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Wrongful Employment Termination Practice: Discrimination, Harassment, and Retaliation

This definitive guide not only covers the law—it is full of insights for both plaintiff and defense.

 

 

“CEB’s Wrongful Employment Termination Practice concisely lays out not only the substantive law but also the procedures applicable to practitioners on both sides of a discrimination case.”
Todd M. Schneider, Schneider Wallace Cottrell Konecky Wotkyns LLP, San Francisco

This definitive guide not only covers the law—it is full of insights for both plaintiff and defense.

  • In-depth treatment of specific theories of liability
  • Extensively revised chapters on discrimination claims, including disability and age discrimination
  • Causes of action, remedies, defenses, burdens of proof
  • Proving and defending discrimination cases
  • Sexual harassment under FEHA and Title VII
  • Public policy violations
  • Tort claims and punitive damages
  • Actions for breach of employment contract
  • Preemption and exclusive remedies
  • Employee complaint investigations and litigation strategies
  • Over 50 time-saving forms
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“CEB’s Wrongful Employment Termination Practice concisely lays out not only the substantive law but also the procedures applicable to practitioners on both sides of a discrimination case.”
Todd M. Schneider, Schneider Wallace Cottrell Konecky Wotkyns LLP, San Francisco

This definitive guide not only covers the law—it is full of insights for both plaintiff and defense.

  • In-depth treatment of specific theories of liability
  • Extensively revised chapters on discrimination claims, including disability and age discrimination
  • Causes of action, remedies, defenses, burdens of proof
  • Proving and defending discrimination cases
  • Sexual harassment under FEHA and Title VII
  • Public policy violations
  • Tort claims and punitive damages
  • Actions for breach of employment contract
  • Preemption and exclusive remedies
  • Employee complaint investigations and litigation strategies
  • Over 50 time-saving forms

1

Discrimination Claims—In General

Thomas P. Klein

William C. Quackenbush

Cynthia L. Remmers

Christian J. Rowley

Gary R. Siniscalco

John M. True III

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  1.1
  • II.  TITLE VII OF CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964  1.2
    • A.  Title VII Coverage
      • 1.  Employers Subject to Title VII
        • a.  15-Employee Threshold  1.3
        • b.  Integrated Enterprises  1.3A
        • c.  Statutory Exclusions  1.3B
      • 2.  Employees Covered by Title VII  1.4
      • 3.  Individual Liability Under Title VII  1.5
    • B.  Title VII Procedural Requirements
      • 1.  Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies
        • a.  Filing Administrative Charge  1.6
          • (1)  Filing Procedure  1.6A
          • (2)  Service  1.6B
        • b.  Obtaining Right-to-Sue Letter  1.7
      • 2.  Statutes of Limitation
        • a.  Charge Filed With EEOC
          • (1)  180 Days/300 Days  1.8
          • (2)  Determining When Limitations Period Begins to Run  1.8A
        • b.  Civil Action  1.9
    • C.  Proving Discrimination Under Title VII  1.10
      • 1.  Disparate Treatment Cases  1.11
        • a.  Plaintiff’s Burden at the Pleading Stage  1.11A
        • b.  Plaintiff's Burden on Summary Judgment  1.11B
          • (1)  McDonnell Douglas Framework  1.11C
            • (a)  Prima Facie Case  1.12
            • (b)  Legitimate, Nondiscriminatory Reason for Action  1.13
            • (c)  Pretext  1.14
          • (2)  Direct Evidence of Discrimination  1.15
        • c.  Plaintiff’s Burden at Trial  1.16
        • d.  Mixed-Motive Cases  1.17
      • 2.  Disparate Impact Cases  1.18
        • a.  Prima Facie Case  1.19
        • b.  Rebuttal (Business Necessity Defense)  1.20
        • c.  Nondiscriminatory Alternative  1.21
      • 3.  Pattern and Practice Cases
        • a.  Prima Facie Case  1.22
        • b.  Rebuttal (Refuting or Explaining Plaintiff’s Statistics)  1.23
      • 4.  Evidentiary Considerations in Particular Cases  1.24
        • a.  Race or Color  1.25
        • b.  Religion  1.26
        • c.  Sex  1.27
          • (1)  Pregnancy Discrimination  1.28
          • (2)  Sex Stereotyping  1.29
          • (3)  Sexual Orientation  1.30
        • d.  National Origin  1.31
    • D.  Defending Title VII Cases
      • 1.  Legitimate Business Reason for Alleged Discriminatory Action  1.32
      • 2.  Business Necessity in Disparate Impact Cases  1.33
      • 3.  Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ)  1.34
      • 4.  Failure to Exhaust Administrative Remedies  1.35
      • 5.  Arbitration Agreement  1.36
      • 6.  Affirmative Action Plans  1.37
      • 7.  After-Acquired Evidence  1.38
      • 8.  Bona Fide Seniority or Merit System  1.39
      • 9.  Communist Party Membership; National Security  1.40
      • 10.  Ministerial Exception  1.41
      • 11.  Same-Decision Defense  1.41A
    • E.  Title VII Remedies
      • 1.  Back Pay  1.42
      • 2.  Front Pay  1.43
      • 3.  Reinstatement  1.44
      • 4.  Purging Personnel File  1.45
      • 5.  Injunctive and Affirmative Relief  1.46
      • 6.  Compensatory and Punitive Damages  1.47
      • 7.  Attorney Fees and Costs  1.48
  • III.  FAIR EMPLOYMENT AND HOUSING ACT (FEHA)  1.49
    • A.  FEHA Coverage
      • 1.  Employers
        • a.  Private Employers  1.50
        • b.  Public Employers  1.51
        • c.  Religious Organizations  1.52
      • 2.  Employees and Applicants  1.53
      • 3.  Independent Contractors (Harassment)  1.54
      • 4.  Persons in Apprenticeship Training Programs and Unpaid Interns  1.54A
      • 5.  Personal Liability of Individuals Under FEHA
        • a.  Discrimination  1.55
        • b.  Aiding and Abetting  1.56
        • c.  Sexual Harassment  1.57
    • B.  Procedural Requirements Under FEHA
      • 1.  Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies  1.58
        • a.  Pre-Complaint Inquiry  1.58A
        • b.  Drafting the Complaint  1.58B
        • c.  Serving the Complaint  1.58C
        • d.  Responding to the Complaint  1.58D
        • e.  DFEH Investigation  1.58E
        • f.  Excusal of Failure to Exhaust Administrative Remedies  1.58F
      • 2.  Obtaining Right-to-Sue Letter  1.59
      • 3.  Statutes of Limitation
        • a.  Charge Filed With Department of Fair Employment and Housing  1.60
        • b.  Civil Action  1.61
        • c.  Continuing Violations  1.62
        • d.  Statutory Tolling When Charge Filed Concurrently With DFEH and EEOC  1.62A
        • e.  Equitable Tolling  1.63
        • f.  Amendment of Civil Complaint and “Relation Back” Doctrine  1.64
    • C.  Proving Discrimination Under FEHA  1.65
      • 1.  Disparate Treatment Cases
        • a.  When McDonnell Douglas Test Applies  1.66
          • (1)  Prima Facie Case  1.67
          • (2)  Rebuttal (Nondiscriminatory Reason for Action)  1.68
          • (3)  Pretext  1.69
        • b.  Burdens on Summary Judgment
          • (1)  Moving Party Bears Initial Burden  1.70
          • (2)  Weak Circumstantial Evidence of Discriminatory Motive  1.71
          • (3)  Evidence of Pretext  1.72
        • c.  McDonnell Douglas Test During Trial  1.73
      • 2.  Disparate Impact Cases  1.74
    • D.  Evidentiary Considerations in Particular Cases  1.75
      • 1.  Race
        • a.  Who Can Sue  1.76
        • b.  Harassment Based on Race  1.77
      • 2.  Religion  1.77A
        • a.  Reasonable Accommodation  1.78
        • b.  Undue Hardship  1.79
      • 3.  Sex  1.80
        • a.  Fetal Protection Policies  1.81
        • b.  Pregnancy Discrimination  1.82
        • c.  Pregnancy Disability Leave  1.83
        • d.  Sexual Harassment  1.84
        • e.  Sexual Orientation  1.85
        • f.  Transgender Discrimination  1.85A
      • 4.  National Origin  1.86
      • 5.  Marital Status  1.87
      • 6.  Genetic Information  1.87A
      • 7.  Military and Veteran Status  1.87B
    • E.  Defending FEHA Actions
      • 1.  Legitimate Business Reason for Alleged Discriminatory Action  1.88
      • 2.  Business Necessity in Disparate Impact Cases  1.89
      • 3.  Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ)  1.90
        • a.  Sex Discrimination Cases  1.91
        • b.  Examples of Cases Rejecting BFOQ Defense  1.92
        • c.  Examples of Cases Upholding BFOQ Defense  1.93
      • 4.  Failure to Exhaust Administrative Remedies  1.94
        • a.  Claims Fairly Reflected in Administrative Charge  1.95
        • b.  Naming All Defendants  1.96
        • c.  Additional Theories of Recovery  1.97
      • 5.  Arbitration Agreement  1.98
      • 6.  Federal Preemption
        • a.  Federal Employment Discrimination Laws  1.99
        • b.  Federal Labor Laws  1.100
        • c.  Federal Treaties  1.101
        • d.  Banks  1.102
        • e.  Federal Enclaves  1.103
      • 7.  Workers’ Compensation Exclusivity  1.104
      • 8.  Affirmative Action Plans  1.105
      • 9.  After-Acquired Evidence  1.106
      • 10.  National or State Security Exemption  1.107
      • 11.  Statutory Defenses to Particular Claims  1.108
        • a.  Sex Discrimination  1.109
        • b.  Marital Status  1.110
    • F.  FEHA Remedies  1.110A
  • IV.  EQUAL PAY ACT (29 USC §206(d))  1.111
  • V.  CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1866 (42 USC §1981)  1.112
    • A.  Coverage
      • 1.  Employers  1.113
      • 2.  Employees  1.114
    • B.  Procedural Requirements  1.115
    • C.  Proving the Case  1.116
    • D.  Remedies  1.117
  • VI.  CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1871 (42 USC §1983)  1.118
    • A.  Coverage
      • 1.  Employers
        • a.  Private Employers  1.119
        • b.  Public Employers  1.120
      • 2.  Employees  1.121
    • B.  Procedural Requirements  1.122
    • C.  Proving the Case  1.123
    • D.  Defenses  1.124
    • E.  Remedies  1.125
  • VII.  GENETIC INFORMATION NONDISCRIMINATION ACT OF 2008
    • A.  Prohibited Employment Practices  1.125A
    • B.  Limitations on Acquisition of Genetic Information  1.125B
    • C.  Confidentiality; Permitted Disclosures  1.125C
    • D.  Remedies  1.125D
  • VIII.  MISCELLANEOUS CALIFORNIA ANTIDISCRIMINATION STATUTES
    • A.  Unruh Civil Rights Act  1.126
    • B.  Ralph Civil Rights Act  1.127
    • C.  Bane Act  1.128

2

Disability Discrimination

Cynthia L. Remmers

Christian J. Rowley

John M. True III

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  2.1
  • II.  AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA)
    • A.  General Purpose  2.2
    • B.  ADA Amendments Act of 2008 (ADAAA)
      • 1.  Changes Enacted by ADAAA  2.3
      • 2.  ADAAA Is Not Retroactive  2.4
    • C.  Who May Be Liable
      • 1.  In General  2.5
      • 2.  Certain Employers  2.6
      • 3.  Certain Governmental Entities  2.7
      • 4.  Religious Entities  2.8
      • 5.  No Individual Liability  2.9
    • D.  Who Is Protected  2.10
      • 1.  “Qualified Individual”  2.11
        • a.  Possession of Requisite Skill and Experience  2.11A
          • (1)  Use of Qualification Standards and Tests  2.12
          • (2)  Examples  2.12A
        • b.  Ability to Perform Essential Functions of Position
          • (1)  Definition  2.13
          • (2)  Relevant Evidence  2.14
          • (3)  Ability to Handle Stress and Interact With Coworkers  2.14A
        • c.  Reasonable Accommodation  2.15
      • 2.  “Disability”  2.16
        • a.  Broad Interpretation Under ADAAA  2.16A
        • b.  Disability Based on Physical or Mental Impairment  2.16B
          • (1)  “Physical or Mental Impairment”
            • (a)  EEOC Definitions  2.17
            • (b)  Examples of Qualifying Impairments  2.17A
            • (c)  Specific Exclusions  2.18
          • (2)  “Substantially Limits”  2.19
            • (a)  Relaxed Standard Under ADAAA  2.20
              • (i)  EEOC’s Amended Regulations  2.21
              • (ii)  Condition, Manner, or Duration  2.21A
              • (iii)  Corrective or Mitigating Measures No Longer Considered  2.22
              • (iv)  Impairments That Are Episodic or in Remission  2.23
              • (v)  Meaning in Context of Working  2.23A
            • (b)  Pre-ADAAA Standard
              • (i)  Impairment Must Prevent or Severely Restrict Activity  2.24
              • (ii)  Effect of Corrective or Mitigating Measures  2.25
              • (iii)  Meaning in Context of Working  2.26
          • (3)  “Major Life Activities”  2.27
            • (a)  Expanded Definition Under ADAAA  2.28
            • (b)  Pre-ADAAA Cases  2.29
        • c.  Disability Based on Having Record of Impairment  2.30
          • (1)  Broad Construction  2.30A
          • (2)  Relevant Records  2.30B
          • (3)  May Require Reasonable Accommodation  2.30C
        • d.  Disability Based on Being Regarded as Having Impairment  2.31
          • (1)  New Definition Under ADAAA  2.31A
          • (2)  Impairment Cannot Be Transitory and Minor  2.31B
          • (3)  No Reasonable Accommodation Required  2.31C
    • E.  What Constitutes Disability Discrimination
      • 1.  General Rule  2.32
      • 2.  Specifically Prohibited Actions  2.33
    • F.  Procedural Requirements
      • 1.  Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies  2.34
      • 2.  Statutes of Limitations  2.35
    • G.  Proving Discrimination  2.36
    • H.  Employer’s Duty to Provide Reasonable Accommodation  2.37
      • 1.  No Precise Definition  2.38
      • 2.  Specific Types of Accommodations
        • a.  Making Existing Facilities Accessible  2.38A
        • b.  Job Restructuring  2.38B
        • c.  Part-Time or Modified Work Schedule  2.38C
        • d.  Reassignment to Vacant Position  2.38D
          • (1)  Lesser Position in Certain Circumstances  2.38E
          • (2)  Effect of Seniority System Rules  2.38F
        • e.  Additional Accommodations  2.38G
      • 3.  Accommodation Must Be Reasonable  2.39
      • 4.  Interactive Process to Determine Accommodation  2.40
        • a.  Employee’s Duty to Give Notice  2.40A
        • b.  Requirements of Interactive Process  2.40B
        • c.  Employer’s Discretion to Choose Accommodation  2.40C
    • I.  Employer Defenses
      • 1.  Qualification Standards Consistent With Business Necessity  2.41
      • 2.  Direct Threat to Health or Safety  2.42
      • 3.  Legitimate, Nondiscriminatory Reason for Action  2.43
      • 4.  Undue Hardship
        • a.  Definition  2.44
        • b.  Burden of Proof on Employer  2.45
    • J.  Remedies  2.46
  • III.  REHABILITATION ACT OF 1973 (29 USC §§701–796l)  2.47
    • A.  Structure of the Act
      • 1.  Section 501  2.48
      • 2.  Section 503  2.49
      • 3.  Section 504  2.50
    • B.  Who Is Protected  2.51
      • 1.  “Otherwise Qualified Individual”  2.52
        • a.  Essential Functions of Position—Definition  2.53
        • b.  Exceptions  2.54
      • 2.  “Disability”  2.55
    • C.  Who May Be Liable
      • 1.  In General  2.56
      • 2.  “Programs or Activities”  2.57
      • 3.  No Individual Liability  2.58
    • D.  Substantive Provisions  2.59
  • IV.  FAIR EMPLOYMENT AND HOUSING ACT (FEHA)
    • A.  What Is Prohibited
      • 1.  In General  2.60
        • a.  Certain Persons Exempted  2.61
        • b.  Presumption Against Persons With Heart Trouble  2.62
      • 2.  Inquiries Regarding Disability or Condition
        • a.  Medical and Psychological Exams  2.63
        • b.  Response to Request for Accommodation  2.64
    • B.  Disability Definitions  2.65
      • 1.  Physical Disability  2.66
        • a.  “Limits a Major Life Activity”  2.67
        • b.  Specific Exclusions  2.68
      • 2.  Mental Disability  2.69
      • 3.  Medical Condition  2.70
    • C.  Reasonable Accommodation  2.71
      • 1.  Split of Authority Regarding When Reasonable Accommodation Is Required  2.72
      • 2.  When Reasonable Accommodation Is Not Required  2.73
      • 3.  Interactive Process to Determine Reasonable Accommodation  2.74
        • a.  Types of Accommodation  2.75
        • b.  Undue Hardship  2.76
    • D.  Burdens of Proof
      • 1.  Plaintiff’s Prima Facie Case  2.77
      • 2.  Burden on Summary Judgment  2.78
      • 3.  Undue Hardship  2.79

3

Age Discrimination

Barbara S. Bryant

Cynthia L. Remmers

Christian J. Rowley

John M. True III

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  3.1
  • II.  AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT (ADEA)  3.2
    • A.  What Is Prohibited
      • 1.  Age Discrimination  3.3
        • a.  Facial Discrimination  3.3A
        • b.  Informal Discrimination  3.3B
      • 2.  Retaliation  3.4
    • B.  Who May Be Liable
      • 1.  Employers  3.5
        • a.  Minimum of 20 Employees  3.5A
        • b.  Foreign Employers  3.6
        • c.  Governmental Entities  3.7
      • 2.  No Individual Liability  3.8
    • C.  Who Is Protected
      • 1.  Employees Who Are at Least Age 40  3.9
      • 2.  Definition of “Employee”  3.10
      • 3.  Exemptions  3.11
    • D.  Procedural Requirements
      • 1.  Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies  3.12
      • 2.  Time Limitations
        • a.  Charge Filed With EEOC
          • (1)  Deadline  3.13
          • (2)  When Discriminatory Act “Occurs”  3.14
          • (3)  Equitable Tolling  3.14A
        • b.  Filing a Civil Action  3.15
    • E.  Proving Discrimination Under ADEA  3.16
      • 1.  Disparate Treatment
        • a.  Employer Took Action “Because of” Age  3.17
        • b.  Prima Facie Case  3.18
          • (1)  Plaintiff’s Age  3.19
          • (2)  Qualified or Performing Satisfactorily  3.20
          • (3)  Adverse Employment Action  3.21
          • (4)  Replacement by Substantially Younger Employee  3.22
            • (a)  Statistical Evidence  3.22A
            • (b)  Delay in Replacement  3.22B
            • (c)  Equal or Superior Qualifications  3.22C
        • c.  Rebuttal; Pretext  3.23
          • (1)  Employer’s Burden of Production in Rebutting Prima Facie Case  3.23A
          • (2)  Examples of Legitimate, Nondiscriminatory Motives  3.23B
          • (3)  Pretext: Burden of Persuasion  3.23C
          • (4)  Examples of Pretextual Evidence  3.23D
      • 2.  Disparate Impact  3.24
    • F.  Defenses  3.25
      • 1.  Bona Fide Occupational Qualification  3.26
      • 2.  Reasonable Factors Other Than Age  3.27
      • 3.  Violation of Laws in Foreign Country  3.28
      • 4.  Bona Fide Seniority System or Employee Benefit Plan  3.29
      • 5.  Good Cause  3.30
      • 6.  Waiver  3.31
    • G.  ADEA Remedies
      • 1.  Back Pay  3.32
      • 2.  Reinstatement or Promotion  3.33
      • 3.  Front Pay  3.34
      • 4.  Liquidated Damages  3.35
      • 5.  Attorney Fees  3.36
      • 6.  Punitive Damages Unavailable  3.37
      • 7.  Emotional Distress Damages Unavailable  3.38
  • III.  FAIR EMPLOYMENT AND HOUSING ACT (FEHA)  3.39
    • A.  What Is Prohibited
      • 1.  Age Discrimination, Retaliation, and Harassment  3.40
      • 2.  Exceptions  3.40A
      • 3.  Mandatory Retirement
        • a.  Generally Prohibited  3.41
        • b.  Exceptions  3.42
      • 4.  Aiding and Abetting  3.42A
    • B.  Who May Be Liable
      • 1.  Employers With Five or More Employees  3.43
      • 2.  Religious Organizations Exempt  3.44
      • 3.  No Individual Liability  3.45
    • C.  Who Is Protected  3.46
    • D.  Procedural Requirements: Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies  3.47
    • E.  Proving Age Discrimination Under FEHA
      • 1.  Disparate Treatment
        • a.  Prima Facie Case  3.48
          • (1)  Substantial Motivating Factor  3.48A
          • (2)  Direct Evidence  3.48B
          • (3)  Circumstantial Evidence  3.48C
          • (4)  Evidence of Remarks Indicating Age Bias  3.49
          • (5)  Imputing Age Bias to Agent/Employer  3.50
          • (6)  Replacement by Significantly Younger Employee  3.50A
            • (a)  Replacement by Older Employee  3.50B
            • (b)  Reduction in Force  3.50C
        • b.  Rebuttal
          • (1)  Legitimate Nondiscriminatory Reason  3.50D
          • (2)  Same-Actor Inference  3.50E
        • c.  Pretext  3.51
      • 2.  Disparate Impact  3.52
        • a.  Salary Discrimination as Disparate Impact  3.52A
        • b.  Statistical Evidence  3.52B
    • F.  Defenses  3.53
      • 1.  Avoidable Consequences Doctrine  3.53A
      • 2.  Same-Decision Defense  3.53B
    • G.  Remedies  3.54

3A

Retaliation and Whistleblower Claims

Thomas P. Klein

Hon. Stephen M. Murphy

William C. Quackenbush

Cynthia L. Remmers

Christian J. Rowley

Gary R. Siniscalco

John M. True III

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  3A.1
  • II.  MAJOR ANTIRETALIATION STATUTES
    • A.  Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII)  3A.2
      • 1.  Covered Employers  3A.3
      • 2.  Covered Employees  3A.4
      • 3.  Proving Retaliation Under Title VII
        • a.  Allocation of Burdens  3A.5
        • b.  Prima Facie Case  3A.6
          • (1)  Protected Activity  3A.7
            • (a)  Opposition to Unlawful Employment Practice
              • (i)  What Constitutes an Unlawful Employment Practice  3A.8
              • (ii)  What Constitutes Opposition  3A.9
              • (iii)  Opposition Must Be Directed at Employer’s Unlawful Practice  3A.10
              • (iv)  Manner of Opposition Must Be Reasonable  3A.11
            • (b)  Participation in Proceedings Under Title VII
              • (i)  Must Be in Proceeding to Enforce Title VII  3A.12
              • (ii)  Determining When Participation Begins  3A.13
              • (iii)  Charge Need Not Be Meritorious  3A.14
              • (iv)  Proceedings May Involve Different Employer  3A.15
              • (v)  Third-Party Retaliation  3A.16
          • (2)  Adverse Employment Action
            • (a)  Objective Standard: Materially Adverse to Reasonable Employee  3A.17
            • (b)  Examples of Materially Adverse Employment Actions  3A.18
            • (c)  Post-Employment Adverse Action  3A.19
          • (3)  Causal Connection  3A.20
        • c.  Legitimate, Nonretaliatory Reason for Action  3A.21
        • d.  Pretext  3A.22
    • B.  Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA)  3A.23
      • 1.  Covered Employers  3A.24
      • 2.  Covered Employees  3A.25
      • 3.  Proving Retaliation Under FEHA
        • a.  Allocation of Burdens  3A.26
        • b.  Prima Facie Case  3A.27
          • (1)  Protected Activity  3A.28
            • (a)  Opposition to Prohibited Practices
              • (i)  DFEH Regulations  3A.29
              • (ii)  Examples  3A.30
              • (iii)  Employer Must Be Aware of Opposition  3A.31
            • (b)  Participation in FEHA Proceedings  3A.32
          • (2)  Adverse Employment Action  3A.33
          • (3)  Causal Link  3A.34
        • c.  Rebuttal; Pretext  3A.35
    • C.  Fair Labor Standards Act (29 USC §215)  3A.36
    • D.  Exercise of Rights Under the Labor Code (Lab C §98.6)
      • 1.  Protections  3A.37
      • 2.  Procedures  3A.38
      • 3.  Remedies  3A.39
  • III.  MAJOR WHISTLEBLOWER PROTECTIONS
    • A.  Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989 (5 USC §2302(b)(8))  3A.40
      • 1.  Coverage
        • a.  Employee Must Be in “Covered Position”  3A.41
        • b.  Covered Position Must Be in “Agency”  3A.42
      • 2.  Prohibited Acts and Protected Conduct  3A.43
        • a.  “Personnel Action”  3A.44
        • b.  “Disclosure”  3A.45
          • (1)  Disclosure Specifically Prohibited by Law or Required to Be Kept Secret  3A.46
          • (2)  To Whom Disclosure Must Be Made  3A.47
          • (3)  What Constitutes “Substantial and Specific Danger”  3A.48
          • (4)  Reasonable Belief  3A.49
      • 3.  Procedures for Pursuing WPA Claim  3A.50
      • 4.  Proving WPA Claim
        • a.  Elements  3A.51
        • b.  Causation  3A.52
        • c.  Rebuttal  3A.53
    • B.  California Whistleblower Protection Act (Govt C §§8547–8547.15)  3A.54
      • 1.  Coverage  3A.55
      • 2.  Protected Disclosures  3A.56
      • 3.  Prohibited Conduct  3A.57
      • 4.  Limitations on Filing Civil Damages Action  3A.58
        • a.  State Employees Generally  3A.59
        • b.  Employees of the University of California  3A.60
        • c.  Employees of the California State University  3A.61
      • 5.  Remedies  3A.62
    • C.  Labor Code §1102.5  3A.63
      • 1.  Covered Employers and Employees  3A.64
      • 2.  Procedural Issues
        • a.  Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies  3A.65
        • b.  Statute of Limitations  3A.66
      • 3.  Proving Retaliation Under Lab C §1102.5
        • a.  Application of McDonnell Douglas Burden-Shifting Framework  3A.67
        • b.  Prima Facie Case  3A.68
          • (1)  Protected Activity  3A.69
            • (a)  “Disclose Information”
            • (b)  Employee’s Motivation Is Irrelevant  3A.70
            • (c)  Reasonable Belief of Violation of Law, Rule, or Regulation  3A.71
            • (d)  Disclosure May Be Protected Even If Made in Normal Course of Duties  3A.72
            • (e)  Disclosure Must Not Involve Publicly Known Facts  3A.73
            • (f)  To Whom May Disclosure Be Made  3A.74
          • (2)  Adverse Employment Action  3A.75
          • (3)  Casual Link  3A.76
        • c.  Mixed-Motive Cases  3A.77
    • D.  Health and Safety Code §1278.5  3A.78
      • 1.  Coverage and Protected Conduct  3A.79
      • 2.  “Health Facility”  3A.80
      • 3.  Rebuttable Presumption of Unlawful Retaliation  3A.81
      • 4.  Exhaustion of Remedies Not Required  3A.82
      • 5.  Pleading Cause of Action  3A.83
      • 6.  Proper Defendants  3A.84
      • 7.  Remedies  3A.85
      • 8.  Civil Penalties; Misdemeanor Fine  3A.86
    • E.  California Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1973 (Cal-OSHA)  3A.87
      • 1.  Coverage
        • a.  Employers  3A.88
        • b.  Employees  3A.89
      • 2.  Protected Conduct
        • a.  Lab C §6310 (Making Complaint)  3A.90
        • b.  Lab C §6311 (Refusing to Work)  3A.91
      • 3.  Procedures
        • a.  Complaint Under Lab C §98.7  3A.92
        • b.  Private Right of Action  3A.93
          • (1)  Pleading Requirements  3A.94
          • (2)  Preclusive Effect of Arbitration Decision Under CBA  3A.95
      • 4.  Remedies  3A.96
  • IV.  OTHER RETALIATION AND WHISTLEBLOWER PROTECTIONS
    • A.  Federal Statutes
      • 1.  Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act (49 USC §31105)  3A.97
      • 2.  Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) (29 USC §1140)  3A.98
        • a.  When ERISA Preempts Other Remedies  3A.99
        • b.  When ERISA Does Not Preempt Other Remedies  3A.100
      • 3.  Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 USC §1831j)
        • a.  Protected Employees  3A.101
        • b.  Unprotected Employees  3A.102
      • 4.  Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (30 USC §1293)  3A.103
      • 5.  International Safe Container Act (46 USC §80507)  3A.104
      • 6.  False Claims Act (FCA) (31 USC §§3729–3733)  3A.105
      • 7.  Corporate and Criminal Fraud Accountability Act of 2002 (Sarbanes-Oxley Act) (18 USC §1514a)  3A.106
      • 8.  Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act (Clean Air Act) (42 USC §7622(a))  3A.107
      • 9.  Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 (42 USC §5851(a))  3A.108
      • 10.  Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) (42 USC §9610(a))  3A.109
      • 11.  Safe Drinking Water Act (42 USC §300j–9)  3A.110
      • 12.  Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 USC §6971(a))  3A.111
      • 13.  Toxic Substance Control Act (15 USC §2622(a))  3A.112
      • 14.  Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act) (33 USC §1367(a))  3A.113
      • 15.  Mine Safety and Health Act (30 USC §815(c))  3A.114
      • 16.  Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) of 1970 (29 USC §660(c))  3A.115
      • 17.  Railway Safety Under Transportation Acts  3A.116
      • 18.  Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act (29 USC §1855(a))  3A.117
      • 19.  Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act (40 USC §3704(a)(1))  3A.118
    • B.  State Statutes
      • 1.  Protection for Child Labor Whistleblowers (Lab C §1311.5)  3A.119
      • 2.  False Claims Act (Govt C §§12650–12656)
        • a.  Bringing False Claims Action  3A.120
        • b.  Protections  3A.121
        • c.  Remedies  3A.122
      • 3.  Protection for Industrially Injured Employees (Lab C §132a)  3A.123
        • a.  When Employer Violates Lab C §132a  3A.124
        • b.  When Employer Does Not Violate Lab C §132a  3A.125
      • 4.  Garnishment or Assignment of Wages (Lab C §2929)  3A.126
      • 5.  Meyers-Milias-Brown Act  3A.127
      • 6.  Refusal to Commit Illegal Act (Lab C §2856)  3A.128

4

Sexual and Other Forms of Harassment

Barbara S. Bryant

Roxanne A. Davis

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  4.1
  • II.  LEGAL BASES FOR SEXUAL HARASSMENT CLAIMS
    • A.  Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA)
      • 1.  Express Prohibition Against Sexual Harassment  4.2
      • 2.  Prohibition Against Sex Discrimination  4.3
      • 3.  Employer’s Duty to Prevent Harassment
        • a.  Must Take All Reasonable Steps to Prevent Harassment  4.4
        • b.  Duty to Post Information About Harassment  4.5
        • c.  Duty to Train Supervisory Employees  4.6
      • 4.  Use of Federal Decisions to Interpret FEHA?  4.7
    • B.  Title VII of Civil Rights Act of 1964  4.8
    • C.  California Constitution  4.9
    • D.  Claims Based on Tortious Conduct  4.10
    • E.  Other Statutes  4.11
  • III.  WHO IS PROTECTED FROM SEXUAL HARASSMENT
    • A.  Protection Under FEHA  4.12
      • 1.  Employees  4.13
      • 2.  Applicants  4.14
      • 3.  Persons Providing Services Under a Contract  4.15
      • 4.  Interns and Volunteers  4.15A
    • B.  Protection Under Title VII  4.16
  • IV.  WHO MAY BE LIABLE FOR SEXUAL HARASSMENT
    • A.  Liability Under FEHA
      • 1.  In General  4.17
      • 2.  Specific Exemptions  4.18
      • 3.  Liability of Employers
        • a.  Expansive Definition of “Employer”  4.19
        • b.  Strict Liability for Harassment by Supervisor or Agent  4.20
          • (1)  Who Is a “Supervisor”  4.21
          • (2)  Who Is an “Agent”  4.22
          • (3)  Nexus Required Between Harassment and Employment  4.23
        • c.  Liability for Acts of Coworkers  4.24
        • d.  Liability for Acts of Nonemployees  4.25
        • e.  Employers Usually Not Liable for Tort Claims Arising From Sexual Harassment  4.26
      • 4.  Individual Liability  4.27
    • B.  Liability Under Title VII
      • 1.  In General  4.28
      • 2.  Liability of Employers
        • a.  Who Is an “Employer”  4.29
        • b.  Harassment by Supervisors
          • (1)  Who Is a “Supervisor”  4.30
          • (2)  Vicarious Liability When Tangible Employment Action Taken  4.31
            • (a)  Ellerth/Faragher Defense Unavailable  4.32
            • (b)  Causal Connection to Harassment  4.32A
            • (c)  Determining Whether Tangible Employment Action Occurred  4.33
            • (d)  When Plaintiff Alleges Constructive Discharge  4.34
              • (i)  When Plaintiff Submits to Unwelcome Sexual Advances  4.35
              • (ii)  “Unfulfilled Threat” Cases  4.36
          • (3)  When No Tangible Employment Action Taken  4.37
        • c.  Harassment by Coworkers  4.38
        • d.  Harassment by Nonemployees  4.39
      • 3.  Individual Liability  4.40
  • V.  WHAT CONSTITUTES SEXUAL HARASSMENT
    • A.  Quid Pro Quo or Hostile Environment?  4.41
    • B.  Quid Pro Quo Harassment
      • 1.  General Requirements  4.42
      • 2.  Single Incident May Be Sufficient  4.43
      • 3.  Conduct Can Be Express or Implied  4.44
      • 4.  Conduct Must Be Based on Sex  4.45
      • 5.  Conduct Must Be Unwelcome  4.46
        • a.  Need Not Show Economic Injury  4.47
        • b.  Need Not Show Psychological Injury  4.48
      • 6.  Conduct Must Be Undertaken by Supervisor  4.48A
    • C.  Hostile Environment Harassment
      • 1.  General Requirements  4.49
        • a.  Conduct Must Be of Sexual Nature  4.50
        • b.  Conduct Must Be Unwelcome  4.51
        • c.  Conduct Must Be Severe or Pervasive  4.52
          • (1)  Objective and Subjective Standard  4.53
            • (a)  Reasonable Person in Plaintiff’s Position  4.54
            • (b)  Totality of Circumstances  4.55
          • (2)  Determining Severity
            • (a)  Consideration of Social Context  4.56
            • (b)  Single Incident Sufficient?  4.57
          • (3)  Determining Pervasiveness  4.58
        • d.  Need Not Show Psychological or Economic Injury  4.59
      • 2.  When Harassment Is Not Directed at Plaintiff  4.60
      • 3.  “Paramour Preference” Harassment  4.61
      • 4.  Sex-Based Harassment (Conduct Itself Not Sexual)  4.62
      • 5.  Constructive Termination  4.63
        • a.  Standard of Proof  4.64
        • b.  Whether Plaintiff Must Prove Constructive Termination  4.65
        • c.  Statute of Limitations Issues  4.66
  • VI.  DEFENDING AGAINST SEXUAL HARASSMENT CLAIMS
    • A.  Possible Defenses  4.67
    • B.  Employer Responded Appropriately to Sexual Harassment Charge
      • 1.  FEHA
        • a.  Defense Available Only for Coworker and Nonemployee Conduct  4.68
        • b.  What Constitutes Appropriate Corrective Action  4.69
      • 2.  Title VII (Ellerth/Faragher Defense)  4.70
        • a.  Prevention of Harassing Behavior  4.71
        • b.  Correction of Harassing Behavior  4.72
        • c.  Employee’s Failure to Use Available Corrective Opportunities  4.73
    • C.  Plaintiff Failed to Exhaust Administrative Remedies; Preemption  4.74
    • D.  Plaintiff Has Not Filed in Proper Court
      • 1.  Venue  4.75
      • 2.  Removal  4.76
    • E.  Plaintiff’s Claim Is Time-Barred
      • 1.  General Deadlines  4.77
      • 2.  Continuing Violation Doctrine  4.78
    • F.  Ministerial Exception for Religious Entities?  4.78A
  • VII.  REMEDIES FOR SEXUAL HARASSMENT
    • A.  In General  4.79
    • B.  Punitive Damages Under FEHA  4.80
    • C.  Duty to Mitigate Damages  4.81
    • D.  Avoidable Consequences Doctrine  4.82
    • E.  Standard of Proof/Causation Issues in Sexual Harassment Cases  4.83
  • VIII.  HARASSMENT CLAIMS UNRELATED TO SEX  4.84
    • A.  Legal Bases  4.85
    • B.  Proving Non-Sexual Harassment Claims
      • 1.  Racial and National Origin Harassment
        • a.  Prima Facie Case  4.86
        • b.  Determining Whether Conduct Created Sufficiently Hostile Environment  4.87
      • 2.  Religious Harassment  4.88

5

Other Employee Rights Statutes

Roxanne A. Davis

William C. Quackenbush

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  5.1
  • II.  STATE STATUTORY PROTECTIONS
    • A.  Overview  5.2
    • B.  State Laws Prohibiting Discharge While Employees Absent From Work on Protected Leave
      • 1.  California Family Rights Act (CFRA) (Govt C §12945.2)
        • a.  Coverage  5.3
        • b.  Employee Rights Under CFRA  5.4
        • c.  Providing Notice of Need for CFRA Leave  5.5
        • d.  Employer Responsibilities
          • (1)  Posting Notice  5.6
          • (2)  Maintaining Confidentiality of Medical Records  5.7
          • (3)  Reasonable Accommodation Not Required  5.8
          • (4)  Employer Must Respond to Request Within 10 Days  5.8A
        • e.  What Is a “Serious Health Condition”  5.9
        • f.  Protection Against Retaliation  5.10
        • g.  Enforcement  5.11
        • h.  Relief  5.12
      • 2.  Pregnancy Disability Leave (Govt C §12945)
        • a.  Coverage  5.13
        • b.  Relationship With CFRA Leave  5.13A
        • c.  Enforcement; Remedies  5.14
      • 3.  Jurors, Witnesses, and Domestic Violence/Sexual Assault/Stalking Victims (Lab C §§230–230.1)  5.15
      • 4.  Attendance at Judicial Proceedings by Certain Felony Victims and Immediate Family (Lab C §230.2)  5.16
      • 5.  Military Duty (Mil & V C §394)  5.17
      • 6.  Alcohol and Drug Rehabilitation Act  5.18
      • 7.  Election Officer (Elec C §12312)  5.19
      • 8.  School Visit by Parent (Lab C §§230.7–230.8; Ed C §48900.1)  5.20
      • 9.  Volunteer Firefighter, Reserve Police Officer, Emergency Rescue Personnel (Lab C §230.3)  5.21
      • 10.  Sick Leave for Illness of Family Member (Kin Care) (Lab C §§233–234)  5.22
      • 11.  Healthy Workplaces, Healthy Families Act of 2014 (Mandatory Paid Sick Leave Law) (Lab C §§245–249, 2810.5)  5.22A
      • 12.  Family Temporary Disability Insurance (Paid Family Leave) (Un Ins C §§3300–3305)  5.23
    • C.  Health and Confidentiality Concerns
      • 1.  AIDS Public Health Records Confidentiality Act (Health & S C §120980)  5.24
      • 2.  Disclosure of Criminal History (Lab C §§432.7–432.8)  5.25
      • 3.  Fingerprints or Photographs for Improper Purpose  5.26
      • 4.  Health Care Workers Who Refuse to Participate in Abortion (Health & S C §123420)  5.27
      • 5.  Health Care Worker’s Report of Victims of Abuse or Neglect (Pen C §11161.8; Govt C §12940(g))  5.28
      • 6.  Medical Information Disclosure (CC §§56.10(a), 56.20(b))  5.29
      • 7.  Polygraph Examinations (Lab C §432.2)  5.30
      • 8.  Voice Stress Analysis  5.31
      • 9.  Health Benefits for Domestic Partners  5.32
      • 10.  Benefits for Domestic Partners of Employees of State Contractors  5.33
      • 11.  Victims of Domestic Violence, Sexual Assault, or Stalking  5.33A
        • a.  Reasonable Accommodation  5.33B
        • b.  Request for Certification  5.33C
    • D.  Wage Payment and Working Conditions
      • 1.  Payment of Wages on Termination (Lab C §§200–300)  5.34
        • a.  Commissions and Bonuses  5.35
        • b.  Vacation Pay  5.36
      • 2.  Waiting Time Penalties  5.37
      • 3.  Actions and Remedies for Failure to Pay Wages  5.38
        • a.  Civil Actions
          • (1)  Who Is Liable for Payment of Wages  5.39
          • (2)  Attorney Fees and Costs  5.40
        • b.  Proceeding Before Labor Commissioner
          • (1)  Berman Hearing  5.41
          • (2)  Trial De Novo on Appeal  5.42
          • (3)  Attorney Fees Awarded on Trial De Novo  5.43
      • 4.  Denial of Meal or Break Period  5.44
      • 5.  Right to Inspect Payroll Records  5.45
      • 6.  Payment of Minimum Wage or Overtime (Lab C §§1194–1197)  5.46
      • 7.  Minimum Wage for Labor Contractor Employees (Lab C §2810)  5.47
      • 8.  Punitive Damages May Be Unavailable  5.48
    • E.  Freedom of Speech, Expression, and Association
      • 1.  Political Affiliation (Lab C §§1101–1102)  5.49
      • 2.  Wearing Pants (Govt C §12947.5)  5.50
      • 3.  Refusal to Patronize Employer (Lab C §450)  5.51
      • 4.  Disclosure by Employees of Wages or Working Conditions (Lab C §§232, 232.5)  5.52
      • 5.  Unfair Competition (Bus & P C §17200)
        • a.  Coverage and Remedies  5.53
        • b.  Proposition 64  5.54
        • c.  Subsequent Employment  5.55
        • d.  Remedies Cumulative  5.56
      • 6.  California Corporate Criminal Liability Act of 1989 (Pen C §387)  5.57
      • 7.  Defamation (CC §§44–45)  5.58
      • 8.  Blacklisting (Lab C §1050)  5.59
      • 9.  Equal Pay Act (Lab C §1197.5)  5.60
      • 10.  Enrolling in Adult Literacy Program (Lab C §§1040–1044)  5.61
      • 11.  Immigration Status Irrelevant (CC §3339)  5.62
    • F.  Miscellaneous Concerns
      • 1.  Disclosure or Assignment of Inventions as Condition of Employment (Lab C §2870)  5.63
      • 2.  Inducing Employee to Move (Lab C §970)  5.64
      • 3.  Notice of Relocations, Terminations, and Mass Layoffs (Lab C §§1400–1408)  5.65
      • 4.  Private Attorneys General Civil Suit for Labor Code Violations (Lab C §§2698–2699.5)  5.66
        • a.  Exceptions and Limitations  5.67
        • b.  Procedures
          • (1)  Violations of Provisions Listed in Labor Code §2699.5  5.68
          • (2)  Health and Safety Violations  5.69
          • (3)  Other Statutes  5.70
        • c.  Remedies  5.71
      • 5.  Use of Consumer Credit Report (Lab C §1024.5)  5.71A
    • G.  State Laws Protecting Union and Other Concerted Activity
      • 1.  Agricultural Labor Relations Act of 1975 (Lab C §1153(c))  5.72
      • 2.  Labor Organization Affiliation (Lab C §§921, 923)
        • a.  Protected Activity  5.73
        • b.  Possibly Unprotected Activity  5.74
      • 3.  Lawful Off-Duty Conduct  5.75
  • III.  LOCAL ORDINANCES  5.76
    • A.  Employee Privacy
      • 1.  Drug Testing  5.77
      • 2.  Personal Relationships  5.78
    • B.  Specific Payments  5.79
    • C.  Discrimination  5.80
    • D.  Employee Health and Safety [Deleted]  5.81
  • IV.  CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS
    • A.  Privacy Rights  5.82
    • B.  Right to Be Free From Discrimination  5.83
  • V.  FEDERAL STATUTORY PROTECTIONS
    • A.  Overview  5.84
    • B.  Federal Laws Prohibiting Discharge While Employees Absent From Work on Protected Leave
      • 1.  Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) (29 USC §§2601–2654)
        • a.  Permitted Reasons for Leave  5.85
          • (1)  Covered Employers  5.86
          • (2)  Eligible Employees  5.87
          • (3)  Definition of “Serious Health Condition”  5.88
        • b.  Leave Requirements
          • (1)  Amount of Leave  5.89
          • (2)  Notice When Leave Is for Birth or Adoption  5.90
          • (3)  Notice and Certification When Leave Is Based on Treatment for Serious Health Condition  5.91
          • (4)  Reinstatement When Leave Ends  5.92
        • c.  Enforcement  5.93
        • d.  Remedies  5.94
      • 2.  Jury System Improvement Act of 1978 (28 USC §§1861–1878)  5.95
      • 3.  Vietnam Era Veterans’ Readjustment Assistance Act of 1972–1974 (38 USC §4212)  5.96
      • 4.  Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act of 1994 (USERRA) (38 USC §4316)  5.97
    • C.  Federal Laws Protecting Employees Because of Union and Other Concerted Activity
      • 1.  National Labor Relations Act (NLRA)  5.98
        • a.  NLRB Procedure  5.99
        • b.  When NLRA Preempts Other Remedies  5.100
        • c.  When NLRA Does Not Preempt Other Remedies  5.101
      • 2.  Labor Management Relations Act of 1947 (LMRA)  5.102
        • a.  When LMRA Preempts Other Remedies  5.103
        • b.  When LMRA Does Not Preempt Other Remedies  5.104
        • c.  Seeking Relief Under LMRA  5.105
          • (1)  Exhausting Grievance Procedures  5.106
          • (2)  Statute of Limitations  5.107
          • (3)  Jurisdiction  5.108
      • 3.  Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (LMRDA)  5.109
        • a.  When LMRDA Preempts Other Remedies  5.110
        • b.  Exhausting Grievance Procedures  5.111
      • 4.  Railway Labor Act (RLA)  5.112
        • a.  When RLA Preempts Other Remedies  5.113
        • b.  When RLA Does Not Preempt Other Remedies  5.114
    • D.  Miscellaneous Federal Statutes
      • 1.  Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC §1674)  5.115
      • 2.  Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988 (29 USC §2002)  5.116
      • 3.  Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) (8 USC §1324b)  5.117
      • 4.  Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act of 1988 (WARN) (29 USC §§2101, 2104)  5.118
      • 5.  Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) (18 USC §§1961–1968)  5.119
      • 6.  Older Workers Benefit Protection Act (29 USC §626(f))  5.120
      • 7.  Abortion and Sterilization Procedures  5.121
      • 8.  Bankruptcy Act (11 USC §525(b))  5.122

6

Wrongful Termination in Violation of Public Policy

William C. Quackenbush

B. Scott Silverman

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  6.1
  • II.  OVERVIEW OF THE TORT  6.2
    • A.  Historical Development  6.3
    • B.  Advantages for Plaintiffs  6.4
  • III.  ELEMENTS OF CAUSE OF ACTION FOR WRONGFUL TERMINATION  6.5
    • A.  Employer-Employee Relationship  6.6
    • B.  Termination
      • 1.  Broad Definition  6.7
      • 2.  Nonrenewal of Employment Contract Insufficient  6.7A
    • C.  Violation of Public Policy  6.8
      • 1.  Policy Must Be Embodied in Constitutional Provision, Statute, or Regulation  6.9
        • a.  California Constitution
          • (1)  Article I, §8  6.10
          • (2)  Article I, §1  6.11
        • b.  California Statutes
          • (1)  Statutes Expressly Prohibiting Termination or Retaliation  6.12
          • (2)  Other Statutes  6.13
        • c.  Federal Statutes  6.14
      • 2.  Policy Beneficial to Public  6.15
        • a.  Examples of Public Benefit  6.16
        • b.  Examples of Insufficient Public Benefit  6.17
      • 3.  Fundamental, Substantial, and Well-Established Policy  6.18
    • D.  Nexus Between Public Policy and Termination  6.19
      • 1.  Claims Based on Employer Retaliation  6.20
        • a.  Exercising Legal Rights  6.21
          • (1)  Under the Labor Code
            • (a)  Lodging Complaints About Workplace Safety or Health (Cal-OSHA) (Lab C §§6310–6312)  6.22
            • (b)  Engaging in Political Activities and Affiliations (Lab C §§1101–1106)  6.23
            • (c)  Engaging in Union Activity (Lab C §§922–923)  6.24
            • (d)  Appearing for Jury Duty or as Witness (Lab C §230(a)–(b))  6.25
            • (e)  Obtaining Relief as Domestic Violence, Sexual Assault, or Stalking Victim (Lab C §230(c))  6.26
            • (f)  Asserting Right to Receive Full Wages  6.27
          • (2)  Exercise of Other Legal Rights
            • (a)  Refusing Workplace Drug Testing (Cal Const Art I, §1)  6.28
            • (b)  Reporting Discriminatory Conduct (Govt C §12940(h))  6.29
            • (c)  Filing for Unemployment Benefits & Bankruptcy  6.30
            • (d)  Refusing to Sign Nonsolicitation Covenant (Bus & P C §16600)  6.31
          • (3)  When Exercising Legal Right Is Insufficient  6.32
        • b.  Reporting Alleged Violation of Law (Whistleblowing)  6.33
          • (1)  Internal Whistleblowing  6.34
          • (2)  Reported Conduct Need Not Be Unlawful  6.35
        • c.  Refusing to Participate in Illegal Conduct  6.36
          • (1)  Whether Refused Conduct Must Actually Be Unlawful  6.37
          • (2)  Must Show Refusal to Participate  6.38
        • d.  Performing a Statutory Obligation  6.39
      • 2.  Claims Based on Employee’s Protected Status  6.40
      • 3.  Terminations Other Than Retaliatory or Discriminatory  6.41
        • a.  Violations of Lab C §970  6.42
        • b.  Terminations to Avoid Paying Wages or Benefits  6.43
        • c.  Terminations Because of Lawful Off-Duty Conduct  6.44
      • 4.  Constructive Termination  6.45
    • E.  Causation  6.46
  • IV.  DEFENDING AGAINST WRONGFUL TERMINATION CLAIM
    • A.  Statute of Limitations  6.47
    • B.  Defendant Is Not Subject to Statute on Which Public Policy Claim Is Based  6.47A
    • C.  Workers’ Compensation Exclusivity  6.48
    • D.  After-Acquired-Evidence Doctrine  6.49
    • E.  Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA)  6.50
    • F.  Federal Labor Law
      • 1.  Labor Management Relations Act; Railway Labor Act  6.51
      • 2.  National Labor Relations Act  6.52
      • 3.  Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act  6.53
    • G.  Other Defenses
      • 1.  Defense Upheld
        • a.  Public Employees  6.54
        • b.  Arbitration  6.55
        • c.  Clergy  6.56
        • d.  Federal Enclave  6.57
        • e.  Feres Doctrine  6.58
      • 2.  Defense Rejected
        • a.  Occupational Safety and Health Act (Cal-OSHA)  6.59
        • b.  At-Will Agreements  6.60
        • c.  Savings and Loan Associations; Banks  6.61
        • d.  In Pari Delicto  6.62
        • e.  Federal Whistleblowers  6.63
        • f.  Federal Immigration Law  6.64
  • V.  REMEDIES FOR WRONGFUL TERMINATION CLAIMS  6.65
    • A.  Economic Damages  6.66
    • B.  Damages for Emotional Distress  6.67
    • C.  Punitive Damages  6.68

7

Other Tort Claims

Lois M. Kosch

Claudette G. Wilson

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  7.1
  • II.  DEFAMATION
    • A.  Elements  7.2
      • 1.  False and Unprivileged Statement  7.3
      • 2.  Publication  7.4
        • a.  Republication  7.5
        • b.  Self-Publication  7.6
      • 3.  Injury to Occupation  7.7
    • B.  When Employer Liable  7.8
    • C.  When Coworkers Liable  7.9
    • D.  Defenses
      • 1.  Truth  7.10
      • 2.  Privileged Communication
        • a.  Conditional or Qualified Privilege  7.11
        • b.  Absolute Privilege  7.12
      • 3.  Consent  7.13
      • 4.  Statement of Opinion  7.14
      • 5.  Statute of Limitations  7.15
      • 6.  No Workers’ Compensation Bar  7.16
      • 7.  No FELA Preemption  7.16A
    • E.  Damages
      • 1.  General Damages  7.17
      • 2.  Special Damages  7.18
      • 3.  Punitive Damages  7.19
  • III.  FRAUD
    • A.  Elements  7.20
      • 1.  Fraud Claims in Employment Context  7.21
        • a.  False Representations  7.22
        • b.  False Promises  7.23
        • c.  Nondisclosures  7.24
      • 2.  Specific Pleading of Elements Required  7.25
    • B.  When Fraud Claim Available  7.26
    • C.  Defenses
      • 1.  Statute of Limitations  7.27
      • 2.  No Workers’ Compensation Bar  7.28
      • 3.  Other Defenses  7.28A
    • D.  Damages  7.29
  • IV.  FALSE IMPRISONMENT
    • A.  Elements  7.30
    • B.  False Imprisonment Claims in Employment Context  7.31
    • C.  When Employer Liable  7.32
    • D.  Defenses
      • 1.  Statute of Limitations  7.33
      • 2.  Merchant Defense  7.34
      • 3.  No Workers’ Compensation Bar  7.35
    • E.  Damages  7.36
  • V.  INTERFERENCE WITH CONTRACTUAL RELATIONSHIP
    • A.  Elements
      • 1.  Interference With Prospective Economic Advantage  7.37
      • 2.  Intentional Interference With Contractual Relationship  7.38
      • 3.  Inducing Breach of Contract  7.39
    • B.  Who May Be Liable  7.40
    • C.  Damages  7.41
  • VI.  INTENTIONAL INFLICTION OF EMOTIONAL DISTRESS
    • A.  Elements  7.42
      • 1.  Outrageous Conduct Found  7.43
      • 2.  No Outrageous Conduct Found  7.44
    • B.  Defenses
      • 1.  Workers’ Compensation Defense
        • a.  General Principles  7.45
        • b.  When Not Exclusive Remedy
          • (1)  Conduct Outside the Compensation Agreement  7.46
          • (2)  Unlawful Discrimination  7.46A
          • (3)  Violation of Fundamental Public Policy  7.46B
          • (4)  Employer’s Fraudulent Concealment of Injury  7.46C
          • (5)  Free Speech and Privacy  7.46D
          • (6)  Sexual Harassment  7.46E
      • 2.  Other Defenses
        • a.  Statute of Limitations  7.47
        • b.  Privilege  7.48
    • C.  Damages  7.49
  • VII.  NEGLIGENCE ACTIONS
    • A.  Negligent Infliction of Emotional Distress  7.50
    • B.  Negligent Misrepresentation  7.51
    • C.  Negligence
      • 1.  Negligent Retention  7.52
      • 2.  Negligent Training and Supervision  7.52A
      • 3.  Negligent Hiring  7.52B
  • VIII.  OTHER ACTIONS
    • A.  Loss of Consortium  7.53
    • B.  Conspiracy  7.54
    • C.  Economic Duress  7.55

8

Contract Actions

Lauren Sheft Cartwright

Hon. Stephen M. Murphy

William C. Quackenbush

Abby B. Silverman

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  8.1
  • II.  CLAIMS FOR BREACH OF EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT
    • A.  Proper Parties to Contract Claims
      • 1.  Plaintiffs  8.2
      • 2.  Defendants  8.3
    • B.  Establishing Express Agreement Not to Terminate Except for Good Cause
      • 1.  Written Promises  8.4
      • 2.  Oral Promises  8.5
    • C.  Showing Implied-in-Fact Contract Not to Terminate Except for Good Cause
      • 1.  Totality of Circumstances Test  8.6
        • a.  Personnel Policies or Practices of Employer  8.7
          • (1)  Implied Duty to Transfer Based on Policies or Practices  8.8
          • (2)  Evidence of Past Practices  8.9
        • b.  Employee’s Longevity of Service  8.10
        • c.  Actions or Communications by Employer Reflecting Assurances of Continued Employment  8.11
        • d.  Practices of Industry in Which Employee Is Engaged  8.12
      • 2.  Determining Existence of Integrated At-Will Employment Agreement
        • a.  Plaintiff’s Burden to Rebut Statutory At-Will Presumption  8.13
        • b.  Defendant’s Proof of Integrated Agreement  8.14
        • c.  Case Examples
          • (1)  Integration Found  8.15
          • (2)  Integration Not Found  8.16
    • D.  Other Contract Claims
      • 1.  Demotions  8.17
      • 2.  Implied Agreement Not to Terminate Arbitrarily  8.18
      • 3.  Breach of Promise to Hire  8.19
      • 4.  Fixed-Term Contracts  8.20
      • 5.  Unilateral Termination of Employment Policy  8.20A
      • 6.  Breach of Stock Option and Other Agreements  8.20B
    • E.  Role of “Constructive Discharge” Doctrine  8.21
  • III.  DETERMINING EXISTENCE OF GOOD CAUSE
    • A.  Plaintiff’s Burden of Proof  8.22
    • B.  Fact Finder’s Determination of Good Cause  8.23
    • C.  Good Cause as Matter of Law  8.24
    • D.  Reduction in Force as Good Cause  8.25
    • E.  Alleged Misconduct as Good Cause  8.26
  • IV.  COVENANT OF GOOD FAITH AND FAIR DEALING
    • A.  Implied-in-Law Covenant in Employment Contracts  8.27
    • B.  Covenant Applicable to At-Will Employees  8.28
  • V.  DEFENSES TO BREACH OF CONTRACT CLAIM
    • A.  Statute of Limitations
      • 1.  Breach of Express or Implied Contract  8.29
      • 2.  Breach of Covenant of Good Faith and Fair Dealing  8.30
      • 3.  When Statute Begins to Run  8.31
    • B.  Other Defenses  8.32
  • VI.  DAMAGES AVAILABLE IN EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT ACTIONS  8.33
    • A.  Back Pay
      • 1.  Lost Wages and Fringe Benefits  8.34
      • 2.  Lost Profits and Commissions  8.35
    • B.  Front Pay
      • 1.  Length of Period Generally Limited  8.36
      • 2.  Reduction to Present Value  8.37
    • C.  Reliance Damages  8.38
    • D.  Equitable Damages  8.39
    • E.  Costs as Element of Damages  8.39A
    • F.  Mitigation of Damages
      • 1.  Plaintiff’s Duty to Mitigate Damages  8.40
      • 2.  Defendant Has Burden to Prove Plaintiff’s Failure to Mitigate Damages  8.41
      • 3.  Unconditional Reinstatement Offer  8.42
    • G.  Prejudgment Interest  8.43
      • 1.  Civil Code §3287(a)  8.44
      • 2.  Civil Code §3287(b)  8.45
    • H.  Deductions From Damages  8.46

9

Bringing the Action

Katherine J. Edwards

Christine Masters

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  9.1
  • II.  MAKING A REALISTIC EVALUATION OF THE CASE
    • A.  Understand Special Characteristics of Employment Cases  9.2
      • 1.  Liability  9.3
      • 2.  Damages  9.4
      • 3.  Discovery  9.5
      • 4.  Plaintiff’s Attitude  9.6
      • 5.  Defendant’s Attitude  9.7
      • 6.  Expenditure of Time and Money  9.8
    • B.  Obtain Preliminary Data  9.9
    • C.  Be Alert for Problem Plaintiff  9.10
    • D.  Gather Information at Initial Client Interview
      • 1.  Employment History  9.11
      • 2.  History With Defendant Employer
        • a.  Written Materials  9.12
        • b.  Treatment of Employee  9.12A
      • 3.  Similarly Situated Employees  9.13
      • 4.  Employee’s Replacement  9.14
      • 5.  Grievances and Exit Agreements  9.15
      • 6.  Employer’s Response to Internal Complaints  9.16
      • 7.  Contact With Governmental Agencies  9.17
      • 8.  Employee’s Damages  9.18
      • 9.  Information About Employer  9.19
      • 10.  Witnesses  9.20
      • 11.  Client’s Expectations  9.21
    • E.  Analyze Main Theory of Liability, Damages, and Attorney Fees  9.22
      • 1.  Violation of FEHA or Title VII  9.23
      • 2.  Wrongful Termination in Violation of Public Policy  9.24
      • 3.  Termination in Breach of Contract  9.25
      • 4.  Other Theories of Liability  9.26
    • F.  Consider Plaintiff’s Credibility and Degree of Defendant’s Culpability  9.27
  • III.  TAKING THE CASE
    • A.  Be Sure Plaintiff’s Expectations Are Realistic  9.28
    • B.  Enter Into Fee Agreement
      • 1.  Legal Requirements  9.29
      • 2.  Special Considerations  9.30
    • C.  Counsel the Client
      • 1.  Advising Client Who Is Still Employed
        • a.  Possible Resignation  9.31
        • b.  Alternatives to Resignation  9.31A
        • c.  Preserving Client’s Rights When Termination Anticipated  9.31B
        • d.  Using Employer’s Internal Grievance Procedure  9.31C
      • 2.  Possible Unemployment Insurance Benefits for Terminated Employee  9.32
      • 3.  Advising Terminated Employee of Duty to Mitigate Damages  9.33
        • a.  Establishing Mitigation  9.34
        • b.  Employer’s Unconditional Reinstatement Offer  9.35
  • IV.  BEFORE FILING THE COMPLAINT
    • A.  Consider Prelitigation Settlement  9.36
    • B.  Conduct Informal Discovery  9.37
      • 1.  Checklist: Documents From Client  9.38
      • 2.  Employer’s Explanation of Termination  9.39
      • 3.  Employee’s Personnel File  9.40
      • 4.  Administrative Agency or Government Files  9.41
        • a.  Unemployment Insurance Appeals Board  9.42
        • b.  EEOC and DFEH  9.43
        • c.  Labor Commissioner  9.44
      • 5.  Medical Records  9.45
      • 6.  Witnesses
        • a.  Early Contact and Interviews  9.46
        • b.  Management and Nonmanagement Employee Witnesses  9.47
      • 7.  Employer’s Internal Grievance System  9.48
    • C.  Evaluate Possible Impact of Any Prior Proceeding  9.49
      • 1.  Res Judicata and Collateral Estoppel
        • a.  Definitions  9.50
        • b.  Effect of Federal Court Judgment  9.50A
        • c.  Effect of Administrative Agency Decision  9.50B
      • 2.  Prior Arbitration as Res Judicata  9.51
      • 3.  Evidentiary Use  9.52
        • a.  Probable Cause Findings of EEOC and DFEH  9.53
        • b.  Decisions of Other Agencies  9.54
      • 4.  Judicial Estoppel
        • a.  Definition  9.55
        • b.  Prior Receipt of Benefits Under FEHA  9.55A
        • c.  Prior Receipt of Benefits Under ADA  9.55B
    • D.  If Necessary, Exhaust Administrative Remedies  9.56
      • 1.  Include All Bases of Discrimination in Administrative Charge  9.57
      • 2.  Name All Defendants  9.58
      • 3.  Employer’s Offer of Full Relief During Administrative Process  9.59
    • E.  Consider Whether Claim Must Be Submitted to Arbitration
      • 1.  Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA)
        • a.  Language of CBA Controls  9.60
        • b.  Civil Action on Distinct Right  9.60A
      • 2.  Private Agreement to Arbitrate
        • a.  Form of Agreement  9.61
        • b.  Effect of Agreement on Civil Actions  9.61A
          • (1)  Exception for Transportation Workers  9.61B
          • (2)  Pre–Circuit City Cases  9.61C
        • c.  Employers May Require Agreement to Arbitrate  9.61D
        • d.  Unconscionability  9.61E
      • 3.  Employer’s Internal Grievance Policy  9.62
  • V.  SELECTING THE PROPER COURT
    • A.  Choice of State or Federal Court  9.63
    • B.  Removal to Different Forum  9.64
      • 1.  Avoiding Removal
        • a.  By Avoiding Federal Question Preemption  9.65
        • b.  By Avoiding Complete Diversity  9.66
      • 2.  Procedure on Receipt of Notice of Removal
        • a.  File and Serve Jury Demand  9.67
        • b.  Check Notice for Procedural Defects  9.67A
    • C.  If Case Is Brought in Federal Court  9.68
    • D.  Venue  9.69
    • E.  Choice of Law  9.70
  • VI.  DRAFTING THE COMPLAINT  9.71
    • A.  Naming Plaintiffs  9.72
    • B.  Naming Defendants  9.73
      • 1.  The Employer
        • a.  Liability for Employee’s Acts  9.74
        • b.  Parent Corporation  9.75
        • c.  Successor Corporation  9.76
      • 2.  Individual Defendants  9.77
    • C.  Pleading Constructive Termination  9.78
      • 1.  Intolerable Working Conditions  9.79
      • 2.  Employer’s Knowledge of Conditions  9.80
    • D.  Pleading Specific Causes of Action
      • 1.  Be Selective  9.81
      • 2.  Statutory Discrimination Claims  9.82
        • a.  FEHA  9.82A
        • b.  Retaliation  9.82B
        • c.  Labor Code Violations  9.82C
        • d.  Multiple Damages  9.83
      • 3.  Wrongful Termination in Violation of Public Policy  9.84
        • a.  Establishing Existence of Public Policy  9.85
        • b.  Pleading Causation and Policy  9.86
      • 4.  Breach of Contract
        • a.  Pleading Existence of Contract  9.87
        • b.  Alleging Implied Promise Not to Terminate or Discipline Except for Cause  9.88
      • 5.  Defamation  9.89
      • 6.  Intentional or Negligent Infliction of Emotional Distress  9.90
      • 7.  Fraud  9.91
      • 8.  Invasion of Privacy  9.92
      • 9.  Interference With Economic Advantage  9.93
      • 10.  False Imprisonment  9.94
    • E.  Pleading Remedies  9.95
      • 1.  No Statement of Monetary Damages in Tort Actions  9.96
      • 2.  Compensatory Damages  9.97
      • 3.  Punitive Damages
        • a.  Pleading Requirements  9.98
        • b.  Employer Liability  9.98A
      • 4.  Reinstatement as Remedy
        • a.  Under Statutes  9.99
        • b.  Under Common Law  9.100
      • 5.  Attorney Fees  9.101
      • 6.  Injunctive Relief  9.101A
    • F.  Verifying and Filing Complaint
      • 1.  Plaintiff’s Verification of Complaint  9.102
      • 2.  Presenting Signed Complaint for Filing  9.103
  • VII.  SAMPLE FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Letter to Potential Client Requesting Documents  9.104
    • B.  Form: Sample Attorney Fee Agreement  9.105
    • C.  Form: Sample Complaint for Sex Discrimination, Wrongful Termination, and Sexual Harassment  9.106
    • D.  Form: Sample Complaint for Wrongful Termination in Violation of Public Policy  9.107

10

Defending the Action

David A. Cathcart

William D. Claster

Christopher J. Martin

Patricia S. Radez

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  10.1
  • II.  PRELITIGATION MATTERS  10.2
    • A.  Conducting Investigation
      • 1.  Checklist: Inquiries Relevant to Obtaining Information on Adverse Employment Action  10.3
      • 2.  Gathering Sources of Evidence  10.4
      • 3.  Deciding Who Should Investigate  10.5
      • 4.  Preserving Attorney-Client Privilege  10.6
      • 5.  Protecting “Control Group” Employees From Contact With Plaintiff’s Counsel  10.7
      • 6.  Avoiding Posttermination Causes of Action  10.8
    • B.  Evaluating Plaintiff’s Claims
      • 1.  Evaluating Chances of Successful Defense in Jury Trial  10.9
        • a.  Contract Damages  10.9A
        • b.  Tort Damages  10.9B
      • 2.  Litigation Costs  10.10
      • 3.  Suitability of Settlement  10.11
    • C.  Responding to Plaintiff’s Demand Letter  10.12
      • 1.  Offer of Reinstatement
        • a.  Strategic Considerations  10.13
        • b.  Procedures  10.14
      • 2.  Offer of Settlement  10.15
      • 3.  Offer of Alternative Dispute Resolution Procedure  10.16
      • 4.  Demand for Arbitration  10.17
      • 5.  Offer of Judicial Reference (CCP §638)  10.18
      • 6.  Offer to Compromise (CCP §998)  10.19
      • 7.  Courtesy Copy of Filed Complaint: Initial Removal Issue  10.20
    • D.  Representing Multiple Parties
      • 1.  Prerequisites of Joint Defense  10.21
      • 2.  If Conflicts of Interest Likely  10.22
  • III.  INSURANCE COVERAGE ISSUES
    • A.  Insurability of Employment Claims  10.23
    • B.  Duties of Insurer
      • 1.  Duty to Defend  10.24
      • 2.  Reservation of Rights  10.25
      • 3.  Insurer’s Duty to Settle Within Policy Limits  10.26
  • IV.  REMOVAL TO FEDERAL COURT
    • A.  Tactical Considerations
      • 1.  Deciding Whether to Remove  10.27
      • 2.  Anticipating Plaintiff’s Methods to Defeat Removal  10.28
    • B.  Scope of Removal Jurisdiction
      • 1.  Removal Based on Federal Question  10.29
        • a.  When Case “Arises” Under Federal Law  10.30
        • b.  Artful Pleading Cannot Avoid Federal Question Jurisdiction  10.31
        • c.  Preemption May Provide Ground for Removal  10.32
        • d.  Plaintiff’s Right to Select Remedy  10.33
        • e.  Defense Considerations  10.34
      • 2.  Removal Based on Diversity of Citizenship  10.35
        • a.  Citizenship of Corporate Employer Defendants  10.36
        • b.  Ascertaining Whether Diversity Exists  10.37
        • c.  Sham Joinder of Parties  10.38
        • d.  When Cases Become Removable After Diversity Is Established  10.39
    • C.  Rules and Procedures Relating to Removal
      • 1.  Time for Filing Notice  10.40
        • a.  Waiver of Removal  10.41
        • b.  Removal Automatically Deprives State Court of Jurisdiction  10.42
      • 2.  Content of Defendant’s Notice of Removal  10.43
      • 3.  Defendant’s Responsive Pleading  10.44
      • 4.  Plaintiff’s Jury Demand: Manner, Timing, and Waiver  10.45
      • 5.  Remand Procedures  10.46
      • 6.  Review of Order to Remand  10.47
  • V.  RESPONSIVE PLEADINGS
    • A.  Demurrers  10.48
      • 1.  When Demurrer Is Appropriate  10.49
      • 2.  When Demurrer Is Not Appropriate  10.50
      • 3.  Grounds for Demurrer  10.51
    • B.  Judgment on the Pleadings  10.52
    • C.  Answers
      • 1.  Denials
        • a.  General and Specific Denials  10.53
        • b.  Form: General Denial  10.54
      • 2.  Procedural Defenses
        • a.  Statutes of Limitation
          • (1)  When to Assert as Defense  10.55
          • (2)  Applicable Limitations Periods in Selected Situations  10.55A
          • (3)  When Limitations Period Commences  10.55B
          • (4)  Continuing Violation Doctrine  10.55C
          • (5)  Form: Statute of Limitations Defense  10.56
        • b.  Collateral Estoppel
          • (1)  When to Assert as Defense  10.57
          • (2)  Form: Collateral Estoppel Defense  10.58
        • c.  Failure to Exhaust Internal or Administrative Remedies
          • (1)  When to Assert as Defense
            • (a)  Employer’s Internal Grievance Procedure  10.59
            • (b)  Administrative Remedies  10.59A
            • (c)  Public Employees  10.59B
          • (2)  Form: Failure to Exhaust Remedies Defense  10.60
      • 3.  Exclusive Remedies Defenses  10.61
        • a.  Workers’ Compensation Appeals Board
          • (1)  When Applicable  10.62
          • (2)  Plead as Affirmative Defense  10.62A
          • (3)  Form: Workers’ Compensation Defense  10.63
        • b.  Labor Code §132a
          • (1)  When Applicable  10.64
          • (2)  Form: Lab C §132a Defense  10.65
      • 4.  Federal Preemption Defenses
        • a.  Union Member Claims
          • (1)  National Labor Relations Act §§7–8  10.66
          • (2)  Labor Management Relations Act §301  10.67
            • (a)  When Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA) Provides Grievance Procedure  10.67A
            • (b)  Exhaustion of Grievance Procedures Required  10.67B
            • (c)  Preemption of State Law Claims  10.67C
            • (d)  When Is Interpretation of CBA Necessary to Resolve State Claim?  10.67D
          • (3)  Railway Labor Act  10.68
          • (4)  Limitations on Federal Labor Law Preemption  10.69
          • (5)  Statute of Limitations Applied to Claims Preempted by Federal Labor Law  10.70
        • b.  Pension and Benefit Claims Subject to ERISA  10.71
        • c.  Other Claims Subject to Federal Law Preemption  10.72
        • d.  Form: Federal Preemption Defense  10.73
      • 5.  Substantive Defenses
        • a.  At-Will Rule
          • (1)  Labor Code §2922 or Express Agreement  10.74
          • (2)  Form: At-Will Defense  10.75
        • b.  Privileges  10.76
          • (1)  Defamation Claim  10.77
          • (2)  Infliction of Emotional Distress Claim  10.78
          • (3)  Form: Qualified Privilege Defense  10.79
        • c.  Written Contract
          • (1)  Nonreliability of Contradictory “Implied” Terms  10.80
          • (2)  Form: Written Contract Defense  10.81
        • d.  Managerial Immunity
          • (1)  When Applicable  10.82
          • (2)  Form: Managerial Immunity Defense  10.83
        • e.  Nonliability of Agents and Employees for Conspiracy or Breach of Contract
          • (1)  Applicable Case Law  10.84
          • (2)  Form: Nonliability for Conspiracy or Breach of Contract Defense  10.85
        • f.  Plaintiff’s Failure to Mitigate Damages
          • (1)  Significance Under Contract Law  10.86
          • (2)  Form: Failure to Mitigate Damages Defense  10.87
        • g.  Plaintiff’s Failure to Fulfill Obligations
          • (1)  Employee Misconduct  10.88
          • (2)  Form: Comparative Fault  10.89
          • (3)  Form: Employee’s Prior Breach  10.90
        • h.  Satisfaction Agreement
          • (1)  When to Assert as Defense  10.91
          • (2)  Form: Satisfaction Agreement Defense  10.92
        • i.  Punitive Damages
          • (1)  Argument for Unconstitutionality  10.93
          • (2)  Form: Unconstitutionality of Punitive Damages Defense  10.94
        • j.  Defenses to Discrimination Claims  10.95
          • (1)  Form: Plaintiff’s Consent to Sexual Advances  10.96
          • (2)  Form: Employer Used Reasonable Qualifications Standard  10.97
          • (3)  Form: Plaintiff’s Threat of Injury to Self or Others  10.98
    • D.  Cross-Complaints
      • 1.  Procedures for Filing  10.99
      • 2.  Tactical Considerations  10.100
      • 3.  Ethical Considerations  10.101
  • VI.  MOTIONS FOR SUMMARY JUDGMENT
    • A.  Importance  10.102
    • B.  Procedural Requirements
      • 1.  Time Factors  10.103
      • 2.  Motion for Summary Adjudication  10.104
      • 3.  Evidentiary Issues  10.105
      • 4.  Judicial Council Preemption of Local Rules  10.106
    • C.  Grounds for Summary Judgment  10.107
      • 1.  At-Will Employment  10.107A
      • 2.  Employee Misconduct  10.107B
      • 3.  Reduction in Force  10.107C
      • 4.  Legitimate Business Reasons  10.107D
      • 5.  No Pretextual or Improper Motives  10.107E
      • 6.  Conduct Does Not Support Intentional Infliction Claim  10.107F
      • 7.  Policy Involved Is Not “Public”  10.107G
      • 8.  Existence of Privilege  10.107H
      • 9.  No Individual Liability  10.107I
      • 10.  Employer’s Action Did Not Materially Affect Terms of Employment  10.107J
    • D.  Ruling on Motion  10.108
  • VII.  SAMPLE FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Joint Representation Letter  10.109
    • B.  Form: Sample Letter Offering Reinstatement  10.110

11

Discovery

David T. Kelley

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  11.1
  • II.  PLANNING DISCOVERY  11.2
    • A.  Plaintiff’s Goals  11.3
    • B.  Defendant’s Goals  11.4
  • III.  DEPOSITIONS
    • A.  Plaintiff’s Considerations
      • 1.  Employer Depositions
        • a.  Deposing Key Decision-Makers  11.5
        • b.  Deposing Personnel Policy Witnesses  11.6
        • c.  Checklist: Topics for Employer Witness Depositions  11.7
      • 2.  Nonparty Depositions  11.8
    • B.  Defendant’s Considerations
      • 1.  Deposing the Plaintiff  11.9
      • 2.  Deposing Other Witnesses  11.10
      • 3.  Deposing Nonparty Corporations  11.11
      • 4.  Checklist: Topics for Plaintiff’s Deposition  11.12
    • C.  Procedures
      • 1.  Timing Depositions  11.13
      • 2.  Who May and Should Attend  11.14
      • 3.  Redeposing Witnesses  11.15
      • 4.  Production of Documents at Deposition  11.16
  • IV.  INTERROGATORIES
    • A.  Advantages  11.17
    • B.  Disadvantages  11.18
    • C.  Using Contention Interrogatories in Employment Litigation  11.19
    • D.  Timing  11.20
  • V.  DOCUMENT PRODUCTION
    • A.  Advantages  11.21
    • B.  Timing  11.22
    • C.  Categories of Documents Demanded in Employment Litigation  11.23
      • 1.  Plaintiff’s Checklist  11.24
      • 2.  Defendant’s Checklist  11.25
  • VI.  PHYSICAL OR MENTAL EXAMINATIONS OF PLAINTIFF
    • A.  Use in Employment Litigation  11.26
    • B.  Procedures  11.27
    • C.  Tactical Considerations  11.28
  • VII.  REQUESTS FOR ADMISSION
    • A.  Procedures; Sanctions  11.29
    • B.  Tactical Considerations  11.30
  • VIII.  EXCHANGE OF EXPERT WITNESS INFORMATION
    • A.  Procedures  11.31
    • B.  Tactical Considerations  11.32
  • IX.  SELECTED DISCOVERY ISSUES
    • A.  Effect of Privacy Rights
      • 1.  State Court  11.33
      • 2.  Federal Court  11.34
    • B.  Procedures for Protective Orders
      • 1.  Sexual Information  11.35
      • 2.  Immigration Status  11.35A
      • 3.  Financial Business Information  11.36
    • C.  Class Action Discovery  11.36A
  • X.  SAMPLE FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Plaintiff’s Demand for Production of Documents  11.37
    • B.  Form: Sample Defendant’s Demand for Production of Documents  11.38
    • C.  Form: Sample Plaintiff’s Interrogatories  11.39
    • D.  Form: Sample Defendant’s Interrogatories  11.40

12

Settlement

Mark S. Rudy

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  12.1
  • II.  DECIDING TO SETTLE  12.2
    • A.  Plaintiff’s Considerations  12.3
    • B.  Defendant’s Considerations  12.4
  • III.  EVALUATING THE CASE  12.5
    • A.  Assess Client’s Interest in Settlement  12.6
    • B.  Consider Alternative Means of Dispute Resolution  12.7
    • C.  Analyze the Evidence
      • 1.  Testimony  12.8
      • 2.  Documentary Evidence  12.9
    • D.  Evaluate Prospective Witnesses  12.10
    • E.  Analyze Legal Issues  12.11
    • F.  Project Litigation Costs
      • 1.  Investigation and Discovery Costs  12.12
      • 2.  Attorney Fees and Legal Costs  12.12A
      • 3.  Whether Litigation Is Worthwhile Economically  12.12B
    • G.  Consider Venue  12.13
    • H.  Evaluate Opposing Counsel  12.14
    • I.  Ascertain Insurance Coverage
      • 1.  Plaintiff’s Considerations
        • a.  Demand Letter and Complaint  12.15
        • b.  Insurer Participation  12.15A
        • c.  Admissibility of Insurance Information at Trial  12.15B
      • 2.  Defendant’s Considerations
        • a.  Tendering Claim  12.16
        • b.  Potential Conflict Between Insured and Insurer  12.16A
        • c.  When Insurer Participates in Case  12.16B
    • J.  Evaluate Damages  12.17
      • 1.  General Damages  12.18
      • 2.  Special Damages  12.19
        • a.  Mitigation of Damages; Avoidable Consequences Doctrine  12.20
        • b.  Interim Earnings  12.21
      • 3.  Punitive Damages  12.22
    • K.  Consider Nonmonetary Remedies  12.23
      • 1.  Letter of Recommendation  12.24
      • 2.  Reinstatement  12.25
  • IV.  PROCEDURES FOR SETTLEMENT
    • A.  Develop Settlement Plan  12.26
    • B.  Decide When to Settle  12.27
      • 1.  Plaintiff’s Perspective  12.28
      • 2.  Defendant’s Perspective  12.29
    • C.  Obtain Settlement Authority
      • 1.  Educate and Consult With Client  12.30
        • a.  Plaintiff’s Counsel  12.30A
        • b.  Defense Counsel  12.30B
      • 2.  Whether to Estimate Chances of Success  12.30C
      • 3.  Help Client Set Settlement Objectives  12.30D
      • 4.  Obtain Written Settlement Authority  12.30E
      • 5.  Communicate All Offers to Client  12.30F
    • D.  Propose Settlement
      • 1.  Plaintiff’s Demand Letter  12.31
        • a.  Prefatory Matter  12.32
        • b.  Statement of Facts  12.33
        • c.  Documentary Support  12.34
        • d.  Legal Analysis  12.35
        • e.  Damages  12.36
        • f.  Comparable Jury Verdicts  12.37
        • g.  Settlement Demand  12.38
      • 2.  Defendant’s Response to Settlement Demand  12.39
        • a.  Responsive Settlement Proposal  12.40
        • b.  Written Rejection of Settlement Demand  12.41
        • c.  Telephone Communication With Opposing Counsel  12.42
        • d.  Meeting With Opposing Counsel  12.43
        • e.  Whether to Include Clients in Settlement Meeting  12.43A
      • 3.  Offer to Compromise (CCP §998)
        • a.  Purpose  12.44
        • b.  When Useful  12.44A
        • c.  Effect  12.44B
  • V.  SPECIAL SETTLEMENT PROBLEMS
    • A.  Multiparty Settlements  12.45
    • B.  Structured Settlements  12.46
  • VI.  COURT-SUPERVISED SETTLEMENT CONFERENCES  12.47
    • A.  Mandatory Settlement Conferences  12.48
    • B.  Voluntary Settlement Conferences  12.49
    • C.  Persons Who Must Attend  12.50
    • D.  Counsel’s Responsibility  12.51
    • E.  Drafting Settlement Conference Statement  12.52
      • 1.  Background  12.52A
      • 2.  Statement of Facts  12.52B
      • 3.  Legal Argument  12.52C
      • 4.  Plaintiff’s Damages  12.52D
      • 5.  Status of Settlement Discussions  12.52E
    • F.  Judge’s Role  12.53
    • G.  Duty to Notify Court of Settlement  12.54
  • VII.  DRAFTING THE SETTLEMENT AGREEMENT  12.55
    • A.  Typical Provisions
      • 1.  Mutual and General Releases  12.56
        • a.  Older Workers Benefit Protection Act  12.56A
        • b.  Title VII  12.56B
      • 2.  General Release by Employer  12.56C
      • 3.  Mutual Release Language  12.56D
      • 4.  Excluding Other Matters  12.56E
      • 5.  Coordinating With Workers’ Compensation Attorney  12.56F
      • 6.  Parties Bound  12.57
    • B.  Financial Aspects  12.58
      • 1.  Employee Benefits  12.59
      • 2.  Major Medical Plan  12.59A
      • 3.  Benefits Under Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (COBRA)  12.59B
      • 4.  Unaccrued Pension Benefits  12.59C
      • 5.  Stock Options  12.59D
    • C.  Other Issues
      • 1.  Denial of Liability  12.60
      • 2.  Employee Status  12.61
        • a.  Rehire Versus Reinstatement  12.62
        • b.  Waiver of Rehire Rights  12.63
      • 3.  Employment References  12.64
      • 4.  Purging Employee Files  12.65
      • 5.  Confidentiality  12.66
      • 6.  Waiver of Unknown Claims (CC §1542)  12.67
      • 7.  Effect on Statutory Claims  12.68
      • 8.  Liquidated Damages  12.69
      • 9.  Attorney Fees  12.70
    • D.  Tax Considerations
      • 1.  Attorney Fees in “Discrimination” Actions  12.71
      • 2.  Emotional Distress Damages  12.71A
      • 3.  Tax Aspects of Attorney Fees  12.72
      • 4.  Minimizing Taxes on Settlement
        • a.  Plaintiff’s Procedures  12.73
        • b.  Defendant’s Procedures  12.74
    • E.  Enforcement of Settlement Agreements  12.75
  • VIII.  SAMPLE FORMS
    • A.  Form: Reciprocal Time Defense Tolling Agreement  12.76
    • B.  Form: Settlement Agreement  12.77
    • C.  Form: Sample Demand Letter; Posttermination  12.78
    • D.  Form: Sample Demand Letter; Pretermination  12.79

13

Alternative Dispute Resolution

Howard C. Hay

Rebecca Westerfield

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  13.1
    • A.  Arbitration and Mediation Compared  13.2
    • B.  Other ADR Methods
      • 1.  Early Neutral Evaluation  13.3
      • 2.  Neutral Fact-Finding  13.4
      • 3.  Final Offer Arbitration  13.5
      • 4.  “Night Baseball” Arbitration  13.6
      • 5.  “High-Low” Arbitration  13.7
      • 6.  “Med-Arb”  13.8
  • II.  MEDIATION  13.9
    • A.  Advantages of Mediation
      • 1.  Reduced Time and Expense  13.10
      • 2.  Control of Process  13.11
      • 3.  Parties’ Emotional Satisfaction  13.12
      • 4.  Confidentiality  13.13
      • 5.  Creative Solutions  13.14
      • 6.  Preservation of Workplace Relationships  13.15
    • B.  When Mediation Inappropriate  13.16
    • C.  When Case Ripe for Mediation  13.17
    • D.  Proposing Mediation  13.18
    • E.  Choosing a Mediator  13.19
    • F.  The Mediation Process
      • 1.  Who Should Attend  13.20
      • 2.  Presession Statements  13.21
      • 3.  Opening Session  13.22
      • 4.  Separate Caucuses  13.23
      • 5.  Closure of Session  13.24
      • 6.  Confidentiality  13.25
    • G.  Enforceability of Mediation Agreements  13.26
    • H.  Impediments to Resolution at Mediation  13.27
  • III.  ARBITRATION BY AGREEMENT
    • A.  When Arbitration Agreement Binding  13.28
      • 1.  Federal Arbitration Act  13.28A
      • 2.  Title VII  13.28B
      • 3.  ERISA  13.28C
      • 4.  FEHA  13.28D
      • 5.  Wrongful Termination in Violation of Public Policy  13.28E
      • 6.  Other Statutory Claims  13.28F
      • 7.  Nonstatutory Claims  13.28G
      • 8.  Enforcing Arbitration Agreements  13.28H
    • B.  When Arbitration Agreement Not Enforceable
      • 1.  “Contracts of Employment” Exclusion  13.29
      • 2.  Title VII and Other Federal Claims  13.30
      • 3.  Issues Outside Scope of Agreement to Arbitrate  13.31
      • 4.  Unconscionability
        • a.  State Unconscionability Law After AT&T Mobility v Concepcion  13.32
        • b.  Jurisdiction to Determine Whether Contract Is Unconscionable  13.32A
        • c.  Both Procedural and Substantive Unconscionability Required  13.32B
          • (1)  Definition of Procedural Unconscionability  13.32C
          • (2)  Definition of Substantive Unconscionability  13.32D
      • 5.  FEHA and Other Public Rights Claims  13.32E
      • 6.  PAGA Representative Actions for Civil Penalties  13.32F
      • 7.  Other Grounds  13.33
    • C.  Arbitration Clauses in Collective Bargaining Agreements  13.34
    • D.  State Efforts to Regulate Arbitration Agreements  13.35
    • E.  Impact of Arbitration Agreements on Administrative Claims  13.36
    • F.  Who Decides Whether Parties Agreed to Arbitrate  13.37
    • G.  Arbitration Procedure Issues  13.38
      • 1.  Discovery  13.39
      • 2.  Case Presentation  13.40
    • H.  Appeal From Adverse Arbitration Decision  13.41
  • IV.  JUDICIAL ARBITRATION  13.42
  • V.  FORM: CONFIDENTIALITY AGREEMENT  13.43

14

Trial: Plaintiff’s Perspective

Kathleen M. Lucas

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  14.1
  • II.  DEVELOPING THE CASE THEME  14.2
    • A.  When Facts Warrant Punitive Damages  14.3
    • B.  Anticipate “Legitimate Business Reason” Defense  14.4
    • C.  Emphasize Plaintiff’s Good Side
      • 1.  Plaintiff’s Commitment, Dedication, and Sincerity  14.5
      • 2.  Plaintiff’s Financial Contribution  14.6
  • III.  ORGANIZING TRIAL PREPARATION
    • A.  Create Case Calendar  14.7
    • B.  Checklist: Trial Preparation  14.8
  • IV.  CONDUCTING FINAL DISCOVERY
    • A.  Conduct Discovery Well Before Closure Date  14.9
      • 1.  Notice Depositions of Key Witnesses  14.10
      • 2.  Request Supplementary Response to Previous Interrogatories  14.11
      • 3.  Send Form Interrogatories  14.12
      • 4.  Send Document Requests and Special Interrogatories  14.13
      • 5.  Consider Propounding Requests for Admissions  14.14
      • 6.  Consider Noticing Site Inspection  14.15
      • 7.  Decide on Plaintiff’s Witnesses  14.16
      • 8.  Identify All Relevant Managers  14.17
      • 9.  Be Sure Plaintiff Has Made Sufficient Disclosure  14.18
    • B.  Consider Whether to Retain Experts  14.19
  • V.  PREPARING FOR TRIAL
    • A.  Serve Notices to Appear and Produce at Trial; Serve Subpoenas  14.20
      • 1.  Request Originals of Documents  14.21
      • 2.  Include Defense Witnesses Plaintiff Intends to Call  14.22
    • B.  Consider Settlement Offer  14.23
    • C.  Develop Trial Strategy  14.24
    • D.  Analyze Legal Issues and Evidence
      • 1.  Brief the Legal Issues  14.25
      • 2.  Prepare Proof Plan  14.26
        • a.  Decide on Demonstrative Evidence  14.27
        • b.  Decide Order of Presenting Evidence  14.28
      • 3.  Consider Dismissals  14.29
      • 4.  Evaluate Affirmative Defenses  14.30
      • 5.  Consider Mock Examination  14.31
    • E.  Draft Trial Brief  14.32
    • F.  Expect and Prepare Motions In Limine to Exclude Evidence  14.33
      • 1.  Alleged Problems With Previous and Subsequent Employers  14.34
      • 2.  Restricting Use of Plaintiff’s Medical Records or Statements to Health Care Providers  14.35
      • 3.  Alleged Personal Problems  14.36
      • 4.  Hearsay Statements About Plaintiff’s Performance  14.37
      • 5.  Conclusory Testimony  14.38
      • 6.  Plaintiff’s Termination of Other Employees  14.39
      • 7.  Plaintiff’s Financial Condition  14.40
      • 8.  Plaintiff’s Sexual History  14.41
      • 9.  Third Party Personnel Records  14.42
      • 10.  Plaintiff’s Receipt of Disability Benefits, Including Sick Leave and Vacation Pay  14.43
    • G.  Opposing Defendant’s Motions In Limine  14.44
    • H.  Jury Selection  14.45
      • 1.  Juror Questionnaire  14.46
      • 2.  Voir Dire Examination  14.47
      • 3.  Voir Dire Questions  14.48
  • VI.  DELIVERING OPENING STATEMENT
    • A.  Importance of Plaintiff’s Opening Statement  14.49
      • 1.  Addressing Plaintiff’s Weaknesses  14.50
      • 2.  Length of Opening Statement  14.51
    • B.  Structure of Opening Statement
      • 1.  State Case Theme  14.52
      • 2.  Outline Evidence  14.53
      • 3.  Explain Evidence  14.54
      • 4.  Describe Damages  14.55
  • VII.  PRESENTING PLAINTIFF’S CASE  14.56
    • A.  Order and Number of Key Witnesses
      • 1.  Plaintiff’s Lead Witness  14.57
      • 2.  Other Important Witnesses  14.58
    • B.  Direct Examination of Witnesses  14.59
      • 1.  Plaintiff’s Preemployment History  14.60
      • 2.  Plaintiff’s History With Employer  14.61
      • 3.  Damages  14.62
    • C.  Documents  14.63
    • D.  Demonstrative Evidence  14.64
    • E.  Expert Witnesses  14.65
      • 1.  Human Resources Experts  14.66
      • 2.  Psychological Experts  14.67
      • 3.  Economists and Accounting Experts  14.68
  • VIII.  MAKING TACTICAL DECISIONS DURING TRIAL
    • A.  Calling Adverse Witnesses Under Evid C §776  14.69
    • B.  Cross-Examination of Defense Witnesses  14.70
    • C.  Rebuttal  14.71
    • D.  Directed Verdict on Selected Issues  14.72
      • 1.  Employer’s Liability for Agent’s Acts  14.73
      • 2.  Joint Liability of Parent-Subsidiary  14.74
      • 3.  Joint Venture or Agency Liability  14.75
      • 4.  Individual Defendant Liability  14.76
  • IX.  DELIVERING FINAL ARGUMENT  14.77
    • A.  Emphasize Jury’s Role  14.78
    • B.  Restate Case Theme  14.79
    • C.  Discuss Jury Instructions  14.80
    • D.  Recount Evidence and Draw Inferences  14.81
    • E.  Use Demonstrative Aids  14.82
    • F.  Enumerate Damages  14.83
    • G.  Conclusion  14.84
    • H.  Rebuttal  14.85
  • X.  PREPARING JURY INSTRUCTIONS  14.86
  • XI.  VERDICTS  14.87
  • XII.  CONDUCTING PUNITIVE DAMAGES PHASE  14.88
  • XIII.  MAKING POSTTRIAL MOTIONS  14.89
    • A.  Ambiguous Verdict  14.90
    • B.  Motion for New Trial  14.91
      • 1.  Sufficiency of Evidence (CCP §657(6))  14.92
      • 2.  Error in Law (CCP §657(7))  14.93
      • 3.  Excessive or Inadequate Damages (CCP §657(5))
        • a.  Excessive Damages  14.94
        • b.  Inadequate Damages  14.95
    • C.  Motion for Judgment Notwithstanding the Verdict  14.96
  • XIV.  SAMPLE FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Agreement to Appear  14.97
    • B.  Form: Juror Questionnaire  14.98
    • C.  Form: Sample Proposed Voir Dire Questions for Prospective Jurors Stipulated to by the Parties  14.99
    • D.  Form: Sample Motion In Limine to Preclude Admission of Impeachment Material Against Third Party Witnesses Derived From Personnel Records  14.100
    • E.  Form: Sample Motion In Limine to Exclude Expert Testimony on Inadmissible Hearsay Matters in Reports of Nontestifying Medical Care Providers  14.101
    • F.  Form: Sample General Verdict  14.102
    • G.  Form: Sample Special Verdict  14.103
    • H.  Form: Sample Special Verdict, Punitive Damages Phase  14.104

15

Trial: Defendant’s Perspective

Maureen E. McClain

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  15.1
  • II.  FINAL TRIAL PREPARATION
    • A.  Serve Discovery on Plaintiff  15.2
    • B.  Supplement Defense Discovery  15.3
    • C.  Witnesses
      • 1.  Videotape Out-of-State Witnesses  15.4
      • 2.  Demand Expert Witness Disclosure  15.5
      • 3.  Subpoena Witnesses and Documents  15.6
    • D.  Review Local Court Rules  15.7
    • E.  Draft Trial Brief  15.8
  • III.  PRETRIAL MOTIONS
    • A.  Motion to Bifurcate  15.9
    • B.  Motion for Judgment on the Pleadings  15.10
    • C.  Motions In Limine
      • 1.  To Exclude All Evidence  15.11
      • 2.  To Exclude Certain Evidence
        • a.  Procedure  15.12
        • b.  Topics  15.13
      • 3.  Anticipating Plaintiff’s In Limine Motions  15.14
      • 4.  Hearing on Preliminary Facts  15.15
  • IV.  JURY SELECTION
    • A.  Procedure  15.16
    • B.  Jury Questionnaire  15.17
    • C.  Voir Dire  15.18
  • V.  CONDUCTING THE TRIAL
    • A.  Opening Statement
      • 1.  Establishing Defendant’s Trial Theme  15.19
      • 2.  Potential Defense Themes  15.20
      • 3.  Delivering Opening Statement  15.21
    • B.  Witnesses
      • 1.  Consider Plaintiff’s Strategy  15.22
      • 2.  Explore Sources for Defense  15.23
    • C.  Demonstrative Evidence  15.24
    • D.  Other Trial Matters
      • 1.  Offers of Proof  15.25
      • 2.  Motions for Nonsuit and Directed Verdict  15.26
      • 3.  Anticipating Punitive Damages Phase  15.27
    • E.  Jury Instructions
      • 1.  Timing; When Settled  15.28
      • 2.  Preparing Appropriate California Civil Jury Instructions (CACI)  15.29
      • 3.  Drafting Special Instructions  15.30
    • F.  Special Verdicts
      • 1.  Purpose; Advantages to Defense  15.31
      • 2.  Procedure
        • a.  California Law  15.32
        • b.  Federal Rules  15.33
      • 3.  Drafting Questions for Special Verdicts  15.34
    • G.  Closing Argument
      • 1.  Preparation Before Trial  15.35
      • 2.  Judicial Discretion to Control Argument  15.36
      • 3.  Objecting to Plaintiff’s Closing Argument  15.37
      • 4.  Points to Cover During Defense Argument  15.38
  • VI.  POSTTRIAL MOTIONS
    • A.  Motion for Judgment Notwithstanding Verdict
      • 1.  Statutory Basis  15.39
      • 2.  When Appropriate in Employment Cases  15.40
    • B.  Motion for New Trial
      • 1.  Statutory Basis  15.41
      • 2.  When Appropriate in Employment Cases  15.42
    • C.  Motion to Vacate and Enter Different Judgment  15.43
    • D.  Motion for Remittitur or Additur  15.44
  • VII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Defendant’s Motion In Limine to Exclude Testimony in Form of Expert Opinion  15.45
    • B.  Form: Juror Questionnaire  15.46
    • C.  Jury Instructions
      • 1.  Form: Sample Defendant’s Proposed Special Instruction on Standard for Proving Discrimination Claim  15.47
      • 2.  Form: Defendant’s Proposed Special Instruction on Age Discrimination and Burden of Proof  15.48
      • 3.  Form: Defendant’s Proposed Special Instruction on Age Discrimination and Ultimate Burden of Proof  15.49
    • D.  Form: Sample Special Verdict  15.50

16

Attorney Fees

Michelle Alexander

Linda M. Dardarian

Jeremy Friedman

Mari Mayeda

Richard M. Pearl

Guy T. Saperstein

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  16.1
  • II.  RECOVERY OF ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS UNDER FEDERAL AND STATE STATUTES
    • A.  Entitlement to Attorney Fees and Costs Under Federal Civil Rights Statutes
      • 1.  Fees and Costs to Prevailing Party  16.2
      • 2.  ADEA: Fee Award to Prevailing Plaintiff Only  16.3
      • 3.  Fees to Prevailing Plaintiff  16.3A
        • a.  Judgment in Plaintiff’s Favor Required  16.3B
        • b.  Prevailing Plaintiffs Not Usually Denied Fees Under “Special Circumstances”  16.3C
      • 4.  Fees to Prevailing Defendant  16.4
    • B.  Entitlement to Attorney Fees and Costs Under California Civil Rights Statutes
      • 1.  Fair Employment and Housing Act
        • a.  Two Standards Apply  16.5
        • b.  Catalyst Theory Used to Determine Prevailing Plaintiff  16.5A
        • c.  Award Exceeding Fees Paid by Client  16.5B
        • d.  FEHC Award to Prevailing Complainant [Deleted]  16.5C
      • 2.  Private Attorney General Statute (CCP §1021.5)
        • a.  Requirements  16.6
          • (1)  Catalyst Theory Applied  16.6A
          • (2)  Fees Belong to Attorney  16.6B
        • b.  Application of CCP §1021.5 in Individual Employment Cases—Fees Awarded  16.7
        • c.  Application of CCP §1021.5 in Individual Employment Cases—Fees Denied  16.8
      • 3.  Other California Statutes  16.9
    • C.  Interim Fees  16.10
    • D.  Entitlement to Costs and Expenses
      • 1.  State Law  16.11
      • 2.  Federal Law  16.12
    • E.  Effect of Contingency Fee Agreement
      • 1.  Federal Law  16.13
      • 2.  State Law  16.14
  • III.  USING LODESTAR METHOD TO CALCULATE FEES
    • A.  Lodestar Method in General  16.15
    • B.  Determining Reasonable Number of Hours  16.16
      • 1.  Work of Paralegals and Law Clerks  16.17
      • 2.  Work Performed on Fee Application  16.18
      • 3.  When Number of Hours Includes Duplicative Work  16.19
      • 4.  When Success Is Partial  16.20
        • a.  Reduce Fees if Claims Are Distinct and Unrelated  16.21
        • b.  When Settlement Offer Rejected  16.21A
        • c.  Examples: Fees Not Reduced  16.22
      • 5.  When Fees Disproportionate to Damages  16.23
    • C.  Determining Reasonable Hourly Rates  16.24
      • 1.  Prevailing Market Rates  16.25
        • a.  Same Standards Apply as in Other Litigation  16.26
        • b.  Historic Versus Current Rates  16.27
      • 2.  Customary Billing Rate  16.28
      • 3.  Nature of Work Performed  16.29
  • IV.  ADJUSTING LODESTAR AMOUNT  16.30
    • A.  Differences Between State and Federal Law
      • 1.  State Law  16.31
      • 2.  Federal Law  16.32
    • B.  Lodestar Adjustment Factors
      • 1.  Contingent Risk
        • a.  State Law
          • (1)  Upward Adjustment of Lodestar  16.33
          • (2)  Examples of Contingent Risk Multipliers  16.33A
        • b.  Federal Law  16.34
      • 2.  Results Obtained
        • a.  State Law  16.35
        • b.  Federal Law
          • (1)  Exceptional Results Enhancement  16.36
          • (2)  Reduction for Limited Success  16.36A
      • 3.  Superior Quality of Representation
        • a.  State Law  16.37
        • b.  Federal Law  16.38
      • 4.  Undesirability of Case  16.39
      • 5.  Delay in Receipt of Fees  16.40
      • 6.  Preclusion of Other Legal Employment  16.41
  • V.  MOVING FOR AWARD OF ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
    • A.  Timing of Fee Motion; Cost Memorandum
      • 1.  State Trial Court  16.42
      • 2.  State Appellate Court  16.43
      • 3.  Federal Trial Court  16.44
    • B.  Contents of Motion  16.45
      • 1.  Supporting Memorandum  16.46
      • 2.  Declaration of Lead Attorney  16.47
      • 3.  Other Declarations
        • a.  Attorney Skill and Experience  16.48
        • b.  Hourly Rates  16.49
        • c.  Reasonable Number of Hours  16.50
        • d.  Upward Adjustments  16.51
      • 4.  Time Records  16.52
      • 5.  Exhibits  16.53
    • C.  Discovery  16.54
      • 1.  Opponent’s Legal Bills  16.55
      • 2.  Discovery on Claim  16.56
    • D.  Opposing Fee Motion  16.57
    • E.  Alternative Dispute Resolution  16.58
    • F.  Hearing on Motion  16.59
    • G.  Orders Awarding Attorney Fees  16.60
      • 1.  Federal Law  16.61
      • 2.  State Law  16.62
    • H.  Appeals of Fee Orders
      • 1.  Appealability of Order Awarding Fees for Trial Work  16.63
      • 2.  Fees for Appellate Work  16.64
        • a.  Court Rules  16.65
        • b.  Requesting Remand  16.66
  • VI.  EFFECT ON ATTORNEY FEES OF OFFERS TO COMPROMISE
    • A.  Code of Civil Procedure §998  16.67
    • B.  Rule 68 of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure  16.68

WRONGFUL EMPLOYMENT TERMINATION PRACTICE: DISCRIMINATION, HARASSMENT, AND RETALIATION

(2d Edition)

June 2018

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

File Name

Book Section

Title

CH09

Chapter 9

Bringing the Action

09-038

§9.38

Checklist: Documents From Client

09-104

§9.104

Sample Letter to Potential Client Requesting Documents

09-105

§9.105

Sample Attorney Fee Agreement

09-106

§9.106

Sample Complaint for Sex Discrimination, Wrongful Termination, and Sexual Harassment

09-107

§9.107

Sample Complaint for Wrongful Termination in Violation of Public Policy

CH10

Chapter 10

Defending the Action

10-003

§10.3

Checklist: Inquiries Relevant to Obtaining Information on Adverse Employment Action

10-054

§10.54

General Denial

10-056

§10.56

Statute of Limitations Defense

10-058

§10.58

Collateral Estoppel Defense

10-060

§10.60

Failure to Exhaust Remedies Defense

10-063

§10.63

Workers’ Compensation Defense

10-065

§10.65

Lab C §132a Defense

10-073

§10.73

Federal Preemption Defense

10-075

§10.75

At-Will Defense

10-079

§10.79

Qualified Privilege Defense

10-081

§10.81

Written Contract Defense

10-083

§10.83

Managerial Immunity Defense

10-085

§10.85

Nonliability for Conspiracy or Breach of Contract Defense

10-087

§10.87

Failure to Mitigate Damages Defense

10-089

§10.89

Comparative Fault

10-090

§10.90

Employee’s Prior Breach

10-092

§10.92

Satisfaction Agreement Defense

10-094

§10.94

Unconstitutionality of Punitive Damages Defense

10-096

§10.96

Plaintiff’s Consent to Sexual Advances

10-097

§10.97

Employer Used Reasonable Qualifications Standard

10-098

§10.98

Plaintiff’s Threat of Injury to Self or Others

10-109

§10.109

Sample Joint Representation Letter

10-110

§10.110

Sample Letter Offering Reinstatement

CH11

Chapter 11

Discovery

11-007

§11.7

Checklist: Topics for Employer Witness Depositions

11-012

§11.12

Checklist: Topics for Plaintiff’s Deposition

11-024

§11.24

Plaintiff’s Checklist

11-025

§11.25

Defendant’s Checklist

11-037

§11.37

Sample Plaintiff’s Demand for Production of Documents

11-038

§11.38

Sample Defendant’s Demand for Production of Documents

11-039

§11.39

Sample Plaintiff’s Interrogatories

11-040

§11.40

Sample Defendant’s Interrogatories

CH12

Chapter 12

Settlement

12-076

§12.76

Reciprocal Time Defense Tolling Agreement

12-077

§12.77

Settlement Agreement

12-078

§12.78

Sample Demand Letter; Posttermination

12-079

§12.79

Sample Demand Letter; Pretermination

CH13

Chapter 13

Alternative Dispute Resolution

13-043

§13.43

Form: Confidentiality Agreement

CH14

Chapter 14

Trial: Plaintiff’s Perspective

14-008

§14.8

Checklist: Trial Preparation

14-097

§14.97

Sample Agreement to Appear

14-098

§14.98

Juror Questionnaire

14-099

§14.99

Sample Proposed Voir Dire Questions for Prospective Jurors Stipulated to by the Parties

14-100

§14.100

Sample Motion In Limine to Preclude Admission of Impeachment Material Against Third Party Witnesses Derived From Personnel Records

14-101

§14.101

Sample Motion In Limine to Exclude Expert Testimony on Inadmissible Hearsay Matters in Reports of Nontestifying Medical Care Providers

14-102

§14.102

Sample General Verdict

14-103

§14.103

Sample Special Verdict

14-104

§14.104

Sample Special Verdict, Punitive Damages Phase

CH15

Chapter 15

Trial: Defendant’s Perspective

15-045

§15.45

Sample Defendant’s Motion In Limine to Exclude Testimony in Form of Expert Opinion

15-046

§15.46

Juror Questionnaire

15-047

§15.47

Sample Defendant’s Proposed Special Instruction on Standard for Proving Discrimination Claim

15-048

§15.48

Defendant’s Proposed Special Instruction on Age Discrimination and Burden of Proof

15-049

§15.49

Defendant’s Proposed Special Instruction on Age Discrimination and Ultimate Burden of Proof

15-050

§15.50

Sample Special Verdict

 

Selected Developments

June 2018 Update

Discrimination Claims—In General

  • The Second, Sixth, and Seventh Circuits have held that discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation is a form of sex discrimination under Title VII. See Zarda v Altitude Express, Inc. (2d Cir 2018) 883 F3d 100, EEOC v R.G. & G.R. Harris Funeral Homes, Inc. (6th Cir 2018) 884 F3d 560, and Hively v Ivy Tech Community College (7th Cir 2017) 853 F3d 339 in §1.30.

  • The statute of limitations on a professor’s FEHA wrongful termination claim began to run on the last date of his employment rather than on the date that tenure was denied. See Aviles-Rodriguez v Los Angeles Community College Dist. (2017) 14 CA5th 981, 988, in §1.60.

  • In Bustos v Global P.E.T., Inc. (2017) 19 CA5th 558, 564, the court rejected the plaintiff’s argument that, under Harris, he was entitled to an award of attorney fees on his FEHA claims after the jury found that his physical condition was a substantial motivating reason for termination because the jury ultimately returned defense verdicts on all of his claims. See §1.88.

Age Discrimination

  • In Merrick v Hilton Worldwide, Inc. (9th Cir 2017) 867 F3d 1139, 1146, the court stated that an inference that age was a determining factor in an employment decision may be established by demonstrating that, following a reduction in force, the employer had a continuing need for the plaintiff’s skills and services and that his or her various duties were still being performed. See §3.50C. The court in Merrick also held that the employer had offered a legitimate, nondiscriminatory reason for the employment action by producing evidence that eliminating the second highest salary allowed the hotel to comply with a mandated reduction in force without laying off multiple employees, the plaintiff’s department was not considered a high guest-contact or revenue-generating department, and other departments were already understaffed due to previous layoffs and unfilled positions. See §3.50D.

Retaliation and Whistleblower Claims

  • In a FEHA retaliation case, the plaintiff engaged in protected activity when she participated in an interview with investigators regarding a discrimination, sexual harassment, and retaliation complaint filed by a coemployee. See Light v Department of Parks & Recreation (2017) 14 CA5th 75, 92, in §3A.32.

  • The plaintiff created a triable issue whether she suffered an adverse employment action by producing evidence that when, following an interview by investigators and then refusing to tell her supervisor what they had discussed, she felt isolated, was moved to a different office, verbally and physically attacked, was told she would no longer work at the department when her current assignment was over, had a training offer rescinded, and was rejected for a promotion. See Light v Department of Parks & Recreation (2017) 14 CA5th 75, 92, in §3A.33.

  • Complaints that the defendant violated Regents’ policies regarding conflicts of interest, retaliation, and funding of internships raised triable issue of fact whether the plaintiff made a protected disclosure under the California Whistleblower Protection Act. Levi v Regents of Univ. of Cal. (2017) 15 CA5th 892. See §3A.56.

  • There is no right to a jury trial in an action under Health & S C §1278.5(g). Shaw v Superior Court (2017) 2 C5th 983, 995. See §3A.85.

  • In Terris v County of Santa Barbara (2018) 20 CA5th 551, 556, the court held that the reference to “administrative remedies” in Lab C §244(a) applies only to complaints filed with the Labor Commissioner, and thus employees are still subject to the general rule announced in Campbell v Regents of Univ. of Cal. (2005) 35 C4th 311 that exhaustion of an employer’s internal grievance procedures is a necessary prerequisite to a civil action. See §3A.65.

Sexual and Other Forms of Harassment

  • In M.F. v Pacific Pearl Hotel Mgmt. LLC (2017) 16 CA5th 693, 701, the plaintiff stated a viable claim under FEHA when she alleged that a drunken trespasser at a hotel had been confronting and aggressively propositioning housekeeping employees for sexual favors for 1 hour, management was alerted to the trespasser’s activities and location, and the trespasser ultimately raped her in the hotel room she was cleaning. See §4.25.

Other Employee Rights Statutes

  • In International Bhd. of Boilermakers v NASSCO Holdings Inc. (2017) 17 CA5th 1105, 1117, the court held that the California Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (WARN) required the employer to provide 60 days’ notice when it temporary laid off 90 employees for about 4–5 weeks. See §5.65.

Other Tort Claims

  • Because an employer’s unlawful discrimination is not a normal incident of employment, the Workers’ Compensation Act (Lab C §§3200–6149) does not preempt a claim for intentional infliction of emotional distress based on discrimination. Light v Department of Parks & Recreation (2017) 14 CA5th 75, 101. See §7.46A.

Settlement

  • The trial court did not commit error by admitting a prelitigation demand letter because the plaintiff “intended the letter as an assertion of the full extent of what he deemed himself entitled to receive” rather than as an offer to compromise. See Arave v Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith, Inc. (2018) 19 CA5th 525, 535, in §12.32.

Alternative Dispute Resolution

  • In Baxter v Genworth N. Am. Corp. (2017) 16 CA5th 713, the court of appeal held that AT&T Mobility LLC v Concepcion (2011) 563 US 333, 131 S Ct 1740, “has no bearing on the analysis of procedural unconscionability.” See §13.32. The court also held that the arbitration agreement in that case was unconscionable when it barred employees and their attorneys from obtaining information outside the formal discovery process, set default limitations on discovery, provided for time limits that were insufficient to protect aggrieved employees’ rights, and effectively dispensed with the Department of Fair Employment and Housing administrative claims investigation process. See §§13.32D–13.32E.

  • The California Supreme Court has granted review in Lawson v ZB, N.A. (review granted Mar. 21, 2018, S246711; opinion at 18 CA5th 705 to remain published and citable under further order) to determine whether a representative action under PAGA that seeks recovery of individualized lost wages as civil penalties under Lab C §558 is within the preemptive scope of the Federal Arbitration Act. See §13.32F.

Attorney Fees

  • To recover attorney and expert witness fees under FEHA, a prevailing defendant must show that the discrimination claim was frivolous, unreasonable, or groundless. This includes persons sued in their individual capacities (e.g., supervisors or coemployees). See Lopez v Routt (2017) 17 CA5th 1006, 1013, in §16.5.

  • To recover ordinary costs, a prevailing defendant must show that the plaintiff’s action was “objectively without foundation when brought, or the plaintiff continued to litigate it after it clearly became so.” See Arave v Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith, Inc. (2018) 19 CA5th 525, 548 (applying Williams to hold that because trial court correctly found that plaintiff’s claims were not objectively without foundation, “it follows defendants were not entitled to recover ordinary costs incurred in defending [plaintiff’s] FEHA claims”), in §16.5.

About the Authors

MICHELLE ALEXANDER practices with the Oakland law firm of Saperstein, Goldstein, Demchak & Baller. She received her B.A. in 1989 from Vanderbilt University and her J.D. in 1992 from Stanford University. She is a coauthor of chapter 16.

BARBARA S. BRYANT is a full-time mediator and provider of other dispute resolution services, and is located in Oakland. She received her A.B. in 1970 from the University of California, Berkeley, her M.S.W. in 1975 from California State University, Sacramento, and her J.D. in 1980 from Golden Gate University School of Law. She is a coauthor of chapters 3 and 4.

LAUREN SHEFT CARTWRIGHT practices law with Baker & McKenzie, San Diego. She received her A.B. in 1983 from the University of California, Berkeley, and her J.D. in 1987 from the University of San Francisco. She is a coauthor of chapter 8.

DAVID A. CATHCART is a partner at Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher, Los Angeles. He received his A.B. in 1961 from Stanford University and his J.D. in 1967 from Harvard Law School. He is a coauthor of chapter 10.

WILLIAM D. CLASTER is a partner at Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher, Irvine. He received his A.B. in 1967 from Stanford University and his J.D. in 1976 from the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law. He is a coauthor of chapter 10.

LINDA M. DARDARIAN practices with the Oakland law firm of Saperstein, Goldstein, Demchak & Baller. She received her B.A. in 1983 from California State University, Chico, and her J.D. in 1987 from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. She is a coauthor of chapter 16.

ROXANNE A. DAVIS is the principal in the Law Offices of Roxanne A. Davis, Los Angeles. She received her B.A. in 1981 from New York University, her M.A. in 1986 from the University of Southern California, and her J.D. in 1986 from the University of Southern California Law School. She is the coauthor of chapters 4 and 5.

KATHERINE J. EDWARDS is a partner in the Santa Monica law firm of Masters & Ribakoff. She received her B.A. in 1983 from the University of Washington and her J.D. in 1989 from Pepperdine University. She is a coauthor of chapter 9.

JEREMY FRIEDMAN is a sole practitioner in Oakland. He received his B.A. in 1984 from Brown University and his J.D. in 1987 from the University of Chicago. He is a coauthor of chapter 16.

HOWARD C. HAY is a partner with Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker’s Orange County office. He received his A.B. in 1966 from Duke University and his J.D. in 1969 from the University of Michigan. He is a coauthor of chapter 13.

DAVID T. KELLEY is a senior trial attorney with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), San Francisco. He received his B.A. in 1968 from the University of Northern Iowa and his J.D. in 1971 from the University of Iowa. He is the author of chapter 11.

THOMAS P. KLEIN practices law with Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe in San Francisco. He received his B.S. in 1984 from the University of California, Berkeley, and his J.D. in 1990 from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law. He is a coauthor of chapters 1 and 3A.

LOIS M. KOSCH is a partner of Wilson, Petty, Kosmo & Turner, LLP, San Diego. She received her B.A. in 1984 from Adelphi University and her J.D. in 1987 from Rutgers University. She is a coauthor of chapter 7.

KATHLEEN M. LUCAS is the principal in The Lucas Law Firm, San Francisco. She received her B.A. in 1967 from Manhattanville College, her M.A. in 1968 from Oklahoma City University, and her J.D. in 1977 from George Washington Law School. She is the author of chapter 14.

CHRISTOPHER J. MARTIN is a partner at Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher, Palo Alto. He received his A.B. in 1976 from Stanford University and his J.D. in 1978 from the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law. He is a coauthor of chapter 10.

CHRISTINE MASTERS is a partner in the Santa Monica law firm of Masters & Ribakoff. She received her B.A. in 1972 from the University of California, Irvine, and her J.D. in 1977 from Lincoln University Law School. She is a coauthor of chapter 9.

MARI MAYEDA directs the attorney fees project for the Impact Fund and is also of counsel to Saperstein, Goldstein, Demchak & Baller, Oakland. She received her A.B. in 1979 from the University of California, Davis, and her J.D. in 1983 from Harvard Law School. She is a coauthor of chapter 16.

MAUREEN E. McCLAIN is a partner with Kauff, McClain & McGuire, San Francisco. She received her A.B. in 1970 from Randolph Macon Women’s College and her J.D. in 1974 from Stanford University. She is the author of chapter 15.

HON. STEPHEN M. MURPHY is a judge on the San Francisco Superior Court. Before his appointment to the bench, he was a sole practitioner in San Francisco. He received his A.B. in 1977 from College of the Holy Cross and his J.D. in 1981 from the University of San Francisco. He is a coauthor of chapters 3A and 8.

RICHARD M. PEARL is the principal in the Law Offices of Richard M. Pearl, San Francisco. He received his B.A. in 1966 from the University of California, Berkeley, and his J.D. in 1969 from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. He is a coauthor of chapter 16.

WILLIAM C. QUACKENBUSH is a partner in the San Mateo firm of Quackenbush & Quackenbush. He received his B.S. in 1966 from the University of Santa Clara and his J.D. in 1972 from Loyola Law School (Los Angeles). He is a coauthor of chapters 1, 3A, 5, 6, and 8.

PATRICIA S. RADEZ is a partner at Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher, San Francisco. She received her A.B. in 1970 from Brown University and her J.D. in 1973 from Stanford University. She is a coauthor of chapter 10.

CYNTHIA L. REMMERS is a partner with Orrick, Herrington & Sut-cliffe, Sacramento. She received her A.B. in 1968 from the University of California, Davis, and her J.D. in 1980 from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. She is a coauthor of chapters 1–3A.

CHRISTIAN J. ROWLEY practices law with Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe in San Francisco. He received his B.S. in 1989 and his J.D. in 1993 from the University of Utah. He is a coauthor of chapter 1–3A.

MARK S. RUDY, of Rudy, Exelrod, Zieff & True, practices in San Francisco. He received his A.B. in 1966 from the University of Connecticut and his J.D. in 1969 from Georgetown University Law Center. He is the author of chapter 12.

GUY T. SAPERSTEIN is a partner in the Oakland law firm of Saperstein, Goldstein, Demchak & Baller. He received his A.B. in 1966 from the University of California, Berkeley, and his J.D. in 1969 from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. He is a coauthor of chapter 16.

ABBY B. SILVERMAN is a partner of Baker & McKenzie, San Diego. She received her A.B. in 1961 from Wellesley College, her M.S.W. in 1963 from Bryn Mawr College, and her J.D. in 1979 from the University of San Diego. She is a coauthor of chapter 8.

B. SCOTT SILVERMAN is a partner in the law firm of Morrison & Foerster, Los Angeles. He received his B.A. in 1971 from Stanford University and his J.D. in 1975 from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law. He is a coauthor of chapter 6.

GARY R. SINISCALCO is a partner of Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe in San Francisco. He received his A.B. in 1965 from LeMoyne College and his J.D. in 1969 from Georgetown University. He is a coauthor of chapters 1 and 3A.

JOHN M. TRUE III is a partner in the firm of Rudy, Exelrod, Zieff & True, San Francisco. He received his B.A. in 1966 from Trinity College (Hartford) and his J.D. in 1975 from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. He is a coauthor of chapters 1–3A.

REBECCA WESTERFIELD, a former circuit court judge in Kentucky, practices as a mediator and arbitrator with JAMS/EndDispute in San Francisco. She received her A.B. in 1972 and her J.D. in 1975 from the University of Kentucky. She is a coauthor of chapter 13.

CLAUDETTE G. WILSON is a partner of Wilson, Petty, Kosmo & Turner, LLP, San Diego. She received her B.A. in 1978 from the University of California, San Diego, and her J.D. in 1983 from the University of California, Davis, School of Law. She is a coauthor of chapter 7.

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Products specifications
PRACTICE AREA Civil Litigation & Torts
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Products specifications
PRACTICE AREA Civil Litigation & Torts
PRACTICE AREA Public Law
PRACTICE AREA Employment Law
PRODUCT GROUP Publication