.32
          • (3)  Other Constitutional Challenges to Convictions Based on Guilty Pleas  24.33
          • (4)  Challenges to Prior Convictions Based on Ineffective Assistance of Counsel  24.34
        • b.  Procedures for Challenging Constitutionality of Prior
          • (1)  Summary of Procedures  24.35
          • (2)  Procedure for Motion to Strike Prior in Court in Which Current Case Charging Prior Is Pending
            • (a)  Timing of Motion to Strike  24.36
            • (b)  Conduct of Hearing  24.37
          • (3)  Procedure Concerning Writ of Coram Nobis or Habeas Corpus in Rendering Court  24.38
          • (4)  Challenging Plea to Prior (Yurko Error)  24.39
    • G.  Effect of Finding Prior Conviction Invalid or Unconstitutional
      • 1.  Current Court Finds Prior Invalid  24.40
      • 2.  Rendering Court Finds Prior Invalid  24.41
    • H.  Court’s Authority to Strike Prior Conviction Under Pen C §1385  24.42
    • I.  Review of Dismissal of Prior-Conviction Allegation  24.43
  • IV.  PROCEDURES CONCERNING PRIORS UNDER VEH C §§14601, 14601.1, 14601.2, 23103, 23152–23153  24.44
  • V.  USE OF PRIOR CONVICTIONS TO IMPEACH WITNESS
    • A.  Rules on Admitting Prior Convictions to Impeach  24.45
    • B.  Which Priors Involve Moral Turpitude  24.46
    • C.  Trial Court Must Exercise Discretion Under Evid C §352 in Determining Admissibility of Priors to Impeach  24.47
    • D.  Procedures for Impeaching Witness With Prior and for Challenging Admission of Priors to Impeach
      • 1.  Impeaching Witness With Prior  24.48
      • 2.  Stating Objection to Use of Prior to Impeach Witness  24.49
      • 3.  Instructions on Impeaching Prior  24.50
      • 4.  Reviewing Impeachment With Prior on Appeal  24.51
  • VI.  USE OF EVIDENCE OF UNCHARGED MISCONDUCT (“OTHER BAD ACTS”)
    • A.  Admissibility of Other Bad Acts
      • 1.  To Prove Disputed Fact Other Than Defendant’s Propensity to Commit Such Acts  24.52
      • 2.  To Prove Propensity  24.52A
    • B.  Introducing Evidence of Other Crimes  24.53
    • C.  Procedure for Challenging Evidence of Other Crimes  24.54
    • D.  Instructions  24.55

25

Termination of Prosecution Without Judgment

Susan Horst

James A. Lassart

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  25.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  25.2
  • III.  DISCHARGE
    • A.  Discharge for Failure to Initiate Prosecution  25.3
    • B.  Discharge for Defendant to Testify for Prosecution or Defense  25.4
  • IV.  CIVIL COMPROMISE
    • A.  Misdemeanor Cases  25.5
    • B.  Felony Cases  25.6
  • V.  DEMURRER  25.7
  • VI.  DISMISSAL IN THE INTERESTS OF JUSTICE (PEN C §1385)
    • A.  Procedures
      • 1.  Motion by Prosecutor or Court, Not Defendant  25.8
      • 2.  Time for Motion  25.9
      • 3.  Notice to Prosecutor  25.10
      • 4.  Motion May Be Made in Jury’s Presence  25.11
      • 5.  Statement of Reasons and Entry in Disposition Report  25.12
    • B.  All or Part of Case May Be Dismissed  25.13
    • C.  Court’s Discretion Under Pen C §1385  25.14
    • D.  Limits on Court’s Discretion  25.15
    • E.  Appropriate Grounds for Pen C §1385 Dismissal
      • 1.  Insufficient Evidence  25.16
      • 2.  Plea Agreement  25.17
      • 3.  Enhancement Allegations  25.18
      • 4.  Other Grounds for §1385 Dismissal  25.19
    • F.  Improper Grounds for §1385 Dismissal  25.20
  • VII.  DISMISSAL ON OTHER GROUNDS
    • A.  Diversion (Pen C §§1000–1001.80)  25.21
    • B.  Alternative Dispute Resolution  25.22
    • C.  Successful Completion of Drug Treatment Probation (Pen C §1210.1)  25.23
    • D.  Double Jeopardy and Related Issues  25.24
    • E.  Kellett Error  25.24A
    • F.  Denial of Speedy Trial Rights
      • 1.  Delay in Prosecuting Case  25.25
      • 2.  Defendant Sentenced and Imprisoned on Another Charge
        • a.  State Imprisonment (Pen C §§1203.2a, 1381)  25.26
        • b.  Federal and Out-of-State Imprisonment (Pen C §§1381.5, 1389)  25.27
    • G.  Nonfelony Vehicle Code Violations Pending When Sentenced to State Prison or Committed to Youth Authority  25.28
    • H.  Action Against Registered Vehicle Owner After Vehicle Sold (Veh C §§5602(a)–(b), 40210(b))  25.29
    • I.  Treatment of Disabled Defendant  25.30
    • J.  Preliminary Hearing Not Completed in Single Session  25.31
    • K.  No Probable Cause to Believe Public Offense Has Been Committed
      • 1.  Dismissal of Felony Complaint at Preliminary Hearing (Pen C §871)  25.32
      • 2.  Dismissal of Misdemeanor Complaint (Pen C §991)  25.33
      • 3.  Penal Code §995 Dismissal  25.34
    • L.  Prosecution of Adult Who Committed Crime When Juvenile  25.35
    • M.  Offense No Longer Crime  25.36
    • N.  Ex Post Facto Clause Violation  25.36A
    • O.  Prosecution Failure to Disclose Material Information
      • 1.  Refusal to Disclose Informant’s Identity  25.37
      • 2.  Failure to Provide Discovery  25.38
    • P.  Material Witness Unavailable Because of State Action  25.39
    • Q.  Discriminatory Law Enforcement  25.40
    • R.  Lesser Included Offense  25.41
    • S.  Finding That Capital Defendant Is Intellectually Disabled  25.42
  • VIII.  MOTION FOR MISTRIAL
    • A.  Grounds for Mistrial  25.43
    • B.  Jeopardy  25.44
    • C.  Defense Motion for Mistrial  25.45
    • D.  Prosecution Motion for Mistrial  25.46
  • IX.  DISMISSAL AS BAR TO FURTHER PROSECUTION
    • A.  General Rules  25.47
    • B.  Constitutional Grounds  25.47A
    • C.  Statutory Dismissals for Misdemeanors  25.47B
    • D.  Statutory Dismissals and Exceptions for Felonies  25.47C
    • E.  Additional Reasons for Allowing Refiling of Violent Felonies  25.47D
    • F.  Recharge After Dismissal Under Pen C §17(b)(5)  25.48
  • X.  APPELLATE REVIEW
    • A.  Dismissal Under Pen C §1385 and Other Dismissal Statutes  25.49
    • B.  Writ of Mandate or Prohibition  25.50

26

Pleas and Case Settlement

Anthony J. Patti

  • I.  OVERVIEW  26.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  26.2
  • III.  PRESENCE OF DEFENDANT  26.3
  • IV.  REPRESENTATION BY COUNSEL  26.4
  • V.  FORM OF PLEA  26.5
  • VI.  NOT GUILTY PLEA  26.6
  • VII.  GUILTY AND NO CONTEST PLEAS
    • A.  Differences Between Guilty and No Contest Pleas  26.7
    • B.  Competence to Enter Guilty or No Contest Plea  26.8
    • C.  Manner of Entry of Plea  26.9
    • D.  Requirements on Plea of Guilty or No Contest
      • 1.  Summary of Requirements; Standard on Review  26.10
      • 2.  Constitutional Rights That Must Be Included in Advisement and Waiver  26.11
      • 3.  Discussion of Constitutional Rights  26.12
      • 4.  Factual Basis for Plea in Felony Cases  26.13
      • 5.  Plea Must Be Knowing, Intelligent, and Voluntary  26.14
      • 6.  Advisement of Direct Consequences of Plea of Guilty or No Contest  26.15
      • 7.  Checklist: Most Common Direct Consequences of Which Defendant Must Be Advised  26.16
      • 8.  Checklist: Miscellaneous Requirements Concerning Plea of Guilty or No Contest  26.17
    • E.  Effect of Guilty and No Contest Pleas on Right to Appeal  26.18
    • F.  Submitting Case on Transcript From Preliminary Hearing or on Police Report (“Slow Plea”)  26.19
    • G.  Pleading Guilty Before Holding Order  26.20
    • H.  Withdrawing Guilty or No Contest Plea  26.21
    • I.  Admissibility of Guilty or No Contest Plea in Related Civil Case  26.22
  • VIII.  ONCE IN JEOPARDY PLEA (DOUBLE JEOPARDY)
    • A.  Basis of Plea; Trial of Plea  26.23
    • B.  When Jeopardy Attaches  26.24
    • C.  Jeopardy Concerning Greater and Lesser Offenses  26.25
    • D.  What Does Not Constitute Violation of Double Jeopardy  26.26
    • E.  Discharge of Jury  26.27
    • F.  Jeopardy in Juvenile Proceedings  26.28
  • IX.  RES JUDICATA AND COLLATERAL ESTOPPEL
    • A.  Definitions of Res Judicata and Collateral Estoppel  26.29
    • B.  Raising Defense of Res Judicata or Collateral Estoppel by Demurrer or Plea  26.30
    • C.  Requirements for Collateral Estoppel  26.31
    • D.  Collateral Estoppel Between Criminal and Civil Trials; Effect of Finding at Probation Revocation Hearing  26.32
    • E.  Collateral Estoppel Between Criminal Trials and Administrative Agency Proceedings  26.33
  • X.  PLEA OF FORMER CONVICTION OR FORMER ACQUITTAL  26.34
  • XI.  NOT GUILTY BY REASON OF INSANITY  26.35
  • XII.  CASE SETTLEMENT (PLEA BARGAINING)
    • A.  Terminology Surrounding Plea Bargaining  26.36
    • B.  Time of Plea Bargaining  26.37
    • C.  Limitations on Plea Bargaining
      • 1.  Felonies Specified in Pen C §1192.7(a)  26.38
      • 2.  Prior Felony Convictions  26.39
      • 3.  Illegal Sentence  26.40
    • D.  Evidence of Failed Plea Bargain May Be Admissible at Trial  26.41
    • E.  Defense Considerations in Plea Bargaining
      • 1.  Negotiating With Prosecutor  26.42
      • 2.  Strategies to Improve Defendant’s Plea Bargaining and Sentencing Options; Alternatives to Jail  26.43
      • 3.  Presenting Plea Bargain to Defendant  26.44
      • 4.  Options When Defendant Does Not Admit Guilt  26.45
    • F.  Prosecution Considerations in Plea Bargaining  26.46
    • G.  Preplea Report (Pen C §1203.7(a))  26.47
    • H.  Limits on Judge’s Role in Plea Bargaining  26.48
    • I.  “Indicated Sentence” Does Not Require Prosecution’s Consent  26.49
    • J.  Recording Plea Bargain  26.50
    • K.  When Judge Fails to Approve Plea Bargain  26.51
    • L.  Result When Defendant Fails to Appear for Sentencing on Plea Bargain  26.52
    • M.  Remedies for Breach of Plea Bargain  26.53
    • N.  Remedy for IAC That Resulted in Rejection of Offered Plea Bargain  26.54

27

Pretrial Diversion, Deferred Entry of Judgment, and Preplea Probation Report

Hon. Adam B. Ryan

Terry L. White

  • I.  OVERVIEW  27.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  27.2
  • III.  PRETRIAL DIVERSION
    • A.  Narcotics and Drug Abuse Cases  27.3
      • 1.  Eligibility Requirements
        • a.  Divertible Offense  27.4
        • b.  Other Requirements  27.5
      • 2.  When to Request Pretrial Diversion; Bringing Motions Before Diversion Accepted  27.6
      • 3.  Initial Determination by Prosecutor  27.7
      • 4.  Pretrial Diversion Hearing  27.8
      • 5.  Challenging Denial of Pretrial Diversion  27.9
      • 6.  Successful Termination  27.10
      • 7.  Unsuccessful Termination  27.11
    • B.  Child Abuse and Neglect  27.12
  • IV.  DIVERSION PROGRAMS
    • A.  Generally Applicable Law  27.13
    • B.  Misdemeanor Diversion  27.14
    • C.  Diversion for Persons With Cognitive Developmental Disabilities  27.15
    • D.  Diversion for Traffic Violators  27.16
    • E.  Bad Check Diversion
      • 1.  Generally  27.17
      • 2.  Eligibility  27.18
      • 3.  Procedure; Fees  27.19
    • F.  Military Diversion  27.20
    • G.  Parental Diversion  27.21
    • H.  Civil Compromise Agreements and Alternatives for Merchant Victims  27.22
    • I.  AIDS Prevention Programs in Drug Abuse and Prostitution Cases [Deleted]  27.23
    • J.  Diversion Fees  27.24
    • K.  Nonstatutory Court Diversion  27.25
  • V.  POSTCONVICTION DRUG TREATMENT UNDER PROPOSITION 36  27.26
  • VI.  PREPLEA PROBATION REPORTS
    • A.  Procedure  27.27
    • B.  Checklist: Reasons for Requesting Preplea Probation Report  27.28
  • VII.  USE OF STATEMENTS MADE BY DEFENDANT DURING PRETRIAL DIVERSION, DEFERRED ENTRY OF JUDGMENT, OR PROBATION OFFICER’S INVESTIGATION  27.29

28

Trial by Court or Jury

Niki Solis

  • I.  OVERVIEW  28.1
  • II.  COURT TRIAL  28.2
  • III.  RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY
    • A.  Checklist: Matters on Which Right to Jury Trial Exists in Criminal Cases  28.3
    • B.  Checklist: Matters on Which No Right to Jury Trial Exists in Criminal Cases  28.4
    • C.  Right to Jury Trial  28.5
  • IV.  WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL
    • A.  Right to Waive Jury Trial  28.6
    • B.  Defendant’s Capacity to Waive Jury Trial  28.7
    • C.  Advice and Waiver Required  28.8
    • D.  Waiver Must Be in Open Court  28.9
    • E.  Waiver by Pro Per Defendant  28.10
    • F.  Time for Waiver  28.11
    • G.  Renewal of Waiver After Pleadings Amended  28.12
    • H.  Consent of Prosecutor and Defense Counsel  28.13
    • I.  Judge’s Concurrence Not Required for Jury Trial Waiver  28.14
    • J.  Failure to Obtain Waiver  28.15
    • K.  Waiver of Jury Trial on Special Circumstances Allegation in Capital Cases  28.16
    • L.  Waiver of Jury Trial on Enhancements and Prior Convictions  28.17
    • M.  Waiver of Jury at Sanity Phase of Trial  28.18
    • N.  Court Trials Involving Submission on Less Than All Evidence; Slow Plea of Guilty
      • 1.  Description of Shortened Court Trial and of Slow Plea of Guilty  28.19
      • 2.  Waiver Required for Slow Plea of Guilty  28.20
      • 3.  Appellate Standards When Considering Advice and Waiver on Slow Plea  28.21
    • O.  Defense Considerations
      • 1.  Differences Between Judge and Jury  28.22
      • 2.  Checklist: Defense Reasons for Waiving Jury  28.23
        • a.  Preserving Appellate Issues  28.24
        • b.  Court Trial Used as Mitigation Hearing  28.25
        • c.  Speedy Disposition  28.26
        • d.  Evidentiary Considerations  28.27
    • P.  Prosecution Considerations  28.28
  • V.  MOTION TO WITHDRAW WAIVER  28.29
  • VI.  CHOICE OF JUDGE IN COURT TRIAL; USING REFEREE OR COMMISSIONER  28.30
  • VII.  PROCEDURE DURING COURT TRIAL
    • A.  Types of Evidence That May Be Presented  28.31
    • B.  Jeopardy  28.32
    • C.  Admissibility of Evidence  28.33
    • D.  Order of Proof  28.34
    • E.  Role of Trial Judge  28.35
    • F.  Instructions  28.36
    • G.  Argument  28.37
    • H.  Findings  28.38
  • VIII.  RETRIALS  28.39

29

Jury Selection

Michael Begovich

  • I.  OVERVIEW  29.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  29.2
  • III.  CHALLENGES TO PANEL
    • A.  Selection of Trial Jury Panel
      • 1.  Trial Jury Panel Defined  29.3
      • 2.  Random Selection of Panel Members  29.4
      • 3.  Exemption or Excuse From Jury Service  29.5
      • 4.  Vicinage Right Does Not Limit Jurors to Residents of County Where Crime Occurred  29.6
    • B.  Procedure for Challenging Panel
      • 1.  Timing; Preparing Motion  29.7
      • 2.  Legal Bases for Challenging Panel  29.8
      • 3.  Representative Cross-Section Challenge
        • a.  Right to Jury Panel That Represents Cross Section of Community  29.9
        • b.  Prima Facie Case  29.10
      • 4.  Hearing on Motion Challenging Panel  29.11
  • IV.  THE VOIR DIRE PROCESS
    • A.  Purpose of Voir Dire  29.12
    • B.  Selection of Prospective Jurors From Master List  29.13
    • C.  Number of Jurors  29.14
    • D.  Order of Questioning and Challenges  29.15
    • E.  Areas of Examination Concerning Challenges  29.16
    • F.  Attorney’s Right to Examine Jurors; Jury Questionnaires  29.17
    • G.  In Camera Voir Dire  29.18
    • H.  Discovery of Juror Information by Defense and Prosecution  29.19
    • I.  Discovery of Juror Information Using the Internet  29.19A
    • J.  Selecting Alternates  29.20
  • V.  CHALLENGING INDIVIDUAL JURORS FOR CAUSE
    • A.  No Limit on Number of Challenges for Cause  29.21
    • B.  Grounds for Challenge for Cause
      • 1.  General Disqualification  29.22
      • 2.  Implied Bias  29.23
      • 3.  Actual Bias  29.24
    • C.  Trial of Challenge to Individual Juror for Cause  29.25
    • D.  Preserving Right to Review of Trial Court’s Ruling on Challenge for Cause  29.26
  • VI.  PEREMPTORY CHALLENGES
    • A.  Definition  29.27
    • B.  Number  29.28
    • C.  Questioning in Aid of Peremptory Challenges  29.29
    • D.  Limitations on Use of Peremptory Challenges Under People v Wheeler and Batson v Kentucky
      • 1.  Systematic Exclusion of Jurors Because of Membership in “Cognizable Group” Prohibited  29.30
      • 2.  Procedural Aspects of Batson-Wheeler Motion  29.31
        • a.  Making a Prima Facie Case  29.32
        • b.  Trial Court’s Response  29.33
        • c.  Responding Party  29.34
        • d.  Trial Court’s Determination of Motive  29.35
      • 3.  Successful Motion Requires New Panel Absent Waiver or Consent  29.36
      • 4.  Review  29.37
  • VII.  TECHNIQUES IN JURY SELECTION
    • A.  Aids to Jury Selection  29.38
    • B.  Courtroom Techniques
      • 1.  Persuasive Communication During Voir Dire  29.39
      • 2.  Audience Analysis During Voir Dire  29.40
      • 3.  Juror Profiling  29.41
        • a.  Four Juror Types  29.42
        • b.  Juror Dynamics During Deliberations  29.43
        • c.  Typical Prosecution Juror  29.44
        • d.  Typical Defense Juror  29.45
      • 4.  Criminal Defense Jury Selection Techniques  29.46
        • a.  Request “Hot Button” Voir Dire  29.47
        • b.  Get Prospective Jurors to Talk During Voir Dire  29.48
        • c.  Encourage Disclosure With Your Words  29.49
        • d.  Keep Record-Keeping to a Minimum  29.50
        • e.  Use Voir Dire as Opportunity to Educate and Desensitize Prospective Jurors  29.51
        • f.  Make Favorable Impression on Jury  29.52
        • g.  Maximize Jurors’ Favorable Perception of Your Client  29.53
        • h.  Follow Up on Disclosures That Reveal Experiences That Could Affect Decision Making  29.54
        • i.  Stop When You Are Satisfied  29.55
      • 5.  Tips for Jury Selection by Prosecution  29.55A
      • 6.  Reading Prospective Juror’s Body Language  29.56
    • C.  Exercising Peremptory Challenges  29.57
    • D.  Sample Voir Dire Questions  29.58
  • VIII.  POSTVERDICT INTERVIEW TIPS  29.59

30

Preparation and Presentation of Case and Argument

Brendon D. Woods

  • I.  OVERVIEW  30.1
  • II.  PREPARATION FOR TRIAL
    • A.  Importance of Early Preparation  30.2
    • B.  Reading Reports and Files of Present and Related Cases  30.3
    • C.  Visiting Crime Scene and Viewing Physical Evidence  30.4
    • D.  Witnesses
      • 1.  Selecting Witnesses for Trial  30.5
      • 2.  Anticipating Witness Problems  30.6
      • 3.  Using Interpreters  30.7
      • 4.  Preparing Witnesses to Testify  30.8
      • 5.  Interviewing Opposition Witnesses  30.9
    • E.  Evidence in Place of Witnesses  30.10
    • F.  Examining and Testing Physical Evidence; Further Investigation  30.11
    • G.  Demonstrative Evidence
      • 1.  Reasons for Using Demonstrative Evidence  30.12
      • 2.  Selecting and Creating Demonstrative Evidence  30.13
    • H.  Preparing Motions and Trial Briefs; Trial Notebook  30.14
    • I.  Developing Theory of Case  30.15
    • J.  Using Jury Instructions to Prepare Case  30.16
  • III.  PRESENTATION OF CASE
    • A.  Deciding What Type of Jurors Are Needed  30.17
    • B.  Pre–Voir Dire Conference  30.18
    • C.  Motions in Limine  30.19
    • D.  Opening Statements
      • 1.  Purpose and Style  30.20
      • 2.  Timing  30.21
    • E.  Direct Examination
      • 1.  Preparation for Direct Examination  30.22
      • 2.  Order of Presentation of Witnesses  30.23
      • 3.  Style of Direct Examination  30.24
    • F.  Cross-Examination  30.25
    • G.  Objections
      • 1.  Trial Strategy  30.26
      • 2.  Objections to Attorney Misconduct  30.27
    • H.  Deciding Whether Defendant Should Testify  30.28
    • I.  Rebuttal and Surrebuttal  30.29
    • J.  Argument
      • 1.  Description and Time Limits  30.30
      • 2.  Preparing Final Argument  30.31
      • 3.  Argument Techniques  30.32
      • 4.  Improper Argument  30.33

31

Selected Trial Motions

E. Thomas Dunn, Jr.

Alan J. Crivaro

  • I.  OVERVIEW  31.1
  • II.  DEADLINES IMPOSED BY LOCAL RULES AND PRACTICE  31.2
  • III.  CHECKLIST: TRIAL MOTIONS  31.3
  • IV.  GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR TRIAL MOTION PRACTICE
    • A.  Make Motion as Soon as Practicable  31.4
    • B.  Deciding Whether Motion Should Be Written or Oral  31.5
    • C.  Hearings on Trial Motions Should Be Reported  31.6
    • D.  Remedies  31.7
  • V.  EVIDENTIARY MOTIONS
    • A.  In Limine Motions
      • 1.  Advantages of Settling Important Evidentiary Issues Before Trial Begins  31.8
      • 2.  Reiteration Requirement  31.9
      • 3.  Examples of Evidentiary Issues Commonly Handled in Limine
        • a.  Foundational Issues  31.10
        • b.  Improper Chain of Custody  31.11
        • c.  New or Novel Scientific Techniques (Kelly Test)
          • (1)  Three-Prong Kelly Test  31.12
          • (2)  Kelly Applies Only to New or Novel Procedure  31.13
          • (3)  Kelly Test Results  31.14
        • d.  Improper Use of Statistics  31.15
        • e.  Expert Testimony
          • (1)  Grounds for Challenging Expert Testimony  31.16
          • (2)  Kelly Rule Does Not Usually Apply to Expert Testimony  31.17
        • f.  Admissions and Confessions
          • (1)  Trial Motions to Exclude Admissions and Confessions  31.18
          • (2)  Corpus Delicti Rule as Basis for Exclusion of Evidence Eliminated  31.19
        • g.  Prior Testimony
          • (1)  When Prior Sworn Testimony May Be Admitted  31.20
          • (2)  Procedure for Introducing Prior Testimony  31.21
        • h.  Prior Convictions  31.22
    • B.  Stipulations to Admission of Evidence  31.23
    • C.  Objecting to Evidence When It Is Introduced; Objections Must Be Specific and Timely  31.24
    • D.  Introducing and Opposing Introduction of Exhibits and Demonstrative Evidence
      • 1.  Marking Exhibits for Identification  31.25
      • 2.  Exhibit May Be Used Solely for Illustration or Admitted Into Evidence  31.26
      • 3.  Juror Access to Exhibits  31.27
      • 4.  Common Exhibits  31.28
      • 5.  Demonstrative Evidence
        • a.  Preserving Objection  31.29
        • b.  Photographs  31.30
        • c.  Demonstrations and Experiments  31.31
        • d.  Similar but Not Identical Evidence  31.32
  • VI.  OTHER TRIAL MOTIONS
    • A.  Requiring Election by Prosecution  31.33
    • B.  Sanctions for Failing to Comply With Discovery  31.34
    • C.  Jury Issues: Oral and Written Motions
      • 1.  Juror’s Question for Witness  31.35
      • 2.  Communication Between Judge and Jurors  31.36
      • 3.  Discharge of Juror
        • a.  Grounds for Discharging Juror and Seating Alternate  31.37
        • b.  Hearing on Whether to Discharge Juror  31.38
        • c.  Selecting Alternate  31.39
        • d.  Declaring Mistrial When There Are No Alternates  31.40
    • D.  Control in Courtroom and Courthouse
      • 1.  Judge Has Duty to Preserve Order  31.41
      • 2.  Restraining Defendant or Defense Witnesses; Removing Defendant From Courtroom  31.42
      • 3.  Security Measures Other Than Restraint of Defendant  31.43
    • E.  Orders Concerning In-Custody Defendant’s Appearance and Needs  31.44
    • F.  Judgment of Acquittal Under Pen C §§1118, 1118.1
      • 1.  Nature of Motion  31.45
      • 2.  Effect of Judge’s Order  31.46
  • VII.  APPELLATE REVIEW OF TRIAL MOTIONS  31.47

32

Jury Instructions

Michael C. McMahon

  • I.  OVERVIEW  32.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  32.2
  • III.  TYPES OF INSTRUCTIONS
    • A.  Sua Sponte Instructions
      • 1.  Trial Court Must Instruct on General Principles of Law Relevant to Case  32.3
      • 2.  Trial Court Must Instruct on Presumption of Innocence and Reasonable Doubt  32.3A
      • 3.  Limits on Trial Court’s Duty to Instruct Sua Sponte  32.4
      • 4.  Examples of Other Instructions Required in Every Case  32.5
      • 5.  Examples of Instructions Required When Appropriate  32.6
      • 6.  Sua Sponte Instructions on Lesser Included Offenses
        • a.  Court’s Sua Sponte Duty to Instruct on Lessers  32.7
        • b.  Determining Whether Offense Is Lesser Included Offense  32.8
        • c.  Waiving Statute of Limitations as Defense to Lesser  32.9
        • d.  Instruction on Lesser Must Be Given Over Defense Objection  32.10
      • 7.  Sua Sponte Instructions on Defenses
        • a.  Court’s Sua Sponte Duty to Instruct on Defenses  32.11
        • b.  Defenses  32.12
        • c.  Distinguishing Between Lessers and Defenses  32.13
    • B.  Instructions That Must Be Requested
      • 1.  General Requirements for Requested Instructions  32.14
      • 2.  Instruction on Bias or Sympathy  32.15
      • 3.  Instructions Commonly Requested by Defense
        • a.  Pinpoint Instructions  32.16
        • b.  Clarifying or Amplifying Instructions  32.17
        • c.  Cautionary Instructions  32.18
        • d.  Limiting Instructions  32.19
      • 4.  Instructions Commonly Requested by Prosecution  32.20
    • C.  CALCRIM Instructions
      • 1.  Description and Recommendation for Use  32.21
      • 2.  Modification May Be Required for CALCRIM Instruction to Fit Facts of Case  32.22
      • 3.  Checklist: Commonly Requested CALCRIM Instructions  32.23
  • IV.  PREPARING AND SUBMITTING INSTRUCTIONS
    • A.  Drafting Technique in General  32.24
    • B.  Drafting Instructions on Elements of the Crime  32.25
    • C.  Time to Prepare and Submit Instructions  32.26
    • D.  Form of Proposed Instructions  32.27
    • E.  Hearing on Instructions  32.28
  • V.  OBJECTIONS TO INSTRUCTIONS
    • A.  Grounds for Objecting
      • 1.  General Grounds  32.29
      • 2.  Instruction Is Unsupported by Evidence  32.30
      • 3.  Instruction Incorrectly States Law  32.31
      • 4.  Instruction Lightens Prosecution’s Burden of Proof  32.32
      • 5.  Instruction Mischaracterizes Defense Burden  32.33
    • B.  Preserving Instructional Issues for Appeal  32.34
  • VI.  INSTRUCTING THE JURY
    • A.  When Instructions Are Given  32.35
    • B.  Maximizing Impact of Instructions  32.36
    • C.  Jury’s Request for Supplemental Instructions  32.37
    • D.  Instruction When Alternate Juror Substituted  32.38

33

Jury Deliberations and Verdict

James P. Lambe

  • I.  OVERVIEW  33.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  33.2
  • III.  JUDGE’S DIRECTIONS TO JURORS ON HOW TO CONDUCT THEIR DELIBERATIONS  33.3
  • IV.  JUDGE’S DIRECTIONS TO BAILIFF  33.4
  • V.  TIME AND PLACE OF DELIBERATIONS; ADMONISHING JURORS NOT TO DISCUSS CASE  33.5
  • VI.  ALTERNATES EXCLUDED; DELIBERATIONS BEGIN ANEW IF ALTERNATE SEATED  33.6
  • VII.  CHOOSING FOREPERSON  33.7
  • VIII.  MATERIALS ALLOWED IN JURY ROOM
    • A.  In General  33.8
    • B.  Papers, Notes, Exhibits, and Pleadings  33.9
    • C.  Clothing, Photographs, Tape Recordings, Records, and Books  33.10
    • D.  Transcripts of Court Proceedings and Instructions  33.11
    • E.  Experiments  33.12
  • IX.  QUESTIONS AND REQUESTS DURING DELIBERATIONS
    • A.  Procedure for Answering Jurors’ Questions and Requests  33.13
    • B.  Objecting to Improper Communication Between Judge or Bailiff and Jury  33.14
    • C.  Jury’s Request for Reread  33.15
    • D.  Jury’s Request for Clarification of Law  33.16
    • E.  Jury’s Request to View Scene or Object Outside Courtroom  33.17
    • F.  Jury’s Consideration of Greater, Lesser, and Alternate Offenses  33.18
  • X.  REQUEST BY COUNSEL TO REOPEN EVIDENCE OR ARGUMENT  33.19
  • XI.  PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING WHETHER TO EXCUSE JUROR DURING DELIBERATIONS
    • A.  Juror Misconduct
      • 1.  Checklist: Common Types of Juror Misconduct  33.20
      • 2.  Remedies for Juror Misconduct  33.21
    • B.  Other Reasons for Excusing Jurors  33.22
    • C.  When Hearing Is Required to Determine Whether to Excuse Juror  33.23
    • D.  Conduct of Hearing to Determine Whether to Excuse Juror; Court’s Ruling  33.24
  • XII.  TERMINATION OF DELIBERATIONS
    • A.  Reasons for Terminating Deliberations  33.25
    • B.  Determining Whether Jurors Are Unable to Reach Verdict; Declaring Mistrial  33.26
  • XIII.  GENERAL AND SPECIAL VERDICTS
    • A.  Definition of Verdict  33.27
    • B.  Written Verdict Forms  33.28
    • C.  General Verdict  33.29
    • D.  Special Verdict  33.30
    • E.  Jury’s Verdict on Special Allegations and Prior Convictions  33.31
    • F.  Partial Verdicts  33.32
  • XIV.  DELIVERY OF VERDICT
    • A.  Parties to Be Present in Court  33.33
    • B.  Method of Taking Verdict
      • 1.  Oral Declaration  33.34
      • 2.  Delivery of Verdict  33.35
    • C.  Trial Ends When Verdict Is Complete or Jury Is Discharged  33.36
    • D.  Recording Verdict in Minutes  33.37
  • XV.  DEFECTIVE VERDICTS
    • A.  Inconsistent Verdicts  33.38
    • B.  Right to Unanimous Jury  33.38A
    • C.  Irregularity in Written Forms  33.39
    • D.  Finding on Degree of Offense; Failure to Find Degree; Reconsideration of Verdict  33.40
    • E.  Failure to Make Finding on Enhancement  33.41
  • XVI.  ACTION ON VERDICT
    • A.  Recording Verdict  33.42
    • B.  Finding for Defendant  33.43
    • C.  Finding Against Defendant  33.44
  • XVII.  EFFECT OF MISTRIAL DECLARED DURING DELIBERATIONS  33.45
  • XVIII.  POSTTRIAL INTERROGATION OF JURORS  33.46

34

Prejudgment Motions

Timothy E. Warriner

  • I.  OVERVIEW  34.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  34.2
  • III.  MOTION FOR NEW TRIAL
    • A.  Purpose; When Available  34.3
    • B.  Grounds
      • 1.  Absence of Defendant at Trial  34.4
      • 2.  Jury Misconduct  34.5
      • 3.  Error of Law by Court  34.6
      • 4.  Prosecutorial Misconduct; Errors by Other Prosecution Agencies  34.7
      • 5.  Insufficiency of Evidence  34.8
      • 6.  Newly Discovered Evidence  34.9
      • 7.  Loss of Trial Transcript  34.10
      • 8.  Nonstatutory Grounds  34.11
    • C.  Procedure
      • 1.  Application by Defendant; Appointment of Counsel; Time for Application  34.12
      • 2.  Form and Content of Application; Right to Transcript to Support Motion  34.13
    • D.  Court’s Ruling
      • 1.  Proper Judge to Hear Motion; Discretionary Ruling  34.14
      • 2.  Time to Rule  34.15
    • E.  Appellate Review  34.16
  • IV.  MOTION TO MODIFY VERDICT TO LESSER OFFENSE OR LESSER DEGREE  34.17
  • V.  MOTION TO STRIKE ENHANCEMENTS OR SPECIAL FINDINGS  34.18
  • VI.  MOTION IN ARREST OF JUDGMENT  34.19
  • VII.  JUDGMENT NOTWITHSTANDING THE VERDICT (JNOV)  34.20

35

Pronouncing Judgment

Hon. Gregg L. Prickett

  • I.  OVERVIEW  35.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  35.2
  • III.  TIME TO PRONOUNCE JUDGMENT
    • A.  General Rule  35.3
    • B.  Exceptions
      • 1.  Time Waiver  35.4
      • 2.  Mentally Incompetent Defendant  35.5
      • 3.  Military Veteran  35.5A
      • 4.  Insane Defendant  35.6
      • 5.  Defendant Convicted of Driving Under Influence  35.7
      • 6.  Defendant Placed in Diagnostic Facility (Felony Cases)  35.8
    • C.  Effect of Time Limit Violation  35.9
    • D.  Recall of Sentence; Correction of Judgment  35.10
    • E.  Recall, Resentencing, and Redesignation: Proposition 47  35.10A
      • 1.  Limitations on Eligibility  35.10B
      • 2.  Petitions for Resentencing: Defendants Currently Serving Sentence  35.10C
      • 3.  Applications for Redesignation to Misdemeanor: Defendants With Completed Sentences  35.10D
      • 4.  Deadline for Recall  35.10E
      • 5.  Offenses Falling Outside Ambit of Proposition 47  35.10F
      • 6.  Remaining Collateral Consequences of Previous Felony Convictions Despite Redesignation to Misdemeanor  35.10G
  • IV.  AUTHORITY OF SUCCESSOR JUDGE; ARBUCKLE  35.11
  • V.  DEFENDANT’S PRESENCE
    • A.  Right to Be Present  35.12
    • B.  When Judgment Can Be Rendered in Defendant’s Absence  35.13
    • C.  Requiring Defendant’s Presence  35.14
  • VI.  DEFENDANT’S RIGHTS
    • A.  Bail  35.15
    • B.  Right to Counsel at Sentencing  35.16
  • VII.  HEARING ON PRONOUNCEMENT OF JUDGMENT
    • A.  Meaningful Opportunity to Object  35.17
    • B.  Nature of Sentencing Hearing; Matters That Court May Consider at Hearing  35.18
    • C.  Defendant’s Right to Confrontation  35.19
    • D.  Sentencing Entrapment/Sentencing Manipulation  35.19A
    • E.  Continuance of Hearing  35.20
    • F.  Arraignment for Judgment  35.21
  • VIII.  ALLOCUTION
    • A.  Allocution Defined  35.22
    • B.  Causes Against Judgment  35.23
  • IX.  RENDITION AND ENTRY OF JUDGMENT  35.24
  • X.  NOTICES TO DEFENDANT
    • A.  Duty to Register  35.25
    • B.  Duty to Submit to AIDS Testing  35.26
    • C.  Right to Appeal  35.27
    • D.  Period of Parole or Postrelease Supervision  35.28
  • XI.  ALTERNATIVES IN CONTROLLED SUBSTANCE CASES
    • A.  Commitment to California Rehabilitation Center (CRC)  35.29
    • B.  Proposition 36 Treatment  35.29A
    • C.  Pretrial Diversion  35.29B
  • XII.  CORRECTING ERRORS IN PRONOUNCING JUDGMENT
    • A.  Clerical and Judicial Error Distinguished  35.30
    • B.  Clerical Error  35.31
    • C.  Judicial Error  35.32
    • D.  Correcting Oral Pronouncement of Sentence  35.33
    • E.  Vacating or Correcting Void Sentence  35.34

36

Misdemeanor Sentencing

Hon. Teresa Sanchez-Gordon

  • I.  OVERVIEW  36.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  36.2
  • III.  TIME OF SENTENCING; RIGHT TO COUNSEL  36.3
  • IV.  REFERRAL TO PROBATION DEPARTMENT  36.3A
  • V.  WHO CAN SENTENCE IN MISDEMEANOR CASES; COURT’S DISCRETION IN SENTENCING  36.4
  • VI.  PUNISHMENT FOR MISDEMEANORS
    • A.  Suspending Execution of Sentence; Suspending Imposition of Sentence  36.5
    • B.  Judgment of Imprisonment, Fine, or Both  36.6
    • C.  Imprisonment
      • 1.  Maximum Term; Good Time and Work Time  36.7
      • 2.  Custody and Custody Credits On Reclassification Under Proposition 47 (Pen C § 1170.18)  36.7A
      • 3.  Serving Jail Term on Weekends  36.8
    • D.  Judgment of Fine  36.9
    • E.  Judgment of Imprisonment to Satisfy Fine
      • 1.  General Rule  36.10
      • 2.  Application to Indigent  36.11
      • 3.  Application to Person Under 21  36.12
    • F.  Civil Assessments  36.12A
  • VII.  INFRACTIONS  36.13
  • VIII.  VEHICLE CODE VIOLATIONS
    • A.  Infraction Violations of Vehicle Code  36.14
    • B.  Misdemeanor Violations of Vehicle Code  36.15
    • C.  Imprisonment to Satisfy Vehicle Code Fine  36.16
    • D.  Traffic School  36.17
  • IX.  CONCURRENT AND CONSECUTIVE SENTENCES
    • A.  Judgment Should Specify Whether Terms Are Concurrent or Consecutive  36.18
    • B.  Determining Sentences to Be Consecutive
      • 1.  Factors to Consider  36.19
      • 2.  Receipt of Evidence  36.20
    • C.  Time Limit on Correction  36.21

37

Felony Sentencing

Hon. Matthew C. Braner

  • I.  OVERVIEW
    • A.  Chapter Highlights  37.1
    • B.  Realignment  37.1A
  • II.  IMPORTANT FELONY SENTENCING ISSUES  37.2
  • III.  CHART: DEADLINES  37.3
  • IV.  DETERMINATE SENTENCING VERSUS INDETERMINATE SENTENCING  37.4
  • V.  TERMINOLOGY  37.5
  • VI.  DETERMINATE SENTENCING
    • A.  Structure of Typical DSL Sentence: Two Formulas  37.6
      • 1.  Checklist: Sentencing Limitations [Deleted]  37.7
    • B.  Formula One: Base Term Plus Conduct Enhancements Equals Principal Term
      • 1.  Base Term
        • a.  Selecting One of Three Authorized Terms  37.8
        • b.  Upper Term  37.9
        • c.  Middle Term  37.9A
        • d.  Lower Term  37.10
      • 2.  Conduct (Specific) Enhancements
        • a.  Description  37.11
        • b.  Statutory Limitations on Terms of Conduct Enhancements  37.12
        • c.  Chart: Conduct Enhancements  37.13
      • 3.  Principal Term  37.14
    • C.  Formula Two: Principal Term Plus Subordinate Term(s) Plus Prior(s) Plus Pen C §12022.1 Equals Aggregate Term
      • 1.  Rules Applicable to Consecutive Sentences
        • a.  Description of Subordinate Term [Deleted]  37.15
        • b.  Imposing Consecutive Terms  37.16
        • c.  Calculating Aggregate Term When Consecutive Sentences Imposed  37.16A
        • d.  Calculating Consecutive Terms  37.17
          • (1)  One-Third of Middle Term for Crime Plus One-Third of Specific (Conduct) Enhancements  37.18
          • (2)  Old Law: No Enhancements to Nonviolent Subordinate Terms [Deleted]  37.19
          • (3)  Old Law: Multiple Residential Burglaries, Residential Robberies, Residential Arsons, and Robberies With Use of Deadly Weapon (Former Pen C §1170.95) [Deleted]  37.20
          • (4)  Full-Term Consecutive Sentences
            • (a)  Multiple Kidnappings (Pen C §1170.1(b))  37.21
            • (b)  Witness Threats (Pen C §1170.13)  37.22
            • (c)  Witness Intimidation (Pen C §1170.15)  37.23
            • (d)  Voluntary Manslaughter (Pen C §1170.16)  37.24
            • (e)  Full-Term Consecutive Sentences for Forcible Sex Offenses
              • (i)  Optional Full-Term Consecutive Sentences (Same Victim, Same Occasion) (Pen C §667.6(c))  37.25
              • (ii)  Mandatory Full-Term Consecutive Sentences (Separate Victims or Separate Occasions) (Pen C §667.6(d))  37.26
            • (f)  Special Rules for Conduct Enhancements in Pen C §667.6 Cases  37.27
            • (g)  Special Rules for Crimes by State Prisoners and Escapees  37.28
          • (5)  Old Law: Subordinate Term Limits [Deleted]  37.29
          • (6)  Limitations on Consecutive Terms for Cases Before 2001  37.30
      • 2.  Prior Convictions
        • a.  Uses of Prior Convictions  37.30A
        • b.  Pleading and Proving Prior Convictions and Prison Terms
          • (1)  Charging Priors  37.31
          • (2)  Trial of Priors  37.31A
          • (3)  Proof of Priors  37.31B
          • (4)  Proof That Prior Constitutes Serious or Violent Felony  37.31C
            • (a)  California Offenses That May Require Additional Proof to Qualify as Serious Felony Priors or Strike Priors  37.31D
            • (b)  Proving Out-of-State Priors  37.32
        • c.  Three Strikes Law
          • (1)  Introduction  37.33
          • (2)  Determining Who Is Eligible for a Three Strikes Life Sentence  37.33A
          • (3)  Determining Whether Prior Is a Strike  37.33B
          • (4)  Proof of Prior Strikes  37.33C
          • (5)  Consequences of One or More Strikes  37.33D
          • (6)  Discretion to Strike: Romero and Williams  37.33E
          • (7)  Eighth Amendment Considerations—“Cruel and Unusual”  37.33F
        • d.  One Strike Sex Crime Law  37.34
        • e.  Other Alternative Sentencing Schemes  37.34A
      • 3.  Penal Code §12022.1: Felony Committed While on Bail or Own Recognizance  37.35
      • 4.  Aggregate Term  37.36
    • D.  Multiple DSL and Combined DSL/ISL Terms
      • 1.  Multiple Cases That Result in Multiple DSL Terms (Including Misdemeanors)  37.37
      • 2.  Combined Determinate (DSL) and Indeterminate (ISL) Terms  37.38
      • 3.  Multiple ISL Terms and Enhancements  37.39
      • 4.  Out-of-State and California DSL Terms  37.40
    • E.  Striking Charges and Enhancements Under Pen C §1385  37.41
    • F.  Striking Punishment for Certain Enhancements Under Former Pen C §1170.1(h) [Deleted]  37.42
    • G.  Mandatory Sentencing Limitations
      • 1.  Dual Use of Facts  37.43
      • 2.  Penal Code §654: Limit on Acts or Omissions Made Punishable by Different Provisions  37.44
        • a.  General Legal Exceptions
          • (1)  Acts of Violence With Separate Victims  37.45
          • (2)  Multiple Sex Acts  37.46
          • (3)  Certain Vehicle Code Violations  37.47
        • b.  Factual Distinctions  37.48
        • c.  Applicability to Enhancements  37.49
        • d.  Sentencing Procedures When Pen C §654 Applies  37.50
    • H.  Sentencing Hearing, Sentencing Choices, and Statement of Reasons  37.51
    • I.  Chart: Persons Ineligible for Probation  37.52
    • J.  Restricted Probation Eligibility  37.53
  • VII.  CREDIT FOR TIME SERVED
    • A.  In General  37.54
    • B.  Credit for Time Spent in Presentence Custody
      • 1.  Actual Time
        • a.  When Available  37.55
        • b.  Johnson Waivers  37.56
        • c.  Multiple Reasons for Presentence Custody  37.57
      • 2.  Credit for Good Conduct
        • a.  Availability of Conduct Credits  37.58
        • b.  Limitation on Credits for Violent Felonies  37.58A
        • c.  Calculating Days of Conduct Credit  37.59
      • 3.  Applying Credits to Confinement Time and Fine  37.60
    • C.  Credit for Conduct in State Prison  37.61
  • VIII.  JUVENILES PROSECUTED AS ADULTS [DELETED]  37.62
  • IX.  CIVIL COMMITMENT OF NARCOTICS ADDICTS  37.63
  • X.  COMMITMENT AND TRANSFERS TO DIVISION OF JUVENILE JUSTICE (DJJ)
    • A.  Defendants Eligible for DJJ Commitment  37.64
    • B.  When Defendant May or Must Be Referred to DJJ Diagnostic and Treatment Center Before Sentencing  37.65
    • C.  Stage of Proceedings When Actual Commitment to DJJ Occurs  37.66
    • D.  Proceedings if Defendant Rejected  37.67
    • E.  Duration if Defendant Accepted  37.68
    • F.  Housing Youthful State Prison Inmate at DJJ Facility; DJJ’s Power to Transfer Such Inmates to Other Institutions  37.69
    • G.  Extension of DJJ Commitment  37.70
    • H.  State Prison Commitment Instead of Discharge  37.71
  • XI.  PREGNANT AND PARENTING WOMEN’S ALTERNATIVE SENTENCING  37.72

38

Probation and Mandatory Supervision

Christine Bergman

  • I.  OVERVIEW  38.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  38.2
  • III.  ELIGIBILITY FOR PROBATION
    • A.  General Rules  38.3
    • B.  Criminal Justice Realignment Act of 2011: Split Sentences and Mandatory Supervision  38.3A
    • C.  Rules Applicable to Nonviolent Drug Possession Offenses (Proposition 36)
      • 1.  Basic Provisions  38.4
      • 2.  Statutory Exclusions  38.5
      • 3.  Other Exclusions  38.6
      • 4.  Sentencing Under Proposition 36  38.7
      • 5.  Violations of Proposition 36 Probation  38.8
      • 6.  Successful Completion of Treatment  38.9
  • IV.  PROBATION INVESTIGATION AND REPORT
    • A.  Preplea Probation Reports  38.10
    • B.  Court’s Discretion to Refer Cases to Probation After Plea or Trial
      • 1.  Misdemeanor Cases  38.11
      • 2.  Felony Cases  38.12
    • C.  When Supplemental Probation Report Is Required  38.13
    • D.  Purpose of Probation Report; Court’s Discretion to Reject Report’s Recommendation  38.14
    • E.  Contents of Probation Report
      • 1.  In General; Hearsay; Suppressed Evidence  38.15
      • 2.  Prior Criminality  38.16
      • 3.  Risk Assessment for Sex Offenders  38.17
      • 4.  Facts Pertaining to Charges in Current Case  38.18
  • V.  RESTITUTION
    • A.  Available to Victim  38.19
    • B.  Fine Paid by Defendant to State Restitution Fund  38.20
    • C.  Recovering From State Restitution Fund Through Victim Compensation Program  38.21
  • VI.  REIMBURSEMENT FOR PROBATION COSTS  38.22
  • VII.  ATTORNEY PREPARATION FOR SENTENCING
    • A.  Waiving Presentence Investigation and Report  38.23
    • B.  Defense Attorney Preparation
      • 1.  In General; Pen C §1203.03 Evaluation; Statement in Mitigation  38.24
      • 2.  Checklist: Preparing Defendant for Probation Interview  38.25
    • C.  Prosecution Preparation; Statement in Aggravation  38.26
  • VIII.  COURT PROCEDURES IN DECIDING WHETHER TO GRANT PROBATION
    • A.  Considerations in Granting Probation  38.27
    • B.  Sentencing Hearing  38.28
    • C.  Form of Probationary Order; Papers Given Defendant  38.29
  • IX.  RIGHT TO REJECT PROBATION  38.30
  • X.  MODIFICATION OR EARLY TERMINATION OF PROBATION
    • A.  Grounds for Modification  38.31
    • B.  Modification Procedures  38.32
    • C.  Early Termination of Probation  38.33
  • XI.  CONDITIONS OF PROBATION
    • A.  General Rule for Determining Validity of Probation Conditions  38.34
    • B.  Sex Offender Registration Requirements  38.35
    • C.  Mandatory Probation Conditions  38.36
    • D.  Discretionary Probation Conditions  38.37
    • E.  Invalid Probation Conditions  38.38
  • XII.  APPELLATE CHALLENGE TO CONDITIONS OF PROBATION  38.39
  • XIII.  TRANSFERS
    • A.  Transfer of Supervision to Another County  38.40
    • B.  Transfer of Case to Another State  38.41
  • XIV.  DURATION OF PROBATION
    • A.  Standard Term  38.42
    • B.  Revoking, Modifying, and Extending Probation  38.43
  • XV.  TERMINATING PROBATION AND IMPOSING PRISON SENTENCE  38.44
  • XVI.  PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY OF COURT, COUNSEL, AND PROBATION OFFICER  38.45

39

Work Furlough and Other Alternative Sentences

Hon. Richard Keller

  • I.  OVERVIEW  39.1
  • II.  WORK FURLOUGH, JOB TRAINING, AND SCHOOL FURLOUGH
    • A.  Description and Eligibility  39.2
    • B.  Availability  39.3
    • C.  Monitoring  39.4
    • D.  Transfers to Other Counties  39.5
    • E.  Fees  39.6
    • F.  Passes  39.7
    • G.  Credits  39.8
    • H.  Escapes  39.9
  • III.  COUNTY PAROLE
    • A.  Composition of Parole Board  39.10
    • B.  Meetings  39.11
    • C.  Rules and Regulations  39.12
    • D.  Eligibility  39.13
    • E.  Emergency or Limited Paroles  39.14
    • F.  Authority to Grant Parole  39.15
    • G.  Right to Counsel  39.16
    • H.  Notification of Application  39.17
    • I.  Appearance  39.18
    • J.  Admission of Guilt  39.19
    • K.  Length of Parole  39.20
    • L.  Conditions  39.21
    • M.  Parole Denied  39.22
    • N.  Violation  39.23
    • O.  Noncitizen Prisoners  39.24
    • P.  Supervision  39.25
    • Q.  Fees for County Parole  39.26
  • IV.  ALTERNATIVE WORK PROGRAMS
    • A.  Work Release Programs
      • 1.  Description  39.27
      • 2.  Time Limits  39.28
      • 3.  Fees  39.29
      • 4.  Failures  39.30
    • B.  Accelerated Release  39.31
    • C.  Home Detention  39.32
  • V.  CHART: ALTERNATIVE SENTENCING BY COUNTY  39.33

40

Victim Restitution

Antonio R. Sarabia II

  • I.  OVERVIEW  40.1
  • II.  VICTIM’S RIGHT TO RESTITUTION
    • A.  Victim Defined  40.2
    • B.  How the Sentencing Determination Affects Victim Restitution  40.3
    • C.  Victim Restitution May Be Based on Dismissed Counts  40.4
    • D.  Restitution and Plea Agreements  40.4A
    • E.  When Amount of Victim Restitution May Be Determined  40.5
    • F.  Types of Losses for Which Restitution May Be Ordered  40.6
    • G.  Relation Between Victim Restitution and Fines, Penalties, and Assessments  40.7
    • H.  Prosecutor’s Role  40.7A
  • III.  RESTITUTION HEARING
    • A.  Notice to Defendant and to Victim  40.8
    • B.  Restitution and Insurance  40.9
    • C.  Victims’ Rights  40.10
    • D.  Victim Entitled to Full Restitution  40.11
    • E.  Defendant’s Obligation to Pay Restitution in Cases of Multiple Defendants  40.12
    • F.  Special Restitution Rules Pertaining to Minors and to Domestic Violence Cases  40.13
    • G.  Restitution Hearing  40.14
  • IV.  RESTITUTION AND PROBATION
    • A.  Probation Department’s Responsibilities  40.15
    • B.  Restitution as a Condition of Probation  40.16
    • C.  Payments During Probation  40.17
    • D.  Modification of Restitution  40.18
    • E.  Special Probation Conditions  40.19
    • F.  Limits on Time of Probation  40.20
    • G.  Termination of Probation  40.21
  • V.  COLLECTION OF RESTITUTION
    • A.  Payment of Restitution Has Priority  40.21A
    • B.  Preserving Defendant’s Assets  40.22
    • C.  Requirement That Defendant Disclose Assets  40.23
    • D.  Procedures for Enforcing Restitution Order
      • 1.  Use of Income Deduction  40.24
      • 2.  Availability of Civil Enforcement Procedures  40.25
      • 3.  Other Procedures  40.26
    • E.  State Agencies That May Provide Restitution  40.27
    • F.  Relation Between Restitution and Civil Liability  40.28
    • G.  Restitution Not Subject to Civil Suit and Not Dischargeable in Bankruptcy  40.29
  • VI.  SATISFACTION OF RESTITUTION  40.30
  • VII.  APPEAL  40.31
  • VIII.  RESTITUTION AND EXPUNGEMENT  40.32
  • IX.  PROFESSIONAL ETHICS  40.33

41

Trial Counsel’s Duties After Judgment; Cleansing and Sealing of Criminal Records

Garrick A. Byers

  • I.  OVERVIEW  41.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  41.2
  • III.  TRIAL COURT JURISDICTION WHILE CASE IS ON APPEAL  41.3
  • IV.  DUTIES OF TRIAL COUNSEL CONCERNING APPELLATE REVIEW
    • A.  Prosecution-Initiated Appellate Review  41.4
    • B.  Defense Counsel’s Obligations to Help Client Appeal  41.5
    • C.  Stay and Release Pending Appeal
      • 1.  Bail and Own Recognizance  41.6
      • 2.  Stay Pending Appeal  41.7
  • V.  COMPENSATION OF APPOINTED COUNSEL
    • A.  Statutory Authority for County Payment to Appointed Counsel  41.8
    • B.  Reimbursement by Defendants  41.9
  • VI.  RELIEF FROM THE CONSEQUENCES OF ARREST AND CONVICTION RECORDS
    • A.  Overview  41.10
    • B.  Sealing of Records
      • 1.  Finding of Factual Innocence  41.11
      • 2.  Juvenile Misdemeanor Arrest and Citation Records  41.11A
      • 3.  Cannabis Arrests and Convictions  41.12
      • 4.  Juvenile Court Records [Deleted]  41.13
      • 5.  Misdemeanor Convictions of Minors in Adult Court  41.13A
      • 6.  Sealing or Expungement of Records After Successful Completion of Pen C §§1000–1000.65 or §§1000.8–1000.10 Program  41.13B
    • C.  Reduction of Felony to Misdemeanor  41.14
    • D.  Dismissal of Charges
      • 1.  Dismissal of Felony or Misdemeanor Charges After Probation (Pen C §1203.4) or After Completion of County Jail Felony Sentence (Pen C §1203.41)  41.15
      • 2.  Dismissal of Infractions, and of Misdemeanor Charges When Probation Not Granted (Pen C §1203.4a)  41.16
      • 3.  Dismissal After Completion of Treatment for Nonviolent Drug Possession Offense (Proposition 36)  41.17
      • 4.  Reduction of Offenses Under Propositions 36, 47, and 64  41.17A
    • E.  Commitments to Division of Juvenile Justice; Completion of Juvenile Parole  41.18
    • F.  Discharge of Narcotic Addicts  41.19
    • G.  Exclusion From Megan’s Law Website; Relief From Registration for Pen C §290 Registrants  41.19A
    • H.  Certificate of Rehabilitation; Pardon
      • 1.  Description and Procedures  41.20
      • 2.  Chart: Availability of Pardons and Certificates of Rehabilitation  41.21
    • I.  Expungement of DNA Profiles and Samples  41.22
  • VII.  RETENTION POLICIES FOR RECORDS OF THE COURT AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE  41.23
  • VIII.  TABLE: EFFECT OF RELIEF FROM DISABILITIES  41.24
  • IX.  PETITION FOR WRIT OF ERROR CORAM NOBIS; MOTION TO VACATE JUDGMENT  41.25

42

Writs in California State Courts

Allen R. Crown

Jonathan Grossman

  • I.  OVERVIEW  42.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  42.2
  • III.  WRITS OF MANDATE AND PROHIBITION
    • A.  Comparison and Mechanics of Mandate and Prohibition; Statutes Providing for Writ Review  42.3
    • B.  Form of Petition  42.4
    • C.  Filing and Service Requirements  42.5
    • D.  Filing Fee Not Required  42.6
    • E.  Outline of the Petition  42.7
      • 1.  Identify the Parties and Beneficial Interest to Petitioner  42.8
      • 2.  Request for a Stay of Proceedings in Trial Court  42.9
      • 3.  Trial Court Has Acted Without or in Excess of Jurisdiction or Failed to Act as Prescribed by Law  42.10
      • 4.  Objection Made in Trial Court  42.11
      • 5.  No Plain, Speedy, and Adequate Remedy at Law  42.12
      • 6.  Timely Filing of Writ Petition  42.13
      • 7.  Why the Petition Was Not Filed in the Lower Court  42.14
      • 8.  Claims for Relief  42.15
      • 9.  Prayer for Relief  42.16
      • 10.  Verification  42.17
      • 11.  Supporting Memorandum  42.18
      • 12.  Sufficient Record Must Accompany Writ Petition  42.19
    • F.  Procedure After Writ Petition Is Filed
      • 1.  Superior Court  42.20
      • 2.  Appellate Division of Superior Court, Courts of Appeal, and Supreme Court  42.21
      • 3.  Effect of Fugitive Defendant  42.22
    • G.  Response to Writ Petition
      • 1.  Right to Respond to Writ Petition  42.23
      • 2.  Types of Response  42.24
      • 3.  Procedures for Responding  42.25
    • H.  Replication or Reply  42.26
    • I.  Oral Argument  42.27
    • J.  Procedures When Peremptory Writ May Issue in First Instance  42.28
    • K.  Rehearings  42.29
    • L.  Appellate Remedies Following Grant or Denial of Writ of Mandate or Prohibition  42.30
    • M.  Res Judicata Effect of Denial of Petition for Writ of Mandate or Prohibition  42.31
  • IV.  WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS
    • A.  Nature and Function of Writ of Habeas Corpus
      • 1.  Purpose of Habeas; Statutory Authorities  42.32
      • 2.  Form and Contents of Petition  42.33
      • 3.  Filing and Service Requirements  42.34
      • 4.  Three Pleadings  42.35
    • B.  Outline of Petition for Writ of Habeas Corpus  42.36
      • 1.  Identity of the Petitioner and Location of Custody  42.37
      • 2.  Court Order Leading to Petitioner’s Restraint  42.38
      • 3.  Illegal Restraint  42.39
      • 4.  Proper Court  42.40
      • 5.  No Plain Speedy and Adequate Remedy at Law  42.41
      • 6.  Successive Petitions  42.42
      • 7.  Timeliness  42.43
      • 8.  Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies  42.44
      • 9.  Claims for Relief  42.45
      • 10.  Prayer for Relief  42.46
      • 11.  Verification  42.47
      • 12.  Supporting Memorandum and Exhibits  42.48
    • C.  Court Responses  42.49
    • D.  Preparation, Filing, and Service of Return  42.50
    • E.  Preparation, Filing, and Service of Traverse  42.51
    • F.  Petitioner’s Custody Status  42.52
    • G.  Discovery  42.53
    • H.  Evidentiary Hearing  42.54
    • I.  Relief Granted  42.55
    • J.  Appellate Remedies Following Grant or Denial of Habeas Corpus Relief  42.56
    • K.  When Habeas Is Filed in Conjunction With Appeal  42.57

43

Misdemeanor Appeals

Brentford J. Ferreira

Douglas W. Otto

  • I.  OVERVIEW  43.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  43.2
  • III.  APPEALABLE JUDGMENTS AND ORDERS
    • A.  In General  43.3
    • B.  Appeals by Prosecution  43.4
    • C.  Appeals by Defense
      • 1.  Appeal From Judgment; Certificate of Probable Cause Not Required  43.5
      • 2.  Appeal From Order After Judgment Affecting Defendant’s Substantial Rights  43.6
      • 3.  Order Denying Pen C §1538.5 Motion  43.7
  • IV.  INITIATING THE APPEAL
    • A.  Filing Notice of Appeal  43.8
    • B.  Appointment of Counsel on Appeal for Indigent Defendants  43.9
  • V.  BAIL OR RELEASE PENDING APPEAL  43.10
  • VI.  GENERAL RULES FOR TIME LIMITS AND EXTENSIONS OF TIME  43.11
  • VII.  RECORD ON APPEAL
    • A.  Normal Record  43.12
    • B.  Record of Oral Proceedings  43.13
    • C.  Proposed Statement on Appeal  43.14
    • D.  Preparing a Limited Normal Record in Certain Appeals  43.15
      • 1.  Appeal From a Pen C §1538.5 Ruling  43.16
      • 2.  Appeal From the Granting of Demurrer or Other Appealable Order  43.17
      • 3.  Appeal From Conditions of Probation  43.17A
    • E.  Respondent’s Amendments (Corrections and Additions)  43.18
    • F.  Corrected and Certified Statement on Appeal  43.19
    • G.  Transmittal of Record on Appeal to Appellate Division  43.20
    • H.  Failure to Procure the Record  43.20A
  • VIII.  TRIAL COURT JURISDICTION DURING APPEAL
    • A.  Trial Court Loses Jurisdiction to Change Judgment  43.21
    • B.  Powers Retained by Trial Court  43.22
  • IX.  ABANDONING APPEAL  43.23
  • X.  APPELLATE BRIEFS
    • A.  Rules That Apply to Appellant and Respondent
      • 1.  Filing Dates  43.24
      • 2.  Contents, Form, Filing, and Service of Briefs  43.25
      • 3.  Untimely Briefs; Failure to File  43.26
      • 4.  Service  43.27
    • B.  Appellant’s Opening Brief  43.28
    • C.  Respondent’s Brief  43.29
    • D.  Appellant’s Reply Brief  43.30
  • XI.  ORAL ARGUMENT  43.31
  • XII.  DETERMINATION OF APPEAL  43.32
  • XIII.  FINALITY OF JUDGMENT  43.33
  • XIV.  PETITION FOR REHEARING  43.34
  • XV.  CERTIFICATION AND TRANSFER FOR HEARING  43.35
  • XVI.  PUBLICATION OF OPINIONS  43.36
  • XVII.  FURTHER REVIEW OF JUDGMENT  43.37
  • XVIII.  REMITTITUR
    • A.  When Remittitur Issues  43.38
    • B.  Effect of Affirming Judgment  43.39
    • C.  Effect of Reversing Judgment; New Trial  43.40

44

Felony Appeals

Jonathan Grossman

  • I.  OVERVIEW  44.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  44.2
  • III.  DEFENDANTS’ APPEALS
    • A.  Right to Counsel; No Right to Self-Representation  44.3
    • B.  Alternatives to Appeal; Steps to Take in Conjunction With Appeal  44.4
    • C.  Procedural Prerequisites to Appeal
      • 1.  Notice of Appeal
        • a.  Generally  44.5
        • b.  After Guilty or Nolo Contendere Plea  44.6
        • c.  Consequences of Untimely Filing  44.7
      • 2.  Certificate of Probable Cause
        • a.  When Required; Exceptions  44.8
        • b.  Effect on Appealable Issues  44.9
        • c.  Effect on Waiver of Right to Appeal  44.9A
        • d.  Where to Obtain  44.10
        • e.  When to File  44.11
        • f.  Review  44.12
      • 3.  Chart: Appealability After Guilty Plea  44.13
    • D.  Communicating With Client
      • 1.  First Contact  44.14
      • 2.  While Appeal Is Pending  44.15
      • 3.  At Conclusion of Case  44.16
    • E.  Communicating With Trial Counsel  44.17
    • F.  Bail on Appeal  44.18
    • G.  Motions on Appeal  44.18A
    • H.  Record on Appeal
      • 1.  Appeal Is Based on Record  44.19
      • 2.  What Record Should Include  44.20
      • 3.  Preparation, Certification, and Transmittal of Record  44.20A
      • 4.  Determining Whether Record Is Complete; Informal Notice of Incomplete Record  44.21
      • 5.  Augmentation of Record
        • a.  What May Be Added Through Augmentation  44.22
        • b.  Procedure for Augmenting Record  44.23
        • c.  Application to Superior Court for Additional Record  44.23A
      • 6.  Correction of Record  44.24
      • 7.  Missing Record and Settled Statements  44.25
      • 8.  Viewing and Transmitting Exhibits  44.26
      • 9.  Request for Judicial Notice; Motion to Take Additional Evidence  44.26A
      • 10.  Use of Writ of Habeas Corpus When Record on Appeal Is Inadequate  44.27
    • I.  Mechanics of Briefing
      • 1.  Reading and Digesting Transcripts
        • a.  Procedure  44.28
        • b.  Issue Spotting  44.29
        • c.  Determining Whether Issue Has Been Preserved for Appeal  44.30
      • 2.  Appellant’s Opening Brief
        • a.  Deadlines; Application for Extension of Time  44.31
        • b.  Format of Opening Brief
          • (1)  Components  44.32
          • (2)  Statement of Case  44.33
          • (3)  Statement of Facts  44.34
        • c.  Effective Organization of Argument  44.35
        • d.  Standards of Review  44.36
        • e.  Demonstrating Prejudice  44.37
        • f.  Type of Brief Filed When No Arguable Issue (Wende Brief)
          • (1)  Description of Wende Brief  44.38
          • (2)  Wende Does Not Apply to Appeals Handled by Retained Counsel or to Appeals From MDOA Commitments  44.39
        • g.  Failure to File Brief  44.40
      • 3.  Respondent’s Brief  44.41
      • 4.  Appellant’s Reply Brief  44.42
      • 5.  Additional Briefs  44.43
      • 6.  Length, Filing, and Service of Briefs; Cover Colors  44.44
      • 7.  Defective Briefs  44.45
    • J.  Oral Argument  44.46
    • K.  Result
      • 1.  What Happens Next  44.47
      • 2.  Opinion on Merits
        • a.  Published and Unpublished Opinions  44.48
        • b.  Affirmance  44.49
        • c.  Reversal or Modification of Judgment  44.50
      • 3.  Effect of Decision on Merits
        • a.  Retrial; Double Jeopardy  44.51
        • b.  Greater Punishment  44.52
        • c.  Unauthorized Sentences  44.53
        • d.  Further Proceedings on Remand  44.54
      • 4.  Disposition Not on Merits
        • a.  Voluntary Dismissal  44.55
        • b.  Dismissal of Appeal for Irregularity  44.56
        • c.  Mooted Appeal  44.57
        • d.  Dismissal Because Appellant Escaped or Left Country  44.58
        • e.  No Dismissal Because Defendant Incompetent on Appeal  44.59
        • f.  Abatement of Appeal After Appellant’s Death  44.60
    • L.  Request for Publication or Depublication  44.61
    • M.  Petition for Rehearing
      • 1.  Grounds for Rehearing  44.62
      • 2.  Time Limits, Form and Content, and Service and Filing of Petition and Answer  44.63
      • 3.  Grant of Rehearing  44.64
      • 4.  Denial of Rehearing; Modification of Opinion  44.65
    • N.  Finality of Decisions
      • 1.  When Decision Becomes Final  44.66
      • 2.  Issuance of Remittitur  44.67
      • 3.  Recall of Remittitur  44.68
    • O.  Review in California Supreme Court
      • 1.  Review Is Discretionary  44.69
      • 2.  Grounds for Review  44.70
      • 3.  Time Limits, Form, and Content of Petition  44.71
      • 4.  Abbreviated Petition to Exhaust State Remedies  44.71A
      • 5.  Time Limits, Form, and Content of Answer and Reply  44.72
      • 6.  Filing and Service of Petition, Answer, and Reply  44.72A
      • 7.  Time for Granting or Denying Review  44.73
      • 8.  Issues to Be Reviewed  44.74
      • 9.  Briefs on Merits  44.75
      • 10.  Proceedings After Briefing  44.76
  • IV.  PROSECUTION APPEALS  44.77

45

Federal Habeas Corpus Review of State Court Convictions

Carolyn M. Wiggin

  • I.  OVERVIEW  45.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  45.2
  • III.  ADMISSION AND APPOINTMENT OF COUNSEL
    • A.  Federal District Courts  45.3
    • B.  Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals  45.4
    • C.  United States Supreme Court  45.5
  • IV.  BAIL AND STAYS
    • A.  Pending Decision  45.6
    • B.  After Relief Is Denied  45.7
    • C.  After Relief Is Granted  45.8
  • V.  PROCEDURE FOR HABEAS CORPUS REVIEW OF STATE COURT CONVICTIONS IN FEDERAL DISTRICT COURT
    • A.  Preliminary Investigation  45.9
    • B.  Obtaining and Preparing Habeas Petition  45.10
    • C.  Electronic Filing Rules  45.11
    • D.  In Forma Pauperis Status and Appointment of Counsel  45.12
    • E.  Jurisdictional Requirements
      • 1.  Custody  45.13
      • 2.  Naming the Proper Respondent  45.14
      • 3.  Time Requirements for Filing  45.15
        • a.  Statutory Tolling  45.16
        • b.  Equitable Tolling  45.17
      • 4.  Scope of Federal Habeas Corpus  45.18
        • a.  Standard of Review for State Court Legal Rulings
          • (1)  State Court’s Interpretation of State Law  45.19
          • (2)  State Court’s Interpretation of Federal Law  45.20
          • (3)  Procedural and Postcard Denials  45.21
        • b.  Standard of Review for Findings of Fact  45.22
        • c.  Retroactive Application of New Constitutional Rules  45.23
        • d.  Other Limitations on Federal Review of State Court Decisions [Deleted]  45.24
        • e.  Harmless Error  45.25
      • 5.  Procedural Considerations
        • a.  Exhaustion of State Remedies  45.26
        • b.  Procedural Default  45.27
        • c.  Cause and Prejudice  45.28
        • d.  Second or Successive Petition  45.29
    • F.  Proceedings in District Court
      • 1.  Pleadings  45.30
      • 2.  Applicability of Rules of Civil Procedure  45.31
      • 3.  Fact-Finding in District Court  45.32
        • a.  Evidentiary Hearing  45.33
        • b.  Discovery  45.34
        • c.  Subpoenas  45.35
        • d.  Expansion of the Record  45.36
      • 4.  Referral to Magistrate Judge  45.37
      • 5.  Consent to Magistrate Judge’s Exercise of Jurisdiction  45.38
    • G.  Mandamus to Compel District Court to Act  45.39
    • H.  Disposition  45.40
    • I.  Motion for Reconsideration or Rehearing in District Court  45.41
  • VI.  APPEAL OF DISTRICT COURT RULING ON HABEAS CORPUS PETITION
    • A.  Ninth Circuit Chart of Time Limits  45.42
    • B.  Miscellaneous Information About Ninth Circuit Cases  45.43
    • C.  Notice of Appeal  45.44
    • D.  Certificate of Appealability  45.45
    • E.  Other Steps in Perfecting Appeal
      • 1.  Docketing Fees; In Forma Pauperis Status  45.46
      • 2.  Designating Reporter’s Transcript  45.47
      • 3.  Clerk’s Records  45.48
    • F.  Preparing and Filing Briefs and Excerpts of Record  45.49
    • G.  Motion to Withdraw as Counsel  45.50
    • H.  Standards of Review  45.51
    • I.  Oral Argument  45.52
    • J.  Requests for Rehearing  45.53
  • VII.  REVIEW IN UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT  45.54

46

Revocation of Probation and Mandatory Supervision

Timothy E. Warriner

  • I.  OVERVIEW  46.1
  • II.  DEADLINES  46.2
  • III.  TWO-STEP PROCEDURE FOR REVOCATION OF PROBATION OR MANDATORY SUPERVISION  46.3
  • IV.  INITIATING REVOCATION PROCEEDINGS
    • A.  Moving Party; Supervised Person’s Procedures as Moving Party  46.4
    • B.  Grounds for Revocation  46.5
    • C.  Bringing Supervised Person Before Court  46.6
    • D.  Release Pending Hearing  46.7
    • E.  Notice Requirements for Formal Revocation Hearing  46.8
    • F.  Expiration of Probation and Mandatory Supervision  46.9
    • G.  Timeliness of Motion to Revoke  46.10
    • H.  Which Judge Must Preside at Probation Revocation Proceeding  46.10A
    • I.  Tolling Time  46.11
  • V.  PREREVOCATION HEARING  46.12
  • VI.  STIPULATING TO VIOLATION OF PROBATION OR MANDATORY SUPERVISION  46.13
  • VII.  FORMAL REVOCATION HEARING
    • A.  Advantages of Negotiating Violation of Probation or Mandatory Supervision  46.14
    • B.  Supervised Person’s Rights at Hearing  46.15
    • C.  When and Where Revocation Hearing Should Be Held  46.16
    • D.  Reciprocal Discovery  46.17
    • E.  Standard of Proof  46.18
    • F.  Hearsay Evidence Generally Not Admissible  46.19
    • G.  Admissibility of Illegally Obtained Evidence  46.20
    • H.  No Requirement of Accomplice Corroboration  46.21
    • I.  Effect of Other Proceedings
      • 1.  Acquittal or Dismissal; Appeal  46.22
      • 2.  Convictions  46.23
      • 3.  Preliminary Hearings and Trials in Felony Cases  46.24
      • 4.  Previous Revocation Hearing  46.25
    • J.  Limited Immunity for Supervised Person’s Testimony at Revocation Hearing  46.26
    • K.  Reliance on Probation Report  46.27
    • L.  Sentencing
      • 1.  Importance of Type of Sentence in Underlying Case  46.28
      • 2.  Imposition of Sentence Suspended  46.29
      • 3.  Execution of Sentence Suspended  46.30
      • 4.  Possible Outcomes of Motions to Revoke  46.31
      • 5.  Inability to Pay  46.32
      • 6.  Credit for Time Served  46.33
      • 7.  Written Findings  46.34
    • M.  Setting Aside Revocation Order  46.35
    • N.  Appealability; Bail on Appeal  46.36
  • VIII.  PROPOSITION 36
    • A.  General Provisions: Drug Treatment for Nonviolent Drug Offenders  46.37
    • B.  Proposition 36 Probation  46.38
    • C.  Defendants on Probation July 1, 2001 [Deleted]  46.39
    • D.  Probation Violation Proceedings Initiated by Probation Department  46.40
    • E.  What Qualifies as Drug-Related Condition of Probation?  46.41
    • F.  Defendants on Probation for Non-NOVIDPOs  46.42

47

Parole Hearings

Hon. Dylan Sullivan

David Hurd

  • I.  OVERVIEW
    • A.  Parole Defined  47.1
    • B.  Distinction Between Parole Revocation and Life Parole Consideration Hearings  47.1A
    • C.  Criminal Justice Reform and Parole
      • 1.  Criminal Justice Realignment Act  47.1B
      • 2.  Safe Neighborhoods and Schools Act (Proposition 47)  47.1C
      • 3.  Public Safety and Rehabilitation Act (Proposition 57)  47.1D
    • D.  Parole Revocation Reform   47.1E
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  47.2
  • III.  BASIC RULES PERTAINING TO PAROLE
    • A.  Law Governing Parole Hearings  47.3
    • B.  The Parole Authority  47.4
      • 1.  Parole Authority for Individuals Paroled On or Before October 1, 2011  47.4A
      • 2.  Parole Authority for Individuals Paroled On or After October 1, 2011  47.4B
        • a.  CDCR Supervision and Jurisdiction  47.4C
        • b.  BPH Jurisdiction After July 1, 2013  47.4D
        • c.  Postrelease Community Supervision (PRCS) and County Jurisdiction  47.4E
        • d.  Multijurisdictional Parolees  47.4F
    • C.  Parole Period
      • 1.  Parole Period for Individuals Subject to CDCR Jurisdiction  47.5
      • 2.  Parole Period for Individuals Subject to Postrelease Community Supervision  47.5A
    • D.  Parole Location  47.5B
    • E.  Parole Conditions  47.5C
    • F.  Special Conditions Relating to Sex Offenders  47.5D
    • G.  Termination of Parole Period; Discharge Review for Individuals Subject to CDCR Jurisdiction  47.6
    • H.  Termination of Postrelease Community Supervision  47.6A
    • I.  Medical Release to Parole
      • 1.  Compassionate Release  47.6B
      • 2.  Medical Parole  47.6C
      • 3.  Expanded Medical Parole  47.6D
  • IV.  REVOCATION OF PAROLE
    • A.  Consequences of Parole Revocation  47.7
    • B.  Grounds for Parole Revocation
      • 1.  In General  47.8
      • 2.  For Psychiatric Treatment  47.9
    • C.  Procedural Rights of Parolee Under CDCR Jurisdiction
      • 1.  In General  47.10
      • 2.  Constitutional Basis for Procedural Rights  47.11
    • D.  Parole Revocation Procedures
      • 1.  Suspension of Parole  47.12
      • 2.  Grounds for Suspension  47.13
      • 3.  Suspension and Reinstatement  47.14
      • 4.  Parolees Arrested Out of State  47.15
      • 5.  The Revocation Hearing
        • a.  Establishing Jurisdiction  47.16
        • b.  Record of Hearing  47.17
        • c.  Use of Hearsay  47.18
        • d.  Burden of Proof  47.19
        • e.  Privilege Against Self-Incrimination  47.20
      • 6.  Parole Revocation Extension  47.21
  • V.  PROPOSITION 36 DRUG TREATMENT  47.22
  • VI.  RULES GOVERNING RELEASE OF LIFE PRISONERS AND OTHER PRISONERS SUBJECT TO BOARD OF PAROLE HEARINGS JURISDICTION
    • A.  Initial Consultation  47.22A
    • B.  Parole Consideration Hearing  47.23
      • 1.  Rights of Prisoner  47.24
      • 2.  Rights of Victims and Victims’ Next of Kin  47.25
      • 3.  Attorney Preparation
        • a.  Prisoner’s Counsel
          • (1)  Advance Preparation  47.26
          • (2)  Duties of Counsel  47.27
        • b.  District Attorney Representative  47.28
      • 4.  Additional Individuals Who May Attend or Submit Information  47.29
      • 5.  Hearing Procedures  47.30
        • a.  Preliminary Matters  47.31
        • b.  Precommitment Matters  47.32
        • c.  Institutional Behavior  47.33
        • d.  Parole Plans  47.34
        • e.  Concluding Matters  47.35
      • 6.  Determination
        • a.  Broad Discretion  47.36
        • b.  Youth Offenders  47.36A
        • c.  Elderly Offenders  47.36B
        • d.  Nonviolent Second Strikers  47.36C
        • e.  Prisoner Found Unsuitable for Parole  47.37
        • f.  Administrative Reviews  47.37A
        • g.  Petitions to Advance Hearing  47.37B
        • h.  Setting the Base Term  47.38
      • 7.  Review of Panel’s Decision
        • a.  En Banc Review  47.39
        • b.  Executive Case Summaries  47.40
        • c.  Review by Chief Counsel; Review by Governor  47.41
      • 8.  Release  47.42
    • C.  Rescission of Parole Date
      • 1.  Life Parole Rescission Hearing  47.43
      • 2.  Rights of Prisoners at Rescission Hearings  47.44
    • D.  Revocation of Life Parole Under Pen C §3000.1  47.44A
  • VII.  REVIEW OF BOARD OF PAROLE HEARINGS DECISIONS
    • A.  No Administrative Appeal  47.45
    • B.  Judicial Review  47.46

48

Forensic Mental Health Evidence, Laws, and Procedures

John T. Philipsborn

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Overview  48.1
    • B.  Resources  48.2
    • C.  Ethical Standards of Mental Health Professionals  48.3
    • D.  Evidentiary Considerations  48.4
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  48.5
  • III.  COMPETENCY TO STAND TRIAL
    • A.  Purpose and Constitutional Basis; Summary of Procedures Available  48.6
    • B.  Role of Defense Counsel
      • 1.  Defense Counsel’s Obligations  48.7
      • 2.  Self-Representation and Substitution of Attorney After Criminal Proceedings Have Been Suspended  48.8
    • C.  Access to Lanterman-Petris-Short (LPS) System Through Pen C §4011.6  48.9
    • D.  Procedures for Determining Competency
      • 1.  Criteria for Determining Competency  48.10
      • 2.  Initiating Pen C §1368 Proceedings  48.11
      • 3.  LPS Referral Under Pen C §1367.1 in Misdemeanor Cases [Deleted]  48.12
      • 4.  Chart: Comparing Procedures Under Pen C §§1367.1 and 1368 [Deleted]  48.13
      • 5.  Proceedings That May Take Place After Competency Hearing Ordered  48.14
      • 6.  Appointment of Experts; Statements by Defendant  48.15
      • 7.  Competency Trial Procedures  48.16
      • 8.  Consequences of Finding of Incompetence  48.17
      • 9.  Length of Commitment; Credit for Time Served  48.18
      • 10.  Resumption of Criminal Proceedings
        • a.  Return to Court; When Defendant Must Be Placed in Secure Treatment Facility After Return  48.19
        • b.  Penal Code §995 Motion in Felony Cases  48.20
        • c.  Medications  48.21
      • 11.  Appeal Rights  48.22
    • E.  Extended Commitment  48.23
    • F.  Procedures Concerning Incompetent Developmentally Disabled Defendants  48.24
    • G.  Competency Proceedings in Juvenile Court  48.25
    • H.  Incompetence on Appeal and During Postconviction Proceedings  48.26
  • IV.  ABSENCE OF CRIMINAL MENTAL STATE
    • A.  Failure to Form Intent Required for Commission of Crime
      • 1.  Admissibility of Exculpatory Mental State Evidence
        • a.  Mental State Evidence Available to Negate Specific Intent and Other Specified Mental States  48.27
        • b.  Distinguishing Between Specific and General Intent  48.28
        • c.  Statutory Limitations on Use of Exculpatory Mental State Evidence  48.29
        • d.  Mental Defenses in Homicide Cases  48.30
        • e.  Presenting Mental State Evidence at Trial  48.31
      • 2.  Presenting Evidence of Absence of Criminal Mental State
        • a.  Introducing Evidence; Instructions  48.32
        • b.  Hiring Mental Health Experts  48.33
        • c.  Psychotherapist-Patient Privilege  48.34
        • d.  Limited Use Immunity for Previous Pen C §1368 Testimony  48.35
        • e.  Direct and Cross-Examination of Mental Health Expert  48.36
      • 3.  Effect of Successful Lack of Intent Defense  48.37
      • 4.  Mental Defenses in Juvenile Court  48.38
    • B.  Unconsciousness
      • 1.  Definition  48.39
      • 2.  Procedure and Effect  48.40
    • C.  Involuntary Intoxication  48.41
  • V.  INSANITY
    • A.  Modified M’Naghten Insanity Rule
      • 1.  Statement of Rule  48.42
      • 2.  Defendant Must Know or Understand Nature and Quality of Act  48.43
      • 3.  Definition of Wrongfulness  48.44
      • 4.  Volitional and Settled Insanity; Alcoholics and Drug Addicts  48.45
    • B.  Procedure for Presenting Insanity Defense
      • 1.  Entering and Withdrawing Plea  48.46
      • 2.  Court Appointment of Experts  48.47
      • 3.  Trial Procedure
        • a.  Bifurcated Trial  48.48
        • b.  Evidence During Guilt and Sanity Phases  48.49
        • c.  Burden of Proof  48.50
        • d.  Order of Proof  48.51
        • e.  Unanimous Verdict  48.52
    • C.  Commitment Procedure  48.53
    • D.  Outpatient Status
      • 1.  Granting Outpatient Status  48.54
      • 2.  Annual Review  48.55
      • 3.  Revocation of Outpatient Status  48.56
      • 4.  Authority for Outpatient Treatment  48.57
    • E.  Restoration of Sanity and Release  48.58
    • F.  Extension of Commitment; Credit for Time Served  48.59
  • VI.  COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
    • A.  “Idiocy”  48.60
    • B.  Intellectual Disability as Bar to Death Penalty  48.61
  • VII.  SEXUALLY VIOLENT PREDATOR COMMITMENTS
    • A.  Sexually Violent Predator (SVP) Act  48.62
    • B.  Filing of SVP Petition  48.63
    • C.  Probable Cause Hearing  48.64
    • D.  Trial  48.65
    • E.  Commitment as SVP  48.66
    • F.  Annual Review of Commitment and Release  48.67
    • G.  Conditional Release Program  48.68
    • H.  Notice of SVP’s Release; Placement  48.69
  • VIII.  MENTALLY DISORDERED SEX OFFENDER (MDSO) PROCEDURES STILL APPLY TO PERSONS COMMITTED UNDER REPEALED PROVISIONS  48.70
  • IX.  MENTALLY DISORDERED OFFENDER (MDO) PROCEEDINGS
    • A.  Nature of MDO Proceedings  48.71
    • B.  Criteria for Mandatory Commitment as Condition of Parole  48.72
    • C.  Treatment as MDO  48.73
    • D.  Court Review of MDO Commitment Order  48.74
    • E.  Postprison or Postparole Involuntary Commitments  48.75
    • F.  Right to Treatment; Outpatient Status  48.76
  • X.  COMMITMENT ALTERNATIVES
    • A.  Treatment for Developmentally Disabled Individuals Under Lanterman Developmental Disabilities Services Act  48.77
    • B.  Diversion for Misdemeanants With Cognitive Developmental Disabilities Under Pen C §§1001.20–1001.34  48.78
    • C.  Treatment of Mentally Disordered Individuals Under Lanterman-Petris-Short Act  48.79

49

Immunity for Testimony

Garrick S. Lew

Jeffrey G. Adachi

  • I.  OVERVIEW  49.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  49.2
  • III.  TYPES OF IMMUNITY: TRANSACTIONAL AND USE IMMUNITY  49.3
  • IV.  FIFTH AMENDMENT PRIVILEGE MUST APPLY BEFORE IMMUNITY APPLIES; DETERMINATION BY COURT  49.4
  • V.  IMMUNITY PROCEDURES IN CALIFORNIA STATE COURTS
    • A.  Immunity Available in Felony Cases  49.5
    • B.  Immunity Available in Misdemeanor Cases  49.6
    • C.  Immunity Grants in Felony Cases Under Pen C §1324
      • 1.  Prosecution Request Required  49.7
      • 2.  Prosecutor Can Request Use or Transactional Immunity  49.8
      • 3.  Procedures for Granting Immunity  49.9
    • D.  Immunity Grants in Misdemeanor Cases Under Pen C §1324.1  49.10
    • E.  Granting Discharge or De Facto Immunity to Codefendant During Trial
      • 1.  Prosecution Request (Pen C §1099)  49.11
      • 2.  Defense Request or Court’s Own Motion (Pen C §1100)  49.12
      • 3.  Effect of Discharge Under Pen C §§1099, 1100  49.13
    • F.  Judicial Use Immunity  49.14
    • G.  Defense-Initiated Immunity Is Usually Unavailable  49.15
    • H.  Immunity for In-Custody Informants Under Pen C §4001.1  49.16
    • I.  Immunity Under Health & S C §11367 for Informants in Drug Buys  49.17
    • J.  Appellate Review of Immunity Bargain  49.18
  • VI.  DEFENSE RESPONSE TO GRANT OF IMMUNITY
    • A.  Possible Defense Arguments Against Grant of Immunity to Witness to Testify for Prosecution  49.19
    • B.  Defense Right to Discovery  49.20
      • 1.  Suggested Areas for Defense Discovery Requests and for Defense Questioning at Immunity Bargain Hearing, Trial, or Both  49.21
      • 2.  Cross-Examination During Trial  49.22
      • 3.  Instructions  49.23
  • VII.  WAIVER OF PRIVILEGE AGAINST SELF-INCRIMINATION OR OF IMMUNITY BY IMMUNIZED WITNESS  49.24
  • VIII.  PROSECUTION OF WITNESSES WHO HAVE RECEIVED IMMUNITY
    • A.  When Prosecution Is Possible  49.25
    • B.  Raising Immunity as Defense to Prosecution  49.26
  • IX.  WITNESS’S LIABILITY TO PROSECUTION IN OTHER JURISDICTIONS  49.27

50

Extradition

Tia M. Coronado

  • I.  OVERVIEW  50.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  50.2
  • III.  UNIFORM CRIMINAL EXTRADITION ACT (UCEA)
    • A.  Persons Subject to Extradition
      • 1.  Fugitives  50.3
      • 2.  Nonfugitives: Crime in Demanding State Occurred in California or in Another State  50.4
      • 3.  Juveniles  50.5
    • B.  Only Persons Charged With Crime Are Subject to Extradition  50.6
    • C.  Proceedings Before Governor’s Warrant Issues
      • 1.  Arrest of Suspected Fugitive  50.7
      • 2.  Arraignment  50.8
      • 3.  Bail Before Governor’s Warrant Served  50.9
      • 4.  Identity Hearing (Also Called Probable Cause or Pen C §1551.2 Hearing)
        • a.  When Required; Time Limits  50.10
        • b.  Procedures at Identity Hearing  50.11
        • c.  Effect of Dismissal  50.12
      • 5.  Commitment Order; Arrest on Governor’s Warrant  50.13
    • D.  Procedures to Secure Governor’s Warrant
      • 1.  Documents Needed to Support Extradition Warrant; Required Contents of Requisition  50.14
      • 2.  Review by Attorney General of Incoming and Outgoing Extradition Cases  50.15
      • 3.  Review by Extradition Officer; Reasons Extradition Usually Approved  50.16
    • E.  Tactical Considerations for Resisting Extradition Before Governor’s Warrant Issues
      • 1.  Deciding Whether to Resist Extradition  50.17
      • 2.  Procedures for Resisting Extradition  50.18
      • 3.  Arguments Against Extradition
        • a.  Arguments That May Be Raised and When They May Be Raised  50.19
        • b.  Innocence  50.20
        • c.  Legal Insufficiency  50.21
        • d.  Inherent Justice  50.22
        • e.  Lack of Seriousness of Crime  50.23
        • f.  Offense Charged Not Crime in California  50.24
        • g.  Rehabilitation  50.25
      • 4.  Governor’s Hearing
        • a.  Hearing Is Not a Right; Limited Primarily to Nonfugitives  50.26
        • b.  Request for Governor’s Hearing  50.27
        • c.  Decision to Grant or Deny Hearing  50.28
        • d.  Conduct of Hearing; Argument  50.29
        • e.  Proceedings After Governor’s Hearing  50.30
      • 5.  Seeking Withdrawal of Extradition Request  50.31
      • 6.  Seeking Case Settlement on Extradition Request  50.32
      • 7.  Guidelines of National Association of Extradition Officials  50.33
    • F.  Issuance of Governor’s Warrant  50.34
    • G.  Procedures After Governor’s Warrant Issues
      • 1.  Arrest  50.35
      • 2.  Arraignment on Governor’s Warrant  50.36
      • 3.  No Bail After Governor’s Warrant Served  50.37
      • 4.  Stay of Extradition  50.38
    • H.  Habeas Corpus
      • 1.  Issues That May Be Raised  50.39
      • 2.  Where Habeas Corpus Petition Is Filed; Burden of Proof  50.40
      • 3.  Court Procedures After Decision
        • a.  Habeas Corpus Denied  50.41
        • b.  Habeas Corpus Granted  50.42
    • I.  Effect of Prior Failure or Unsuccessful Attempt to Extradite  50.43
    • J.  Credit for Time in Custody Awaiting Extradition  50.44
    • K.  Waiver of Extradition
      • 1.  Waiver Before California Magistrate  50.45
      • 2.  Waiver Signed in Demanding State  50.46
  • IV.  ALTERNATIVES TO EXTRADITION
    • A.  Interstate Family Support Act  50.47
    • B.  Interstate Compact for Adult Offender Supervision  50.48
    • C.  Agreement on Detainers  50.49
    • D.  Uniform Act to Secure Attendance of Witnesses From Without the State in Criminal Cases  50.50
    • E.  Interstate Compact for Juveniles  50.51
    • F.  Death Penalty Extradition Cases  50.52

51

Advising Witnesses

Kimberly Kupferer

  • I.  OVERVIEW  51.1
  • II.  OBLIGATIONS OF SUBPOENAED WITNESS AND WITNESS’S COUNSEL
    • A.  Obligations of Witness  51.2
    • B.  Duties of Counsel  51.2A
  • III.  DEFENDANT’S PRIVILEGE NOT TO BE CALLED AS WITNESS DISTINGUISHED  51.3
  • IV.  WHETHER TO ADVISE WITNESS TO REFUSE TO TESTIFY  51.4
  • V.  BURDEN OF PROOF; COURT’S POWER TO INQUIRE INTO FACTS  51.5
  • VI.  OPTIONS OF PARTY CALLING WITNESS WHEN PRIVILEGE IS ALLOWED  51.6
  • VII.  REPRESENTING WITNESS WITH CRIMINAL CASES PENDING WHO IS NOT CODEFENDANT  51.7
  • VIII.  REPRESENTING WITNESS WHO IS OFFERED IMMUNITY
    • A.  Attorney Needs Special Expertise  51.8
    • B.  Plea Bargain Options; Security  51.9
    • C.  Options to Protect Informant  51.10
    • D.  Plea Bargains That Are Not Explicit  51.11
    • E.  Disclosures Made Outside Court Not Covered by Immunity Grant  51.12
  • IX.  IN-CUSTODY INFORMANTS  51.13
  • X.  REPRESENTING WITNESS IN BORDERLINE FIFTH AMENDMENT CASE  51.14
  • XI.  WHEN COUNSEL MAY NOT ADVISE WITNESS ON SELF-INCRIMINATION ISSUES  51.15
  • XII.  USING SUBPOENA TO SECURE WITNESS’S ATTENDANCE  51.16
  • XIII.  STATE AND FEDERAL WITNESS PROTECTION: PITFALLS AND TRAPS  51.17

52

Representing the Noncitizen Criminal Defendant

Michael K. Mehr

Graciela Martinez

  • I.  OVERVIEW  52.1
  • II.  UNIQUE ASPECTS OF NONCITIZEN DEFENDANT CASES
    • A.  Checklist: Basic Procedure for Criminal Defense of Immigrants  52.2
    • B.  Interviewing Noncitizen Criminal Defendants and Basic Immigration Status Questionnaire  52.3
    • C.  Main Defense Goals in Representing Juveniles  52.4
    • D.  Noncitizen Status
      • 1.  Noncitizen Status as Affecting Bail  52.5
      • 2.  Noncitizen Status as Affecting Other Issues  52.6
      • 3.  California TRUST Act  52.6A
        • a.  Litigation  52.6B
        • b.  Relevant Terms  52.6C
        • c.  TRUST Act Disqualifiers  52.6D
      • 4.  Truth Act  52.6E
      • 5.  California Values Act  52.6F
    • E.  Interpreters  52.7
    • F.  Requirements Concerning Immigration Status When Pleading Guilty or No Contest  52.8
    • G.  Availability of Noncitizen Witnesses  52.9
    • H.  Immigrant Victims of Crime Equity Act  52.9A
    • I.  Consequences of Sentence in Criminal Cases  52.10
    • J.  Former Judicial Recommendation Against Deportation (JRAD)  52.11
    • K.  Effect of Postconviction Relief on Immigration Status  52.12
      • 1.  Vacating Conviction  52.13
      • 2.  Expungement (Pen C §1203.4) and Other Forms of State Rehabilitative Relief  52.14
      • 3.  Other Postconviction Relief  52.15
      • 4.  Responsibilities of Original Counsel When Client Seeks Postconviction Relief  52.16
  • III.  APPLICABLE IMMIGRATION LAW
    • A.  Effect of Criminal Record on Immigration  52.17
      • 1.  Grounds of Inadmissibility  52.18
      • 2.  Grounds of Deportability  52.19
      • 3.  Procedures for Determining Admissibility or Deportability
        • a.  Removal Proceedings  52.20
        • b.  Expedited Proceedings for Aggravated Felonies  52.21
        • c.  Waiver of Deportability and Inadmissibility  52.22
      • 4.  Bar to Establishing Good Moral Character  52.23
    • B.  Chart: Comparing Grounds for Inadmissibility, Deportability, and Bar to Establishing Good Moral Character  52.24
    • C.  Convictions and Sentences With Adverse Immigration Consequences
      • 1.  Definition of “Conviction” for Immigration Purposes; Record of Conviction
        • a.  Definition of Conviction  52.25
        • b.  Divisible Statute and Record of Conviction  52.26
      • 2.  Dispositions That May Not Constitute Convictions
        • a.  Juvenile Court Dispositions  52.27
        • b.  Appeal of Conviction Not Exhausted  52.28
        • c.  Disposition Without Guilty Plea  52.29
      • 3.  Offenses Involving Controlled Substances  52.30
        • a.  Controlled Substances Grounds of Deportability and Inadmissibility, and Bar to Good Moral Character  52.31
        • b.  Exceptions: Offenses That Are Not Classed as Controlled Substance Offenses for Immigration Purposes  52.32
        • c.  Adult Use of Marijuana Act (Proposition 64): Benefits and Risks  52.32A
        • d.  Which Drug Offenses Are Aggravated Felonies  52.33
        • e.  Strategy  52.34
      • 4.  Offenses Involving Firearms or Destructive Devices
        • a.  Firearms Ground of Deportability; Definition of Firearm and Destructive Device  52.35
        • b.  Firearms Offenses That Are Aggravated Felonies  52.36
        • c.  Strategy  52.37
      • 5.  Crimes Involving Moral Turpitude
        • a.  Definition  52.38
        • b.  Consequences of Conviction or Admission of Crime Involving Moral Turpitude; Remedies  52.39
        • c.  Strategy  52.40
      • 6.  Aggravated Felonies
        • a.  Definition of Aggravated Felony: Overview  52.41
        • b.  Sentence Requirements for Some Aggravated Felonies  52.42
        • c.  Analysis of State Offenses as Aggravated Felonies  52.43
        • d.  Consequences of Conviction of Aggravated Felony  52.44
        • e.  Specific Aggravated Felonies and Exceptions  52.44A
          • (1)  Rape, Sexual Abuse of a Minor  52.45
          • (2)  Burglary, Theft, Receipt of Stolen Property, Forgery, Crime of Fraud or Deceit With Loss Exceeding $10,000  52.46
          • (3)  Crimes of Violence  52.47
      • 7.  Domestic Violence and Crimes Against Children
        • a.  Definition  52.48
        • b.  Strategy  52.49
    • D.  Conduct-Based Immigration Consequences  52.50
    • E.  Checklist: Defendant’s Eligibility for Immigration Relief  52.51
    • F.  Forms of Immigration Relief Available From Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and Federal Courts  52.52
      • 1.  Checklist: Lawful Permanent Residents: Cancellation of Removal  52.53
      • 2.  Checklist: United States Citizenship  52.54
      • 3.  Checklist: Certain Nonpermanent Residents: Suspension of Deportation or Cancellation of Removal; Special Rules for Nonpermanent Residents From Certain Countries  52.55
      • 4.  Checklist: Immigration Through Visa Petition Based on Relationship With Citizen or Permanent Resident Relative; Waiver of Certain Crimes-Based Grounds of Inadmissibility  52.56
      • 5.  Checklist: Political Asylum, Restricting/Withholding of Removal, and U.N. Convention Against Torture  52.57
      • 6.  Checklist: Temporary Protected Status (TPS)  52.58
      • 7.  Voluntary Departure  52.59
      • 8.  Checklist: Registry  52.60
      • 9.  Checklist: Relief for Abused Spouses and Children  52.61
      • 10.  Checklist: Status for Victims, Witnesses, and Informants Regarding Crime  52.62
      • 11.  Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals  52.63
  • IV.  IMMIGRATION ENFORCEMENT  52.64
  • V.  ILLEGAL REENTRY AFTER DEPORTATION  52.65

53

Effect of Criminal Conviction on Professional Licenses

Adam G. Slote

  • I.  OVERVIEW  53.1
  • II.  LICENSING STATUTES  53.2
  • III.  PROTECTION OF RIGHT TO PRACTICE PROFESSION
    • A.  Right to Practice One’s Profession  53.3
    • B.  “Substantial Relationship” Test  53.4
    • C.  Board May Look Beyond Plea or Verdict to Circumstances of Case  53.5
    • D.  Rehabilitation  53.6
  • IV.  AGENCY INVESTIGATIONS AND SELF-REPORTING REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  Preconviction Investigations  53.6A
    • B.  Reporting Requirements  53.6B
    • C.  Arrest May Trigger Disciplinary Action  53.6C
  • V.  “CONVICTION” FOR PURPOSES OF AFFECTING PROFESSIONAL LICENSE
    • A.  Conviction Defined  53.7
    • B.  Plea of Nolo Contendere Usually Equivalent to Guilty Plea  53.8
    • C.  Infractions  53.9
    • D.  Misdemeanor Versus Felony Conviction  53.10
    • E.  Crimes of Moral Turpitude  53.11
    • F.  Effect of Diversion, Deferred Entry of Judgment, and Prop 36 Drug Treatment on Denial and Revocation of Licenses  53.12
    • G.  Effect on Professional Licenses of Expungement, Sealing, or Other Relief From Conviction  53.13
    • H.  Reporting Requirements [Deleted]  53.14
    • I.  Collateral Consequences  53.15
  • VI.  SPECIAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CRIMINAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE CASES
    • A.  Effect of Acquittal in Criminal Case on Administrative Case  53.16
    • B.  Effect of Decision in Administrative Case on Related Criminal Prosecution  53.17
    • C.  Effect of Search and Seizure Ruling in Criminal Case on Administrative Case  53.18
    • D.  Peace Officer’s Statements During Internal Investigation  53.19
  • VII.  SPECIAL ISSUES FOR ATTORNEYS IN CRIMINAL CASES
    • A.  Issues for the Prosecutor: Charging, Plea Bargains, Reporting to State Agencies  53.20
    • B.  Issues for the Defense Attorney
      • 1.  Explore Early and Creative Settlement to Avoid Conviction  53.21
      • 2.  Client’s Statements or Testimony  53.22
      • 3.  Counseling Client to Begin Rehabilitation  53.23
    • C.  Sentencing Issues  53.24

54

Death Penalty Cases

Michael Ogul

  • I.  OVERVIEW  54.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  54.2
  • III.  QUALIFICATIONS OF APPOINTED COUNSEL  54.2A
  • IV.  COMPLAINT, INFORMATION, AND INDICTMENT
    • A.  Pleading Special Circumstances (Death Penalty)
      • 1.  Manner of Pleading Special Circumstances  54.3
      • 2.  Charging Substantive Crimes  54.4
    • B.  Procedural Differences Relating to Special Circumstance Allegations
      • 1.  Evidence of Uncharged Special Circumstances Must Be Presented at Preliminary Hearing or Grand Jury Proceeding; Adequate Notice Must Be Given to Counsel  54.5
      • 2.  Bail  54.6
      • 3.  Demurrers to Special Circumstance Allegations  54.7
      • 4.  Other Procedural Safeguards  54.8
  • V.  PRETRIAL MOTIONS FREQUENTLY MADE IN CAPITAL CASES
    • A.  Additional Counsel Is Usually Appointed  54.9
    • B.  Defendant’s Right to Self-Representation, to Have Advisory Counsel Appointed, or to Have Co-Counsel Status  54.10
    • C.  Funds for Ancillary Defense Services
      • 1.  In Capital Special Circumstance Cases  54.11
      • 2.  In Noncapital Special Circumstance Cases  54.12
    • D.  Discovery Motion
      • 1.  Discovery Concerning Guilt and Penalty Phases  54.13
      • 2.  Discovery Concerning Evidence to Support Motion for Noncapital Penalty  54.14
    • E.  Motion for Conditional Examination of Witnesses  54.15
    • F.  Motion to Dismiss Special Circumstance Under Pen C §§871.5, 995  54.16
    • G.  Motion to Dismiss Special Circumstance Under Pen C §1385  54.17
    • H.  Motion to Strike Prior Murder Special Circumstance  54.18
    • I.  Application for Intellectual Disability Hearing  54.18A
    • J.  Jury Waiver  54.19
    • K.  Change of Venue  54.19A
  • VI.  NOTICE BY PROSECUTOR OF AGGRAVATING PENALTY PHASE EVIDENCE  54.20
  • VII.  TRIAL MOTIONS FREQUENTLY MADE IN CAPITAL CASES
    • A.  Motion to Exclude Guilt or Penalty Phase Evidence  54.21
    • B.  Motion to Require District Attorney to Declare Intent to Seek Death Penalty if Jury Renders Special Circumstance Verdict [Deleted]  54.22
    • C.  Motion for Two Juries  54.23
  • VIII.  PLEA BARGAINING IN SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCE CASES  54.24
  • IX.  GUILT PHASE
    • A.  Jury Selection
      • 1.  Individual Voir Dire; Presence of Press  54.25
      • 2.  Jury Questionnaires  54.26
      • 3.  Jury Selection Expert  54.27
      • 4.  Juror Challenges
        • a.  Grounds  54.28
        • b.  Number of Peremptory Challenges  54.29
    • B.  Conduct of Guilt Phase
      • 1.  Order of Proof  54.30
      • 2.  Burden of Proof; Other Proof Requirements  54.31
    • C.  Elements of Certain Special Circumstances  54.32
  • X.  CHECKLIST: PRE-PENALTY-PHASE MOTIONS  54.33
  • XI.  PENALTY PHASE
    • A.  Burden of Proof  54.34
    • B.  Permissible Evidence  54.35
    • C.  Evidence in Aggravation
      • 1.  Summary of Evidence Admissible in Aggravation  54.36
      • 2.  Statutory Factors in Aggravation
        • a.  Circumstances of Crime and Special Circumstance (Pen C §190.3(a))
          • (1)  Victim Impact  54.37
          • (2)  Other Aspects of Crime  54.38
        • b.  Presence or Absence of “Other Crimes” Criminal Activity Involving Violence (Pen C §190.3(b))
          • (1)  Prior Crime Victim Impact  54.39
          • (2)  Mutually Exclusive  54.40
          • (3)  Conduct Must Constitute Crime “Involving” Violence or Threatened Violence  54.41
          • (4)  Not Limited to Particular Time Frame  54.42
          • (5)  Barred by “Acquittal”  54.43
          • (6)  Fifth Amendment  54.44
          • (7)  Discretion to Exclude Evidence  54.45
        • c.  Prior Felony Convictions (Pen C §190.3(c))  54.46
        • d.  Age of Defendant (Pen C §190.3(i))  54.47
      • 3.  Rebuttal; Cross-Examination  54.48
    • D.  Evidence in Mitigation  54.49
    • E.  Defense Counsel’s Obligations at Penalty Phase  54.50
    • F.  Penalty Phase Argument  54.51
    • G.  Penalty Phase Instructions  54.52
  • XII.  POSTVERDICT MOTIONS IN CAPITAL CASES
    • A.  Trial Judge Must Review Death Penalty Verdict  54.53
    • B.  Constitutional Issues in Selected Cases
      • 1.  Due Process and Equal Protection  54.54
      • 2.  Cruel and Unusual Punishment
        • a.  Proportionality  54.55
        • b.  Intellectual Disability  54.55A
    • C.  Motion for New Trial; Motion for Reduction of Verdict or Penalty  54.56
  • XIII.  PRONOUNCEMENT OF JUDGMENT
    • A.  Judgment of Death  54.57
    • B.  Sentences on Noncapital Verdicts in Capital Cases  54.58
  • XIV.  DUTIES OF TRIAL COUNSEL ON APPEAL  54.59
  • XV.  SETTING OF EXECUTION DATE FOLLOWING AFFIRMANCE  54.60

55

Driving Under the Influence Cases

Myles L. Berman

Derek A. Danielson

  • I.  OVERVIEW  55.1
  • II.  ARREST AND RELEASE  55.2
  • III.  POTENTIAL CRIMINAL CHARGES FOR DUI  55.3
  • IV.  ENHANCEMENTS; IMPOUNDMENT ORDER  55.4
  • V.  ELEMENTS OF DUI (VEH C §23152(a))  55.5
    • A.  Driving  55.6
    • B.  Vehicle  55.7
    • C.  Under the Influence  55.8
    • D.  Alcoholic Beverage  55.9
    • E.  Drug  55.10
  • VI.  ELEMENTS OF DRIVING WITH BAC OF AT LEAST 0.08 (VEH C §23152(b))  55.11
  • VII.  PROCEDURAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • A.  Arraignment  55.12
    • B.  Speedy Trial  55.13
    • C.  Demurrers  55.14
    • D.  Venue  55.15
  • VIII.  MOTIONS  55.16
    • A.  Discovery
      • 1.  Requirements  55.17
      • 2.  Remedies for Noncompliance  55.18
    • B.  Failure to Preserve Evidence  55.19
    • C.  Admonishments and Failure by Arresting Agency to Properly Admonish  55.20
    • D.  Retesting of Blood or Urine Sample  55.21
    • E.  Motions to Suppress Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN) Observations  55.22
    • F.  Motions to Suppress Defendant’s Statements  55.23
    • G.  Preliminary Alcohol Screening (PAS) Devices  55.24
    • H.  Penal Code §1538.5 Motions
      • 1.  In General  55.25
      • 2.  Probable Cause  55.26
      • 3.  Arrest  55.27
      • 4.  Prolonged Detention  55.28
      • 5.  Defendant’s Efforts to Obtain Test Frustrated  55.29
      • 6.  Speed Traps  55.30
      • 7.  DUI Checkpoints  55.30A
  • IX.  PRIOR CONVICTIONS
    • A.  In General  55.31
    • B.  What May Be Challenged  55.32
    • C.  Obtaining Information About Prior  55.33
    • D.  Evaluating Options  55.34
    • E.  Requirements for Motion to Strike Prior; Hearing  55.35
  • X.  CORPUS DELICTI  55.36
  • XI.  LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS  55.37
  • XII.  EXPERT TESTIMONY  55.38
  • XIII.  JURY INSTRUCTIONS  55.39
  • XIV.  ROLE OF DEPARTMENT OF MOTOR VEHICLES  55.40
  • XV.  PROBATION TERMINATION AND REVOCATION; EXPUNGEMENT  55.41

56

Juvenile Delinquency Proceedings

Douglas S. Feinberg

Jonathan Laba

  • I.  OVERVIEW  56.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  56.2
  • III.  JURISDICTION; VENUE; INFRACTIONS
    • A.  Jurisdiction  56.3
    • B.  Venue  56.4
    • C.  Infractions; Juvenile Hearing Officers  56.4A
  • IV.  NATURE OF JUVENILE COURT
    • A.  Purpose of Juvenile Court Law  56.5
    • B.  Comparing Adult and Juvenile Courts  56.6
    • C.  Registration Requirements and Other Collateral Consequences of Juvenile Adjudications  56.6A
    • D.  Confidentiality: Who May Be Present at Juvenile Court Hearings  56.7
    • E.  Release of Information  56.8
    • F.  Parental Costs  56.9
  • V.  INITIATING PROCEEDINGS IN JUVENILE COURT
    • A.  Arrest; Police Officer Options  56.10
    • B.  Probation Officer’s Options and Duties at Intake  56.11
    • C.  Probation Officer’s Options Concerning Detention
      • 1.  When Release Required  56.12
      • 2.  Home Supervision  56.13
      • 3.  No Right to Bail  56.14
    • D.  Informal Probation  56.15
    • E.  Petition; Charging by Prosecutor  56.16
    • F.  Deferred Entry of Judgment  56.17
  • VI.  COUNSEL FOR MINOR AND PARENTS
    • A.  Minor’s Counsel  56.18
    • B.  Counsel for Minor’s Parents or Guardian  56.18A
  • VII.  ARRAIGNMENT AND DETENTION HEARING
    • A.  Arraignment and Setting Petition for Hearing; Entry of Plea  56.19
    • B.  When Detention Hearing Is Required; Trier of Fact; Time When Held  56.20
    • C.  Notice of Detention Hearing  56.21
    • D.  Conduct of Detention Hearing  56.22
    • E.  Court’s Ruling  56.23
    • F.  Review of Detention Order  56.24
  • VIII.  OTHER PRELIMINARY PROCEEDINGS
    • A.  Joint Assessment Hearing When Child Appears to Fit Dependency and Wardship Criteria  56.25
    • B.  Mental Health Issues  56.26
    • C.  Restraining Orders  56.26A
    • D.  Petition to Establish Familial Relationship  56.26B
  • IX.  NEGOTIATION OF CHARGES AND THREE STRIKES
    • A.  Negotiation of Charges  56.27
    • B.  Three Strikes: Use of Juvenile Adjudications in Adult Court  56.28
  • X.  TRANSFER TO ADULT COURT
    • A.  Elimination of Prosecutors’ Ability to “Direct File” Charges in Adult Court  56.29
    • B.  Prosecution Motion to Transfer Minor to Adult Court  56.30
    • C.  Five Court Days’ Notice Required; When Hearing Held  56.31
    • D.  Probation Officer’s Investigation and Report; Later Use of Minor’s Statements  56.32
    • E.  Minor’s Right to Prima Facie Ruling at Transfer Hearing  56.33
    • F.  Conduct of Transfer Hearing  56.34
    • G.  Court’s Required Findings Under Welf & I C §707  56.35
    • H.  Effect of Prior Ruling Transferring Minor to Adult Criminal Court  56.36
    • I.  Right of Minor or Adult to Demand Transfer  56.37
    • J.  Review of Transfer Order
      • 1.  Review Requested by Minor’s Counsel  56.38
      • 2.  Review Requested by Prosecution  56.39
    • K.  Sentencing of Minors Convicted in Adult Court
      • 1.  Generally  56.39A
      • 2.  Limitations on Initial Sentences for Minors in Adult Court  56.39B
      • 3.  Postsentencing Options for Early Release and Resentencing of Minors Convicted in Adult Court  56.39C
  • XI.  PREJURISDICTION HEARING (PRETRIAL) MOTIONS
    • A.  Motions by Minor  56.40
    • B.  Prosecution Motions  56.41
    • C.  Format, Service, and Filing of Motions  56.42
    • D.  Searches and Seizures  56.43
    • E.  Discovery  56.44
  • XII.  JURISDICTION HEARING
    • A.  Jurisdiction Hearing Is Like Criminal Court Trial  56.45
    • B.  Statutory Time Limits  56.46
    • C.  Continuance; Dismissal; Refiling  56.47
    • D.  Midtrial Amendment of Petition  56.48
    • E.  Rules of Evidence  56.49
    • F.  Rebuttable Presumption When Minor Under 14  56.50
    • G.  Confessions and Admissions  56.51
    • H.  Court’s Finding  56.52
  • XIII.  DISPOSITION HEARING
    • A.  Nature of Disposition Hearing  56.53
    • B.  Timing of Hearing; Conduct of Hearing  56.54
    • C.  Dispositional Choices
      • 1.  Overview of Alternatives at Disposition  56.55
      • 2.  Dismissal  56.56
      • 3.  Probation Without Wardship  56.57
      • 4.  Wardship
        • a.  Dispositional Options When Court Declares Wardship  56.58
        • b.  Placement of Minor Removed From Physical Custody of Parent or Guardian  56.59
        • c.  Probation Conditions  56.60
        • d.  Restitution to the Victim  56.61
        • e.  Fines and Fees  56.62
        • f.  Determining the Maximum Period of Confinement  56.63
        • g.  Time Credits  56.64
  • XIV.  DIVISION OF JUVENILE FACILITIES (DJF)
    • A.  General Principles of DJF Commitments  56.65
    • B.  Qualifying Offenses  56.65A
    • C.  Determining Maximum Period of Confinement for DJF Commitments  56.65B
    • D.  Release From DJF  56.65C
    • E.  Extended Commitment of Dangerous Minors  56.66
    • F.  Juvenile Court Oversight of Wards Committed to DJF  56.67
  • XV.  POSTDISPOSITION PROCEEDINGS  56.68
  • XVI.  REVIEW OF ORDERS MADE BY REFEREES AND COMMISSIONERS  56.69
  • XVII.  APPEAL  56.70

57

Asset Forfeiture

Michael P. Running, Jr.

  • I.  OVERVIEW  57.1
  • II.  CHART: DEADLINES  57.2
  • III.  CHART: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN 1993 AND 1994 FORFEITURE LAW [Deleted]  57.3
  • IV.  NATURE OF FORFEITURE PROCEEDINGS
    • A.  Forfeiture Proceedings Are Primarily Civil in Nature  57.4
    • B.  Government’s Interest in Property; Relation-Back Rule  57.5
    • C.  Federal Forfeiture Laws  57.6
  • V.  PROPERTY SUBJECT TO FORFEITURE  57.7
  • VI.  JURISDICTION; VENUE  57.8
  • VII.  TYPES OF FORFEITURE PROCEEDINGS
    • A.  Three Types of Forfeiture Proceedings  57.9
    • B.  Differences Between Administrative Forfeiture and Judicial Forfeiture  57.10
  • VIII.  ADMINISTRATIVE (NONJUDICIAL) FORFEITURE
    • A.  Meant to Be Summary Procedure  57.11
    • B.  Notice of Administrative Forfeiture Required  57.12
    • C.  Standing: Only Those With Standing Can Oppose Forfeiture  57.13
    • D.  Claim Opposing Administrative Forfeiture  57.14
    • E.  If No Claim or if Improper or Late Claim Is Filed, Property Is Forfeited  57.15
    • F.  Limited Relief From Failure to File or Late Filing  57.16
    • G.  Filing of Claim Mandates Initiation of Judicial Proceeding  57.17
  • IX.  JUDICIAL FORFEITURE
    • A.  Initiating Judicial Forfeitures
      • 1.  When Judicial Forfeiture Is Required, Even Without Filing of Claim  57.18
      • 2.  Prosecutor Files Petition  57.19
      • 3.  Time for Filing Petition  57.20
      • 4.  Lis Pendens Must Be Filed When Real Property Is to Be Forfeited  57.21
      • 5.  Service of Petition  57.22
    • B.  Response to Petition: Claim  57.23
    • C.  Procedures When No Timely Claims Filed  57.24
    • D.  Discovery  57.25
    • E.  Case Settlement  57.26
    • F.  Judicial Forfeiture Trial
      • 1.  Relationship of Forfeiture to Related Criminal Case; When Tried Separately as Civil Case  57.27
      • 2.  Claim in Forfeiture Action Is Inadmissible in Criminal Case  57.28
      • 3.  Conduct of Forfeiture Trial  57.29
  • X.  MOTION IN CRIMINAL CASE FOR RETURN OF SEIZED PROPERTY  57.30
  • XI.  DEFENSES TO FORFEITURE
    • A.  First Party Claims  57.31
    • B.  Third Party Claims  57.32
  • XII.  DEFENSE ATTORNEY PAYMENT FROM PROPERTY SUBJECT TO FORFEITURE  57.33
  • XIII.  CONSTITUTIONAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • A.  Fourth Amendment  57.34
    • B.  Fifth Amendment: Self-Incrimination Clause  57.35
    • C.  Fifth Amendment: Double Jeopardy  57.35A
    • D.  Sixth Amendment  57.36
    • E.  Eighth Amendment  57.37

58

Contempt

Michael McCormick

  • I.  OVERVIEW  58.1
  • II.  CONTEMPT POWER
    • A.  Definition; Inherent and Statutory Authority; Jurisdiction  58.2
    • B.  Limitations on Contempt Power  58.3
    • C.  Differences Between Criminal and Civil Contempt  58.4
    • D.  Civil Contempt
      • 1.  CCP §1209  58.5
      • 2.  Disobedience of Court Order  58.6
      • 3.  Punishment for Civil Contempt
        • a.  Civil Punitive Contempt  58.7
        • b.  Civil Coercive Contempt  58.8
        • c.  Burden of Proof  58.9
    • E.  Criminal Contempt
      • 1.  Pen C §166  58.10
      • 2.  General Intent Crime  58.11
      • 3.  Punishment for Criminal Contempt  58.12
      • 4.  Double Jeopardy  58.13
  • III.  ATTORNEY CONTEMPT
    • A.  Advocacy Versus Respect for Court  58.14
    • B.  Warning  58.15
    • C.  Apology  58.16
    • D.  Specific Conduct Constituting Direct Civil Contempt  58.17
    • E.  Specific Conduct Constituting Indirect Civil Contempt  58.18
    • F.  Specific Conduct Constituting Hybrid Civil Contempt
      • 1.  Failure to Appear  58.19
      • 2.  Misrepresentation to Court  58.20
      • 3.  Failure to Be Ready for Trial  58.21
      • 4.  Failure to File Appellate Brief on Time  58.21A
      • 5.  Failure to Provide Discovery  58.22
  • IV.  WITNESS CONTEMPT
    • A.  In General  58.23
    • B.  Particular Witnesses
      • 1.  Particular Crime Victims  58.24
      • 2.  Juveniles  58.25
      • 3.  Newspersons  58.26
  • V.  CONTEMPT PROCEDURES
    • A.  Civil Contempt
      • 1.  Constitutional Guaranties  58.27
      • 2.  Classification of Civil Contempt to Determine Which Procedures Apply: Direct, Indirect, and Hybrid Contempt  58.28
      • 3.  Substitution of Hearing Judge  58.29
      • 4.  Challenge to Hearing Judge  58.30
      • 5.  Affidavit, Court Order, and Personal Service for Indirect Contempt  58.31
      • 6.  Hearing  58.32
      • 7.  Timing of Order  58.33
      • 8.  Written Order  58.34
      • 9.  Mandatory Stay of Execution  58.35
    • B.  Criminal Contempt  58.36
  • VI.  PROCEDURAL CHECKLISTS FOR CIVIL CONTEMPT
    • A.  Checklist: Direct Contempt  58.37
    • B.  Checklist: Indirect Contempt  58.38
  • VII.  REVIEW OF CONTEMPT ORDER  58.39
  • VIII.  REPORT TO STATE BAR  58.40

New Developments in 2018

LEGISLATION

Striking enhancements. Effective January 1, 2018, Pen C §§12022.5 and 12022.53 were amended to allow a court, in the interest of justice under Pen C §1385, to strike or dismiss a firearm enhancement otherwise required to be imposed on a felony conviction by Pen C §12022.5 (personal use) or Pen C §12022.53 (personal use in specified violent offense). This new authority extends to any resentencing that may occur under any other law. Stats 2017, ch 682. See chap 37.

Pretrial diversion. Effective January 1, 2018, Pen C §§1000–1000.65 no longer require a guilty plea and deferred entry of judgment. Deferred entry of judgment is still available in the limited context of “Back on Track” programs (Pen C §1000.8) and child abuse (Pen C §1000.12). Stats 2017, ch 778. See chap 27.

Youth offender parole hearings expanded. The legislature has extended the availability of youth offender parole hearings to anyone who was age 25 or younger at the time of the offense. Stats 2017, ch 675. In addition, Pen C §3051 was amended to add youth parole eligibility during the 25th year of incarceration for juveniles whose controlling LWOP offense was committed before the person reached age 18. Stats 2017, ch 684. See chap 56.

Elderly offender parole hearings. Under newly enacted Pen C §3055, prisoners 60 years and older who have served at least 25 years for the offense are entitled to parole consideration. Stats 2017, ch 676. See chap 47.

3-year drug enhancements. Under Health & S C §11370.2, a 3-year enhancement for specified prior convictions now only applies when the prior conviction involved the use of a minor in the commission of the offense. Stats 2017, ch 677. See chap 37.

Voir dire. Under the revised CCP §223, criminal lawyers may conduct “liberal and probing” voir dire examination to discover bias or prejudice. Stats 2017, ch 302. See chap 54.

Arrest record sealing. Under the revised provisions of Pen C §§851.87–851.92, a person who suffered arrest but no conviction is now eligible to have the arrest record sealed. Stats 2017, ch 680. See chap 41. Revisions to Welf & I C §786 and newly enacted Welf & I C §786.5 provide that juveniles whose petitions were not sustained or who had their cases dismissed may have the arrest records sealed, although the prosecution retains the right to refile within 6 months for new evidence or witness availability. Stats 2017, ch 685. See chap 56.

Juvenile sex offenders. Effective January 1, 2021, a new system will supersede the current version of Pen C §290.008, allowing juveniles convicted of specified sex offenses to petition for termination of the registration requirement after an enumerated term of years. Stats 2017, ch 541. See chap 56.

CALIFORNIA RULES OF PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT

Effective November 2, 2017, prosecutors are obligated to timely disclose any “evidence or information known to the prosecutor that the prosecutor knows or reasonably should know tends to negate the guilt of the accused, mitigate the offense, or mitigate the sentence.” Cal Rules of Prof Cond 5–110(D). See chap 2.

CASE LAW

Death penalty. Proposition 66 measures to speed up the appeals process in death penalty cases have been upheld, but time limits imposed have been interpreted as directory rather than mandatory. Briggs v Brown (2017) 3 C5th 808. See chap 54.

Prior convictions. In determining whether a defendant’s current sentence may be enhanced on the basis of a prior conviction, the trial court can only consider those facts that were already necessarily found by a prior jury in rendering a guilty verdict or admitted by the defendant in entering a guilty plea; going behind the record violates the Sixth Amendment. People v Gallardo (2017) 4 C5th 120, overruling People v McGee (2006) 38 C4th 682. See chap 37.

Speedy trial. When proceedings are suspended under Pen C §§1367–1376 before a plea is entered, the 10- or 60-day preliminary hearing requirement does not begin to run on the date the case is reinstated but on entry of the plea. People v Figueroa (2017) 11 CA5th 665. See chap 19.

Dismissal. The California Supreme Court has granted review in People v Chavez (review granted Mar. 1, 2017, S238929; superseded opinion at 5 CA5th 110) to determine whether Pen C §1203.4 is the exclusive method to dismiss a conviction when the defendant has successfully completed probation, depriving the court of authority to grant relief under Pen C §1385. See chaps 25, 38.

Juvenile offenders and life without the possibility of parole (LWOP). The California Supreme Court has held that the Pen C §1170(d)(2) resentencing procedure does not provide an adequate remedy for a claim based on Miller error. In re Kirchner (2017) 2 C5th 1040. See chap 56.

Arbuckle waivers. The California Supreme Court has held that a defendant’s failure to make a record regarding the identity of the sentencing judge after entry of a guilty plea does not constitute an Arbuckle waiver. K.R. v Superior Court (2017) 3 C5th 295. See chap 35.

Habeas relief for ineffective assistance of counsel. The U.S. Supreme Court held in Davila v Davis (2017) ___ US ___, 137 S Ct 2058, that a federal court cannot hear a procedurally defaulted claim of ineffective assistance of appellate counsel when the petitioner’s state postconviction counsel provided ineffective assistance by failing to raise that claim. See chap 45.

Recall and resentencing. The California Supreme Court has held that Proposition 47’s definition of dangerousness does not apply to resentencing under Proposition 36. People v Valencia (2017) 3 C5th 347. See chap 37.

Noncitizen criminal defendants. A defendant subject to deportation may bring a motion to withdraw a guilty plea and/or a petition for writ of habeas corpus on grounds of ineffective assistance of counsel for failure to advise of actual immigration consequences, even if the court made a proper advisement of potential consequences under Pen C §1016.5. People v Patterson (2017) 2 C5th 885. See chap 52.

Proposition 47. Convictions for theft of access card information may be reduced to misdemeanors under Proposition 47 if the value of the stolen card is less than $950. People v Romanowski (2017) 2 C5th 903. See chap 35.

Parole revocation. A parole officer’s determination of probable cause made 3 days after arrest, and a judicial officer’s revocation hearing 14 days after arrest, did not satisfy due process if the defendant was denied opportunity to appear, be heard, present evidence, and question the parole officer who brought the accusation. People v DeLeon (2017) 3 C5th 640. See chap 47.

Right to counsel. Indigent misdemeanor defendants are entitled to appointed counsel on appeal of a restitution order. Harris v Appellate Div. (2017) 14 CA5th 142. See chap 43.

Juvenile transfer hearings. In People v Superior Court (Lara) (2018) 4 C5th 299, the California Supreme Court held that Proposition 57 applies to all juveniles charged directly in adult court whose judgment was not final at the time it was enacted. See chap 56.

Discovery. An indigent defendant facing retrial is presumptively entitled to a “full” and “complete” transcript of the prior trial—including the statements of counsel. People v Reese (2017) 2 C5th 660. See chap 11.

Restitution. Restitution does not extend to conduct that occurred before the defendant committed the crime but which constitutes an element of the crime itself. In People v Martinez (2017) 2 C5th 1093, the court found that restitution could only apply to the act of leaving the scene of the accident and not to the accident itself. See chap 40.

Probation conditions. In People v Trujillo (2017) 15 CA5th 574, the court found that probation terms that included the ability to search the defendant’s computers, cellphones, and recordable media were reasonably related to prevention of future criminality. Infringement on the defendant’s privacy rights was outweighed by the state’s strong need to monitor his conduct and ensure public safety. See chap 38.

About the Authors

Jeffrey G. Adachi, A.B., 1981, University of California, Berkeley; J.D., 1985, University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Mr. Adachi is the Public Defender for the City and County of San Francisco and a certified criminal law specialist. He and Garrick S. Lew coauthored Immunity for Testimony (Chapter 49) for the first edition and have updated it for each subsequent edition.

Michael Begovich, B.A., 1981, University of California, Davis (summa cum laude; Phi Beta Kappa); J.D., 1985, University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Mr. Begovich is the Deputy Director of the San Diego County Office of Assigned Counsel, one of the largest conflict panel programs for indigent criminal defendants in California. Before that appointment, he worked for over 20 years as a Deputy Public Defender and has approximately 190 total trials in his career. Mr. Begovich represented over 30 clients accused of murder and was an Assistant Felony Supervisor. Before joining the San Diego Public Defender’s Office, he worked in an AV-rated civil law firm and in the San Diego County District Attorney’s Office. Mr. Begovich has taught criminal law, evidence, legal writing, and trial practice courses since June 1990. He is an Adjunct Professor of Law at Thomas Jefferson School of Law, presently teaching Trial Practice and Advanced Trial Advocacy. Professor Begovich’s academic interests focus on persuasive methods of courtroom advocacy, jury selection, and legal ethics. Mr. Begovich received the 2009 “Spirit of CEB” Award recognizing his selfless sharing of information for the betterment of the legal profession. He has published articles relating to trial publicity and voir dire, and he provides ongoing MCLE training for the State Bar, the San Diego County Bar, and the Public Defender’s Office. Mr. Begovich has an AV-rating from Martindale-Hubbell, and his biography appears in Marquis Who’s Who in America. He was Chair of the State Bar’s Criminal Law Section Executive Committee, and he is presently an adviser. He is the author of Jury Selection (Chapter 29) and has updated that chapter since 2005. In addition, he authored Jury Selection (Chapter 29) in California Criminal Law Forms Manual (2d ed Cal CEB); Preparing and Presenting Expert Testimony on Scientific Evidence (Chapter 3) in Scientific Evidence in California Criminal Cases (Cal CEB); and Property Loss, Money Laundering, and Fraud (Chapter 12) and Felony Committed While Released on Bail or Own Recognizance (Chapter 14) in California Criminal Sentencing Enhancements (Cal CEB).

Christine Bergman, B.A., 1993, California State University, Fullerton; J.D., 2002, Thomas Jefferson School of Law. Ms. Bergman is a Deputy Attorney General for the Office of the California Attorney General, working in the Appeals, Writs and Trials Section of the Criminal Law Division of the San Diego office. She is the update author of Probation and Mandatory Supervision (Chapter 38).

Myles L. Berman, B.A., 1976, University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign); J.D., 1979, Chicago Kent College of Law. Mr. Berman, known as Southern California’s “Topgun DUI Defense Attorney®,” is the principal of a DUI/criminal defense firm with offices in Los Angeles, Orange, and Ventura counties. Having a national reputation for successfully representing clients charged with driving under the influence, Mr. Berman has lectured extensively in the area of DUI defense at local, state, and national programs. He is listed in Who’s Who in California, Who’s Who in American Law, and Who’s Who in the World. Mr. Berman has updated Driving Under the Influence Cases (Chapter 55) since the third edition.

Hon. Joseph A. Brandolino, B.S., 1983, Providence College (summa cum laude); J.D., 1986, Harvard Law School. Judge Brandolino is a superior court judge in Los Angeles County, presiding over criminal cases. Before his 2000 appointment to the bench, he spent 10 years as an Assistant United States Attorney in Los Angeles. Judge Brandolino is a faculty member of the B.E. Witkin Judicial College of California. He revised Confessions and Admissions (Chapter 23) in 2007 and has updated it since 2008.

Hon. Matthew C. Braner, B.A., 1981, University of California, Berkeley; J.D., 1985, University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Judge Braner was a Deputy Public Defender in San Diego from 1989 until 2014, when he was appointed to the bench of the San Diego County Superior Court. He coauthored the 2006 revision of Felony Sentencing (Chapter 37) with Gary R. Nichols and has updated it since.

Edward J. Bronson, B.S., 1957, and J.D., 1959, Denver University; LL.M., 1961, New York University; Ph.D., 1972, University of Colorado. Dr. Bronson is professor emeritus of political science at California State University, Chico. He has testified on numerous occasions as an expert on the impact of pretrial publicity and on venue issues. He coauthored Pretrial and Trial Publicity; Access to Courts and Court Files (Chapter 14) and Change of Venue (Chapter 15) with John T. Philipsborn. Dr. Bronson is the lead author on Chapter 15. Dr. Bronson and Mr. Philipsborn began updating these chapters for the third edition and have continued to update them for each subsequent edition.

Garrick A. Byers, B.A.L.S., 1976, Sonoma State College; J.D., 1979, Antioch School of Law. Mr. Byers, a certified specialist in criminal law since 1990, is a Special Assignments Attorney with the Contra Costa County Office of the Public Defender. He was with the Fresno County Public Defender’s Office from 1983 to 2012; his last position there was Senior Defense Attorney. He is Second Vice President of the California Public Defenders Association (CPDA), the Chair of the CPDA Ethics Committee, and a member of the CPDA Legislative Committee. Mr. Byers received a Special Recognition Award in 2012 from the CPDA for his many contributions, including authorship of “Realignment” (published electronically by the CPDA since 1999). He is a frequent organizer and speaker at MCLE events. Mr. Byers is the update author of Public Records (Chapter 12), Motion to Disclose Informant’s Identity (Chapter 17), and Trial Counsel’s Duties After Judgment; Cleansing and Sealing of Criminal Records (Chapter 41). He coauthored Chapter 41 for the second edition with Celia E. Rowland and has continued to update it for each subsequent edition.

Hon. Teresa Caffese, B.A., 1982, University of California, Berkeley; J.D., 1985, University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Before becoming a San Francisco Superior Court judge in 2017, Judge Caffese had her own private criminal litigation practice in San Francisco, and spent 23 years with the San Francisco Public Defender’s Office, where she was the first woman to serve as Chief Attorney in the 87-year history of the office. Judge Caffese serves on criminal law advisory committees for the San Francisco Bar Association and the California Bar Association. She has been selected as one of the Top Women Litigators by the Los Angeles Daily Journal for 2008, 2010, and 2011. She was selected for the 2012 Northern California Super Lawyers list and was listed among the Top Women Attorneys in Northern California. In March 2012, Judge Caffese was inducted as a fellow into the American College of Trial Lawyers—a premier professional trial organization composed of the best of the trial bar from the United States and Canada. She is an Adjunct Professor at Golden Gate School of Law, where she teaches Trial Advocacy and Criminal Litigation. She is the update author of Discovery (Chapter 11).

Elena Condes, B.S., 1989, University of Arizona; J.D., 1992, Golden Gate University School of Law. Ms. Condes is a criminal defense attorney in private practice in Berkeley. She is the update author of Arraignment (Chapter 6).

James P. Cooper III, B.A., 1983, University of California, Los Angeles; J.D., 1986, University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law. Mr. Cooper is a sole practitioner in Los Angeles County. He updated Prior Convictions and Uncharged Misconduct (Chapter 24) with Brent Riggs. He and Mr. Riggs have updated this chapter since the fourth edition.

Tia M. Coronado, B.A., 1998, California State University, Sacramento; Teaching Credential, 2000, California State University, Sacramento; J.D., 2007, University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law. Ms. Coronado has been a Deputy Attorney General in the Appeals, Writs, and Trials division of the California Office of the Attorney General (Sacramento) since 2007. She is a member of the National Association of Extradition Officials. Ms. Coronado is the update author of Extradition (Chapter 50).

Jason M. Cox, A.B., 1979, University of Arizona; J.D., 1986, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Mr. Cox is a criminal defense attorney in private practice in Albany. He is a frequent speaker at continuing education events, including the annual Capital Case Defense Seminar sponsored by California Attorneys for Criminal Justice and the California Public Defenders Association. Mr. Cox is the update author of Pleadings; Joinder and Severance (Chapter 7) and Confessions and Admissions (Chapter 23).

Alan J. Crivaro, B.A., 1977, University of Southern California; J.D., 1980, Ahmanson Law Center, Creighton University. Mr. Crivaro is in private practice in Newport Beach, focusing on criminal litigation and motion practice. For more than 28 years, he served as a Senior Deputy Public Defender for Orange County, where he had appellate and trial counsel assignments. He has served on the Board of Directors for the Orange County Bar Association and is a past Chair as well as current member of its Administration of Justice Committee. He is a founding member of the Orange County Bar Association’s Criminal Law Section and is a recipient of the prestigious OCBA Scoville Award. He is a past president of the Constitutional Rights Foundation of Orange County, the William P. Gray Legion Lex American Inn of Court, and the Orange County Bar Foundation. Mr. Crivaro is a frequent lecturer on various topics related to criminal law, procedure, and evidence. He updated Criminal Law Practice Management (Chapter 1), Client Interview (Chapter 10), and Selected Trial Motions (Chapter 31) with E. Thomas Dunn, Jr.

Allen R. Crown, A.B., 1969, University of California, Berkeley; J.D., 1973, University of California, Davis, School of Law. Mr. Crown is a Deputy Attorney General for the State of California in the criminal division. He updated Writs in California State Courts (Chapter 42) with Jonathan Grossman for the 2012 edition.

Derek A. Danielson, J.D., 1974, University of Western Ontario School of Law. Having tried hundreds of drunk driving cases, Mr. Danielson lectures in the field of DUI defense. He is the past Chair of the Criminal Law Section of the Century City Bar Association and a past member of its Board of Governors. He is a past certified specialist by the California Deuce Defenders and a past member of the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers and Criminal Lawyers Association (Canada), among other associations and bar groups. Mr. Danielson has updated the Driving Under the Influence Cases (Chapter 55) since the fifth edition.

E. Thomas Dunn, Jr., B.A., 1977, Biola University; J.D., 1984, Southwestern University School of Law. Mr. Dunn is in private practice in Tustin and focuses primarily on criminal law and motion matters, writs, and appeals. He has practiced civil rights defense in state and federal courts as an associate with Manning & Marder, Kass, Ellrod, Ramirez in Los Angeles and served as lead appellate attorney in the chambers of William W. Bedsworth at the California Court of Appeal for 4 years. Mr. Dunn was a Senior Deputy District Attorney for Orange County from 1985 to 1997 and served for 2 years as a Deputy Attorney General of the State of California. Since 1991, he has taught as an adjunct professor of Law at Western State University College of Law, Trinity Law School, and Whittier Law School and as an associate professor at Orange County University School of Law. Formerly, he served on the staff of the House of Representatives Committee on Rules in Washington, D.C., and was named Attorney of the Year by the Constitutional Rights Foundation of Orange County. He is a certified specialist in both criminal and appellate law. Mr. Dunn updated Criminal Law Practice Management (Chapter 1), Client Interview (Chapter 10), and Selected Trial Motions (Chapter 31) with Alan J. Crivaro.

Bryan Edelman, B.A., 1997, Florida State University; LL.M., 2004, University of Kent (Canterbury); Ph.D., 2003, University of Nevada (Reno). Mr. Edelman is a trial consultant at Trial Innovations, a full-service firm located in Northern California. He has experience working in venues across the country on both civil and criminal matters. Mr. Edelman has also published his research on issues as varied as the impact of race on sentencing in capital cases and the effect of graphic injury photographs on perceptions of liability in civil cases. He updated Change of Venue (Chapter 15) with Edward J. Bronson and John T. Philipsborn.

Douglas S. Feinberg, B.A., 1991, University of California, Santa Cruz; J.D., 1994, California Western School of Law. Mr. Feinberg has been a defense attorney for the Fresno County Public Defender’s Office since 1995. He is a certified criminal law specialist. He coauthored the revision of Juvenile Delinquency Proceedings (Chapter 56) with Jonathan Laba in 2006 and has updated the chapter with Mr. Laba since.

Brentford J. Ferreira, A.B., 1975, Cornell University; J.D., 1983, Loyola Law School (Los Angeles). Mr. Ferreira is the Deputy-in-Charge of the Habeas Corpus Litigation Unit of the Los Angeles County District Attorney’s Office. He updated Lineups and Identification (Chapter 22) and Misdemeanor Appeals (Chapter 43) with Douglas W. Otto.

Gary Gibson, B.A., 1984, State University of New York at Stony Brook (cum laude); J.D., 1991, California Western School of Law (magna cum laude). Mr. Gibson has been a Deputy Public Defender for San Diego County since 1991. He is an adjunct professor at California Western School of Law, where he teaches California Evidence, California Sentencing, and Advanced Criminal Litigation. He is a former member of Army and Marine Corps Special Operations Forces and has served as an Army and Navy enlisted man and as a Naval Intelligence Officer. Mr. Gibson has been the update author for Preliminary Hearings (Chapter 8) since 2006.

Dmitry Gorin, B.A., 1992, University of California, Los Angeles (magna cum laude); J.D., 1995, University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law. Mr. Gorin is a partner in Kestenbaum, Eisner & Gorin LLP, a law firm devoted exclusively to criminal defense work. Mr. Gorin is a former Senior Deputy District Attorney for Los Angeles County. He is also an adjunct professor at Pepperdine University School of Law and a lecturer and visiting professor at the UCLA Speech and Communications Department. Mr. Gorin has updated Grand Jury (Chapter 9) since 2004.

Jonathan Grossman, B.A., 1988, University of California, Berkeley; J.D., 1991, University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Mr. Grossman was a Deputy Public Defender in San Joaquin County and is currently a staff attorney with the Sixth District Appellate Program. He updated Writs in California State Courts (Chapter 42) with Allen R. Crown and is the update author for Felony Appeals (Chapter 44).

Susan Horst, B.A., 1969, Stanford University; J.D., 1976, University of Santa Clara School of Law. Ms. Horst served as a writ attorney at the Court of Appeal, First Appellate District, in San Francisco for over 31 years. She is currently in private practice in San Francisco and is of counsel with California Appellate Law Group. She is a former Assistant District Attorney for the City and County of San Francisco and is a frequent lecturer on writ practice. Ms. Horst updated Termination of Prosecution Without Judgment (Chapter 25) with James A. Lassart.

David Hurd, B.A., 1976, University of California, Davis; J.D., 1979, University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law. Mr. Hurd conducted more than 700 life prisoner suitability hearings and more than 1500 parole revocation and parole revocation extension hearings before the Board of Prison Terms. He is currently employed as an Administrative Law Judge with the Board of Parole Hearings. Along with the Hon. Dylan Sullivan, Mr. Hurd has updated Parole Hearings (Chapter 47) since 2005.

Nicholas K. Jay, B.S., 2006, Pepperdine University; J.D., 2009, University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law; L.L.M in Taxation, 2016, University of San Francisco School of Law. Mr. Jay has prosecuted a wide range of cases, including cases dealing with “white collar” and property-related crimes in San Francisco and Contra Costa County. He is currently in private practice with the Law Offices of Gilbert Y. Jay. Mr. Jay is the update author of Asset Forfeiture (Chapter 57) since 2018.

Hon. Richard Keller, B.A., 1964, Emory University; J.D., 1967, Emory Law School. Judge Keller was appointed to the Municipal Court for the Fremont-Newark-Union City Judicial District in 1996 and became an Alameda County Superior Court judge in 1998. He has updated Work Furlough and Other Alternative Sentences (Chapter 39) since 2006.

Kimberly Kupferer, B.A., 1983, Stanford University; J.D., 1987, Santa Clara University Law School. Ms. Kupferer is a private criminal defense lawyer in Berkeley, specializing in homicide and other serious offenses. She was an Assistant Public Defender in Alameda County for 15 years. She was Chair of the Criminal Law Section of the California State Bar from 2004 to 2005; was on the Executive Committee of the Criminal Law Section from 2000 to 2005; and was president of Women Defenders from 1999 to 2001. She was also voted Outstanding Woman Law Student at Santa Clara University in 1987. Ms. Kupferer has updated Advising Witnesses (Chapter 51) since 2004.

Jonathan Laba, B.A., 1989, University of Virginia; J.D., 1996, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Mr. Laba has been a Deputy Public Defender in the Contra Costa County Office of the Public Defender since 1996. He serves on the Board of Directors of the Pacific Juvenile Defender Center and moderates a statewide listserv concerning juvenile justice and youth prison issues. Mr. Laba is a member of the California Public Defenders Association, California Attorneys for Criminal Justice, and the California Association of Drug Court Professionals. He coauthored the revision of Juvenile Delinquency Proceedings (Chapter 56) with Douglas S. Feinberg in 2006 and has updated the chapter with Mr. Feinberg since.

James P. Lambe, A.B., 1974, University of Michigan; J.D., 1977, University of Illinois. Before entering private practice, Mr. Lambe spent 28 years with the Fresno County Public Defender’s Office, where he was a Senior Defense Attorney. He is a Certified Specialist in both Criminal Law and Criminal Trial Advocacy. A Fellow of the Litigation Counsel of America, he is listed in Who’s Who in American Law and Who’s Who in America. In 2006, he became the first public defender from the San Joaquin Valley to be listed in Super Lawyers. He has served on the State Bar of California Criminal Law Advisory Commission, the State Bar of California Criminal Law Section Executive Committee, and the Board of Governors of California Attorneys for Criminal Justice. He updated Jury Deliberations and Verdict (Chapter 33) for the 1998 edition and Right to Speedy Trial (Chapter 19) for the 2013 edition and has updated both for each subsequent edition.

Christopher Lamiero, B.A., 1989, California State University, Hayward; J.D., 1993, University of San Francisco School of Law. Mr. Lamiero has been a Deputy District Attorney in the Alameda County District Attorney’s Office since 1993. Along with Romany E. McNamara, he is the update author of Selected Pretrial Motions (Chapter 18).

Alex Landon, B.A., 1968, California State University, Northridge; J.D., 1971, University of San Diego School of Law. Mr. Landon, certified specialist in criminal law 1977–2017, is in private practice in San Diego. He has been an adjunct professor at the University of San Diego School of Law since 1984. He is also the former Executive Director of the Defenders Program of San Diego. Mr. Landon is a past president of California Attorneys for Criminal Justice, the San Diego Criminal Defense Bar Association, and the San Diego Criminal Defense Lawyers Club. Mr. Landon chaired the State Bar Commission on the Delivery of Legal Services to the Indigent Accused from 1991 to 2000. He coauthored Disqualification of Judge (Chapter 21) for the second edition and has updated it for each subsequent edition.

James A. Lassart, B.A., 1964, University of Santa Clara; J.D., 1967, University of San Francisco School of Law. Mr. Lassart is a partner at Murphy, Pearson, Bradley & Feeney, with a practice that includes criminal defense. He is a former Assistant U.S. Attorney and Coordinator of the Northwest Region of the President’s Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force, and he served for 12 years as an Assistant District Attorney for the City and County of San Francisco. Mr. Lassart updated Termination of Prosecution Without Judgment (Chapter 25) with Susan Horst.

Garrick S. Lew, A.B., 1971, and J.D., 1974, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Mr. Lew was the managing partner in the law firm of Minami, Lew & Tamaki, San Francisco. He was Chair of the Executive Committee of the State Bar Criminal Law Section from 1986 to 1987 and a member of the Board of Governors of California Attorneys for Criminal Justice from 1978 to 1988. Mr. Lew and Jeffrey G. Adachi coauthored Immunity for Testimony (Chapter 49) for the first edition and updated it for subsequent editions.

Graciela Martinez, A.B., 1989, Stanford University; J.D., 1992, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Ms. Martinez is a Deputy Public Defender in the Los Angeles County Public Defender’s Office assigned to the Appellate Branch. She has been a criminal defense lawyer for over 20 years. She consults with and advises attorneys both in her office and throughout California on issues relating to criminal convictions and the resultant immigration penalties. Ms. Martinez updated Representing the Noncitizen Criminal Defendant (Chapter 52) with Michael Mehr.

Michael McCormick, A.B., 1973, University of California, Berkeley; J.D., 1977, University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Mr. McCormick retired from his position as an Assistant Public Defender in the Alameda County Public Defender’s Office, where he worked for over 30 years and was a member of its law and motion team. He is now in private practice, specializing in motions and appeals for criminal defendants. Mr. McCormick is the update author of Motion to Set Aside Information or Indictment (Chapter 13) and Contempt (Chapter 58) and has updated these chapters since the fourth edition.

Michael C. McMahon, B.A., 1972, University of California, Berkeley; J.D., 1976, University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Mr. McMahon is Chief Deputy Public Defender in Ventura County, in charge of Appeals, Writs, and Training. He is a past president of the California Public Defenders Association and a longtime member of its board of directors. He is certified as a specialist in appellate law by the State Bar of California. Mr. McMahon is a member of the Adjunct Faculty of the Santa Barbara College of Law and the Ventura College of Law, where he teaches criminal law, advanced evidence, and trial practice. He is the update author of Jury Instructions (Chapter 32).

Romany E. McNamara, B.A., 2002, University of Washington (with honors); J.D., 2006, New York University School of Law (recipient of the Ann Petluck Poses Memorial Prize for excellence in clinical work). Ms. McNamara is the update author of Selected Pretrial Motions (Chapter 18) with Christopher Lamiero. She is a Deputy Public Defender for Alameda County.

Michael K. Mehr, B.A., 1973, University of California, Santa Cruz (with honors); J.D., 1976, University of San Francisco School of Law. Mr. Mehr is a private attorney in Santa Cruz County who has practiced immigration and criminal law since 1979, including deportation defense and postconviction relief. He is a coauthor of Defending Immigrants in the Ninth Circuit: Impact of Crimes under California and Other State Laws, by Katherine A. Brady with Norton Tooby and Angie Junck (9th ed 2007 ILRC). He is a frequent lecturer at MCLE programs and was the expert witness in People v Bautista (2004) 115 CA4th 229, which held that failure to defend against immigration consequences may be ineffective assistance of counsel. Mr. Mehr updated Representing the Noncitizen Criminal Defendant (Chapter 52) with Graciela Martinez.

Lindsey B. Mercer, B.A., 1999, University of California, Berkeley; J.D., 2005, University of San Diego School of Law. In law school, Ms. Mercer served as Chair of the Appellate Moot Court Board and competed on the University of San Diego Moot Court National Team. In recognition of her commitment to outstanding legal advocacy, she was inducted into the Order of the Barrister in 2005. Ms. Mercer practices criminal defense as an associate with the Law Offices of C. Bradley Patton. Along with C. Bradley Patton, she has been an update author of Arrest and Bench Warrants, Summonses, Subpoenas (Chapter 4) since 2007.

Michael Ogul, B.A., 1977, University of Southern California; J.D., 1980, University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Mr. Ogul is a Deputy Public Defender in Santa Clara County, where he represents individuals in murder and death penalty cases and supervises the homicide team and training program. He has published over 200 articles on various criminal law topics, including numerous articles on death penalty law, and has been a consultant to every edition of the CJER Death Penalty Benchguide in addition to being the editor of the California Death Penalty Defense Manual since 2004. Mr. Ogul is the update author of Death Penalty Cases (Chapter 54).

Douglas W. Otto, B.A., 1971, Stanford University; M.A., 1974, Columbia University/Union Theological Seminary; J.D., 1977, University of Chicago. Mr. Otto has a private practice with an emphasis in criminal defense trials and appeals and administrative law. He is an adjunct professor of law at Southwestern University School of Law. Mr. Otto updated Lineups and Identification (Chapter 22) and Misdemeanor Appeals (Chapter 43) with Brentford J. Ferreira.

Anthony J. Patti, B.A., 1974, Adelphi University; J.D., 1977, University of San Fernando Valley. In 2014, Mr. Patti retired from the Los Angeles County Public Defender’s Office and is now a criminal defense attorney in private practice in Los Angeles. He is a member of the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers and the California Public Defenders Association. Mr. Patti is the update author of Pleas and Case Settlement (Chapter 26).

C. Bradley Patton, B.S., 1972, University of Southern California; J.D., 1975, California Western School of Law. Mr. Patton is a sole practitioner in Carlsbad, primarily handling criminal defense. He is certified by the State Bar as a criminal law specialist. Mr. Patton is the author of Right to Counsel; The Attorney-Client Relationship (Chapter 3); he coauthored this chapter for the second edition and has updated it for each subsequent edition. He also has updated Arrest and Bench Warrants, Summonses, Subpoenas (Chapter 4) since 2007 with Lindsey B. Mercer.

Sanders Patton, B.S., 2005, University of Southern California; J.D., 2009, Thomas Jefferson School of Law. Mr. Patton is an attorney with the Law Offices of C. Bradley Patton in Carlsbad, primarily handling criminal defense. He is an update author of Right to Counsel; The Attorney-Client Relationship (Chapter 3) with C. Bradley Patton.

John T. Philipsborn, A.B., 1971, Bowdoin College; M.Ed., 1975, Antioch College; J.D., 1978, University of California, Davis, School of Law; MAS, 2016, University of California, Irvine. Mr. Philipsborn practices criminal defense in San Francisco. He is a frequent author and lecturer on criminal law issues and a member of CEB’s criminal law advisory group. Mr. Philipsborn is an update author of Pretrial and Trial Publicity; Access to Courts and Court Files (Chapter 14), Change of Venue (Chapter 15), and Forensic Mental Health Evidence, Laws and Procedures (Chapter 48). He and Edward J. Bronson have updated Chapters 14 and 15 since the third edition. Mr. Philipsborn has updated Chapter 48 since 2005.

Hon. Gregg L. Prickett, B.A., 1978, University of Southern California; J.D., 1981, Southwestern University School of Law. Judge Prickett was a Deputy and Senior Deputy District Attorney for Orange County from 1983 to 1995, when he was appointed to the North Orange County Municipal Court and then elevated in 1999 to the Orange County Superior Court. He has been the update author of Pronouncing Judgment (Chapter 35) since 2008.

Brent Riggs, S.B., 1966, Brigham Young University; J.D., 1969, University of Chicago School of Law. Mr. Riggs was a Deputy District Attorney in the Los Angeles County District Attorney’s Office from 1975 to 2005, retiring from the Appellate Division. He is now in private practice in Los Angeles, specializing in criminal appeals. Mr. Riggs updated Prior Convictions and Uncharged Misconduct (Chapter 24) with James P. Cooper III. He coauthored that chapter with Kathy M. Chavez for the second and third editions and has updated it for each subsequent edition.

Michael P. Running, Jr., B.A., 1986, University of California, Los Angeles; J.D., 1989, Arizona State University College of Law (Pace University School of Law National Environmental Moot Court Champion). Mr. Running is a Deputy District Attorney with the San Diego District Attorney’s Office. He updated Asset Forfeiture (Chapter 57).

Hon. Adam B. Ryan, B.S., 1993, California State University, Chico; J.D., 1996, Golden Gate University School of Law. Judge Ryan is a judge for the Shasta County Superior Court. Judge Ryan updated Deferred Entry of Judgment, Diversion, and Preplea Probation Report (Chapter 27) with Terry L. White.

Hon. Teresa Sanchez-Gordon, B.A., 1973, Immaculate Heart College; J.D., 1984, People’s College of Law. Judge Sanchez-Gordon is a superior court judge in Los Angeles County. She has updated Misdemeanor Sentencing (Chapter 36) since the sixth edition.

Antonio R. Sarabia II, A.B., 1974, Occidental College; J.D., 1978, University of Chicago Law School. Mr. Sarabia’s private practice in Rolling Hills Estates includes victims’ rights, representation of white collar crime victims, trademarks, copyrights, licensing, the apparel industry, and business transactions. He is the author of Victim Restitution (Chapter 40); he wrote this chapter for the fifth edition and has revised it for each subsequent edition.

Adam G. Slote, B.A., 1985, University of Pennsylvania; J.D., 1988, University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Mr. Slote is in private practice in San Francisco. He defends licensed businesses and professionals before administrative agencies. Mr. Slote is the update author of Effect of Criminal Conviction on Professional Licenses (Chapter 53).

Niki Solis, B.A., 1991, San Francisco State University (cum laude); J.D., 1995, University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Ms. Solis is a Deputy Public Defender in San Francisco and serves as a commissioner for the State Bar of California Criminal Law Advisory Committee. She is the update author of Trial by Court or Jury (Chapter 28).

Lori S. Stuart, B.A., 1996, Westmont College; J.D., 1999, Pepperdine University School of Law (cum laude). Ms. Stuart is a Deputy Public Defender for the Santa Clara County Public Defender Office, currently working in the Research, Law, and Motion department of the San Jose office. She is the update author of Securing or Preventing Out-of-Custody Status (Chapter 5).

Hon. Dylan Sullivan, B.S., 1988, University of California, Davis; J.D., 1997, University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law. From 2000 until 2005, Judge Sullivan had a private practice in Sacramento, which included criminal law, parole law, and civil litigation. In 2005, she joined the Board of Parole Hearings as a Deputy Commissioner, and in September 2011, she was appointed as a Commissioner of El Dorado County. In September 2014, Judge Sullivan took office as a judge of the Superior Court in El Dorado County, after being both elected and appointed by the Governor. Along with David Hurd, she has updated Parole Hearings (Chapter 47) since 2005.

Carlie Ware, B.A., 2000, Yale University; J.D., 2003, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Ms. Ware is a Deputy Public Defender in Santa Clara County. She is a former Marvin Karpatkin Racial Justice Fellow (2005–2006) and staff attorney (2006–2009) with the national American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). She was awarded the 2004 Relman Civil Rights Fellowship at Relman, Dane & Colfax in Washington, D.C., after serving from 2003 to 2004 as a law clerk to Judge Claudia Wilken in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, Oakland. Ms. Ware is the 2017 update author of Search and Seizure Motions (Chapter 16).

Timothy E. Warriner, B.S., 1989, University of California, Los Angeles; J.D., 1993, Santa Clara University School of Law. Mr. Warriner is certified by the California Board of Legal Specialization of the State Bar of California as a criminal law specialist. He is a member of the Executive Committee of the State Bar’s Criminal Law Section and is co-chairman of the E-Bulletin subcommittee. Mr. Warriner is a member of the Anthony M. Kennedy American Inn of Court. As an attorney in private practice, he handles trial and appellate matters in state and federal court. He is the update author of Revocation of Probation and Mandatory Supervision (Chapter 46) and, since the 2017 edition, Prejudgment Motions (Chapter 34).

Terry L. White, B.S., 1979, San Jose State University; J.D., 1983, University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law. Mr. White served as a Deputy District Attorney for Los Angeles County for 24 years and is presently the Chief Deputy of the Criminal Division in the Santa Monica City Attorney’s Office. He is the update author of Deferred Entry of Judgment, Diversion, and Preplea Probation Report (Chapter 27) with the Hon. Adam B. Ryan.

Carolyn M. Wiggin, B.A., 1990, University of California, Berkeley; J.D., 1994, Yale University School of Law. Ms. Wiggin is an Assistant Federal Defender in the Office of the Federal Public Defender in Sacramento, where she handles appeals and represents state prisoners in federal habeas corpus proceedings. She is the update author of Federal Habeas Corpus Review of State Court Convictions (Chapter 45).

Brendon D. Woods, B.A., 1992, University of California, Santa Barbara; J.D., 1996, University of San Francisco School of Law. Mr. Woods is the Public Defender for Alameda County and is a member of the California Public Defenders Association. He is the update author of Preparation and Presentation of Case and Argument (Chapter 30) with Judge Morris Jacobson.

William Woods, B.A., 1973, San Diego State University; J.D., 1985, Southwestern University School of Law. Mr. Woods retired in September 2016 after 30 years as a Los Angeles County Deputy District Attorney, where he was most recently the Assistant Head Deputy of the Training Division and Chair of the Professional Responsibility Committee. He continues to lecture to prosecutors, attorneys, and law enforcement officers across California about ethics issues. He was a member of the State Bar of California Committee on Professional Responsibility and Conduct. Mr. Woods has updated Professional Responsibility (Chapter 2) since 2009.

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