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The California Municipal Law Handbook 2018

This handbook gives you all the background, tools, and guidance you need in all the major areas of California municipal law. Known as the definitive resource in its field, this work of over 300 municipal attorneys from the City Attorneys’ Department of the League of California Cities is published annually by CEB.

This handbook gives you the background, tools, and guidance you need in all major areas of California municipal law. Known as the definitive resource in its field, this work of over 300 municipal attorneys from the City Attorneys’ Department of the League of California Cities is published annually by CEB.

  • Latest developments in marijuana regulation and land use practice
  • New affordable housing laws and incentives
  • Convenient, portable softbound format
  • Full of expert practice tips, complete citations, and helpful references
  • Thoroughly updated annually to keep you current
 
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This handbook gives you the background, tools, and guidance you need in all major areas of California municipal law. Known as the definitive resource in its field, this work of over 300 municipal attorneys from the City Attorneys’ Department of the League of California Cities is published annually by CEB.

  • Latest developments in marijuana regulation and land use practice
  • New affordable housing laws and incentives
  • Convenient, portable softbound format
  • Full of expert practice tips, complete citations, and helpful references
  • Thoroughly updated annually to keep you current
 

1

Nature of Municipal Corporations

  • I. INTRODUCTION §1.1
    • A.Distinction Between Cities, Counties, and Other Local Agencies
      • 1. Counties Are State Agents §1.2
      • 2.Cities' Relationship to the State
        • a. Establishment of Cities §1.3
        • b. Limitations on Legislature's Power Over Cities §1.4
          • (1) Prohibition Against Special Legislation §1.5
          • (2) Prohibition Against Legislative Delegation of Municipal Authority §1.6
      • 3. Charter Counties Versus Charter Cities §1.7
      • 4. Special Districts §1.8
    • B.Legal Foundation of Cities
      • 1. Constitutional Foundation §1.9
      • 2. Laws Governing City Formation §1.10
      • 3. Classes of Cities §1.11
        • a. General Law Cities §1.12
        • b. Charter Cities §1.13
    • C. Constitutional Grants of Municipal Authority §1.14
      • 1. Police Power §1.15
        • a. Scope of Police Power §1.16
        • b. Preemption §1.17
        • c. Penalties §1.18
      • 2. Taxing Power §1.19
        • a. Scope of Taxing Power §1.20
        • b. Compared to Police Power §1.21
      • 3. Eminent Domain Power §1.22
      • 4. Public Works Power §1.23
        • a. Scope of Public Works Power §1.24
        • b. Municipal Utilities §1.25
      • 5. Corporate Power §1.26
        • a. General Law Cities §1.27
        • b. Charter Cities §1.28
          • (1) Constitutional Basis of "Municipal Affairs" Doctrine §1.29
          • (2) "Municipal Affair" Defined §1.30
          • (3) Relationship to Preemption §1.31
    • D.Constitutional Limits on Municipal Authority
      • 1. Public Purpose §1.32
      • 2. Federal Preemption Doctrine §1.33
        • a. Preemption Due to Occupation of Field §1.34
        • b. Preemption Due to Conflict With Federal Law §1.35
        • c. Preemption Due to Conflict With State General Law §1.36
          • (1) Duplication of State Law §1.37
          • (2) Contradiction of State Law §1.38
          • (3) State Law Occupies Field §1.39
        • d. Defining the Preempted Field §1.40
        • e. Examples of Valid Overlapping State and Local Regulation §1.41
      • 3. Prohibition Against Gifts of Public Funds §1.42
        • a. Public Purpose Exception §1.43
        • b. Charter City Exception §1.44
      • 4. Additional Compensation §1.45
      • 5. Debt Limit §1.46
        • a. Special Fund Doctrine §1.47
        • b. No Pledge of Revenue Beyond 1 Year §1.48
        • c. Contingency Exception §1.49
        • d. Appropriations Exception §1.50
      • 6. Tax and Appropriations Limits §1.51
        • a. General Property Tax Limit §1.52
        • b. Appropriation Limit §1.53
        • c. Voter Requirement for Imposition of Taxes §1.54
        • d. Special Assessments and Property-Related Fees and Charges §1.55
        • e. Other Tax Limitations §1.56
      • 7. Contract Limitations §1.57
      • 8.First Amendment Limitations
        • a. United States Constitution §1.58
        • b. California Constitution §1.59
        • c.Religion Issues
          • (1) Establishment Clause §1.60
          • (2) Invocations §1.61
          • (3) Religious Displays §1.62
          • (4) Public Aid to Religious Organizations §1.63
          • (5) Free Exercise Clause §1.64
      • 9. Fourth Amendment Limitations §1.65
      • 10. Fifth Amendment Limitations §1.66
      • 11. Fourteenth Amendment Limitations §1.67
        • a. Equal Protection Clause §1.68
        • b. Due Process Clause §1.69
    • E. Statutory Municipal Authority §1.70
    • F.Other Public Purpose Entities
      • 1. Within the Boundaries of Municipalities §1.71
      • 2. Independent of Municipal Boundaries §1.72
        • a. Special Districts §1.73
        • b. Statutory Authority for Special Districts §1.74
        • c. Changes in Organization §1.75
        • d. Characteristics of Special Districts §1.76
      • 3. Joint Powers Agencies §1.77
        • a. Delegated Powers Under Joint Powers Agreements §1.78
        • b. Use of Joint Powers Agencies in Financing §1.79
      • 4. Regional Governments §1.80
      • 5. Council of Governments §1.81
        • a. Determination of Housing Needs §1.82
        • b. Proposed Revisions to Housing Needs Determination §1.83
        • c. Housing Share Transfers §1.84
      • 6. Nonprofit Corporations and Other Organizations §1.85
    • G.Intergovernmental Relations
      • 1.Regulation of Federal Lands
        • a. Supremacy Clause §1.86
        • b. Property Clause §1.87
        • c. Implied Immunity §1.88
        • d. Intergovernmental Cooperation Act §1.89
      • 2. Power Reserved for States Under Tenth Amendment §1.90
        • a. Generally Applicable Laws §1.91
        • b. When Local Governments Are Used as Implements of Federal Regulation §1.92
      • 3. Immunity Under the Eleventh Amendment §1.93
        • a. State Immunity §1.94
        • b. Municipality Immunity §1.95
      • 4.Federal and State Grants
        • a. Acceptance of Grants §1.96
        • b. Compliance With Grants §1.97
      • 5.State Intergovernmental Relations
        • a. State Mandates §1.98
        • b. Public Utilities Commission §1.99
          • (1) Overriding Authority §1.100
          • (2) Authority Over Cellular Siting §1.101
        • c. State Agencies §1.102
        • d. Intergovernmental Immunity §1.103
          • (1) Federal Supremacy §1.104
          • (2) Immunity From Assertion of Constitutional Rights §1.105
          • (3) State Immunity From Zoning and Building Code Regulations §1.106
      • 6. Eminent Domain §1.107
  • II.MUNICIPAL ORGANIZATION AND REORGANIZATION
    • A. Local Agency Formation Commissions (LAFCOs) §1.108
      • 1. History and Purpose §1.109
      • 2. General Role §1.110
      • 3. Composition of LAFCOs §1.111
      • 4. Funding for LAFCOs §1.112
      • 5. Powers of LAFCOs §1.113
        • a. Particular Powers of LAFCOs §1.114
        • b. Changes of Organization §1.115
          • (1) Changes Relating to Farmland Security Zones §1.116
          • (2) Conditions on Changes §1.117
        • c. Spheres of Influence §1.118
          • (1) Factors Considered Determining Sphere of Influence §1.119
          • (2) Mandatory Service Reviews §1.120
          • (3) Updates and Amendments to Sphere of Influence §1.121
        • d. Provision of New or Extended Services Outside of Boundaries §1.122
        • e. LAFCO Decision as Project for CEQA Purposes §1.123
      • 6.Limitations on LAFCO Power
        • a. Limitations on Imposing Conditions §1.124
        • b. Limitations on Approving or Disapproving Changes of Organization §1.125
        • c. Mandatory LAFCO Approval §1.126
      • 7. LAFCO Proceedings §1.127
        • a. Evidence Gathering §1.128
        • b. Time Limits §1.129
        • c. Judicial Review §1.130
        • d. Jurisdictional Overlaps §1.131
      • 8. Subsidiary Districts §1.132
        • a. Initiating Proceedings to Establish Subsidiary District §1.133
        • b. Conducting Proceedings to Establish Subsidiary District §1.134
        • c. Revenue Consequences of Subsidiary District Merger Into City §1.135
    • B. Incorporation §1.136
      • 1. Initiating Incorporation Proceedings by Petition §1.137
      • 2. Conducting Incorporation Proceedings §1.138
      • 3. Deciding on Incorporation §1.139
        • a. Appropriations Limits §1.140
        • b. Approval or Disapproval of Proposal §1.141
        • c. Reconsideration of Decision on Proposal §1.142
        • d. Decision on Proposal §1.143
        • e. Elections to Confirm Incorporation §1.144
      • 4.Effects of Incorporation
        • a. City Jurisdiction §1.145
        • b. Effect of County Ordinances §1.146
        • c. City Council Terms of Office §1.147
        • d. Property §1.148
        • e. Services in First Full Fiscal Year §1.149
    • C. Annexation and Detachment §1.150
      • 1. Procedures for Annexation §1.151
        • a. When Annexation Is Appropriate §1.152
        • b. Property Tax Negotiations §1.153
        • c. Effect of Annexation Agreement Requiring Waiver of Protest Rights §1.154
      • 2. Procedures for Detachment §1.155
      • 3.LAFCO Approval or Disapproval
        • a. With No Notice and Hearing §1.156
        • b. With Notice and Hearing §1.157
      • 4. Elections on Annexation or Detachment §1.158
      • 5.Effects of Annexation
        • a. Jurisdiction §1.159
        • b. Service Provision §1.160
        • c. Charges for Property Use §1.161
        • d. Responsibility for Bonds §1.162
        • e. Acceptance of County Roads and Highways §1.163
        • f. Previously Authorized Taxes, Assessments, Fees, or Charges §1.164
      • 6.Effects of Detachment
        • a. Jurisdiction §1.165
        • b. Interest and Principal on Debts §1.166
        • c. Taxing Authority §1.167
        • d. Public Employees in Special Reorganizations §1.168
    • D. Consolidation, Dissolution, and Disincorporation §1.169
      • 1.Types of Consolidation
        • a. Consolidation of Cities §1.170
        • b. Consolidation of Districts §1.171
      • 2.Effects of Consolidation
        • a. Property Rights and Debts §1.172
        • b. Civil and Criminal Liability §1.173
        • c. Taxation §1.174
      • 3. Effects of Dissolution/Disincorporation
      • 4. Powers Cease §1.175
        • a. Debts Must Be Paid §1.176
        • b. Revenues Go to Successor §1.177
        • c. Public Property Must Be Returned §1.178
        • d. Effects of Reorganization Generally §1.179
  • III.INTERNAL ORGANIZATION OF CITIES
    • A. Forms of Government §1.180
      • 1. Council/Manager §1.181
      • 2. Council/Administrator §1.182
      • 3. Strong Mayor §1.183
    • B. City Council §1.184
      • 1. Qualification of Members §1.185
        • a. General Law Cities §1.186
        • b. Charter Cities §1.187
      • 2. At-Large or District Elections §1.188
      • 3. Oath of Office §1.189
      • 4. Vacancies and Termination of Office §1.190
        • a. Vacancy Defined §1.191
        • b.Common Bases for Finding of Vacancy
          • (1) Resignation §1.192
          • (2) Nonresidence §1.193
          • (3) Abandonment §1.194
          • (4) Incompatible Offices and Activities §1.195
          • (5) Accepting Free Transportation §1.196
          • (6) Recall §1.197
          • (7) Conviction §1.198
        • c. Filling Vacancies §1.199
          • (1) Limits on the Appointment Power §1.200
          • (2) Result of Appointment §1.201
      • 5. Challenges to Right to Hold Office §1.202
      • 6. De Facto Officers §1.203
    • C. Office of Mayor §1.204
      • 1. Establishing/Eliminating the Office of Elected Mayor §1.205
      • 2.Features of the Office of Elected Mayor
        • a. Authority, Powers, and Duties §1.206
        • b. Salary §1.207
        • c. Making Appointments §1.208
      • 3. Mayor Pro Tempore §1.209
    • D.Compensation and Expenses
      • 1. Strict Construction §1.210
        • a. Gifts of Public Funds §1.211
        • b. Ethics Training §1.212
      • 2. Compensation §1.213
        • a. Salary Adjustments §1.214
        • b. Compensation for Service on Other Commissions, Committees, Boards, or Authorities §1.215
        • c. Compensation for Attendance Beyond Certain Meetings §1.216
      • 3. Expenses §1.217
        • a. Expenses for Meals for Third Parties §1.218
        • b. Expenses of Council Spouses §1.219
        • c. Flat Expense Allowances §1.220
      • 4. Benefits §1.221
    • E. Limitations on the Right to Hold Office §1.222
      • 1. Analyzing Limitations on the Right to Hold Public Office §1.223
      • 2. Term Limitations in Cities §1.224
    • F.Conduct of Council Members
      • 1. Rights and Roles of Council Members §1.225
      • 2. Public Decorum §1.226
      • 3. Enforcement of Decorum §1.227
      • 4. Censure §1.228
    • G. Exercise of Legislative Authority §1.229
      • 1. Distinction Between Ordinances and Resolutions §1.230
      • 2. Ordinances §1.231
        • a. Authority §1.232
        • b. Effect §1.233
        • c. Validity §1.234
        • d. Permissible Subjects §1.235
        • e. Severability Clauses §1.236
        • f.Ordinance Procedure
          • (1) Drafting Ordinances §1.237
          • (2) Adopting Ordinances §1.238
        • g.Effective Date
          • (1) Generally on 30th Day After Adoption §1.239
          • (2) Certain Ordinances Take Effect Immediately §1.240
        • h. Publication of Ordinance §1.241
        • i. Adoption by Reference §1.242
        • j. Penalty for Violation of Ordinance §1.243
        • k. Amendment or Repeal of Ordinance §1.244
      • 3. Resolutions §1.245
        • a. Resolutions as Ordinances §1.246
        • b. Permissible Subjects for Resolutions §1.247
        • c. Procedure for Adopting Resolutions §1.248
        • d. Effective Date §1.249
      • 4. Minute Order or Motion §1.250
    • H. Appointed Commissions and Boards §1.251
      • 1. Methods of Selection §1.252
      • 2. Qualifications §1.253
      • 3. Removal §1.254
      • 4. Compensation §1.255
      • 5. Delegation of Authority §1.256
    • I.Officials: Powers and Duties
      • 1. Oath of Office §1.257
      • 2. City Manager §1.258
      • 3. City Attorney §1.259
      • 4. City Clerk §1.260
      • 5. City Treasurer §1.261
      • 6. Police Chief §1.262
      • 7. Fire Chief §1.263

2

Open Government and Ethics

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER §2.1
  • II.OPEN MEETING LAWS
    • A. The Brown Act §2.2
    • B.Entities and Persons Covered
      • 1. Legislative Bodies §2.3
      • 2. The Less-Than-a-Quorum Exception §2.4
      • 3. Elected Officials Who Have Not Yet Assumed Office §2.5
    • C. What Constitutes a Covered Meeting §2.6
      • 1.Statutory Exemptions
        • a. "Individual Contacts" §2.7
        • b. Conferences and Seminars §2.8
        • c. Open Community Meetings §2.9
        • d. Meetings of Other Legislative Bodies §2.10
        • e. Social or Ceremonial Gatherings §2.11
        • f. Meetings of Standing Committees §2.12
        • g. Grand Jury Testimony §2.13
      • 2. Prohibited Meetings; "Serial" or "Seriatim" Meetings §2.14
    • D.Types, Time, and Location of Meetings
      • 1. Regular Meetings §2.15
      • 2. Special Meetings §2.16
      • 3. Emergency Meetings §2.17
      • 4. Location of Meetings §2.18
    • E.Agenda Requirements and Related Procedural Issues
      • 1.Regular Meetings
        • a. Seventy-Two-Hour Posting Requirement §2.19
        • b. Required Agenda Contents §2.20
        • c. Mailing of Agendas §2.21
        • d. ADA Requirements for Agendas and Agenda Packets §2.22
        • e. No Discussion or Action on Matters Not on Agenda §2.23
        • f.Exceptions to Requirements for Agenda Contents
          • (1) Brief or Limited Communications §2.24
          • (2) Emergencies §2.25
          • (3) Need for Immediate Action §2.26
          • (4) Items on Agenda for Prior Meetings §2.27
      • 2.Special Meetings
        • a. Twenty-Four-Hour Posting and Personal Notice Requirements §2.28
        • b. No Action or Discussion of Matters Not Covered by Notice §2.29
        • c. Special Meetings Regarding Certain Salaries and Benefits Prohibited §2.30
      • 3.Emergency Meetings
        • a. Limited Media Notice and Subsequent Posting Required §2.31
        • b. Closed Sessions §2.32
      • 4. Teleconferenced Meetings §2.33
      • 5. Simultaneous or Serial Meetings of Different Legislative Bodies With Same Membership §2.34
      • 6. Closed Sessions §2.35
    • F.Conduct of Meetings
      • 1. Quorum and Voting Requirements §2.36
      • 2.Adjourned and Continued Meetings
        • a. Adjournment Procedures §2.37
        • b. Continuance Procedures §2.38
      • 3. Role of City Attorney §2.39
      • 4. Legislative Body's Authority to Promulgate Rules of Procedure §2.40
      • 5. Order of Business for Regular Meetings §2.41
      • 6.Presiding Officer
        • a. Who Is Presiding Officer §2.42
        • b. Powers of Presiding Officer §2.43
        • c. Duties of Presiding Officer §2.44
      • 7.Parliamentary Rules of Procedure
        • a. Purpose and Function of Rules §2.45
        • b. Source of Rules §2.46
        • c. Object of Rules §2.47
        • d. Effect of Failure to Follow Rules §2.48
        • e. Judicial Review of Parliamentary Procedures §2.49
      • 8.Rules of Decorum and Their Enforcement
        • a. Council Members §2.50
        • b. Exclusion of Audience Members for Disorderly Conduct §2.51
        • c. Exception for Journalists §2.52
        • d. Readmission §2.53
    • G. Due Process Requirements §2.54
      • 1. Legislative Actions §2.55
      • 2. Quasi-Judicial Actions §2.56
      • 3. Requirement for Public Hearings §2.57
    • H. The Right of Public Comment §2.58
      • 1. Regular Meetings §2.59
      • 2. Special Meetings §2.60
      • 3. Closed Sessions §2.61
      • 4.Permissible Forms of Regulation
        • a. Reasonable Time, Place, and Manner Regulations §2.62
        • b. Request to Speak Limitations §2.63
        • c. Time Limitations §2.64
        • d. Repetitious or Irrelevant Comment Limitations §2.65
        • e. Requirement to Set Spokesperson for Groups §2.66
        • f. Out of Order Enforcement §2.67
      • 5.Content-Oriented Regulation
        • a. No Limitation on Critical Speech §2.68
        • b. May Limit Disruptive Speech §2.69
    • I.Other Rights of the Public Who Attend Meetings
      • 1. Anonymity of the Public §2.70
      • 2. Audio, Video, and Photographic Recording Rights §2.71
      • 3. Public's Right to Access Documents §2.72
        • a. Compliance With the ADA §2.73
        • b. Tapes Made by the Agency to Assist in Preparation of Minutes or Otherwise §2.74
        • c. Exception: Attorney-Client Privileged Written Communications §2.75
    • J. Closed Sessions §2.76
      • 1. Agenda Notice and Safe Harbor Protection §2.77
      • 2. Permissible Attendees §2.78
      • 3. Must Announce Intended Subject Matter of the Closed Session in Open Session §2.79
        • a. Announcement of Real Estate Negotiations §2.80
        • b. Announcement of Pending Litigation §2.81
        • c. Announcement of Personnel Sessions §2.82
        • d. Announcement of Labor Negotiations §2.83
      • 4.Major Reasons for Permissible Closed Sessions
        • a. To Instruct Negotiators of Real Property Transactions §2.84
        • b. To Instruct Negotiators Who Are Meeting and Conferring With Represented and Unrepresented Employees §2.85
        • c. To Discuss "Pending Litigation" With the Agency's Attorney §2.86
          • (1) What Constitutes "Pending Litigation" §2.87
          • (2) What Constitutes "Existing Facts and Circumstances" Under Govt C §54956.9(d)(2)–(3) and Related Required Disclosures §2.88
        • d. To Consider the "Appointment, Employment, Evaluation of Performance, Discipline, or Dismissal of a Public Employee" §2.89
          • (1) Covered Employees §2.90
          • (2) Valid Closed Session Employee-Related Topics §2.91
          • (3) Notice Requirements for Investigation of Employee Complaints §2.92
        • e. License and Public Security Topics in Closed Sessions §2.93
      • 5. Public Comment Before Closed Session §2.94
      • 6.Action and Vote Disclosure in Open Session After the Closed Session
        • a. Governing Statutes §2.95
        • b. Contents of the Closed Session Disclosure Report §2.96
          • (1) Disclosure Report on Approval of Agreements Concluding Real Estate Negotiations §2.97
          • (2) Disclosure Report on Approval of Litigation Defense, Appellate Review, or Amicus Curiae Participation §2.98
          • (3) Disclosure Report on Approval of Initiation of or Intervention in Litigation §2.99
          • (4) Disclosure Report on Approval of Pending Litigation Settlements §2.100
          • (5) Disclosure Report on Disposition of Joint Powers Agency Claims §2.101
          • (6) Disclosure Report on Actions Affecting the Employment Status of Public Employees §2.102
          • (7) Disclosure Report on Approval of Agreements Concluding Labor Negotiations §2.103
      • 7. Confidentiality of Closed Session Communications §2.104
      • 8. Minute Book Confidentiality §2.105
    • K. Brown Act Violations §2.106
      • 1. Criminal Prosecution of Member of the Legislative Body Possible §2.107
      • 2. Civil Actions Possible; Remedies Available §2.108
        • a. Actions Under Govt C §§54960 and 54960.2 §2.109
        • b. Actions Under Govt C §54960.1 §2.110
        • c. Costs and Attorney Fees Awarded Unless Unjust §2.111
      • 3. Prohibition on Disclosure of Confidential Information From Closed Session §2.112
    • L. Other Meeting Requirement References §2.113
  • III.ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
    • A. Political Reform Act of 1974 §2.114
      • 1. Key Definitions §2.115
      • 2. Disqualification of Public Officials in the Event of Conflict of Interest §2.116
        • a. Direct or Indirect Investment in Business Entity §2.117
        • b. Direct or Indirect Interest in Real Property §2.118
        • c. Interest in Income Source §2.119
        • d. Management Position Held in Business Entity §2.120
        • e. Interest in Gift Source §2.121
      • 3. Disqualifying Conflict of Interest Analyzed Under Four-Part Test §2.122
        • a. Step One: Is It Reasonably Foreseeable That the Governmental Decision Will Have a Financial Effect on Any of the Public Official's Financial Interests? §2.123
        • b. Step Two: Will the Reasonably Foreseeable Financial Effect Be Material? §2.124
        • c. Step Three: Will the Material Financial Effect on the Public Official's Financial Interest Be Indistinguishable From Its Effects on the Public Generally? §2.125
        • d. Step Four: Is the Public Official "Making, Participating in Making, or in Any Way Attempting to Use His or Her Official Position to Influence the Governmental Decision"? §2.126
        • e. Exception: Legally Required Participation §2.127
      • 4. Requirements After Disqualification §2.128
      • 5. Local Conflict of Interest Code §2.129
      • 6.Conflict of Interest Statements and Disclosure
        • a. Who Must File Official Disclosure Statements §2.130
        • b. Contents of Disclosure Statements §2.131
        • c. Timing of Disclosure Statements §2.132
          • (1) Assuming Office Statements §2.133
          • (2) Annual Statements §2.134
      • 7. Leaving Office Statements §2.135
        • a. Penalties §2.136
        • b. Retention §2.137
      • 8. Conflicts of Interests and Campaign Contributions §2.138
        • a. Definitions and Prohibited Acts §2.139
        • b. Disqualification and Disclosure Requirements §2.140
      • 9.Gifts and Honoraria Restrictions
        • a. Honoraria §2.141
        • b. Gifts §2.142
      • 10. Loan Prohibitions §2.143
      • 11. Mass Mailing Restrictions §2.144
      • 12. Revolving Door Prohibitions §2.145
      • 13. Fund-Raising; “Behested Payments” §2.146
      • 14. Enforcement of the Political Reform Act §2.147
      • 15. Mandatory Ethics Training §2.148
    • B. Prohibited Contracts Under Govt C §1090 §2.149
      • 1. When Govt C §1090 Applies §2.150
      • 2. To Whom Govt C §1090 Applies §2.151
      • 3. Making of a Contract, Broadly Defined §2.152
      • 4. Financial Interest Under Govt C §1090 §2.153
      • 5. Statutory Exceptions: "Remote Interests" and "Non-Interests" §2.154
      • 6. The Rule of Necessity §2.155
      • 7. Exception: "Salary" §2.156
      • 8. Exception: Existing Contracts §2.157
      • 9. Reliance on Legal Advice Not a Defense §2.158
      • 10. Applicable Penalties §2.159
      • 11. Statute of Limitations Under Govt C §1090 §2.160
    • C. Common Law Doctrine Against Conflicts of Interest §2.161
    • D.Incompatible Activities and Offices
      • 1. Incompatible Activities §2.162
      • 2. Incompatible Offices §2.163
        • a. "Offices" §2.164
        • b. Potential for Conflict §2.165
        • c. Examples of Incompatible Offices §2.166
    • E. Impermissible Bias §2.167
    • F. Local Incompatible Activity Regulations §2.168
    • G. City Lobbying Allowed §2.169
      • 1. Lobbying Reporting Requirements §2.170
      • 2. Local Regulation of Lobbying §2.171
    • H. Ethical Obligations for Government Lawyers §2.172
      • 1. Professional, Situational, Categorical Ethics—Distinguished §2.173
      • 2. Regulation of California Attorneys §2.174
      • 3. State Bar Rules Apply to Government Attorneys §2.175
      • 4.Representing Governmental Entities
        • a. Cal Rules of Prof Cond 3–600(A): Organization as Client §2.176
        • b. Cal Rules of Prof Cond 3–600(B): Reporting Illegal Activity §2.177
        • c. Cal Rules of Prof Cond 3–600(D): Duty Not to Treat Agent as Client or to Promise Confidentiality §2.178
        • d. Cal Rules of Prof Cond 3–600(E): Joint Representation of Official or Employee and Entity §2.179
      • 5. Cal Rules of Prof Cond 3–310: Conflicts of Interest §2.180
        • a. Simultaneous Representation of Adverse Interests §2.181
        • b. Successive Representation of Client With Interest Adverse to That of Former Client §2.182
        • c. Determining Client in Representation of Quasi-Independent Boards and Officials §2.183
        • d. Waivers of Conflicts of Interest §2.184
          • (1) Civil Service Commission or Advisory Bodies §2.185
          • (2) Attorney General and Sheriff §2.186
        • e. Ethical Walls and Due Process Walls Distinguished §2.187
        • f. Duty of Confidentiality; Whistle-Blowing §2.188
      • 6.Special Considerations for the Public Sector
        • a. Public Attorney's Simultaneous Representation of Adverse Interests §2.189
        • b. Public Attorney's Successive Representation of Adverse Interests §2.190
        • c.Conflicts in Joint Representation of Employees and the Entity
          • (1) Duty to Defend §2.191
          • (2) Generally No Conflict When Punitive Damages Sought §2.192
        • d. Role of Attorney in Due Process—Improper Combination of Functions §2.193
        • e. Application of Govt C §1090 and the Political Reform Act of 1974 §2.194
        • f. City Attorney's Right to Defense and Indemnification §2.195
      • 7.Special Duties for Prosecutors
        • a. City Attorneys as Prosecutors §2.196
        • b. Prosecutors Must Maintain Objectivity §2.197
        • c. City Attorney May Not Threaten Criminal Charges to Obtain Advantage in Civil Dispute §2.198
        • d. Limitations on Criminal Defense Practice by City Prosecutors §2.199
      • 8.Enhanced Ethical Duty for Public Attorneys
        • a. Furthering Justice §2.200
        • b. Statutory Duties §2.201
    • I. Other References on Ethics and Conflicts §2.202
  • IV.CALIFORNIA PUBLIC RECORDS ACT
    • A.Introduction
      • 1. Fundamental Right of Access to Information §2.203
      • 2. Balancing Public's Right of Access With Fundamental Right of Privacy and Effective Government §2.204
      • 3. Federal Freedom of Information Act §2.205
      • 4. Other Records-Access Statutes §2.206
    • B.Basic Provisions of Public Records Act
      • 1. Agencies Subject to Public Records Act §2.207
      • 2. Records Subject to Public Records Act §2.208
      • 3. Persons Who May Request Records §2.209
    • C.Responding to Public Records Request
      • 1. Right to Inspect and Copy Records §2.210
      • 2. Form and Content of Request §2.211
      • 3. Public Agency's Response §2.212
      • 4. Electronic Records §2.213
      • 5. Timing of Response §2.214
      • 6. Extending Response Time §2.215
      • 7. Locating Records §2.216
      • 8. Redacting Records §2.217
      • 9. No Duty to Create Records or Privilege Logs §2.218
      • 10. Timing of Disclosure §2.219
      • 11. Waiver §2.220
      • 12. Fees §2.221
    • D.Exemptions From Disclosure
      • 1. Overview of Exemptions §2.222
      • 2.Specific Exemptions
        • a. Architectural and Official Building Plans §2.223
        • b. Attorney-Client Communications and Attorney Work Product §2.224
        • c. Code Enforcement Records §2.225
        • d. Deliberative Process Privilege §2.226
        • e. Drafts §2.227
        • f. Employment Contracts, Employee Salaries, and Pension Benefits §2.228
        • g.Law Enforcement Records
          • (1) Overview §2.229
          • (2) Law Enforcement Information That Must Be Disclosed §2.230
        • h. Medical Privacy Laws §2.231
        • i. Pending Litigation and Claims §2.232
        • j. Personal Contact Information §2.233
        • k. Personnel Records §2.234
        • l. Public Contracting Documents §2.235
        • m. Public Interest Exemption §2.236
        • n. Utility Customer Information §2.237
    • E.Judicial Review and Remedies
      • 1. Overview §2.238
      • 2. Trial Court Process §2.239
      • 3. Burden of Proof and Hearing §2.240
      • 4. In Camera Review §2.241
      • 5. Orders §2.242
      • 6. Appellate Review §2.243
      • 7. Attorney Fees and Costs §2.244
    • F.Records Retention and Destruction
      • 1. Governing Laws §2.245
      • 2. Specific State Law Records Retention Requirements §2.246
      • 3. Specific Federal Law Requirements on Record Retention §2.247
      • 4. Records Destruction §2.248
      • 5. Preservation in Alternative Media §2.249

3

Elections

  • I. INTRODUCTION §3.1
  • II.ELECTION PROCEDURES
    • A. The Elections Official §3.2
    • B.Types of Elections
      • 1.Regular Elections
        • a. Definition §3.3
        • b. Regular Election Dates §3.4
      • 2. Special Elections §3.5
      • 3.Municipal Elections
        • a. Legal Framework §3.6
        • b. General Municipal Election Dates §3.7
        • c. Consolidation of Elections §3.8
        • d.Publishing/Posting Notice of Municipal Election
          • (1) Newspaper Notice §3.9
          • (2) Notice Content §3.10
          • (3) Posting When There Is No Newspaper §3.11
        • e. Publishing List of Nominees §3.12
        • f. Publishing List of Polling Places and Precinct Board Members §3.13
        • g. Publishing Synopsis of Measures §3.14
      • 4.Nomination of Candidates
        • a. Nomination Papers §3.15
        • b. Needed Signatures §3.16
        • c. Filing Fees §3.17
        • d. Circulators §3.18
      • 5.Conduct of Elections
        • a. Pre-Election-Day Procedures §3.19
        • b. Election Day Procedures at the Polling Place §3.20
      • 6.Canvass of the Vote and Declaration of Results
        • a. Basic Procedure §3.21
        • b. Location of Count §3.22
        • c. Vote-by-Mail Ballots §3.23
        • d. What Is Counted §3.24
        • e. Provisional Ballots §3.25
        • f. Certification of Results §3.26
        • g. Recordation and Oath §3.27
      • 7. Recount of Votes §3.28
    • C.Methods of Election
      • 1. At-Large §3.29
      • 2. District Election System §3.30
        • a. By Districts §3.31
        • b. From Districts §3.32
  • III.CANDIDATE QUALIFICATIONS
    • A. Residency Requirement §3.33
    • B.Qualifications for Particular Office
      • 1. Qualifications for Elected Mayor §3.34
      • 2. Qualifications for Council Member, Clerk, or Treasurer §3.35
    • C. Term Limits §3.36
  • IV.BALLOTS
    • A. Ballot Content §3.37
      • 1. Headings §3.38
      • 2. Candidates' Names §3.39
        • a. Name Changes §3.40
        • b. Candidates With Similar Names §3.41
        • c. Designation of Status §3.42
      • 3. Voter Instructions §3.43
      • 4. Order of Offices, Names, and Initiatives §3.44
    • B.Other Ballot Rules
      • 1. Translations §3.45
      • 2. Party Identification Prohibited in Municipal Elections §3.46
      • 3. Blank Spaces in the Ballot §3.47
      • 4. Stubs and Numbering of Ballots §3.48
      • 5. Initiatives and Referenda §3.49
      • 6. Polling Stations §3.50
      • C.Voter Information Guides
        • 1. Candidates' Statements §3.51
        • 2.Arguments on City Measures
          • a. City Attorney's Impartial Analysis §3.52
          • b. Ballot Arguments §3.53
          • c. Multiple Arguments §3.54
          • d. Rebuttal Arguments §3.55
          • e. Public Examination and Challenge §3.56
      • D. Voter Information Guide With Copy of Ballot Form §3.57
      • E.Mailed Ballot Elections
        • 1. Conduct of Municipal Mailed Ballot Election §3.58
        • 2. Small City Mailed Ballot Election Authorization §3.59
        • 3. County Mailed Ballot Election Authorization §3.60
    • 4. Mailed Ballot Election Dates §3.61
  • V.VOTERS AND THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT
    • A.Voter Qualifications
      • 1. California Constitutional Provisions §3.62
      • 2. Determination of Residence and Domicile §3.63
      • 3. Ex-Felons' Right to Vote §3.64
    • B.Federal Voting Rights Act
      • 1. Original Requirements §3.65
      • 2.Amendments
        • a. 1982 Amendments §3.66
        • b. Language Minority Amendments §3.67
      • 3.Challenges to Elections Under the Federal Voting Rights Act
        • a. Challenges to At-Large Elections §3.68
        • b. Challenges to District Elections §3.69
          • (1) Intentional Discrimination—Fourteenth Amendment §3.70
          • (2) Unintentional Dilution—Section 2 of the Federal Voting Rights Act §3.71
    • C. National Voter Registration Act §3.72
    • D. Help America Vote Act §3.73
    • E.California Voting Rights Act
      • 1. Scope and Effect §3.74
      • 2.Challenges to Elections Under the California Voting Rights Act
        • a. What Constitutes Violation §3.75
        • b. Burden of Proof §3.76
        • c. Action for Violation; Remedies §3.77
    • F.Restrictions on Right to Vote
      • 1. When Subject to Strict Scrutiny §3.78
      • 2. When Subject to Rational Basis Test §3.79
  • VI. INITIATIVES AND REFERENDA §3.80
    • A.Statutory Provisions Applicable to Cities
      • 1. Initiatives §3.81
        • a. Petition for Proposed Initiative §3.82
          • (1) Notice of Intent to Circulate Petition §3.83
          • (2) Circulating Petition §3.84
          • (3) Filing Petition §3.85
        • b.City Council Action on Petition
          • (1) Council Options §3.86
          • (2) City Council May Request Impartial Analysis §3.87
          • (3) City Council May Refer Petition for Report §3.88
        • c. Timing of Election §3.89
          • (1) Special Election §3.90
          • (2) Regular Election §3.91
        • d. Adoption of Initiative §3.92
        • e. Conflicting Initiatives §3.93
      • 2. Referenda §3.94
        • a. Petition for Proposed Referenda §3.95
          • (1) Circulating Petition §3.96
          • (2) Filing Petition §3.97
        • b. City Council Action on Petition §3.98
          • (1) Effect of Repeal §3.99
          • (2) Election on Ordinance §3.100
    • B. Special Rules Applicable to Charter Cities §3.101
    • C.Limitations on Use of Initiative and Referendum
      • 1.Constitutional Limitations
        • a.Limitations on Initiatives
          • (1) Single-Subject Rule §3.102
          • (2) Naming Individuals or Corporations to Governmental Positions §3.103
        • b. Limitations on Referenda §3.104
      • 2.Judicial Limitations on Initiatives and Referenda
        • a. Apply Only to Legislative Acts §3.105
          • (1) Examples of Legislative Acts §3.106
          • (2) Examples of Adjudicatory and Administrative Acts §3.107
        • b. Cannot Direct Council to Perform Legislative Act §3.108
        • c. Cannot Relate to Matters Committed to Council §3.109
        • d. Cannot Impair Essential Government Functions §3.110
        • e. Cannot Regulate Preempted Matters §3.111
        • f. Cannot Be Arbitrary and Discriminatory §3.112
        • g. Must Be Sufficiently Certain and Not Vague §3.112A
        • h. Must Be Consistent With the General Plan §3.113
        • i. Must Be Consistent With State and Federal Constitutional Requirements §3.114
      • 3. City's Choices When It Believes Initiative or Referendum Is Unlawful §3.115
        • a. Seeking Judicial Relief From Duty to Prepare Title and Summary §3.116
        • b. Refuse to Place Measure on Ballot §3.117
        • c. Place Measure on Ballot §3.118
    • D.Exemptions From Procedural Requirements That Apply to City Council Actions
      • 1. Notice and Hearing §3.119
      • 2. California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) §3.120
      • 3. Housing Limitation Findings §3.121
    • E. Judicial Review §3.122
      • 1. Substantive Invalidity §3.123
      • 2. Procedural Defects §3.124
      • 3. Voters Lack Authority to Adopt Measure §3.125
  • VII. ELECTION CONTESTS §3.126
    • A.Contests at General Elections
      • 1. Who May Contest a Local Election §3.127
      • 2. Grounds for Contest §3.128
      • 3.Statement of Contest
        • a. Form §3.129
        • b. Timing §3.130
        • c. Amendment §3.131
      • 4. Pretrial Proceedings §3.132
      • 5. Answer §3.133
      • 6.Trial
        • a. Court Powers §3.134
        • b. Evidence §3.135
        • c. Determination and Judgment §3.136
        • d. Costs §3.137
      • 7. Review §3.138
      • 8. Contests on Ballot Measures §3.139
    • B.Contests at Primary Elections
      • 1.General Requirements
        • a. Affidavit §3.140
        • b. Grounds for Annulment or Set-Aside §3.141
        • c. Costs §3.142
      • 2. Contests Involving a Simple Recount §3.143
        • a. Procedures §3.144
        • b. Defendant Appearance §3.145
        • c. Recounts §3.146
        • d. Judgment §3.147
      • 3. Contests Other Than Those Involving a Simple Recount §3.148
        • a. Procedures §3.149
        • b. Hearing and Judgment §3.150
  • VIII. RECALL §3.151
    • A.Starting the Process
      • 1. Limitations on Recall §3.152
      • 2. Notice of Intention to Recall §3.153
        • a. Contents of Notice §3.154
        • b. Filing of Notice §3.155
        • c. Publication of Notice §3.156
      • 3. Answer to Recall Statement §3.157
    • B.Recall Petition
      • 1. Form and Contents §3.158
      • 2.Filing Proposed Petition
        • a. Proponent Obligations §3.159
        • b. City Clerk Obligations §3.160
        • c. Signatures §3.161
    • C.Collecting Signatures
      • 1. Number of Days to Obtain Signatures §3.162
      • 2. Number of Qualified Signatures §3.163
      • 3. Withdrawal of Signatures §3.164
    • D.Filing and Examination of Petition
      • 1. Submission for Filing and Acceptance §3.165
      • 2. Petition Examination §3.166
      • 3. Certification of Examination Results §3.167
    • E.Recall Election
      • 1. Timing §3.168
      • 2. Recall Ballot §3.169
      • 3. Sample Ballot and Ballot Information §3.170
      • 4. Election Procedures §3.171
      • 5. Declaration of Results §3.172
    • F.Successor Candidate
      • 1. Nominations §3.173
      • 2. Election §3.174
      • 3. Failure to Qualify §3.175
    • G.Filling Vacancies by Appointment
      • 1. Vacancy Before Petition Filing §3.176
      • 2. Vacancy Occurring After Petition Filing §3.177
  • IX.CAMPAIGN REGULATIONS
    • A. Contribution Limits—Constitutional Issues §3.178
      • 1. Organizational Contribution Limits §3.179
        • a. Ballot Measure Contribution Bans §3.180
        • b. Corporate Candidate Contribution Bans §3.181
      • 2. Dollar Amount of Contribution Limits §3.182
      • 3. Limits on Contributions to Committees Making Independent Expenditures §3.183
    • B. Expenditure Limits—Constitutional Issues §3.184
      • 1. Independent Expenditure Limits §3.185
      • 2. Organization Expenditure Limits §3.186
      • 3. Candidate's Personal Funds §3.187
    • C. Political Reform Act Campaign Regulations §3.188
      • 1. Propositions 68, 73, and 208 §3.189
      • 2. Proposition 208 Invalidated and Repealed §3.190
      • 3. Proposition 34 §3.191
    • D. Political Reform Act Disclosure Requirements §3.192
      • 1.Constitutional Issues
        • a. Interests Infringed §3.193
        • b. Heightened Scrutiny §3.194
        • c. Governmental Interests §3.195
      • 2. When Disclosure Statements Are Required §3.196
        • a. Reporting Late Contributions §3.197
        • b. Reporting Independent Expenditures §3.198
        • c. Pre-Election Statements §3.199
        • d. Disclosure Requirements for Multipurpose Organizations §3.199A
      • 3. Contents of Disclosure Statements §3.200
        • a. Identifying Contributors, Lenders, and Recipients §3.201
        • b.Disclosure of Advertisement Funding Sources
          • (1) Mass Mailing Restrictions §3.202
          • (2) Ballot Measure Campaign Advertisements §3.203
          • (3) Paid Spokespeople §3.204
    • E. Political Reform Act Contribution Limits §3.205
    • F.Political Reform Act Enforcement
      • 1. Criminal Penalties §3.206
      • 2. Civil Sanctions §3.207
      • 3. Administrative Sanctions §3.208
      • 4. Injunctive Relief §3.209
    • G. Local Regulations §3.210
      • 1. Authority for More Stringent Requirements §3.211
      • 2. Public Monies for Candidates in Municipal Elections §3.212
    • H.City Participation in Ballot Measures
      • 1. Prohibited Expenditures to Support or Defeat a Ballot Measure §3.213
        • a. Statutory Prohibition §3.214
        • b. Equal Protection Issues §3.215
      • 2.Permissible Public Expenditures
        • a. Informational Expenses §3.216
        • b. Opinions of Local Legislative Bodies §3.217
        • c. Voter Registration Expenses §3.218
      • 3.Lobbying
        • a. Lobbying Permitted §3.219
        • b. Lobbyist Registration and Reporting Requirements §3.220
        • c. Distinguishing Between Lobbying and Campaigning §3.221
      • 4.Drafting Ballot Measures
        • a. Municipal Drafting Permitted §3.222
        • b. Drafting Does Not Constitute Campaigning §3.223
        • c. Collecting Signatures Likely Impermissible §3.224
      • 5.Analyzing City Ballot Measures
        • a. Impartial Analysis by City Attorney §3.225
        • b. Remedy for Imperfect Analyses §3.226

4

Personnel

  • I. INTRODUCTION
    • A. Nature of Public Employment §4.1
    • B. Other Reference Materials [Deleted] §4.2
  • II.RECRUITMENT AND QUALIFICATIONS OF PUBLIC EMPLOYEES
    • A. Hiring §4.3
      • 1. Nondiscrimination Requirement §4.4
      • 2. Residency Requirement §4.5
    • B. Affirmative Action §4.6
      • 1. Sources of Affirmative Action Obligations §4.7
      • 2.Legality of Voluntary Affirmative Action
        • a. Proposition 209 §4.8
        • b. City Programs Involving Federal Moneys §4.9
      • 3. Third Party Rights §4.10
      • 4. EEOC Guidelines §4.11
    • C. Immigration Issues §4.12
    • D. Testing Issues §4.13
      • 1. Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection §4.14
      • 2. Theories of Discrimination §4.15
      • 3.Specific Types of Tests
        • a. Polygraph Tests §4.16
        • b. Voice Tests §4.17
        • c. Psychological Tests §4.18
        • d. Drug Tests §4.19
    • E.Other Restrictions on Hiring
      • 1. Americans With Disabilities Act §4.20
      • 2. California Fair Employment and Housing Act §4.21
      • 3. Arrests §4.22
      • 4. Criminal Record §4.23
      • 5. HIV Test Results §4.24
      • 6. Special Rules for Employees Working With Children §4.25
      • 7. Department of Motor Vehicles Records §4.26
    • F.Compensation and Benefits
      • 1.Compensation Plans
        • a. Establishment §4.27
        • b. Amount §4.28
        • c. Constitutional Prohibition §4.29
      • 2. Benefit Plans §4.30
      • 3. Employee Recognition Plans §4.31
      • 4.Pension and Retirement Systems
        • a. Purpose §4.32
        • b. Validity §4.33
        • c. Legislation §4.34
        • d. Employee Rights §4.35
        • e. Amendments §4.36
        • f. Persons Entitled to Benefits §4.37
          • (1) On Death §4.38
          • (2) On Disability §4.39
        • g. Beneficiary Remedies §4.40
    • G. Reductions in Force for Financial Reasons (Layoffs) §4.41
  • III. WAGE AND HOUR LAWS §4.42
    • A. FEDERAL FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT (FLSA) §4.42A
      • 1. Public Entity Coverage Under FLSA §4.43
      • 2. Exclusions From FLSA Coverage §4.44
        • a. Volunteers §4.45
        • b. Independent Contractors §4.46
        • c. Trainees §4.47
      • 3. Exemptions From FLSA Coverage §4.48
        • a. Exemption for White-Collar Employees §4.49
          • (1) Salary Basis Test §4.50
            • (a) Suspension of Exempt Employees §4.51
            • (b) Furloughs §4.52
            • (c) Improper Deductions From Exempt Employee's Salary §4.53
          • (2) Duties Test §4.54
        • b. Exemption for Work in a Different Capacity §4.55
        • c. Other Exemptions §4.56
        • d. Exclusion for Manual Laborers and "First Responders" §4.57
      • 4.FLSA Requirements
        • a. Minimum Wage Requirements §4.58
          • (1) To Suffer or Permit to Work §4.59
            • (a) "On-Call" or "Standby" Time §4.60
            • (b) Rest and Meal Periods §4.61
            • (c) Travel Time §4.62
            • (d) Sleeping Time §4.63
            • (e) Employees Residing on Employer's Premises §4.64
            • (f) Miscellaneous Instances Giving Rise to Compensable Time §4.65
            • (g) Miscellaneous Instances Not Giving Rise to Compensable Time §4.66
          • (2) State Minimum Wage Requirements [Deleted] §4.67
          • (3) Payment of Wages and Deductions for Employee Debts §4.68
          • (4) Repayment of Training Costs §4.69
        • b. Overtime Pay Requirements §4.70
          • (1) Workweek §4.71
          • (2) "Regular Rate" of Pay §4.72
          • (3) Police and Firefighter Partial Exemption §4.73
            • (a) Fire Protection Employees §4.74
            • (b) Law Enforcement Employees §4.75
            • (c) Overtime Pay for Police and Firefighters §4.76
        • c. Compensatory Time Off Requirements §4.77
          • (1) Limitations on Accrual §4.78
          • (2) Conditions for Use §4.79
          • (3) Forced Use §4.80
        • d. Child Labor Prohibition §4.81
        • e. Equal Pay Act Prohibition §4.82
        • f. Recordkeeping Requirements §4.83
      • 5.Enforcement of Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)
        • a. Investigations and Settlements §4.84
        • b. Judicial Enforcement §4.85
        • c. Criminal Sanctions §4.86
        • d. Employee Suits §4.87
          • (1) No Need to Exhaust Administrative Remedies §4.88
          • (2) No Class Action Under CCP §382 §4.89
          • (3) No Discrimination Against Employee for Bringing Suit §4.90
        • e. Monetary Amounts Recoverable §4.91
        • f. Statute of Limitations §4.92
        • g. Employer Defenses §4.93
    • B. State and Local Minimum Wage Laws §4.93A
  • IV. DRUG TESTING §4.94
    • A.Constitutional Tests
      • 1. Fourth Amendment Test §4.95
        • a. Legitimate Interest §4.96
        • b. Nexus §4.97
        • c. Privacy Expectation §4.98
        • d. Other Factors §4.99
      • 2. State Privacy Test §4.100
    • B.Constitutionality of Particular Types of Drug Testing
      • 1. Pre-employment Testing §4.101
      • 2. Routine Physical Examinations §4.102
      • 3. Testing Following Leave of Absence §4.103
      • 4. Testing for Cause §4.104
      • 5. Testing as Part of Rehabilitation Program §4.105
      • 6. Testing as Part of Promotion Procedure §4.106
      • 7. Random Testing §4.107
        • a. When Random Testing Upheld §4.108
        • b. When Random Testing Not Upheld §4.109
      • 8. Testing Following Accident §4.110
        • a. When Testing Following Accident Upheld §4.111
        • b. When Testing Following Accident Not Upheld §4.112
    • C. Drug Testing Procedures §4.113
      • 1. Meet and Confer Requirements §4.114
      • 2. Confidentiality of Medical Information §4.115
    • D.Other Federal Laws on Drug Testing
      • 1. Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 §4.116
      • 2. Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991 §4.117
      • 3. Rehabilitation Act of 1973 §4.118
      • 4. Americans With Disabilities Act §4.119
    • E.Other State Laws on Drug Testing
      • 1. State Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1990 §4.120
      • 2. Alcohol and Drug Rehabilitation Act §4.121
      • 3. Fair Employment and Housing Act §4.122
  • V.PRIVACY RIGHTS AND PERSONNEL RECORDS
    • A. Maintenance of Personnel Records §4.123
      • 1. State Law §4.124
      • 2. Federal Law §4.125
    • B.Access to Personnel Records
      • 1. Employee's Right to Access Own Records §4.126
      • 2. Third Party's Right to Access Records §4.127
        • a. Public Records Act §4.128
        • b. Federal Civil Rights Law §4.129
        • c. Meyers-Milias-Brown Act §4.130
        • d. Subpoenas §4.131
        • e. Records of Police Officers; Pitchess Process §4.132
        • f. HIV Tests §4.133
    • C.Employee Privacy Expectations for Electronic Records
      • 1. Text Messages §4.134
      • 2. E-mails §4.135
      • 3. Social Media §4.136
  • VI. EMPLOYEE RIGHTS AGAINST ADVERSE EMPLOYMENT ACTIONS §4.137
    • A. Whistle-Blowers §4.138
    • B. First Amendment Rights §4.139
    • C. Political Activity §4.140
  • VII.WORKPLACE SAFETY
    • A. Injury and Illness Prevention Plan §4.141
    • B. Other Safety Plans and Programs §4.142
  • VIII.ANTIDISCRIMINATION LAWS
    • A.Federal Laws
      • 1. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 §4.143
        • a. Exclusions From Coverage Under Title VII §4.144
        • b. Sexual Harassment Is Prohibited by Title VII §4.145
        • c. Discrimination Based on Pregnancy Is Prohibited by Title VII §4.146
      • 2. Federal Equal Pay Act of 1963 §4.147
      • 3. Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 §4.148
        • a. Exclusions From Coverage Under the ADEA §4.149
        • b. Restriction on Waiver of ADEA Rights §4.150
      • 4. Age Discrimination Act of 1975 §4.151
      • 5. Rehabilitation Act of 1973 §4.152
      • 6. Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 §4.153
      • 7. Civil Rights Act of 1991: §1981 §4.154
        • a. Who Can Sue §4.155
        • b. Coverage §4.156
        • c. Immunities §4.157
        • d. Procedural Differences From Title VII §4.158
        • e. Remedies §4.159
      • 8. Civil Rights Act of 1871: §1983 §4.160
        • a. Who Can Sue §4.161
        • b. Immunities §4.162
        • c. Procedure §4.163
        • d. Remedies §4.164
      • 9. Civil Rights Act of 1871: §1985(3) §4.165
      • 10. Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 §4.166
      • 11. Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act of 1994 (USERRA) §4.167
    • B.State Laws
      • 1. State Constitution §4.168
      • 2. Fair Employment and Housing Act §4.169
      • 3. Tort Actions for Violation of Public Policy §4.170
      • 4. California Equal Pay Law §4.171
      • 5. Unruh and Ralph Civil Rights Acts §4.172
      • 6. California Govt C §11135 §4.173
      • 7. State Personnel Laws §4.174
      • 8. HIV Testing §4.175
      • 9.California Family Rights Act and Similar Leaves
        • a. Leave Under California Family Rights Act §4.176
        • b. "Kin Care" Use of Sick Leave §4.177
        • c. Paid Sick Leave §4.177A
        • d. Pregnancy Disability Leave §4.178
        • e. Additional Leave Requirements §4.179
      • 10. Workplace Appearance and Gender Identity §4.180
    • C. Theories of Discrimination §4.181
      • 1. Disparate Treatment §4.182
      • 2. Disparate Impact §4.183
      • 3. Retaliation §4.184
    • D.Affirmative Defenses to Discrimination Allegations
      • 1. Bona Fide Occupational Qualification §4.185
      • 2. Business Necessity §4.186
      • 3. Job-Relatedness §4.187
      • 4. Conformity With Security Regulations §4.188
      • 5. Nondiscrimination Plan or Affirmative Action Plan §4.189
    • E. Sexual Harassment §4.190
      • 1. Definition of Sexual Harassment §4.191
        • a. Conduct of a Sexual Nature §4.192
        • b. Unwelcome Conduct §4.193
      • 2.Quid Pro Quo Harassment
        • a. Prima Facie Case §4.194
        • b. Preferential Treatment or Reverse Quid Pro Quo Harassment §4.195
        • c. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's Position §4.196
      • 3.Hostile Environment Sexual Harassment
        • a. Federal Law §4.197
        • b. California Law §4.198
        • c. Elements of Hostile Environment Claim §4.199
        • d.Standard Applicable to Hostile Environment Claim
          • (1) Reasonable Person Standard §4.200
          • (2) Reasonable Woman Standard §4.201
      • 4.Employer Liability for Sexual Harassment
        • a.Quid Pro Quo Harassment
          • (1) Federal Law §4.202
          • (2) California Law §4.203
        • b.Hostile Environment Harassment
          • (1) Federal Law §4.204
          • (2) California Law §4.205
        • c. Co-employee Conduct §4.206
        • d. Nonemployee Conduct §4.207
      • 5.Individual Liability for Sexual Harassment
        • a. Federal Law §4.208
        • b. California Law §4.209
      • 6.Sexual Harassment Prevention and Policies
        • a. Preventing Sexual Harassment §4.210
        • b. Creating Effective Sexual Harassment Policy §4.211
      • 7. Investigating and Responding to Sexual Harassment §4.212
      • 8. Defamation Claim by Alleged Harasser and Anti-SLAPP Statute §4.213
        • a. Shifting Burdens of Proof §4.214
        • b. Protected Conduct §4.215
        • c. Privileged Statements §4.216
      • 9. Other Theories of Liability Arising Out of Sexual Harassment §4.217
      • 10. Posting and Pamphlet Requirement §4.218
      • 11. Mandatory Training §4.219
    • F. Selection and Hiring Practices §4.220
      • 1. Testing §4.221
      • 2. Performance Standards §4.222
      • 3. Pre-employment Inquiries §4.223
      • 4. Job Requirements §4.224
      • 5. Loyalty Oaths §4.225
    • G.Constructive Discharge
      • 1. Federal Law §4.226
      • 2. California Law §4.227
    • H. Discrimination Based on Disability §4.228
      • 1. Qualified Individual With a Disability §4.229
        • a. Definition of Disability §4.230
        • b. Individuals Who Are Not Disabled §4.231
        • c. Essential Functions §4.232
        • d. Obesity Is Not Disability Per Se §4.233
      • 2. Types of Discrimination Prohibited §4.234
      • 3. Reasonable Accommodation §4.235
        • a. Definition of "Reasonable Accommodation" §4.236
        • b. Best Available Accommodation Not Required §4.237
        • c. Examples of Reasonable Accommodations §4.238
      • 4. Interactive Process §4.239
      • 5. Employer Defenses to Disability Discrimination Claims §4.240
      • 6.Pre- and Post-employment Inquiries and Medical Examinations
        • a. Pre-offer Medical Examination and Inquiry §4.241
        • b. Post-offer Examination and Inquiry §4.242
        • c. Post-employment Exam and Inquiries §4.243
      • 7. Restrictions on Drug and Alcohol Use §4.244
      • 8. Drug Testing §4.245
      • 9. Effect of Other Disability Laws §4.246
      • 10. Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies §4.247
      • 11. Effect of ADA on Equal Protection Analysis §4.248
    • I.Procedures for Enforcing Discrimination Laws
      • 1. Title VII and Title I of the ADA §4.249
        • a. The Charge §4.250
        • b. Timeliness §4.251
        • c. Investigation of Charge §4.252
        • d.EEOC Determination
          • (1) Right to Sue Notice §4.253
          • (2) Reasonable Cause §4.254
        • e. Civil Lawsuit §4.255
      • 2. Age Discrimination in Employment Act §4.256
      • 3. Equal Pay Act §4.257
      • 4.State Procedures in California
        • a. Administrative Agency §4.258
        • b. Complaint §4.259
        • c. Timeliness §4.260
        • d. Investigation of Complaint §4.261
        • e. Civil Action §4.262
        • f. Right to Sue Notice §4.263
        • g. Civil Lawsuit §4.264
        • h. Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies §4.265
    • J.Remedies for Violation of Antidiscrimination Laws
      • 1.Federal Remedies
        • a.Monetary Relief
          • (1) Back Pay §4.266
          • (2) Front Pay §4.267
          • (3) Compensatory and Punitive Damages §4.268
          • (4) Liquidated Damages §4.269
          • (5) Attorney Fees §4.270
        • b. Equitable Relief §4.271
        • c. Affirmative Relief §4.272
      • 2.State Remedies
        • a. Administrative Remedies [Deleted] §4.273
        • b. Judicial Remedies §4.274
    • K. Mandatory Employer Posters §4.275
  • IX.EVALUATING AND DISCIPLINING EMPLOYEES
    • A. Performance Standards §4.276
    • B. Performance Evaluations §4.277
    • C.Employee Discipline
          1. Just Cause
      §4.278
    • 2.Progressive Discipline
      • a. Definition §4.279
      • b.Stages of Progressive Discipline
        • (1) Warnings §4.280
        • (2) Suspension §4.281
        • (3) Demotion §4.282
        • (4) Discharge §4.283
      • c. Courts Give City Deference in Selection of Penalty or Discipline §4.284
    • 3. Due Process §4.285
      • a. Protection of Property Interest: Skelly Rights §4.286
        • (1) Pre-disciplinary Skelly Rights §4.287
        • (2) Type of Proceeding Required: Skelly Conference §4.288
        • (3) Types of Discipline That Trigger Procedural Due Process §4.289
        • (4) Types of Discipline That Do Not Trigger Procedural Due Process §4.290
        • (5) Remedies for Skelly Violations §4.291
      • b. Protection of Liberty Interest: Lubey Rights §4.292
        • (1) When Liberty Interest Arises §4.293
        • (2) Name-Clearing Hearing §4.294
      • c. Post-disciplinary Proceedings §4.295
  • X. EMPLOYEE SEPARATION AND TERMINATION §4.296
    • A.Grievances
      • 1. Types of Grievances §4.297
      • 2. Investigating a Grievance §4.298
      • 3. Grievance Case File §4.299
      • 4. Answering a Grievance §4.300
    • B. Public Safety Officers Procedural Bill of Rights Act §4.301
      • 1. Officers Appearing on Brady Lists §4.302
      • 2. Covered Employees §4.303
      • 3.Punitive Action
        • a. Broadly Defined §4.304
        • b. Exclusions §4.305
      • 4. Adverse Comments in Personnel File §4.306
      • 5. Inspection of Personnel File §4.307
      • 6.Procedures for Interrogations of Peace Officers
        • a. Pre-interrogation Requirements §4.308
        • b. Additional Requirement for Potentially Criminal Conduct: Lybarger Warning §4.309
        • c. Post-interrogation Requirements §4.310
        • d. Imposition of Discipline §4.311
      • 7. Right to Privacy §4.312
        • a. Polygraph Examinations §4.313
        • b. Financial Records §4.314
        • c. Media Attention §4.315
        • d. Searches §4.316
      • 8. Appeals of Disciplinary Actions §4.317
      • 9. Remedies for Noncompliance §4.318
    • C. Firefighters Procedural Bill of Rights Act §4.319
      • 1. Covered Employees §4.320
      • 2. Adverse Comments in Personnel Files §4.321
      • 3. Procedures for Interrogation of Firefighters §4.322
        • a. Pre-interrogation Requirements §4.323
        • b. Additional Requirement for Potentially Criminal Conduct §4.324
      • 4. Imposition of Discipline §4.325
      • 5. Administrative Appeals §4.326
      • 6. Remedies for Noncompliance §4.327
  • XI. LABOR NEGOTIATIONS AND THE MEYERS-MILIAS-BROWN ACT (MMBA) §4.328
    • A.Summary of MMBA
      • 1. MMBA Provides Rules for Administration of Employer-Employee Relations §4.329
      • 2. MMBA Guarantees Certain Employee Rights §4.330
      • 3.Dispute Resolution for MMBA Violations
        • a. Public Employment Relations Board Jurisdiction §4.331
        • b. Statute of Limitations for MMBA Violations §4.332
    • B. Harmonizing MMBA With National Labor Relations Act §4.333
    • C.Provisions Under MMBA
      • 1. Discrimination §4.334
      • 2. Right to Organize §4.335
        • a. Law Enforcement Employees and Firefighters §4.336
        • b. Management and Confidential Employees §4.337
        • c. Professional Employees §4.338
        • d. Unrepresented Employees §4.339
      • 3. Agency Shop Agreements §4.340
      • 4. Bargaining Unit Issues §4.341
      • 5. Required Notice §4.342
      • 6. Meet and Confer Obligation §4.343
        • a. Matters Within Scope of Representation §4.344
          • (1) No Definitive Test §4.345
          • (2) Liberal Construction §4.346
        • b. Good Faith Requirement §4.347
      • 7. Management Rights and Restrictions §4.348
      • 8. Impasse and Mediation §4.349
      • 9. No Binding Arbitration for Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters §4.350
      • 10. Unilateral Changes §4.351
      • 11. Unilateral Implementation Following Meet and Confer §4.352
      • 12. Memorandum of Understanding §4.353
      • 13. Unfair Labor Practices §4.354
      • 14. Strikes §4.355
  • XII.CALIFORNIA WORKERS' COMPENSATION LAW
    • A. Workers' Compensation Law Generally §4.356
      • 1. Workers' Compensation Law Is Specialized Area §4.357
      • 2. Workers' Compensation as Sole and Exclusive Remedy §4.358
      • 3. Interactive Process Under Discrimination Laws Imposes Separate Obligation §4.359
    • B.Work-Related Injury: Prerequisite for Recovering Workers' Compensation Benefits
      • 1. Injury Required §4.360
        • a. Burden of Proof §4.361
        • b. Presumptions §4.362
        • c. Special Proof Problems §4.363
      • 2. Only Employees Entitled to Benefits §4.364
      • 3. Affirmative Defenses §4.365
    • C. Workers' Compensation Benefits §4.366
      • 1. Employer-Paid Medical Treatment §4.367
      • 2.Treatment Provider
        • a. Pre-designated Physician §4.368
        • b. Employer Physician §4.369
      • 3. Employee May Not Refuse Treatment §4.370
    • D.Disability Benefits
      • 1. Temporary Disability Benefits §4.371
        • a. When Temporary Disability Benefits Cease §4.372
        • b. Amount of Temporary Disability Benefits §4.373
      • 2. Permanent Disability Benefits §4.374
      • 3. Life Pension §4.375
        • a. Permanent Disability Rating §4.376
        • b. Permanent Partial Disability §4.377
        • c. Individual Jurisdiction Pension Plan Limits §4.378
        • d. Supplemental Job Displacement Benefits §4.379
    • E. Death Benefits §4.380
    • F.Penalties for Violations of Workers' Compensation Laws
      • 1. Labor Code Governs §4.381
      • 2. Multiple Penalties §4.382
      • 3. Late Payments §4.383
      • 4. Serious and Willful Misconduct of Employer §4.384
      • 5. Serious and Willful Misconduct of Employee §4.385
    • G. Penalties for Discrimination Against Injured Employee §4.386
      • 1. Fair Employment and Housing Act Claim §4.387
      • 2. Defenses §4.388
    • H. Litigation §4.389
      • 1. Typical Issues §4.390
      • 2. Expert Medical Opinion §4.391
      • 3. Claim Presentation Requirement §4.392
      • 4. Investigation and Response §4.393
      • 5. Discovery §4.394
      • 6.Methods of Resolution
        • a. Compromise and Release §4.395
        • b. Stipulations With Request for Award §4.396
        • c. Judicial Decision §4.397
      • 7. Resolution of Penalties §4.398
      • 8. Statutes of Limitations; Tolling §4.399
    • I. Related Litigation §4.400
      • 1. Disability Retirement §4.401
        • a. Determine Effect of Workers' Compensation Board Decision §4.402
        • b. Consider Possibility of Offset §4.403
      • 2. Subrogation §4.404
      • 3. Federal Causes of Action §4.405
      • 4. State Causes of Action §4.406
      • 5. Considerations for Injuries Occurring on or After January 1, 2013 §4.407

5

Finance and Economic Development

  • I. INTRODUCTION §5.1
  • II.REVENUES
    • A. Constitutional Authority Over Fiscal Affairs §5.2
      • 1. Police Power §5.3
      • 2. Public Works Power §5.4
      • 3. Municipal Affairs Doctrine §5.5
      • 4. Local Taxation Authority §5.6
      • 5. Vehicle License Fees §5.7
      • 6. Proposition 13 §5.8
      • 7. Proposition 62 §5.9
      • 8. Proposition 218 §5.10
      • 9. Proposition 26 §5.11
      • 10. Appropriations Limit §5.12
      • 11. Debt Limit §5.13
      • 12. Prohibited Gift of Public Funds §5.14
      • 13. Legislature May Not Delegate Taxing Power §5.15
    • B. Taxes §5.16
      • 1. Power of Taxation §5.17
      • 2. Distinguishing Police Power; Revenue-Raising Activity §5.18
      • 3.Property Tax
        • a. Property Tax Before 1978 §5.19
        • b. Property Tax After 1978 Passage of Proposition 13 §5.20
        • c. Exceptions to Proposition 13's General 1 Percent Tax Limitation §5.21
        • d. Characteristics of a Property Tax §5.22
        • e. Property Exempted From Taxation §5.23
          • (1) Agreements for Payments in Lieu of Taxes (PILOT Agreements) §5.23A
          • (2) PILOT Agreements Prohibited for Low-Income Housing Projects §5.23B
        • f. Possessory Interest Tax Authorized §5.24
        • g. Taxation of City Property §5.25
        • h. Legislative Apportionment of Taxes §5.26
      • 4.Sales and Use Tax
        • a. State Preemption of Sales and Use Taxes §5.27
        • b. Definitions: Sales Tax and Use Tax §5.28
        • c. Maximum Tax Rate §5.29
        • d. Proceeds From Sales and Use Tax §5.30
        • e. Sales Tax Sharing Among Governmental Entities §5.31
        • f. Transactions and Use Taxes §5.32
        • g. Transactions and Use Tax for General Purposes §5.33
        • h. Transactions and Use Tax for Specific Purposes §5.34
      • 5. Payroll Tax §5.35
      • 6. Business License Fees and Taxes; Exemptions §5.36
        • a. State Preemption Might Be Possible §5.37
        • b. Revenue-Raising Versus Regulation §5.38
        • c. Required Apportionment Between Intra-City and Out-of-City Business Activity §5.39
          • (1) Apportionment Methodology §5.40
          • (2) Burden of Proof on Taxpayer Who Challenges Disproportionate Tax §5.41
        • d. Must Be Reasonable Connection With Taxing Jurisdiction §5.42
        • e. Amount of Tax §5.43
        • f. Discrimination Against Inter-State or Inter-City Commerce §5.44
        • g. Minimum or Flat Taxes Unapportioned to Activity Within City §5.45
        • h. Required Nexus or Minimum Contacts §5.46
        • i. No Discrimination in Class §5.47
      • 7. Utility Users' Tax §5.48
        • a. Collection of Utility Users' Tax §5.49
        • b. Utility Users' Tax Litigation §5.50
          • (1) Federal Excise Tax Challenges to Utility Users' Taxes on Telephony §5.51
          • (2) Mobile Telecommunications Sourcing Act Challenges to Utility Users' Taxes on Telephony §5.52
          • (3) Local Prepaid Mobile Telephony Services Collection Act §5.52A
      • 8. Transient Occupancy Tax §5.53
        • a. Exemptions Under Transient Occupancy Tax §5.54
        • b. Tax Clearance Certificate May Be Requested §5.55
        • c. Collection of Transient Occupancy Tax §5.56
        • d. Online Travel Company Litigation §5.57
      • 9. Other Excise Taxes §5.58
        • a. Authority for Excise Taxes §5.59
        • b. Property Taxes Distinguished From Excise Taxes §5.60
        • c. Development Tax §5.61
        • d. Admissions Tax §5.62
      • 10. Parcel Tax §5.63
        • a. Parcel Tax Distinguished From Property Tax §5.64
        • b. Parcel Tax as Excise Tax §5.65
          • (1) Basis of Parcel Tax §5.66
          • (2) Proportionality Requirement §5.67
      • 11.Transfer Taxes
        • a. Documentary Transfer Taxes §5.68
        • b. Real Property Transfer Taxes §5.69
      • 12. Special Taxes §5.70
        • a.Special Taxes Defined
          • (1) Label Not Dispositive §5.71
          • (2) Special Purpose May Not Be Necessary §5.72
          • (3) Tax Versus Other City Charges: Fees Distinguished §5.73
          • (4) Defining "Tax" and New Restrictions on Fees and Charges §5.74
          • (5) Tax Versus Other City Charges: Assessments Distinguished §5.75
          • (6) Tax Versus Other City Charges: Record Necessary to Overcome Challenge on Lack of Voter Approval §5.76
        • b. Mandatory Accountability Measures Necessary for Special Tax Measures §5.77
        • c. Mello-Roos Community Facilities Act of 1982 §5.78
          • (1) Voting Mechanics §5.79
          • (2) Authorized Facilities §5.80
          • (3) Authorized Services §5.81
          • (4) Joint Community Facilities Agreements §5.82
          • (5) Formation of a Community Facilities District §5.83
          • (6) Levying the Mello-Roos Special Tax §5.84
          • (7) Collection of the Mello-Roos Special Tax §5.85
          • (8) Exemptions to the Mello-Roos Special Tax §5.86
          • (9) Changes to or Dissolution of a Community Facilities District §5.87
          • (10) Bonds: Issuance and Limitations §5.88
          • (11) Challenges to the Validity of Special Tax Levy or Bond Issuance §5.89
        • d. Police and Fire Protection §5.90
          • (1) Implementing Ordinance—Mandatory Provisions §5.91
          • (2) Implementing Ordinance—Optional Provisions §5.92
          • (3) Impact on Other Methods of Funding Police and Fire Services §5.93
        • e. Funding for Libraries §5.94
      • 13. Tax Refunds; Class Actions for Refunds §5.95
    • C.Limitations on Exercise of Taxing Authority; Procedural Issues
      • 1. Equal Protection and Due Process Requirements §5.96
        • a. Uniformity §5.97
        • b. Rational Basis §5.98
      • 2. First Amendment; No Discrimination Against Protected Speech §5.99
      • 3. Proposition 13 Limitations §5.100
        • a. Constitutionality of Proposition 13 §5.101
        • b. Special Taxes Limitations §5.102
      • 4.Tax Exemptions
        • a. Exemptions on Property §5.103
        • b. Exemptions on Insurance Companies §5.104
        • c. Exemptions on Banks §5.105
        • d. Exemptions on Financial Corporations (Savings and Loans) §5.106
      • 5. Proposition 62 Limitations §5.107
        • a. Proposition 62 Procedures for Enacting Taxes §5.108
        • b. Proposition 62 "Window Period" Taxes §5.109
        • c. Restriction on Real Property Transaction Sales Taxes §5.110
        • d. Reduction in Property Tax Allocations for Failure to Comply With Proposition 62 §5.111
        • e. Requirement for Statutory Authority to Levy General and Special Taxes §5.112
      • 6. Proposition 218 §5.113
        • a. New Definitions of "General" and "Special" Taxes Under Proposition 218 §5.114
        • b. Taxes Enacted Before Passage of Proposition 218 §5.115
        • c. Limitation on Taxes on Property §5.116
        • d. Tax Increases Requiring Voter Approval §5.117
        • e.Procedure for Adopting General Taxes
          • (1) Action by Legislative Body Required §5.118
          • (2) Voter Approval Required §5.119
          • (3) Other Statutory Requirements Might Be Applicable §5.120
        • f.Procedure for Adopting Special Taxes
          • (1) Action by Legislative Body Required §5.121
          • (2) Voter Approval Required §5.122
          • (3) Initiative Adoption and Repeal of Taxes §5.123
    • D.Benefit Assessments and Assessment Districts
      • 1. Nature and Purpose of a Benefit Assessment §5.124
      • 2. Annual Versus Installment (Bonded) Assessments §5.125
      • 3. Assessment's Geographic Scope §5.126
      • 4. Property-Based Versus Business-Based Assessments §5.127
      • 5. Assessments: Distinction From Fees and Taxes §5.128
      • 6. Assessment Laws §5.129
        • a. Application of Str & H C §§3110–3117.5 §5.130
        • b. Application of Proposition 218 §5.131
        • c. Special Assessment Investigation, Limitation and Majority Protest Act of 1931 (1931 Act) §5.132
        • d. Ralph M. Brown Act §5.133
        • e.Specific Assessment Laws
          • (1) Improvement Act of 1911 §5.134
          • (2) Municipal Improvement Act of 1913 §5.135
          • (3) Improvement Bond Act of 1915 §5.136
          • (4) Landscaping and Lighting Act of 1972 §5.137
          • (5) Benefit Assessment Act of 1982 §5.138
          • (6) Business Improvement Districts §5.139
      • 7. Formation of Assessment Districts §5.140
        • a. Preparation of Engineer's Report §5.141
        • b. Resolution of Intention and Recordation of Boundary Maps §5.142
        • c. Notice, Protest, and Hearing; Levy of Assessment §5.143
        • d. Recordation and Cash Collection §5.144
        • e. Issuance of Improvement Bonds and Data Transmittal §5.145
        • f. Subsequent Proceedings §5.146
      • 8. Proposition 218 §5.147
        • a. Special Benefit §5.148
        • b. Procedural Requirements §5.149
          • (1) Public Hearing and Notice Requirements §5.150
          • (2) Protest by Ballot Allowed §5.151
          • (3) Assessment Ballot Proceedings May Be Conducted by Mail §5.152
        • c. Assessment of Public Property §5.153
        • d. Burden of Proof on Local Agency §5.154
        • e. Statute of Limitations §5.155
        • f.Exemptions From Procedural Requirement for Assessments
          • (1) Assessments Existing on November 6, 1996 §5.156
          • (2) Reassessment Under Streets and Highways Code §5.157
          • (3) Non-Property-Based Assessments §5.158
          • (4) All Other Assessments Not Exempted §5.159
        • g. Use of Initiatives to Reduce or Repeal Assessments §5.160
    • E.Charges, Rates, and Fees
      • 1. Authority to Impose Fees, Charges, and Rates §5.161
      • 2.Amount of Fee
        • a. Must Bear Relationship to Costs §5.162
        • b. Indirect Costs May Be Included §5.163
        • c. General Fund Transfers §5.164
      • 3. Development Fee Requirements §5.165
      • 4.Development Processing Fees, Recovery of Costs of Providing Public Services, and User Fees
        • a.Development Processing Fees
          • (1) Development Processing Fees Must Bear Relationship to Cost §5.166
          • (2) Procedural Requirements and Effective Dates §5.167
        • b. Water, Sanitation, Solid Waste, and Sewer Fees and Rates §5.168
        • c. Recovery of Costs of Providing Public Services §5.169
      • 5.Rates
        • a. Authority §5.170
        • b. Rate-Setting Procedures §5.171
        • c. Preferential Rates for City Residents Allowed Except for Property-Related Fees Under Proposition 218 §5.172
        • d. Collection and Nonpayment §5.173
      • 6. Charges for Use of City Property §5.174
      • 7. Effect of Bankruptcy Automatic Stay on Collection §5.175
      • 8. New Fees and Charges Under Proposition 218 §5.176
        • a. Fees and Charges Imposed as an Incident of Property Ownership §5.177
        • b. Substantive Restriction on Property-Related Fees and Charges §5.178
        • c. Burdens of Proof; Standard of Review §5.179
        • d.Procedural Requirements
          • (1) Notice Requirements §5.180
          • (2) Hearing Requirements §5.181
        • e.Voter Approval Requirements
          • (1) New or Increased Fees and Charges §5.182
          • (2) Procedural Requirements §5.183
          • (3) Voting Requirements §5.184
        • f. Proposition 218 Effective Date §5.185
        • g. Exemptions to Proposition 218 Requirements §5.186
          • (1) Development Fees Exempted §5.187
          • (2) Electrical and Gas Services Exempted §5.188
        • h. Initiative Repeal of Revenues §5.188A
    • F. Franchise Fees §5.189
      • 1.Electric and Telephone Poles and Wires; Gas and Oil Pipelines
        • a. Application of Broughton Act §5.190
        • b. Alternative Procedure Under Franchise Act of 1937 §5.191
        • c. No Application to Charter Cities §5.192
        • d. Surcharge in Lieu of Franchise Fees §5.193
        • e. Oil Pipeline Franchise Fees §5.194
      • 2. State Video Franchise Fees §5.195
      • 3. Refuse Collection Franchise Fees §5.196
      • 4. Recycling, Household Hazardous Waste, and Other Waste Management Activities §5.197
    • G. Fines and Forfeitures §5.198
      • 1.Fines "Available for Distribution"
        • a. Amounts Paid §5.199
        • b. Amount Available for Distribution §5.200
        • c. Installment Payments §5.201
      • 2. Exception to General Distribution Statute §5.202
      • 3. Forfeitures of Bail §5.203
      • 4. Parking Fines and Forfeitures §5.204
        • a. Liability for Penalties and Amounts §5.205
        • b. Apportionment Among Agencies §5.206
      • 5.Administrative Process for Fines and Forfeitures
        • a. Administrative Investigation and Review Process §5.207
        • b. Administrative Hearing §5.208
        • c. Administrative Review §5.209
        • d. Trial De Novo by Court §5.210
        • e. Collection of Unpaid Parking Penalties §5.211
          • (1) Collection With Vehicle Registration §5.212
          • (2) As Judgment for Civil Debt §5.213
        • f. Equipment and Registration Tab Violations §5.214
      • 6. Criminal Justice Penalties §5.215
    • H.State Subventions
      • 1. Shared Revenue §5.216
      • 2. Tax Reimbursements §5.217
      • 3. Tax Collection Services §5.218
    • I. Grants §5.219
    • J. Gifts §5.220
    • K. Debt Financing §5.221
      • 1.Bonds
        • a. Types of Bonds §5.222
        • b. General Obligation Bonds §5.223
        • c. Limited Obligation Bonds §5.224
          • (1) Revenue Bonds Generally §5.225
          • (2) Revenue Bonds: Relationship to Debt Limit §5.226
          • (3) Revenue Bonds: Need for Voter Approval §5.227
          • (4) Revenue Bonds: Revenue Bond Law of 1941 §5.228
          • (5) Assessment Bonds §5.229
          • (6) Tax Increment Bonds §5.230
          • (7) Special Tax Bonds §5.231
      • 2. Certificates of Participation (COPs) §5.232
        • a.Certificates of Participation (COPs) Form
          • (1) Lease Transaction §5.233
          • (2) Installment Sale Transaction §5.234
        • b. Certificates of Participation (COPs) References §5.235
      • 3. Sale Lease-Back or Lease-Back Agreements §5.236
        • a. Sale-Lease-Back or Lease-Lease-Back Requirements §5.237
        • b. Equipment Leases §5.238
      • 4. Marks-Roos Public Financing Authority Bonds §5.239
        • a. Financing Mechanism: Bond Pooling §5.240
        • b. Financing Mechanism: Lease and Installment Sale Financing §5.241
        • c. Financing Mechanism: Loans §5.242
      • 5. Tax-Exempt or Taxable Debt Financing §5.243
      • 6. Disclosure Obligations of the City §5.244
        • a. Original Disclosure §5.245
        • b. Continuing Disclosure §5.246
        • c. Actions Relating to Borrowing $100,000 or More §5.247
    • L.State-Mandated Cost Reimbursement
      • 1.Basic Obligation
        • a. Constitutional Expression §5.248
        • b. Statutory Expression §5.249
      • 2.Intent and Scope
        • a. Protect Taxpayers and Prevent Shifting of Financial Responsibility §5.250
        • b. Reimbursement for Unique Requirements Placed on Local Government §5.251
      • 3.Exceptions to Reimbursement
        • a. Constitutional §5.252
        • b. Statutory §5.253
      • 4.The Legislative Process and Mandates
        • a. Legislative Counsel §5.254
        • b. Fiscal Committees §5.255
        • c. Reimbursement Provisions §5.256
        • d. Funded Versus Unfunded Mandates §5.257
      • 5.Administrative Procedures
        • a. Commission on State Mandates §5.258
        • b. Test Claim Process §5.259
        • c. Controller's Claiming Instructions §5.260
        • d. Exclusive Remedy §5.261
      • 6.Judicial Review
        • a. Judicial Review of Commission on State Mandates Actions §5.262
        • b. Judicial Review of Legislative Refusal to Fund Mandate §5.263
      • 7. References on State-Mandated Cost Reimbursements §5.264
    • M. Rental of Property §5.265
  • III.EXPENDITURES
    • A. Budgets §5.266
    • B.Investments
      • 1. Permitted Investments §5.267
        • a. Charter Cities §5.268
        • b. Local Agency Investment Fund §5.269
      • 2. Investment Policy §5.270
      • 3.Investment Authority
        • a. City Council §5.271
        • b. City Treasurer §5.272
        • c. City Manager §5.273
      • 4. Reporting Requirements §5.274
      • 5. Deposits §5.275
    • C.Appropriations, Warrants, and Payments
      • 1. Appropriations §5.276
      • 2.Warrants and Payments
        • a. The Warrant Process §5.277
        • b. Local Practices §5.278
    • D.Limitations on Expenditures
      • 1. Municipal Purpose Doctrine—Gifts of Public Funds Prohibited §5.279
        • a. Gift Versus Public Purpose §5.280
        • b. Specific Examples Regarding Prohibited Gifts §5.281
      • 2. Retroactive Compensation; Unauthorized Agreements §5.282
      • 3. Gann Limit §5.283
        • a. Formula to Limit Appropriations §5.284
        • b. Statutory and Constitutional Provisions §5.285
        • c.Case Law Interpretations
          • (1) State and Federal Mandates §5.286
          • (2) Redevelopment §5.287
          • (3) Assessment Districts §5.288
          • (4) Pension Contributions §5.289
        • d. References on Appropriations Limit §5.290
      • 4. Debt Limitation §5.291
        • a. Purposes of Debt Limitation §5.292
        • b.Exceptions to the Debt Limitation
          • (1) Obligations Imposed by Law §5.293
          • (2) Special Fund Doctrine §5.294
          • (3) Service Contracts and Leases §5.295
          • (4) Excluded Obligators §5.296
        • c. Statutory Provisions §5.297
        • d. Miscellaneous Election Issues §5.298
  • IV. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT §5.299
    • A. Types of Economic Development Assistance §5.300
    • B.Constraints on Economic Development
      • 1. Procedural Requirements and Statutory Prohibitions §5.301
      • 2. Prevailing Wages §5.302
  • V.REDEVELOPMENT AFTER AB X1 26, AB 1484, AND SB 107
    • A. Introduction §5.303
    • B.Original Purpose of Redevelopment Law
      • 1. Redevelopment Defined §5.304
      • 2. Authority §5.305
    • C. Redevelopment Dissolution; Overview of the Dissolution Law §5.306
    • D. Effect of Dissolution Law on Community Redevelopment Law §5.307
      • 1. Suspension of Redevelopment Agency Activities Under AB 26 §5.308
      • 2. Successor Agencies §5.309
      • 3. Oversight Boards §5.310
      • 4. County Auditor-Controller Responsibilities §5.311
      • 5. Pass-Through Payments and Allocation of Tax Revenue §5.312
    • E. Successor Agency Powers and Authority §5.313
    • F. Successor Agency Responsibilities §5.314
      • 1. Administrative Cost Allowance §5.315
      • 2. Enforceable Obligations §5.316
        • a. City/Agency Agreements §5.317
        • b. Sponsoring Agency Loans §5.318
        • c. Recognized Obligation Payment Schedules §5.319
      • 3. Review of Asset Transfers §5.320
      • 4. Affiliated Entities §5.321
      • 5. Housing and Nonhousing Due Diligence Reviews §5.322
      • 6. Property Disposition §5.323
    • G. Finding of Completion §5.324
      • 1. Repayment of City Loans §5.325
      • 2. Use of Pre-2011 Bond Proceeds §5.326
      • 3. Property Management Plan §5.327
      • 4. Use of Bond Proceeds §5.328
    • H. Housing Assets and Functions §5.329
      • 1. Housing Asset Inventory §5.330
      • 2. Housing Bond Proceeds §5.331
    • I. Housing Requirements §5.332
      • 1.Replacement Housing
        • a. Applicability §5.333
        • b. When Replacement Housing Is Required §5.334
        • c. Type, Timing, and Amount of Replacement Housing §5.335
        • d. Affordability Requirements for Replacement Housing §5.336
        • e. Income and Affordable Housing Cost Definitions §5.337
        • f. Priority to Displaced Persons and Families of Low and Moderate Income §5.338
        • g. Insufficient Suitable Housing §5.339
        • h. Time Limit for Making Permanent Housing Available §5.340
        • i. Replacement Housing Plan §5.341
      • 2.Inclusionary Housing Production Requirements
        • a. Applicability §5.342
        • b. Housing Developed by an Agency §5.343
        • c. Housing Developed by Entity or Person Other Than the Agency §5.344
        • d. Definition of "Substantial Rehabilitation" §5.345
        • e. Purchase of Affordability Covenants §5.346
        • f. Relationship to Replacement Requirements; Requirements Apply in the Aggregate §5.347
        • g. Affordable Housing Plan §5.348
        • h. Applicability to Owner-Occupied Housing §5.349
      • 3. Required Set-Aside of Funds for Low- and Moderate-Income Housing §5.350
        • a. Transfer of 20 Percent Set-Aside Obligation Possible Among Project Areas §5.351
        • b. Exception for Existing Obligations §5.352
      • 4.Use of Low and Moderate Income Housing Fund Monies
        • a. Permitted Uses §5.353
        • b. Enforcement of Existing Affordability Covenants §5.354
        • c. Property Acquisition and Disposition §5.355
        • d. Relocation Assistance Required §5.356
        • e. Possibility of Developer Reimbursement of Relocation Payments §5.357
    • J. Requirement to Pay Prevailing Wages §5.358
    • K. California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) Compliance Necessary §5.359
    • L. Financial Reports Required §5.360
    • M. Post-Redevelopment Statutes §5.361
      • 1. Assembly Bill 440 §5.361A
      • 2. Senate Bill 470 §5.361B
      • 3. Assembly Bill 471; Enhanced Infrastructure Financing Districts §5.361C
      • 4. Senate Bill 628 §5.361D
      • 5. Assembly Bill 313 and Senate Bill 63 §5.361E
      • 6. Assembly Bill 2; Community Revitalization and Investment Authorities (CRIAs) §5.361F
        • a. Requirements for Formation §5.361G
        • b. Authorized and Prohibited Activities §5.361H
        • c. Community Revitalization and Investment Plan §5.361I
        • d. Annual and 10-Year Reviews §5.361J
        • e. Affordable Housing Requirements §5.361K
    • N.Special Issues—Conflicts of Interest and Disclosure of Economic Interests
      • 1. Political Reform Act of 1974 Applies §5.362
      • 2. Prohibition Against Acquiring Land in Project Area §5.363
      • 3. Prohibition Against Incompatible Offices §5.364
    • O. Other Handbook References §5.365
  • VI.MUNICIPAL BANKRUPTCY
    • A.Statutory Authority
      • 1. Historical Background §5.366
      • 2.Eligibility for Filing
        • a. Bankruptcy Code §109(c) §5.367
        • b. Definition of Municipality §5.368
        • c. State Authorization §5.369
        • d. Municipal Insolvency Evaluation §5.370
    • B.Case Administrators
      • 1.Commencement of the Case
        • a. Filing Procedures and Publication §5.371
        • b. Municipal Bankruptcy Court Jurisdiction §5.372
        • c. Order for Relief Not Automatic §5.373
        • d. Retention of State Control Over Municipality §5.374
      • 2.Automatic Stay Applies
        • a. Statutory Authority §5.375
        • b. Exclusion for Pledged Special Revenues §5.376
      • 3. Plan Confirmation §5.377
        • a. Who May File a Plan §5.378
        • b. Contents of Plan §5.379
        • c. Confirmation Requirements §5.380
    • C.Special Issues—Labor Contracts
      • 1. Background §5.381
      • 2. Labor Contracts in Chapter 9 §5.382

6

Municipal Services and Utilities

  • I. INTRODUCTION §6.1
  • II.WATER, SEWER, AND STORM DRAINS
    • A. Water Service §6.2
      • 1.Rates and Charges
        • a. Setting of Water Rates §6.3
        • b. Basis of Water Rates: Flat or Metered Rates §6.4
        • c. Pass-Through of Wholesale Water Charges and Adjustments for Inflation §6.5
      • 2. Duties to Customers §6.6
      • 3. Water Conservation and Water Planning §6.7
      • 4.Reclaimed Water
        • a. Augmentation of Municipal Water Supplies §6.8
        • b. Regulatory Jurisdiction Over Reclaimed Water §6.9
        • c. Permits Required for Operation of Reclaimed Water Project §6.10
      • 5. Water Fluoridation §6.11
    • B.Sewage Disposal
      • 1. Authority to Own and Operate Sewer System §6.12
      • 2. Sewer Treatment Plants and Pretreatment; Fees and Charges §6.13
    • C.Storm Drains
      • 1. Requirements for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permits §6.14
      • 2. Types of Permits §6.15
      • 3. Contents of Permits §6.16
      • 4. Financing Management Programs §6.17
  • III.MUNICIPAL RETAIL ELECTRIC UTILITIES
    • A. Constitutional Authority §6.18
    • B. Electrical Services Industry Restructuring §6.19
      • 1. California Independent System Operator §6.20
      • 2. Changes to Restructuring Program After 2000 §6.21
      • 3. Recovery of California Department of Water Resources Costs [Deleted] §6.22
    • C. Significant Legislation Since Energy Crisis of 2000–2001 §6.23
      • 1. California Renewables Portfolio Standard §6.24
      • 2. California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 and GHG Emission-Reduction Goals §6.25
        • a. Cap-and-Trade Program §6.26
        • b. Mandatory Reporting §6.27
        • c. AB 32 Cost of Implementation Fee Regulation §6.28
      • 3. Greenhouse Gas Emission Performance Standard for Baseload Generation §6.29
      • 4. Solar Energy Incentives and Exemptions §6.30
      • 5. Net Energy Metering §6.31
      • 6. Feed-In Tariff §6.32
    • D. Utility Industry §6.33
    • E. California Municipal Electric Utilities §6.34
    • F.Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Jurisdiction
      • 1.Wholesale Electric Rate Regulation
        • a. Interstate Transmission and Sales §6.35
        • b. Just and Reasonable Rates §6.36
        • c. Rate-Setting and Rate-Changing §6.37
      • 2.Transmission Service
        • a. Expanded Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Authority §6.38
        • b. Limitations on Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Authority Over Municipal Electric Utilities §6.39
        • c. Open Access and the Creation of Independent System Operators and Regional Transmission Organizations §6.40
        • d. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jurisdiction Over California Independent System Operator §6.41
      • 3.Other Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Regulatory Powers
        • a. Reliability Standards §6.42
        • b. Balancing Authorities §6.43
        • c. Natural Gas §6.44
    • G.California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) Jurisdiction
      • 1. Rates §6.45
      • 2.Safety and Construction Standards
        • a. Uniform System §6.46
        • b. Transmission Siting §6.47
      • 3. California Energy Commission (CEC) Jurisdiction §6.48
      • 4. Extraterritorial Retail Service and Potential Challenges §6.49
      • 5.Acquisition of Investor-Owned Facilities
        • a. Advantages of Takeovers §6.50
        • b. Establishing a Municipal Utility §6.51
      • 6.Municipal Rate-Setting
        • a. Reasonableness Test §6.52
        • b. Special Tax Problems and Other Constraints on Rate-Setting §6.53
    • H.Electromagnetic Fields (EMF)
      • 1. Electromagnetic Fields Exposure Issues §6.54
      • 2. Electromagnetic Fields Litigation Limited §6.55
      • 3. Examples of and Defenses to Personal Injury Litigation Related to Electromagnetic Fields §6.56
      • 4. Defenses to Electromagnetic Fields Claims [Deleted] §6.57
    • I. References on Municipal Retail Electric Utilities §6.58
  • IV.FRANCHISES
    • A. Gas, Electric, and Water Franchises §6.59
      • 1. Broughton Act Procedures §6.60
      • 2. Franchise Act of 1937 Procedures §6.61
      • 3. Franchise Ordinance Provisions §6.62
        • a. Franchise Term and Termination §6.63
        • b. Relocation Requirement §6.64
        • c. Compliance With Excavation Procedures, Indemnification, and Other Provisions §6.65
      • 4. Public Lands Use Surcharge §6.66
      • 5. Oil Pipelines and Utility Franchises for Industrial Gas or Oil (or Products of Gas and Oil) §6.67
    • B.Cable Television and Video Systems Franchises
      • 1.Local Franchise Authority
        • a. Federal Law Limitations §6.68
        • b. State Law Limitations §6.69
      • 2.State Law on Cable Television and Video System Franchises
        • a. Local Cable Television Franchises §6.70
          • (1) Potential Franchise Rights to Be Granted and Maximum Fee Possible §6.71
          • (2) Equal Access to Cable Services Required §6.72
          • (3) Multiple Franchises §6.73
          • (4) Delinquency Fees Available §6.74
        • b. Statewide Video Franchises §6.75
          • (1) Effect of New Statewide Franchise on Existing Cable Franchisees §6.76
          • (2) Maximum Franchise Fee and Required Support for Public, Educational, and Governmental Channels §6.77
          • (3) Antidiscrimination and Build-Out Requirements and Telephone Rate Limitations §6.78
      • 3. Federal Cable Television Law §6.79
        • a. Definitional Scheme §6.80
        • b. Franchises for Cable Television §6.81
          • (1) Termination of Franchise §6.82
          • (2) Cable Operators Providing Other Telecommunications Services §6.83
          • (3) Telephone Companies Providing Video Programming §6.84
        • c.Federal Delegation of Regulation of Activities to City
          • (1) Rates: Use of Rights-of-Way §6.85
          • (2) Rates: Rate Regulation and Effective Competition §6.86
          • (3) Rates: Controlled by Federal Standards §6.87
          • (4) Rates: Revocation of Certification and Noncertification §6.88
          • (5) Rates: Billing and Rate Uniformity §6.89
          • (6) Channel Capacity Requirements §6.90
          • (7) Program Restrictions Allowed §6.91
          • (8) Program Notice May Be Required §6.92
          • (9) Allowed Facility and Equipment Regulation §6.93
          • (10) Customer Service Regulation §6.94
          • (11) City Immunity From Damages; Remedies; Attorney Fees §6.95
          • (12) Systems Sales and Transfers §6.96
      • 4. Constitutional Concerns §6.97
      • 5. Other References on Cable Television and Video Systems §6.98
    • C.Telecommunication Franchises
      • 1. Federal Law Applies §6.99
      • 2. State Preemption §6.100
      • 3. Permissible Requirements §6.101
      • 4. Reasonable Time to Act on Wireless Applications §6.102
    • D.Solid Waste
      • 1.Franchising Authority
        • a. Police Power Authority Over Solid Waste §6.103
        • b. Statutory Authority Over Solid Waste §6.104
      • 2.Solid Waste Franchises
        • a. Generally No Local Preemption §6.105
        • b. Effect on Existing Franchises §6.106
        • c. Discontinuation of Nonexclusive Franchises §6.107
        • d. Franchise Procedures §6.108
      • 3.Jurisdiction Over Other Governmental Agencies
        • a. Federal Jurisdiction Over Solid Waste §6.109
        • b. State Jurisdiction Over Solid Waste §6.110
      • 4. Landfill Regulatory Authority §6.111
      • 5. Municipal Waste Flow Control Ordinances §6.112
      • 6. Other Handbook References on Solid Waste §6.113
    • E.Recycling
      • 1. Franchising Authority Over Recyclables §6.114
      • 2. Regulatory Authority Over Recyclables §6.115
      • 3. Other Handbook References on Recyclables §6.116
  • V.MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE AND RECYCLING
    • A. Facilities Authorized §6.117
    • B.Relationship to Water and Air Quality Issues
      • 1. Water Quality Testing; Regional Board Regulation; Local Pretreatment Requirements §6.118
      • 2. Air Quality §6.119
    • C.Recycling and Waste Diversion Requirements
      • 1.City Solid Waste Planning
        • a. Source Reduction and Recycling Elements §6.120
        • b. Household Hazardous Waste Elements §6.121
        • c. Nondisposal Facility Elements §6.122
        • d. Relationship to County Plan; Annual Reports; Penalties §6.123
      • 2.California Integrated Waste Management Act of 1989 Requirements
        • a. Impact on Source Reduction and Recycling Element §6.124
        • b. Diversion Requirements §6.125
        • c. Exemption and Time Extension for Diversion Requirements §6.126
        • d. Diversion Rate Calculation §6.127
        • e. Penalties for Noncompliance §6.128
      • 3. Bottle Bill §6.129
      • 4. Recyclable Design Requirements §6.130
  • VI. PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION §6.131
    • A.Duties of Public Carriers
      • 1. Common Carrier Law §6.132
        • a. Protection of Passengers §6.133
        • b. Duty to Collect Evidence §6.134
      • 2.Special Duties to the Disabled
        • a. Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 and Federal Transit Act §6.135
        • b. State Accessibility Requirements §6.136
      • 3.Miscellaneous Issues
        • a. Advertising on Vehicles §6.137
        • b. Route Scheduling §6.138
        • c. Certification of Bus Drivers §6.139
        • d. Setting of Transit Fares §6.140
        • e.Drug and Alcohol Testing of Transit Employees
          • (1) Constitutional Constraints §6.141
          • (2) Drug and Alcohol Testing of City Employees, Applicants, and Trainees Driving Commercial Vehicles §6.142
          • (3) Accommodation for Certain Pre-Employment Applicants and Employees Returning to Duty §6.143
          • (4) Drug and Alcohol Testing Requires Face-to-Face Evaluation for Return to Work §6.144
          • (5) Drug and Alcohol Testing of Off-Duty Employees and Chain of Custody of Urine Samples §6.145
        • f. Specified Rate of Return May Be Required §6.146
        • g. Prohibition on Charter Service §6.147
        • h. Drug and Alcohol Testing for Taxicab Operators in the City §6.148
        • i. Cell Phone Prohibition for Bus Drivers §6.149
    • B. Claims and Actions Against Public Carriers §6.150
  • VII.AIRPORTS AND HARBORS
    • A.Airports
      • 1. Basic Operation and Regulation of Airports §6.151
        • a. Federal Preemption Over Airports §6.152
          • (1) Federal Regulation of Airport Rates and Charges §6.153
          • (2) Prohibited Revenue Diversion §6.154
        • b. Permissible Areas of Local Control §6.155
      • 2.Noise and Access Regulation
        • a. City as Airport Proprietor §6.156
        • b. Noise Restrictions May Be Limited by Commerce Clause §6.157
        • c. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Restrictions §6.158
      • 3.Zoning and Land Use Regulations Related to Airports
        • a. Power to Zone Over Airports §6.159
        • b. Takings Issues on Flight Height Restrictions §6.160
        • c. Airport Land Use Commissions §6.161
        • d. Airport Expansions §6.162
      • 4. Airport Rents, Fees, and Tenant Requirements; Funding Requirements §6.163
      • 5. Heliports §6.164
      • 6. Closing Airports §6.165
      • 7. Free Speech Regulations in Airports §6.166
      • 8. Security in Airports §6.167
      • 9. Lactation Accommodation in Public Airports §6.167A
    • B. Harbors §6.168
      • 1. Division of Boating and Waterways §6.169
      • 2. Establishment and Improvement of Harbors §6.170
      • 3.Harbor Governance
        • a. Structure of Governance Over Harbors §6.171
        • b. Harbor Authorizing Statutes §6.172
      • 4. Financing of Harbor Activities §6.173
      • 5.Acquisition and Disposition of Harbor Property
        • a. Acquisition of Harbor Property §6.174
        • b. Disposition of Harbor Property: Public Trust Doctrine and Conveyance to Federal Government §6.175
        • c. Harbor Leasing: No Violation of Public Trust Doctrine §6.176
          • (1) Harbor-Related Lease Terms §6.177
          • (2) Exception for Leases of Wharves and Other Structures §6.178
          • (3) Proper Harbor-Related Lease Purposes §6.179
        • d. Some Harbor-Related Easements Allowed §6.180
      • 6.Local Regulations and Obligations Over Harbors and Related Areas
        • a.Use and Access Restrictions Over Harbors and Related Areas
          • (1) Public Trust Implications and Required Access From Streets and Highways §6.181
          • (2) Limits of Public Access to Waterfront §6.182
          • (3) Proper Time-of-Day Restrictions, Speed Zones, and Special Use Areas; Emergency Rules and Regulations Allowed §6.183
          • (4) Marine Sanitation Issues §6.184
          • (5) Insurance Requirements; Floating Homes §6.185
          • (6) Jet Skis May Be Prohibited; Recycling Facilities Required §6.186
        • b. Allowed Provision of Harbor Rates, Fees, and Charges and Establishment of Harbor Lines §6.187
      • 7.Other Laws Over Harbors and Related Areas
        • a. California Coastal Act §6.188
        • b. Oil Spill Response and Contingency Planning §6.189
        • c. Port and Terminal Protection and Development Corporations §6.190
        • d. McAteer-Petris Act §6.191
  • VIII. DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE §6.192
    • A. Due Process in Disaster Situations §6.193
    • B.Statutory Powers in Disaster Situations
      • 1. State Constitutional Disaster Authorizations §6.194
      • 2. California Emergency Services Act §6.195
        • a.Powers and Duties Under California Emergency Services Act
          • (1) Declarations of Emergency §6.196
          • (2) State Aid May Be Provided; Local Disaster Councils §6.197
          • (3) Emergency Powers and Press Access in an Emergency §6.198
          • (4) Emergency Government After a Disaster §6.199
          • (5) Meeting Procedures After a Disaster §6.200
          • (6) Mutual Aid, Temporary Housing, and Test Exercises §6.201
          • (7) Extraterritorial Service After a Disaster §6.202
        • b. Disaster Liability Immunity §6.203
          • (1) Extraterritorial Immunity; Volunteers and Conscripts §6.204
          • (2) Inmates Endangered by Disaster §6.205
          • (3) Disaster Malpractice §6.206
      • 3. Elements of a Local Emergency Plan §6.207
      • 4. Ralph M. Brown Act Emergency Provisions §6.208
        • a. Emergency Notice Requirements Under Ralph M. Brown Act §6.209
        • b. Posting of Minutes Required §6.210
      • 5. Other Important Laws Affecting Emergency Powers §6.211

7

Public Contracting

  • I. PUBLIC WORKS CONTRACTS §7.1
    • A. Legal Authority §7.2
    • B. Bidding §7.3
      • 1. Public Project §7.4
      • 2. Exceptions to Competitive Bidding §7.5
        • a. Emergency §7.6
        • b. Professional Services §7.7
        • c. Special Services §7.8
        • d. Design-Build §7.9
        • e. Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Projects §7.9A
      • 3.Notice Inviting Bids
        • a. Contents of the Notice §7.10
        • b. Bid Addenda §7.11
        • c. Mandatory Prebid Conference or Job Walk §7.12
      • 4. Presentation of Bid and Security §7.13
      • 5. Electronic Availability of Bids and Internet Submissions §7.14
      • 6.Award
        • a. Lowest Responsible Bidder §7.15
          • (1) Lowest Monetary Bidder §7.16
          • (2) Additive and Deductive Bids §7.17
          • (3) Responsive Bid §7.18
          • (4) Responsible Bidder §7.19
          • (5) Bid Responsiveness and Bidder's Responsibility Distinguished §7.20
        • b. Bid Protests §7.21
      • 7. Bid Rejection §7.22
      • 8.Mistakes
        • a. Changing the Bid §7.23
        • b. Consent to Withdrawal §7.24
        • c. Legal Action for Relief §7.25
        • d. Prohibition From Further Bidding §7.26
      • 9. Other Reference §7.27
    • C. Prequalification of Contractors §7.28
    • D.Affirmative Action
      • 1. Locally and State-Funded Programs §7.29
        • a. Hi-Voltage Wire Works, Inc. v City of San Jose §7.30
        • b. Data Collection §7.31
        • c. Permissible Preferences §7.32
      • 2.Equal Protection Considerations and Federally Funded Programs
        • a. Limitation on Proposition 209 Prohibitions §7.33
        • b. Supreme Court Review of Affirmative Action Programs §7.34
        • c. Federal Challenges to State and Local Affirmative Action Programs §7.35
    • E. The Contract Documents and Contract Provisions §7.36
      • 1.Contractor's License Issues
        • a. Invitation to Bid §7.37
        • b. Effect of Failure to Have Proper License §7.38
        • c. Verification §7.39
      • 2.Major Subcontractors
        • a. General Requirements §7.40
        • b. Requests for Additional Information §7.41
        • c. Contractors and Subcontractors Debarred by the State §7.42
      • 3. Unfair Business Practice Claims §7.43
      • 4. Trenching Requirements §7.44
      • 5. Noncollusion Declaration §7.45
      • 6. Retention §7.46
      • 7. Securities in Lieu of Retention §7.47
      • 8. Resolution of Claims §7.48
      • 9. Government Code Claims §7.49
      • 10. Bidder's Security §7.50
      • 11. Prevailing Wage Law §7.51
        • a. Notices Concerning Rates §7.52
        • b. Labor Compliance Programs §7.53
        • c. Penalties §7.54
        • d. Payroll Records §7.55
        • e. Apprentices §7.56
        • f. Day's Work §7.57
        • g. Workers' Compensation §7.58
      • 12. Labor Code §2810 Liability §7.59
      • 13. Labor and Materials Bond §7.60
      • 14. Utilities Relocation §7.61
      • 15. Engineering Specifications and Costs §7.62
      • 16. Termination, Amendment, or Modification §7.63
      • 17. Brand or Trade Names §7.64
      • 18. Release of Claims §7.65
      • 19. Notice of Third Party Claims §7.66
      • 20. Liquidated Damages §7.67
      • 21. Limit on Force Majeure Damages §7.68
      • 22. Resolution of Contract Disputes §7.69
      • 23. Limits on Indemnification §7.70
      • 24. Specific Bonding and Insurance Companies §7.71
      • 25. Assumption of Responsibility for Plans and Specifications §7.72
      • 26. Interest on Progress Payment Requests §7.73
      • 27. Cost Records §7.74
      • 28. Venue §7.75
    • F.Subletting and Subcontracting Fair Practices Act
      • 1. Definition §7.76
      • 2. Public Policy §7.77
      • 3. Criteria for Substitution §7.78
      • 4. Procedure §7.79
      • 5. Mistakes—Clerical Errors §7.80
      • 6. Emergency/Necessity Exception §7.81
      • 7. Penalties §7.82
    • G.Prevailing Wages
      • 1. Statutory Authority §7.83
        • a. Applicability to General Law Cities, Other Public Agencies, and Some Partly or Wholly Private Projects §7.84
        • b. Applicability to Charter Cities §7.85
      • 2.Scope of "Public Works"
        • a. "Public Works" §7.86
        • b. "Paid for in Whole or in Part out of Public Funds" §7.87
        • c. Exemptions §7.88
        • d. Work on Facilities Leased to a Public Entity §7.89
      • 3. Requirement to Pay Prevailing Wages §7.90
      • 4.Penalties
        • a. Failure to Pay Prevailing Wages §7.91
        • b. Failure to Require Payment of Prevailing Wages §7.92
      • 5.Payroll Records
        • a. Duty to Maintain §7.93
        • b. Accuracy and Inspection §7.94
      • 6. Volunteer Work Exemption §7.95
      • 7. Registration With Department of Industrial Relations §7.95A
    • H.Bonds and Insurance
      • 1. Surety Bonds Distinguished From Insurance §7.96
      • 2.Key Features of Surety Bonds
        • a. When Liability Arises §7.97
        • b. Scope of Liability §7.98
        • c. Changes to Scope of Work §7.99
        • d. Surety Qualifications §7.100
          • (1) Admitted Surety §7.101
          • (2) City Liability §7.102
        • e. Sufficiency of Sureties §7.103
        • f. Bid Bonds Versus Payment Bonds §7.104
        • g. Insurance Distinguished From Indemnification §7.105
        • h. Other Handbook References §7.106
    • I.Interpreting the Contract and Resolving Disputes
      • 1. Implied Warranty of Correctness §7.107
      • 2. Effect of Disclaimers §7.108
      • 3. Differing Site Conditions §7.109
      • 4.Finality of the Engineer's Decision
        • a. Historical Rule §7.110
        • b. Statutory Rule §7.111
      • 5.Mediation and Arbitration of Construction Claims
        • a. Arbitration Required by Statute §7.112
        • b. Contract Provisions §7.113
        • c. Other Alternative Dispute Resolution Methods §7.114
      • 6.Limitations on Contractor Claims
        • a. False Claims §7.115
        • b. Total Cost Claims §7.116
        • c. Abandonment §7.117
    • J.Stop Payment Notices
      • 1. Purpose of Stop Payment Notice §7.118
      • 2. Preliminary 20-Day Notice §7.119
      • 3. Timing §7.120
      • 4. Payment Disputes §7.121
      • 5.Resolution
        • a. Duty to Withhold §7.122
        • b. Funds Subject to Withholding §7.123
        • c. Notice to Claimant §7.124
        • d. Contractor Bond §7.125
        • e. Withholding Retention §7.126
        • f. Suit by Contractor §7.127
        • g. Suit by Stop Payment Notice Claimant §7.128
      • 6. Other Reference Materials §7.129
    • K.Federally Funded Projects
      • 1. Authority to Comply With Federal Requirements §7.130
      • 2.Use of Federal Grant Funds to Purchase Supplies and Services
        • a. Uniform Administrative Regulations §7.131
        • b. Grantee/Grantor Responsibility §7.132
        • c. Grantor Review of Proposed Contracts §7.133
        • d. Code of Conduct §7.134
        • e. Contracting With Small and Minority Firms, Women's Business Enterprise (WBE), and Labor Surplus Area Firms §7.135
        • f. Selection Procedures §7.136
        • g. Method of Procurement §7.137
          • (1) Micropurchases §7.138
          • (2) Small Purchase Procedures §7.138A
          • (3) Sealed Bids (Formal Advertising) §7.139
            • (a) Solicitation of Responses §7.140
            • (b) Information Provided §7.141
            • (c) Bid Opening §7.142
            • (d) Award §7.143
            • (e) Bid Rejection §7.144
          • (4) Competitive Proposals §7.145
            • (a) Solicitation of Responses §7.146
            • (b) Contents §7.147
            • (c) Evaluation §7.148
            • (d) Award §7.149
            • (e) Qualifications-Based Procurement §7.150
          • (5) Noncompetitive Negotiation §7.151
        • h. Contract Pricing §7.152
        • i. Contract Provisions §7.153
          • (1) Remedies §7.154
          • (2) Termination §7.155
          • (3) Equal Employment Opportunity §7.156
          • (4) "Anti-Kickback" Act §7.157
          • (5) Davis-Bacon Act §7.158
          • (6) Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards §7.159
          • (7) New Inventions §7.160
          • (8) Record Retention and Access §7.161
          • (9) Environmental Law Compliance §7.162
          • (10) Energy Efficiency [Deleted] §7.163
          • (11) Contract Administration §7.164
      • 3. Prevailing Wages §7.165
      • 4. Definitions §7.166
      • 5.Contract Documents
        • a. Specifications §7.167
        • b. Contracts §7.168
      • 6. Payroll Records §7.169
      • 7. Penalties §7.170
    • L.Charter Cities
      • 1. Charter Cities and the Public Contract Code §7.171
      • 2. Bidding §7.172
      • 3. Charter Provisions §7.173
      • 4. Prevailing Wages §7.174
  • II.CONTRACTING FOR SERVICES AND GOODS
    • A.Authority to Contract
      • 1. General Authority §7.175
      • 2. Specific Authority §7.176
      • 3.Delegation of Authority
        • a. Unlawful Delegations of Government Functions §7.177
        • b. Caveat Emptor §7.178
      • 4. Express Grant of Authority to Enter Into Contracts §7.179
      • 5.Authority for Intergovernmental Agreements
        • a. Source of Authority §7.180
        • b. County Performance of General City Functions §7.181
        • c. Charter City Contracting Authority §7.182
        • d. Assessment and Equalization Functions—Alternative Procedures for Charter Cities §7.183
        • e. Contracts for Municipal Services §7.184
        • f. Fire Protection Services From Counties §7.185
        • g. Water Mains and Sewers §7.186
        • h. Construction and Maintenance of Sewers and Electrical Pole Lines §7.187
        • i. Cement Facilities §7.188
        • j. Emergency Assistance §7.189
        • k. County Charges §7.190
      • 6. Federally Funded Projects §7.191
      • 7.Prohibited Contracts
        • a. Police Officers as Security Guards §7.192
        • b. Job Order Contracts §7.193
    • B.Competitive Bidding Requirements
      • 1. General Rule §7.194
      • 2. Rule for Certain Kinds of Professional Services §7.195
      • 3. Contracting for Supplies and Equipment §7.196
      • 4. "Piggyback" Purchasing §7.197
    • C. Purchase Ordinance and Regulation §7.198
    • D.Local Preferences
      • 1. Validity §7.199
      • 2. "Buy American Act" §7.200
  • III.GENERAL CONTRACT PROVISIONS AND ISSUES
    • A. General Rule of Interpretation §7.201
    • B.Contract Provisions and Issues
      • 1. Parties §7.202
      • 2. Duration §7.203
      • 3. Duties §7.204
      • 4. Time and Liquidated Damages §7.205
      • 5. Responsible Contract Administrators §7.206
      • 6. Dispute Resolution §7.207
      • 7. Compensation §7.208
      • 8. Reimbursement of Expenses §7.209
      • 9. Public Entity Liability and Insurance §7.210
        • a. Right to Require Insurance §7.211
        • b. Specific Types of Insurance §7.212
          • (1) Commercial General Liability §7.213
          • (2) Automobile Liability §7.214
          • (3) Professional Liability §7.215
          • (4) Workers' Compensation and Employer Liability §7.216
          • (5) Builder's Risk §7.216A
        • (6) Inland Marine §7.216B
      • c. Common Contractual Provisions §7.217
      • 10.Indemnification
        • a. Establishment of Indemnification §7.218
        • b. Public Entity Liability for Contractor Acts §7.219
          • (1) Nondelegable Duty §7.220
          • (2) Peculiar Risk Doctrine §7.221
        • c. Type and Scope of Indemnification §7.222
          • (1) Indemnity as a Condition for Rendering Essential Public Service §7.223
          • (2) Construction Contracts §7.224
          • (3) Trucking Contracts §7.225
          • (4) Design Professionals §7.226
        • d. Further Reference §7.227
      • 11. Limitation of Liability Clauses §7.228
      • 12. Notices §7.229
      • 13. Status of Contractor §7.230
      • 14. License Requirement §7.231
      • 15. Assignment §7.232
      • 16. Arbitration or Mediation §7.233
      • 17. Conflict of Interest §7.234
      • 18. Ownership of Materials and Documents §7.235
      • 19. Termination §7.236
      • 20. Discrimination §7.237
      • 21. Ownership Interest §7.238
      • 22. Records §7.239
      • 23. Audit §7.240
      • 24. Choice of Law §7.241
      • 25. Entire Agreement §7.242
      • 26. Waiver §7.243
      • 27. Attorney Fees Provision §7.244
      • 28. Severability Clause §7.244A
    • C.Execution of Contracts
      • 1. Effect on Enforceability §7.245
      • 2. Signature and Other Requirements §7.246
      • 3. Consequence of Defective Bidding Process §7.247
    • D.Payment Procedures
      • 1. General Law Cities §7.248
      • 2. Charter Cities §7.249
      • 3.Audits
        • a. Local Audit Requirements §7.250
        • b. State Audit Requirements §7.251
      • 4. Extra Compensation for Services Already Rendered §7.252
    • E. Other Handbook References §7.253
  • IV. INSURANCE §7.254
    • A.Coverage and Exclusions
      • 1. Mandatory Versus Optional Coverage §7.255
      • 2. Interpretation of Insurance Policies §7.256
      • 3. Exclusions §7.257
      • 4. Duty to Defend §7.258
      • 5. Duty to Indemnify §7.259
    • B. Self-Funded Pools §7.260
      • 1. Self-Insured Retentions/Reserves §7.261
      • 2.Self-Funded Pools
        • a. Purpose and Scope §7.262
        • b. Services Provided §7.263
        • c. Legal Underpinning for Pools §7.264
        • d. Pools Are Not "Other Insurance" §7.265
        • e. Examples of Pool Types §7.266
        • f. Professional Organizations §7.267
    • C.Other Insurance Issues
      • 1. Practice Resources §7.268
      • 2. "Occurrence" Versus "Claims Made" Policies §7.269
        • a. "Occurrence" Policies §7.270
        • b. "Claims Made" Policies §7.271
      • 3."Comprehensive General Liability" Coverage
        • a. In General §7.272
        • b. Exclusions §7.273
        • c. Owner-Controlled Insurance Programs §7.274
      • 4. Aggregate Limits §7.275
      • 5. "Broad Form" Coverage §7.276
      • 6."Commercial General Liability" Coverage
        • a. Scope of Coverage §7.277
        • b. Amounts §7.278
      • 7.Rating Insurance Carriers
        • a. Best's Rating §7.279
        • b. Insurance Company Licensing §7.280
      • 8.Additional Insured Endorsements
        • a. Insurance Policy as Contract §7.281
        • b. Reasons for Additional Insured Status §7.282
        • c. Endorsement Language §7.283
        • d. Form Endorsements §7.284
        • e. Further Reference §7.285
      • 9. Certificates of Insurance §7.286
    • D.Specific Insurance Types
      • 1. Automobiles §7.287
      • 2. Workers' Compensation §7.288
      • 3. Bodily Injury §7.289
      • 4. Personal Injury §7.290
      • 5. Products and Completed Operations §7.291
      • 6. Property §7.292
      • 7. Umbrella or Excess Policies §7.293
      • 8. Professional Liability Insurance §7.294
      • 9. Public Officials Errors and Omissions Coverage §7.295
    • E. Submitting and Enforcing Insurance Claims §7.296
    • F. Additional Handbook References §7.297
  • V.INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS AND BONDS
    • A.Introduction to Indemnification
      • 1. Nature of Indemnity §7.298
      • 2. Right to Seek Indemnification §7.299
    • B.Express Indemnity Agreements
      • 1. Contract Principles Apply §7.300
      • 2.Negligence
        • a. General Principles §7.301
        • b. Statutory Limitations §7.302
        • c. Passive Negligence §7.303
        • d. Active Negligence §7.304
          • (1) General Versus Specific Indemnification Clauses §7.305
          • (2) General Indemnification Clauses and Active Negligence §7.306
        • e. Accrual of Right to Indemnification §7.307
        • f. Right to Defense Costs §7.308
        • g. Statute of Limitations for Enforcing Indemnity Agreement §7.309
      • 3.Intentional Acts
        • a. Availability of Indemnification §7.310
        • b. Future Versus Past Acts §7.311
    • C.Implied Indemnity
      • 1. When Applicable §7.312
      • 2. Source of Obligation §7.313
    • D. Equitable Indemnity §7.314
    • E.Toxic and Hazardous Wastes
      • 1. Statutory Authority §7.315
      • 2. Questions to Consider §7.316
        • a. Covered Parties §7.317
        • b. Identity of Beneficiary §7.318
        • c. Specific Acts Covered §7.319
        • d. Types of Acts Covered §7.320
        • e. Impact of Insurance §7.321
        • f. Control of Defense and Settlement §7.322
    • F. Further Reference §7.323

8

Public Property

  • I.PROPERTY ACQUISITION
    • A. Legal Authority §8.1
    • B. Common Requirements for Acquisition of Real Property §8.2
      • 1. Compliance With Statutory and Regulatory Guidelines §8.3
      • 2. Conformity With General Plan §8.4
      • 3. Preliminary Work §8.5
      • 4. Environmental Review Under CEQA §8.6
      • 5. Title Search §8.7
      • 6. Appraisal §8.8
      • 7. Notice of Intent to Appraise §8.9
      • 8. Environmental (Contamination) Assessment §8.10
        • a. Purpose of Assessment §8.11
        • b. Further Assessment §8.12
        • c. Consequences of Failing to Perform Assessment §8.13
      • 9. Relocation Assistance §8.14
        • a. What Triggers Relocation Obligations? §8.15
        • b. Advisory Assistance §8.16
          • (1) Role of Relocation Representative §8.17
          • (2) Representative's Understanding of Displacee's Needs §8.18
          • (3) Representative's Availability §8.19
        • c. Relocation Plans §8.20
        • d. Comparable Replacement/Last Resort Housing §8.21
        • e. Relocation Payments §8.22
        • f. Duplication of Payments §8.23
        • g. Advance Payments §8.24
        • h. Claim Procedure §8.25
        • i. Grievance Procedure §8.26
      • 10.Acquisition Offer
        • a. Offer When Eminent Domain Contemplated §8.27
          • (1) Statutory Exceptions §8.28
          • (2) Lessees §8.29
        • b. Offer When Eminent Domain Not Contemplated (Negotiated Purchase) §8.30
      • 11. Notification to County Assessor After Purchase §8.31
    • C. Acquisition by Eminent Domain
      • 1. Limitations on Use of Eminent Domain Under Homeowners and Private Property Protection Act §8.32
      • 2. Public Use Requirement §8.33
      • 3. Compliance With CEQA §8.34
      • 4. Setting Just Compensation §8.35
        • a. Disclosure §8.36
        • b. Extent of Compensation §8.37
      • 5. Precondemnation Offer §8.38
        • a. Conditional Offer §8.39
        • b. Specific Contents of Written Statement Accompanying Offer §8.40
      • 6 Relocation Information to Occupants §8.41
      • 7. Precondemnation Negotiations §8.42
      • 8. Notice of Hearing on Proposed Adoption of Resolution of Necessity §8.43
      • 9. Hearing on Proposed Adoption of Resolution of Necessity §8.44
      • 10. Adoption of the Resolution of Necessity §8.45
      • 11. Findings §8.46
      • 12. Eminent Domain Complaint and Lis Pendens §8.47
      • 13. Deposit of Probable Compensation §8.48
        • a. Deposit Prerequisite to Order for Possession §8.49
        • b. Deposit Available for Withdrawal by Defendants §8.50
        • c. Notice of Application for Withdrawal §8.51
        • d. Withdrawal Waives All Defenses Except Additional Compensation §8.52
        • e. Interest on Award §8.53
        • f. Interest on Deposit §8.54
      • 14. Service §8.55
      • 15. Obtaining Actual Possession §8.56
      • 16.Prosecution of Eminent Domain Action
        • a. Alternative Dispute Resolution §8.57
        • b. Preliminary Court Proceedings §8.58
        • c. Trial of Legal Issues §8.59
        • d. Appraisal Exchange §8.60
        • e. Final Pretrial Conference §8.61
        • f. Mandatory Settlement Conference; Statutory Settlement Offers §8.62
        • g. Motions Affecting Compensation [Deleted] §8.63
        • h. Valuation Trial §8.64
        • i. Judgment; Payment of Judgment §8.65
        • j. Final Order of Condemnation §8.66
    • D.Acquisition of Property by Other Means
      • 1. Acquisition of Real Property by Gift, Bequest, or Offer of Dedication §8.67
        • a. Terms of Gift, Bequest, or Devise §8.68
        • b. Restrictions §8.69
        • c. Tax Consequences §8.70
      • 2.Adverse Possession and Easements by Prescription and Implied Dedication
        • a. Adverse Possession §8.71
        • b. Easements by Prescription §8.72
        • c. Easements by Implied Dedication §8.73
          • (1) Statutory Constraint §8.74
          • (2) When Gion Applies §8.75
          • (3) Implied Dedication With Consent §8.76
      • 3. Acceptance of Interests in Real Property §8.77
      • 4. Acquisitions of Personal Property §8.78
      • 5. Effect of Debt Limitation on Property Acquisition §8.79
      • 6.Acquisition by Other Means
        • a. Other Common Law Easements §8.80
        • b. Lost and Unclaimed Property §8.81
        • c. Civil Forfeiture §8.82
  • II.PROPERTY DISPOSITION
    • A. Real Property §8.83
      • 1.Optional Procedure
        • a. Findings §8.84
        • b. Content of Resolution of Intent §8.85
        • c. Publication §8.86
        • d. Overriding Protests §8.87
      • 2.Surplus Real Property
        • a. Inventory §8.88
        • b. Offer Required §8.89
          • (1) Housing Providers §8.90
          • (2) Park and Recreation; Open Space Property §8.91
          • (3) Enterprise Zone Property §8.92
          • (4) School Property §8.93
          • (5) Infill Opportunity or Transit Village Property §8.94
        • c. Notification §8.95
        • d. Good Faith Negotiations §8.96
      • 3. Disposition for Affordable Housing §8.97
    • B. Park Land §8.98
      • 1.Dedicated Lands
        • a. Original Dedications §8.99
        • b. Parks Dedicated by City §8.100
        • c. Private Dedications §8.101
      • 2. Parks Not Used for Park Purposes §8.102
      • 3. Parks Acquired From Counties §8.103
      • 4. Intergovernmental and Utility Transfers §8.104
    • C. Personal Property §8.105
    • D. Streets and Highways Owned in Fee §8.106
    • E.Restrictions Applicable to Disposal of Both Real and Personal Property
      • 1. Government Grant Funds §8.107
        • a. Federal Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) §8.108
        • b. California Park and Recreational Facilities Act of 1984 §8.109
      • 2.Donations
        • a. For Public Purpose §8.110
        • b. Other Permissible Donations Under State Law §8.111
      • 3. Conflicts of Interest §8.112
    • F. Adverse Possession §8.113
  • III.LEASES OF CITY PROPERTY
    • A. General Leasing Authority §8.114
    • B. Authority for Specific Kinds of Leases §8.115
    • C. Statement Concerning Taxable Interest §8.116
    • D. Recordation §8.117
  • IV.LIMITATIONS ON USE OF CITY PROPERTY
    • A. Obstructions and Encroachments §8.118
    • B. Removal of Obstructions §8.119
    • C. Deed Restrictions §8.120
  • V.STREETS AND EASEMENTS
    • A.Utility Relocation
      • 1. Case Law §8.121
      • 2. Statutory Obligation §8.122
      • 3.Exceptions
        • a. Statutory §8.123
        • b. Property Rights §8.124
    • B. Streets, Highways, and Other Easement Vacations §8.125
    • C.Nonsummary Vacation Procedure
      • 1.Prehearing Procedure
        • a. Planning Agency Role §8.126
        • b. Initiation of Proceedings §8.127
        • c. Hearing and Notice §8.128
        • d. Receipt of Evidence §8.129
      • 2.Posthearing Procedure
        • a. Resolution Vacating Easement §8.130
        • b. Conditions §8.131
        • c. Recordation §8.132
      • 3.Reservations
        • a. Future Sewers, Storm Drains, and Other Utilities §8.133
        • b. Future Streets §8.134
        • c. Existing Utilities §8.135
        • d. Trails §8.136
      • 4. Effect of Vacation §8.137
        • a. City Owns Easement Only §8.138
        • b. City Owns Underlying Property §8.139
      • 5. Agreements Not to Vacate §8.140
    • D. Summary Vacation Procedure §8.141
      • 1.Circumstances in Which Summary Vacation May Occur
        • a. Superseded by Relocation §8.142
        • b. Impassability and Nonmaintenance §8.143
        • c. Surplus §8.144
        • d. Dead Ends §8.145
        • e. Offers of Dedication on Subdivision Maps §8.146
        • f. Public Service Easements §8.147
      • 2. Procedures for Summary Vacation
        • a. Resolution §8.148
        • b. Recordation §8.149
    • E. Challenges to Vacation §8.150
  • VI.STREETS AND SIDEWALKS
    • A. General Regulatory Requirements §8.151
    • B.Vehicular Regulations
      • 1. Preemption §8.152
      • 2. Road Closures §8.153
        • a. To Implement Circulation Element §8.154
        • b. Selective Access §8.155
      • 3.Parking
        • a. Preemption §8.156
        • b. Broad Delegation to Local Entities §8.157
        • c. Local No-Parking Regulations §8.158
        • d.Permitted Regulations
          • (1) Time Restrictions §8.159
          • (2) Commercial Vehicles on Residential Streets; Two- or Three-Wheeled Motor Vehicles §8.160
          • (3) State Highways; Private Driveways; Off-Street Parking Facilities §8.161
          • (4) Street Cleaning; Preferential Parking Regulations §8.162
          • (5) Other Regulations §8.163
      • 4. Trucks §8.164
        • a. Height Restriction for Parking §8.165
        • b.Routes
          • (1) Highway and Residential Street Restrictions §8.166
          • (2) Restrictions Based on Cargo §8.167
          • (3) Local Regulation of Transportation of Explosives §8.168
          • (4) Standard for Local Height, Weight, and Routing Regulations §8.169
      • 5.Bicycles, Roller Skates, Skateboards, and Other Mobility Devices
        • a. Bicycles and Electric Carts on Sidewalks §8.170
        • b. Bicycle Parking; Bicycle Lanes §8.171
        • c. Roller Skates §8.172
        • d. Skateboarding and Nonmotorized Scooters §8.173
        • e. Motorized Scooters, Electrically Motorized Boards, and Other Mobility Devices §8.174
    • C. Regulation of Activities on Streets and Sidewalks §8.175
      • 1. Freedom of Speech and Assembly §8.176
      • 2. Permitted Regulation §8.177
      • 3. Solicitation and Vending Vehicles §8.177A
    • D.Streets and Sidewalks: Americans with Disabilities Act Requirements
      • 1. Existing Facilities §8.178
      • 2. Transition Plans §8.179
      • 3. Barden v City of Sacramento §8.180
      • 4. New Construction and Alterations §8.181
      • 5. Curb Ramps §8.182

9

Regulating Businesses and Personal Conduct

  • I. INTRODUCTION §9.1
  • II.REGULATING BUSINESSES AND OCCUPATIONS
    • A.Business Licensing and Regulation
      • 1. Authority §9.2
      • 2.Limitations
        • a. Preemption §9.3
        • b. Commerce Clause §9.4
        • c. First Amendment §9.5
    • B.Specific Types of Regulated Businesses
      • 1.Adult Businesses
        • a. Bans on Public Nudity §9.6
        • b. Location Restrictions §9.7
          • (1) Content Neutrality §9.8
          • (2) Substantial Governmental Interest §9.9
          • (3) Narrowly Tailored §9.10
          • (4) Reasonable Alternative Avenues of Communication §9.11
        • c. Permit Requirements and Operating Restrictions §9.12
        • d.Adult Publications
          • (1) Newsrack Restrictions §9.13
          • (2) Display Restrictions §9.14
        • e. Nuisance §9.15
        • f. Other Resources on Regulating Adult Businesses §9.16
      • 2. Alcoholic Beverages §9.17
        • a. Nuisance §9.18
        • b. Alcohol Consumption §9.19
        • c. Combined Alcohol and Gasoline Sales §9.20
        • d. Licensing §9.21
      • 3. Ambulances §9.22
        • a. Constitutional Authority §9.23
        • b. Statutory Authority §9.24
        • c. Prehospital Emergency Medical Services §9.25
      • 4. Auctions §9.26
      • 5. Bingo §9.27
      • 6. Dance Halls §9.28
      • 7.Gambling Establishments
        • a. Gaming Under California Law §9.29
        • b. Indian Gaming §9.30
          • (1) Tribal-City Compacts §9.31
          • (2) Indian Gaming Special Distribution Fund §9.32
      • 8. Hot Air Balloons §9.33
      • 9. Charter-Party Carriers and Ridesharing Services §9.34
      • 10. Massage Parlors §9.35
      • 11. Pawnbrokers §9.36
      • 12. Private Patrols §9.37
        • a. Authority to Regulate §9.38
        • b. Licensing §9.39
      • 13. Shopping and Laundry Carts §9.40
      • 14. Taxicabs §9.41
        • a. Consequences of Violations §9.42
        • b. Taxicab Drivers' Drug and Alcohol Testing Requirements §9.43
      • 15. Tow Trucks §9.44
      • 16. Vendors and Solicitors §9.45
      • 17. Junk Dealers and Recyclers §9.46
      • 18. Marijuana (Cannabis) §9.47
        • a. Compassionate Use Act §9.48
        • b. Medical Marijuana Program Act §9.49
        • c. Medical Marijuana Regulation and Safety Act (MMRSA) §9.50
        • d. Decisions under CUA, MMPA, and MMRSA Regarding Local Land Use Authority §9.50A
        • e. Recreational Marijuana (Adult Use of Marijuana Act) (AUMA) §9.50B
        • f. Federal Controlled Substances Act §9.51
        • g. Other Issues §9.52
    • C.Rent Control
      • 1. Residential Rent Control Only §9.53
      • 2. Permissible Rent Control Regulation §9.54
        • a. Governmental Purposes §9.55
        • b. Just and Reasonable Return §9.56
        • c. Impermissible Rent Control Regulations §9.57
        • d. Vacancy Decontrol and Exemptions From Rent Control §9.58
      • 3. Administration of Rent Control Ordinances §9.59
        • a. Annual Rent Increases §9.60
        • b. Pass-Throughs and Rent Decreases §9.61
        • c. Procedural Due Process §9.62
        • d. Standard of Review §9.63
        • e. Preemption §9.64
        • f. Just Cause and Other Restrictions on Evictions §9.65
          • (1) Just Cause §9.66
          • (2) Notice and Pleading Requirements for Termination Notices §9.67
          • (3) Defenses to Eviction §9.68
      • 4.Special Considerations for Mobilehome Rent Control
        • a. Preemption §9.69
        • b. Vacancy Control §9.70
  • III.REGULATING PERSONAL CONDUCT
    • A. Constitutional Issues §9.71
      • 1.Due Process
        • a. Notice; Vagueness §9.72
        • b. Overbreadth §9.73
      • 2. Equal Protection §9.74
    • B. Camping in Public Places §9.75
      • 1. Equal Protection §9.76
      • 2. Vagueness §9.77
    • C. Curfews §9.78
      • 1.Authority to Impose Curfews
        • a. Police Power Regulation §9.79
        • b. Fundamental Rights §9.80
      • 2. Types of Curfew Ordinances §9.81
        • a. Youth or Juvenile Curfew Ordinances §9.82
          • (1) Exceptions Required in Juvenile Curfew Ordinances §9.83
          • (2) Standard of Review §9.84
        • b. Emergency Curfews §9.85
      • 3.Common Challenges to Curfews
        • a. Overbreadth §9.86
        • b. Vagueness §9.87
    • D. Disorderly Conduct §9.88
      • 1.Public Lewdness
        • a. Vagueness and Overbreadth §9.89
        • b. Freedom of Expression §9.90
      • 2. Public Intoxication §9.91
    • E.Drugs, Drug Paraphernalia, and Gangs
      • 1. Drugs §9.92
      • 2. Drug Paraphernalia §9.93
      • 3. Gangs §9.94
    • F. Gambling §9.95
    • G. Graffiti §9.96
      • 1. Definition of Graffiti §9.97
      • 2.State Law Sanctions for Graffiti
        • a. Graffiti Is Punishable as Vandalism §9.98
        • b. Aerosol Paint Containers §9.99
        • c. Driver's License Restrictions §9.100
      • 3.Graffiti Removal
        • a. Public Funds for Cleanup §9.101
        • b. Cleanup by Vandal §9.102
        • c. Nuisance Abatement Procedures §9.103
    • H. Guns and Weapons §9.104
      • 1. Second Amendment §9.105
      • 2. Preemption §9.106
      • 3.Weapons Confiscation and Forfeitures
        • a. Weapons Confiscation §9.107
        • b. Postconfiscation Hearing §9.108
        • c. Procedure for Return of Firearm §9.109
    • I. Loitering and Sitting on Sidewalks §9.110
      • 1.Due Process
        • a. Vagueness §9.111
        • b. Overbreadth §9.112
      • 2. Right to Free Assembly and Association §9.113
      • 3. Preemption §9.114
    • J. Noise §9.115
      • 1. Freedom of Speech §9.116
      • 2. Vagueness §9.117
      • 3. Overbreadth §9.118
      • 4.Special Issues Relating to Noise Regulations
        • a. Vehicles and Sound Amplification §9.119
        • b. Airports §9.120
    • K. Nuisance §9.121
      • 1. State Nuisance Law §9.122
        • a. Public Nuisance §9.123
        • b. Private Nuisance §9.124
      • 2. Local Authority to Declare Nuisance §9.125
    • L. Speech §9.126
      • 1.Government as Property Owner
        • a. Forum Analysis §9.127
        • b.Three Types of Forums
          • (1) Traditional Public Forum §9.128
          • (2) Designated or Limited Public Forum §9.129
          • (3) Nonpublic Forum (All Remaining Public Property) §9.130
      • 2.Government as Regulator
        • a. Type of Speech §9.131
          • (1) Charitable Fund-Raising §9.132
          • (2) "Mixed" Commercial Speech §9.133
          • (3) Political Speech §9.134
        • b.Prior Restraints
          • (1) Injunctions Against Speech §9.135
          • (2) Permit Requirements §9.136
          • (3) Newsracks §9.137
          • (4) Internet §9.138
        • c. Time, Place, and Manner Restrictions §9.139
          • (1) Adult Entertainment §9.140
          • (2) Leafleting §9.141
          • (3) Curfews §9.142
          • (4) Free Speech Zones §9.143
        • d. Permissible Content-Based Restrictions §9.144
        • e. Sign Regulations §9.145
          • (1) Content-Based Regulations §9.146
          • (2) Regulation of Commercial Speech §9.147
          • (3) Commercial Versus Noncommercial Regulations §9.148
          • (4) Billboards §9.149
          • (5) Amortization of Nonconforming Signs §9.150
          • (6) Political Signs §9.151
          • (7) Severance §9.152
          • (8) Permits and Licenses §9.153
        • f. Parades and Parade Permits §9.154
          • (1) Processing Time §9.155
          • (2) Exercise of Discretion §9.156
          • (3) Fees §9.157
          • (4) Indemnity and Insurance §9.158
          • (5) Police Protection §9.159
        • g. Charitable Street Vending or Solicitations §9.160
        • h. Taxation on First Amendment Activity §9.161
    • M. Trespassing §9.162
      • 1. Trespass to Real Property §9.163
      • 2. Interference With Lawful Business §9.164
  • IV. REGULATING ANIMALS §9.165
    • A. Domestic Animals §9.166
      • 1. Zoning Regulations §9.167
      • 2. Nuisances §9.168
    • B.Dog Regulations
      • 1. Authority §9.169
      • 2. Licensing Regulations §9.170
      • 3. Impounding of Dogs §9.171
      • 4. Potentially Dangerous and Vicious Dogs §9.172
        • a. Destruction of Dog §9.173
        • b. Other Sanctions on Owner of Potentially Dangerous or Vicious Dog §9.174
      • 5. Breed-Specific Ordinances and Spay or Neuter Programs §9.175
      • 6.Dog Attacks
        • a. Trained Attack Dogs §9.176
        • b. Attacks on Livestock or Poultry §9.177
    • C.Cats and Other Domestic Animal Regulations
      • 1. Impounding Cats §9.178
      • 2. Declawing Ordinances §9.179
      • 3. Other Domestic Animals §9.180
    • D. Animal Relinquishment or Redemption by Owner §9.181
    • E. Liability Issues §9.182
    • F. Animal Control Officers §9.183
    • G.Animal Shelters
      • 1. Information and Records §9.184
      • 2. Spaying or Neutering §9.185
    • H. Pet Boarding Facilities §9.186
      • I. Wild Animals §9.187
        • 1. Definition §9.188
        • 2. Ownership §9.189
      • J.Animal Abandonment and Mistreatment
        • 1. Willful Abandonment §9.190
        • 2. Abandoned Pets in Homes After Foreclosure or Lease Termination §9.191
      • K. Service Animals §9.192
      • L. Disease §9.192

10

Land Use

  • I. OVERVIEW OF LAND USE REGULATION §10.1
    • A. Planning and Zoning Law §10.2
    • B. Planning Commission §10.3
    • C. Planning Agency §10.4
    • D. Notice and Hearing Requirements for Quasi-Judicial Proceedings §10.5
      • 1. Notice to Affected Property Owners §10.6
      • 2. Adequate Notice §10.7
      • 3. Type of Notice §10.8
    • E. Notice and Hearing Requirements for Legislative Acts §10.9
    • F.Permit Streamlining Act
      • 1. Basic Requirement §10.10
      • 2. Elements of Complete Application §10.11
      • 3. Applies Only to Adjudicatory Acts §10.12
      • 4. Directory, Not Mandatory, Regarding CEQA §10.13
      • 5. Notice and Due Process Required for Automatic Approval §10.14
      • 6. Appeal §10.15
  • II.GENERAL PLAN
    • A. Purpose and Effect §10.16
    • B. Basic Requirements §10.17
      • 1. Land Use Element §10.18
        • a. Population Density and Building Intensity Standards §10.19
        • b. Flooding §10.20
        • c. Timber Production §10.21
        • d. Military Facilities §10.22
        • e. Urban Form and Design §10.23
        • f. Planning for Disadvantaged Unincorporated Communities §10.24
      • 2. Circulation Element §10.25
      • 3. Housing Element §10.26
        • a. Basic Requirements §10.27
        • b. Public Involvement §10.28
        • c. Assessment §10.29
          • (1) Land Inventory §10.30
          • (2) Constraints Analysis §10.31
          • (3) Emergency Shelters §10.32
          • (4) Special Housing Needs §10.33
          • (5) Energy Conservation §10.34
          • (6) Loss of Existing Assisted Low-Income Housing §10.35
        • d. Objectives §10.36
        • e. Action Program §10.37
          • (1) Identifying Adequate Sites §10.38
          • (2) Conserving Existing Affordable Housing §10.39
          • (3) Removing Governmental Constraints §10.40
          • (4) Ensuring Consistency §10.41
          • (5) Promoting Opportunities Without Discrimination §10.42
          • (6) Providing for Numerous Forms of Housing §10.43
        • f.Local Share of Regional Housing Need
          • (1) Determining Regional Housing Need §10.44
          • (2) Subregional Entities §10.45
          • (3) Methodology for Determining Regional Housing Need Allocation (RHNA) §10.46
          • (4) Process for Determining RHNA §10.47
        • g. Department of Housing and Community Development (HCD) §10.48
          • (1) HCD Review §10.49
          • (2) Rebuttable Presumption of Validity §10.50
        • h. Periodic Updates §10.51
        • i. Impact of Defective Housing Element §10.52
        • j. Coastal Provisions §10.53
      • 4. Conservation Element §10.54
        • a. Optional Considerations §10.55
        • b. Water Agency Involvement §10.56
      • 5. Open Space Element §10.57
        • a. Tribal Consultation §10.58
        • b. Action Program §10.59
        • c. Goals and Inventory §10.60
      • 6. Noise Element §10.61
        • a. Implementation §10.62
        • b. Noise Contours §10.63
      • 7. Safety Element §10.64
        • a. Required Review and Update §10.65
        • b. Required Consultation §10.66
      • 8. Environmental Justice Element or Policies §10.67
    • C.Administration
      • 1. Annual Report §10.68
      • 2. Consistency Requirements for Land Use Decisions §10.69
      • 3. Requirements Imposed on Other Agencies §10.70
    • D. Adoption Procedures and Hearing Requirements §10.71
      • 1. Additional Requirements for Certain Changes to Land Use Element §10.72
      • 2. Additional Requirements for Housing Element §10.73
    • E. Initiative/Referendum §10.74
    • F. Extensions §10.75
      • 1. Relief From General Plan Requirements §10.76
      • 2. Attack Under Previous General Plan §10.77
      • 3. Consistency With Housing Element §10.78
      • 4. Conditions §10.79
      • 5. Consistency With Draft General Plan §10.80
    • G. Amendments and Updates §10.81
    • H. Limitations Period for General Plan Challenges §10.82
    • I. Impact of Defective General Plan §10.83
    • J. Avoiding a Tak3ing Challenge §10.84
    • K. Specific Plans §10.85
  • III. ZONING §10.86
    • A. Authority §10.87
    • B. Discrimination Prohibited §10.88
    • C.Zoning Ordinances
      • 1.General Plan Consistency
        • a. General Law Cities §10.89
        • b. Charter Cities With Populations Greater Than Two Million §10.90
        • c. Other Charter Cities §10.91
        • d. Judicial Review §10.92
      • 2.Procedures for Adoption and Amendment
        • a. Legislative Acts §10.93
        • b. Moratoria §10.94
      • 3. Notice and Hearing Requirements §10.95
      • 4.Legislative Acts
        • a. Findings Not Generally Required §10.96
        • b. When Findings Required §10.97
      • 5. Typical Provisions §10.98
      • 6. Limitations Period for Zoning Ordinance Challenges §10.99
    • D. Quasi_Judicial Land Use Permits §10.100
      • 1.Procedures for Issuance
        • a. Decision-Maker §10.101
        • b. Appeals §10.102
      • 2.Due Process Requirements
        • a. Notice and Hearing §10.103
        • b. Findings and Decision §10.104
      • 3. Use Permits §10.105
        • a. Use Permit Criteria §10.106
        • b. Different Standards for Renewals §10.107
        • c. Rights Granted
          • (1) Nature of Conditions §10.108
          • (2) Runs With Land §10.109
          • (3) Revocations/Modifications §10.110
          • (4) Other Remedies for Noncompliance §10.111
      • 4.Variances
        • a. Purpose §10.112
        • b.Procedures
          • (1) Standards §10.113
          • (2) Local Ordinances §10.114
          • (3) Parking Variances §10.115
        • c.Rights Granted
          • (1) Runs With Land §10.116
          • (2) No Special Privileges §10.117
    • E. Nonconforming Uses and Structures §10.118
      • 1. Elimination §10.119
      • 2. Expansion §10.120
    • F. Vested Rights §10.121
      • 1. Common Law §10.122
      • 2. Vesting Tentative Maps §10.123
      • 3. Statutory Development Agreements §10.124
    • G. Conditional Zoning §10.125
    • H.Special Issues
      • 1. Historic Preservation §10.126
      • 2. View Protection §10.127
      • 3.Adult Entertainment
        • a. Method of Regulating §10.128
        • b. Regular and Substantial Course of Conduct §10.129
      • 4.Exercise of Religion
        • a. Churches, Temples, and Other Houses of Worship §10.130
        • b. Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act (RLUIPA) §10.131
      • 5. Hazardous Materials and Waste Management §10.132
      • 6. Schools and Community Colleges §10.133
      • 7. Floodplains §10.134
      • 8. Alcohol Sales §10.135
      • 9. Wireless Communications Facilities §10.136
        • a. Telecommunications Act of 1996 §10.137
        • b. Collocations: Section 6409(a) and FCC Rules §10.138
        • c. Govt C §§65850.6 and 65964 §10.139
        • d. Access to the Right-of-Way §10.140
        • e. Processing Timelines and Shot Clock §10.141
        • f. Inapplicable to City Acting in Proprietary Capacity §10.142
      • 10.Agricultural Preservation (Williamson Act)
        • a. Agricultural Preserves §10.143
        • b. Contracts §10.144
        • c. Nonrenewal §10.145
        • d. Cancellation §10.146
        • e. Public Improvements §10.147
      • 11. Signs §10.148
      • 12. "Big Box" Stores §10.149
      • 13. Medical Marijuana Cultivation and Dispensaries §10.150
    • I. Site and/or Design Review §10.151
    • J. Notice to Assessor of Certain Zoning Actions §10.152
  • IV.SUBDIVISIONS
    • A.Basic Requirements
      • 1. City Approval Required §10.153
      • 2. Tentative, Final, and Parcel Maps §10.154
      • 3. Vesting Tentative Maps §10.155
      • 4. Lot Line Adjustments §10.156
    • B.Local Ordinances
      • 1. Local Flexibility §10.157
      • 2. Map Approval §10.158
      • 3. Findings for Map Approval or Denial §10.159
      • 4. Automatic Approval §10.160
      • 5. Map Approval Conditions §10.161
      • 6. Imposition of Fees and Dedications §10.162
      • 7. Subdivision Public Improvement Security §10.163
      • 8. Time Extensions for Tentative Maps §10.164
      • 9. Antiquated Subdivisions §10.165
  • V.HOUSING
    • A. Nondiscrimination §10.166
      • 1. Planning and Zoning Law §10.167
      • 2. Federal and State Fair Housing Laws §10.168
      • 3. Theories of Liability §10.169
    • B. Affordable Housing §10.170
      • 1. Findings Required to Reject Housing Projects §10.171
      • 2. Election Required for Certain Housing §10.172
      • 3. Restrictions on "Downzoning" of Residential Property §10.173
      • 4. Accessory Dwelling Units §10.174
        • a. Local Discretion §10.175
        • b. Unit Size Standards §10.176
        • c. Parking Requirements §10.177
        • d. Less Restrictive Requirements Allowed §10.178
        • e. No Local Ordinance §10.179
        • f. Junior Accessory Dwelling Units §10.180
      • 5. Density Bonuses for Housing Developments §10.181
        • a. When Applicable §10.182
          • (1) Percentage of Units Reserved for Low-Income Housing §10.183
          • (2) Land Donated for Low-Income Housing §10.184
          • (3) Senior Housing §10.185
          • (4) Childcare Facility Included in Development Proposal §10.186
          • (5) Condominium Conversion §10.187
        • b. Percentage Increase §10.188
          • (1) Basic Density Bonus §10.189
          • (2) Incremental Increases §10.190
          • (3) Optional Local Density Bonus §10.191
        • c. Types of Incentives and Concessions §10.192
        • d. Number of Incentives §10.193
        • e. Grounds for Denial of Incentives or Concessions §10.194
        • f. Waiver of Development Standards §10.195
        • g. Limitation on Required Parking §10.196
        • h. Conformance With General Plan, Zoning Ordinance, and Local Coastal Plan §10.197
        • i.Durational Requirements
          • (1) Continued Affordability of Very Low- and Lower-Income Rental Units §10.198
          • (2) For-Sale Units §10.199
          • (3) Operation of Childcare Facility §10.200
      • 6. Development Bonuses for Commercial Developments §10.201
        • 7. Limitation on Authority to Require Conditional Use Permits §10.202
          • a. No Use Permit for Certain Attached Housing Developments §10.203
          • b. No Use Permit for Attached Housing Developments When Certain CEQA Exemptions Apply §10.204
        • 8. Least Cost Zoning Law §10.205
        • 9. Inclusionary Housing §10.206
          • a. Applicability to Rental Housing §10.207
          • b. Applicability to For-Sale Housing §10.208
        • 10. Special Requirements for Coastal Communities §10.209
      • C. Privacy §10.210
    • VI. GROWTH MANAGEMENT §10.211
      • A. Public Facilities Planning §10.212
        • 1. Limiting Expansion §10.213
        • 2. Other Controls §10.214
      • B. Housing Obligation Conflicts §10.215
        • 1.Findings Required for Housing Limits
          • a. General Requirement §10.216
          • b. No Findings for Initiatives §10.217
        • 2. Burden of Proof §10.218
    • VII.MORATORIA
      • A.Authority
        • 1. Police Power §10.219
        • 2. Statutory Provisions §10.220
      • B. Takings §10.221
    • VIII.EXACTIONS: FEES AND DEDICATIONS
      • A.Definitions
        • 1. Fee §10.222
        • 2. Dedication §10.223
      • B.Authority
        • 1. Police Power §10.224
        • 2. Statutory Provisions §10.225
        • 3. Case Law §10.226
      • C.Limitations
        • 1. Constitutional §10.227
        • 2. Special Tax §10.228
        • 3. Statutory Requirements §10.229
          • a. Nexus §10.230
          • b. Annual Report and Findings §10.231
          • c. Relationship to Cost §10.232
          • d. Notice and Hearing §10.233
          • e. Waiting Period §10.234
          • f. Distinctions and Exclusions §10.235
          • g. Statutes of Limitations §10.236
        • 4. Fees and Dedications: Practice Tips §10.237
    • IX. BUILDING PERMITS §10.238
      • A.Building, Grading, and Other Regulations
        • 1. Authority §10.239
        • 2. Reasonable Relationship §10.240
      • B. Basic Requirements §10.241
        • 1. Application §10.242
        • 2. Dedication of Land, Construction of Improvements, and Payment of Fees §10.243
      • C.Uniform Codes
        • 1. State Standards §10.244
        • 2. Modifications §10.245
      • D.Effect of Permit Issuance
        • 1. Vested Rights §10.246
        • 2. No Vested Right for Invalid Permit §10.247
        • 3. Limit on Vested Right §10.248
      • E.Building Permit Duration: Revocation
        • 1. Time Frames to Begin and Complete Work §10.249
        • 2. Extension §10.250
        • 3. Suspension §10.251
        • 4. Revocation §10.252
        • 5.Incomplete Work
          • a. Civil Nuisance Action §10.253
          • b. Criminal Prosecution §10.254
          • c. Contract Remedies §10.255
          • d. State Housing Law Remedies §10.256
    • X.REGIONAL PLANNING ISSUES
      • A. Office of Planning and Research §10.257
      • B.Transportation Planning and Sustainable Communities Strategies
        • 1. Transportation Planning Agency §10.258
        • 2. Regional Transportation Plan §10.259
        • 3. Congestion Management Program §10.260
        • 4. Sustainable Communities Strategies §10.261
      • C.Airport Planning
        • 1. Airport Land Use Compatability Plan (ALUCP) §10.262
        • 2. Before ALUCP Approval §10.263
        • 3.After ALUCP Approval
          • a. Airport Land Use Commission (ALUC) Approval §10.264
          • b. Resubmission of Plan §10.265
          • c. Mandamus §10.266
        • 4. City Override §10.267
        • 5. Local Regulation §10.268
      • D. Waste Management §10.269
        • 1.Elements of Integrated Waste Management Plan (IWMP)
          • a. Source Reduction and Recycling §10.270
          • b. Household Hazardous Waste §10.271
          • c. Siting §10.272
            • (1) Consistency With General Plans §10.273
            • (2) Reserved Sites §10.274
            • (3) Revision §10.275
        • 2. Waste Management Problems §10.276
        • 3.Approval of IWMP
          • a. Submittal §10.277
          • b. Public Hearing §10.278
          • c. Failure to Act §10.279
        • 4.Periodic Review of Integrated Waste Management Plan (IWMP)
          • a. Every 5 Years §10.280
          • b. Progress Reports §10.281
          • c. Penalties §10.282
      • E. Regional Housing Obligations §10.283
    • XI.CALIFORNIA COASTAL ACT
      • A.Basic Regulatory Scheme
        • 1. Purpose of Act §10.284
        • 2.California Coastal Commission
          • a. Membership §10.285
          • b. Action §10.286
        • 3. Geographic Extent of Coastal Zone §10.287
        • 4. Coastal Policies §10.288
        • 5. Interpretive Guidelines §10.289
      • B. Local Coastal Programs (LCPs) §10.290
        • 1.Local Discretion
          • a. Content §10.291
          • b. Local General Plans and Zoning Ordinances §10.292
          • c. Submittal for Coastal Commission Review §10.293
          • d. Delay in Submittal §10.294
          • e. Limited Application of CEQA §10.295
          • f. Unilateral Amendments by Coastal Commission §10.296
        • 2.Land Use Plan (LUP) Certification
          • a. Standard §10.297
          • b. Commission Hearing §10.298
          • c. Public Hearing §10.299
          • d. Coastal Commission Findings Required §10.300
          • e. City Council Modifications §10.301
          • f. City and Coastal Commission Certification Process §10.302
          • g. Effect of Certification of LUP §10.303
        • 3.Approval of Zoning and Other Implementing Actions
          • a. Standard §10.304
          • b. Coastal Commission Actions §10.305
          • c. Modifications §10.306
        • 4. Full Certification of LCP §10.307
        • 5. Amendments to Certified LCP §10.308
        • 6. Periodic Review of LCPs §10.309
      • C.Coastal Development Permits
        • 1. Basic Requirement §10.310
        • 2.Issuing Agency
          • a. Pre-LCP Certification §10.311
          • b. Post-LCP Certification §10.312
        • 3.Development
          • a. Statutory Standard §10.313
          • b. Interpretations §10.314
        • 4.Standards
          • a. Coastal Resources Planning and Management Policies §10.315
          • b. Wetlands §10.316
          • c. Public Access §10.317
          • d. Housing §10.318
        • 5. Statutory Exemptions §10.319
        • 6. Coastal Commission Permit Procedures §10.320
          • a. Other Agency Permits §10.321
          • b. Hearings §10.322
          • c. Pre-LCP Permits §10.323
          • d. Revocation §10.324
        • 7. Postcertification Local Government Permit §10.325
      • D.Postcertification Appeals From Local Government Permit Decisions
        • 1.Appeal Jurisdiction
          • a. Beachfront Development §10.326
          • b. Other Appellate Jurisdiction §10.327
        • 2. Grounds for Appeal and Scope of Review §10.328
        • 3. Who May Appeal §10.329
        • 4. Timing of Appeal §10.330
        • 5. Commission Appeal Procedures §10.331
      • E.Judicial Review
        • 1. Mandate §10.332
        • 2. Bonds §10.333
        • 3. Collateral Attack §10.334
        • 4. Ripeness §10.335
      • F.Enforcement
        • 1. Basic Provisions §10.336
        • 2.Cease and Desist Authority
          • a. Permit Violations §10.337
          • b. Certified LCPs and Port Master Plans §10.338
          • c. Terms and Conditions §10.339
          • d. Penalties §10.340
        • 3.Civil Penalties
          • a. Amounts §10.341
          • b. Use of Funds §10.342
        • 4. Restoration §10.343
    • XII.TIDELANDS, BEACHES, AND STREAMS
      • A. Public Trust Doctrine §10.344
        • 1. Protection of Traditional Uses §10.345
        • 2. Flexibility §10.346
        • 3. Effect on Water Rights §10.347
        • 4. Enforcement §10.348
      • B.Areas Protected
        • 1. Navigable Waters, Tidelands, and Submerged Lands §10.349
        • 2. Nontidal Lakes and Streams §10.350
        • 3. Access to and Use of Waterways §10.351
          • a. Subdivisions §10.352
          • b. Coastal Development Projects §10.353
          • c. Public Streets and Highways §10.354
          • d. Access in Sale of Public Lands §10.355
          • e. Reservoirs §10.356
      • C.Regulatory Authority
        • 1. California Coastal Commission §10.357
        • 2. State Department of Fish and Wildlife §10.358
          • a. Fees for Environmental Review §10.359
          • b. Streambed Alteration Permit §10.360
          • c. Navigation Dredging Permit §10.361
        • 3. Army Corps of Engineers §10.362
          • a. Statutory Authority §10.363
            • (1) Section 404 of Clean Water Act (33 USC §1344) §10.364
            • (2) Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 §10.365
          • b. Corps' Definition of Wetlands §10.366
          • c. Waters of the United States §10.367
          • d. Nationwide Permits §10.368
          • e. Individual Permits §10.369
        • 4. State Lands Commission §10.370
        • 5. Department of Boating and Waterways §10.371
    • XIII. CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGES TO LAND USE DECISIONS §10.372
      • A.Regulatory and Physical Takings
        • 1.Overview
          • a. Source of Law §10.373
          • b. What Constitutes "Property" §10.374
          • c. "Regulatory Taking" Versus "Physical Taking" §10.375
          • d. Availability of Damages §10.376
          • e. Caveat §10.377
        • 2.Initial Characterization Essential to Analysis
          • a. Suggested Approach §10.378
          • b. Is the Case Ripe? §10.379
          • c. Physical Taking or Regulatory Taking? §10.380
        • 3.Ripeness Requirements and Other Limitations on Challenges
          • a. Ripeness Is Jurisdictional §10.381
          • b. Facial Attacks §10.382
          • c. As-Applied Claims §10.383
            • (1) "Final Determination" Requirement §10.384
            • (2) Multiple Applications §10.385
            • (3) Repeal or Waiver §10.386
            • (4) Exhaustion of Administrative and Judicial Remedies §10.387
            • (5) Futility §10.388
            • (6) State Remedies §10.389
            • (7) Limitations on Actions §10.390
          • d. "Public Use" Limitation §10.391
        • 4. Facial Regulatory Takings Disfavored §10.392
        • 5.Permanent and Temporary Takings
          • a. Same Analysis for Permanent and Temporary Takings §10.393
          • b. Extraordinary Delay §10.394
          • c. Temporary Physical Taking §10.395
        • 6. Tests for a Taking §10.396
          • a. Dimunition of Value: Penn Central Ad Hoc Test §10.397
          • b. Categorical Taking; Deprivation of All Economic Use Test §10.398
          • c. Exactions: Nollan/Dolan "Nexus" Test §10.399
            • (1) Direct Nexus §10.400
            • (2) Rough Proportionality §10.401
            • (3) Fees and Other Exactions of General Applicability §10.402
            • (4) Development Denials and Unconstitutional Conditions §10.403
            • (5) Ad Hoc Factual Inquiry §10.404
            • (6) When Nexus Test Inapplicable §10.405
          • d.Categorial Taking: Physical Occupation Test
            • (1) Analysis §10.406
            • (2) Permanent Physical Occupation §10.407
            • (3) Penn Central/Nollan Nexus Standard Inapplicable to Permanent Physical Taking §10.408
            • (4) Temporary Physical Occupation §10.409
        • 7.Remedy
          • a. Invalidation §10.410
          • b. Accrual of Damages §10.411
          • c. Damages Not Necessarily Required §10.412
      • B.Procedural Due Process
        • 1. Constitutional Provisions §10.413
        • 2. Statutory Requirements §10.414
          • a. Ralph M. Brown Act §10.415
          • b. Planning and Zoning Law §10.416
          • c. Subdivision Map Act §10.417
          • d. California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) §10.418
          • e. Judicial Review §10.419
        • 3.Fair Hearing Requirements
          • a. Ex Parte Contacts; Evidence Outside Public Hearing §10.420
          • b. Evidence §10.421
          • c.Bias
            • (1) Campaign Contributions §10.422
            • (2) Actual Bias or Appearance of Bias §10.423
            • (3) Advance Knowledge of Facts §10.424
      • C.Substantive Due Process and Equal Protection
        • 1. Constitutional Provision §10.425
        • 2.Substantive Due Process
          • a. Overview §10.426
          • b. Deferential Judicial Review §10.427
          • c. Companion Claims §10.428
          • d. Ripeness §10.429
          • e. Rational-Basis Test §10.430
          • f. Comparison to Rational-Relationship Test §10.431
          • g. Vested Rights §10.432
            • (1) No Right to Develop §10.433
            • (2) Common Law Vested Rights §10.434
            • (3) Mines, Quarries, Timber, and Other Extractive Industries §10.435
            • (4) Statutes Affecting Vested Rights Doctrine §10.436
        • 3.Equal Protection
          • a. Overview §10.437
          • b. Application to Land Use Regulations §10.438
          • c. Rational-Relationship Test §10.439
            • (1) Nature of Test §10.440
            • (2) When Not Applied §10.441
            • (3) Development §10.442
            • (4) "Class of One" Property Owner §10.443
          • d. Strict Scrutiny or Compelling State Interest §10.444
            • (1) Fundamental Right §10.445
            • (2) Suspect Classifications §10.446
            • (3) Nature of Test §10.447
            • (4) When Not Applied §10.448
      • D. Civil Rights §10.449
      • E. CEQA Challenges §10.450

11

Protecting the Environment

  • I.OVERVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTIONS
    • A. The Challenge §11.1
    • B. Sources of Law §11.2
    • C. Preserving the Public's Interest in Sensitive Lands §11.3
      • 1.Public Trust Doctrine
        • a. Interests Protected §11.4
        • b. State and Local Responsibilities §11.5
        • c. Future of Public Trust Doctrine §11.6
      • 2. Conservancies §11.7
      • 3.Local Efforts at Conservation
        • a. Joint Powers Agreements §11.8
        • b. Williamson Act §11.9
        • c. Conservation Easements §11.10
  • II.CALIFORNIA ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ACT (CEQA)
    • A. Overview §11.11
      • 1. Purpose §11.12
      • 2. CEQA Guidelines §11.13
      • 3. Local Guidelines §11.14
      • 4.Public Agencies, Lead Agencies, Responsible Agencies, and Trustee Agencies
        • a. Definitions §11.15
        • b. Identifying Lead Agency §11.16
        • c. Roles of Lead, Responsible, and Trustee Agencies §11.17
      • 5. Timing for CEQA Compliance §11.18
      • 6. Project Approval §11.19
    • B.Scope
      • 1. Definition of "Project" §11.20
      • 2. Discretionary Projects §11.21
      • 3.Exemptions
        • a. Statutory Exemptions §11.22
        • b. Categorical Exemptions §11.23
        • c. Common Sense Exemption §11.24
        • d. Procedures §11.25
    • C.Initial Study
      • 1. Purpose and Contents §11.26
      • 2. Environmental Checklist Form §11.27
      • 3. Significance Determinations §11.28
      • 4. Timing §11.29
      • 5. Determining Whether Project May Have Significant Environmental Effect §11.30
    • D.Negative Declaration
      • 1. When Prepared §11.31
      • 2. Duty to Investigate Impacts §11.32
      • 3. Contents §11.33
      • 4. Public Review §11.34
      • 5. Adoption §11.35
    • E.Environmental Impact Report (EIR)
      • 1. When Required §11.36
      • 2. Notice of Preparation; Consultation and Scoping Meetings §11.37
      • 3. Baseline §11.38
      • 4. Contents §11.39
      • 5. Adequacy §11.40
      • 6. Public Review of Draft EIR §11.41
      • 7. Response to Comments §11.42
      • 8. Recirculation of Draft EIR §11.43
      • 9. Certification of Final EIR §11.44
    • F.Additional Types of EIRs and Negative Declarations
      • 1. Master EIRs, Program EIRs, and Tiering §11.45
      • 2. Subsequent EIRs and Negative Declarations §11.46
      • 3. Addendum to EIR or Negative Declaration §11.47
    • G.Project Approval
      • 1. Required Findings §11.48
        • a. If Negative Declaration Has Been Adopted §11.49
        • b. If Environmental Impact Report Has Been Certified §11.50
          • (1) Individual Impact Findings §11.51
          • (2) Findings Concerning Project as a Whole §11.52
          • (3) Evidentiary Support §11.53
      • 2. Mitigation Monitoring Program §11.54
      • 3. Notice of Determination §11.55
    • H.Deadlines for Taking Action to Approve or Disapprove Environmental Documents and Projects
      • 1.CEQA
        • a. Initial Study §11.56
        • b. Negative Declaration §11.57
        • c. Environmental Impact Report (EIR) §11.58
      • 2. Permit Streamlining Act §11.59
    • I.Legal Challenges
      • 1. Statute of Limitations §11.60
        • a. Challenges to Adequacy of Negative Declaration or EIR §11.61
        • b. Challenges to Exemption Determinations §11.62
      • 2. Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies §11.63
      • 3. Standing §11.64
        • a. Beneficial Interest §11.65
        • b. Zone of Interest §11.66
      • 4. Procedural Requirements §11.67
        • a. Service of Mandate Petition §11.68
        • b.Administrative Record
          • (1) Procedure §11.69
          • (2) Contents §11.70
          • (3) Statement of Issues §11.71
        • c. Settlement Negotiations §11.72
        • d. Briefing and Hearing §11.73
      • 5. Standard of Review §11.74
        • a. Deference to Substantive Judgments §11.75
        • b. Mandamus Proceedings §11.76
      • 6. Remedies §11.77
    • J.National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
      • 1. Persuasive Authority §11.78
      • 2. Joint Documents §11.79
    • K. References §11.80
  • III.WATER SUPPLIES AND SUPPLY PLANNING
    • A. Overview of Water Management §11.81
    • B.Role of State
      • 1.Department of Water Resources (DWR)
        • a. California Water Plan §11.82
        • b. State Water Project §11.83
        • c. Water Resource Investigations §11.84
        • d. Depository for Urban Water Management Plans §11.85
        • e. Watermaster Service Areas §11.86
        • f. Additional Mandates §11.87
      • 2. State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) §11.88
    • C. Role of Special Districts §11.89
      • 1. Watermasters §11.90
      • 2. Planning Duties of Special Districts §11.91
      • 3. Private Water Companies §11.92
    • D.Role of Cities
      • 1. General Plans §11.93
      • 2. Urban Water Management Plans §11.94
        • a. Requirements §11.95
        • b. Alternative Water Sources or Water Demand Management Measures §11.96
      • 3. Water Loss Audit Reports §11.96A
      • 4. Agricultural Water Management Plans §11.97
      • 5. Groundwater Regulation §11.98
      • 6. Groundwater Management Plans §11.99
      • 7. Sustainability Plans §11.99A
      • 8.Evaluation of Water Supply for Development Projects
        • a. EIR Requirement §11.100
        • b.Water Supply Assessments (WSA)
          • (1) When Required §11.101
          • (2) Contents §11.102
          • (3) Insufficient Water Supply §11.103
          • (4) Justiciability §11.104
          • (5) Water Suppliers' "Substantial Discretion" §11.105
          • (6) Information Resources §11.106
        • c. Written Verification of Water Supplies for Residential Subdivisions §11.107
          • (1) Definition of "Sufficient Water Supply" §11.108
          • (2) Reliance on Supplies Not Currently Available §11.109
          • (3) Compelling Compliance §11.110
        • d. Agreements With Developers §11.111
      • 9. Integrated Regional Water Management Planning Act §11.112
  • IV.WATER QUALITY
    • A.Overview of Regulation
      • 1. Porter-Cologne Act §11.113
      • 2. Regulatory Agencies §11.114
      • 3. Other Statutes Relating to Water Quality §11.115
    • B.Water Quality and Cities
      • 1. Cities' Two Roles §11.116
      • 2.City as Regulated Entity
        • a. General Requirement §11.117
        • b. Cities as Dischargers §11.118
      • 3.City as Regulator
        • a. Authority to Impose More Restrictive Controls §11.119
        • b. Nuisance Abatement §11.120
        • c.Local Regulation of Groundwater Quality
          • (1) Wells §11.121
          • (2) State-Recommended Standards §11.122
          • (3) Groundwater Management Plans and Sustainability Plans §11.123
          • (4) Subdivision Map Act §11.124
    • C.Basic Regulatory Scheme
      • 1.State Water Resources Control Board Plans and Policies
        • a. Development §11.125
        • b. Applicability §11.126
        • c. Maintaining High Quality of State Waters Policy §11.127
        • d. Non-Point-Source Management Plan §11.128
      • 2.Regional Water Quality Control Plans
        • a. Regional Boards §11.129
        • b. Requirements for Basin Plans §11.130
      • 3. Implementation §11.131
        • a.State Waste Discharge Requirements
          • (1) When Required §11.132
          • (2) Report of Waste Discharge §11.133
          • (3) Waste Discharge Requirements §11.134
          • (4) Permit Issuance Is Quasi-Judicial Act §11.135
          • (5) Standard for Issuance §11.136
          • (6) Periodic Review §11.137
        • b.Federal National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits
          • (1) When Required §11.138
          • (2) Issuance by State §11.139
          • (3) State Permit Application Is Also Federal Permit Application §11.140
          • (4) Storm Water Permits §11.141
            • (a) Municipal Program §11.142
            • (b) Construction Storm Water Program §11.143
            • (c) Industrial Storm Water Program §11.144
          • (5) Total Maximum Daily Loads §11.145
            • (a) Overview of TMDLs in California §11.146
            • (b) TMDL Adoption §11.147
            • (c) EPA Approval of TMDLs §11.148
            • (d) Overview of TMDL Enforcement §11.149
            • (e) Citizen Suits Against the Government §11.150
            • (f) Conflicts With Development §11.151
            • (g) Removing an Impaired Water Body From the §303(d) List §11.152
        • c.Review of State or Regional Board Action/Enforcement
          • (1) Administrative Review §11.153
          • (2) Judicial Review §11.154
      • 4. Enforcement §11.155
        • a. Civil Prosecution §11.156
        • b. Administrative Fines and Civil Liability Orders §11.157
        • c. Cease and Desist Orders §11.158
        • d. Cleanup and Abatement Orders §11.159
        • e. Injunctive Relief or Criminal Penalties §11.160
        • f. Technical Reports §11.161
        • g. Citizen Suits §11.162
    • D.Sewage Disposal Regulations
      • 1. Authority to Own and Operate Sewer System §11.163
      • 2.Pretreatment Program and Sewage Disposal
        • a. Standards and Applicability §11.164
        • b. Purpose of Pretreatment Program §11.165
        • c. Local Limits on Pollutants §11.166
      • 3. Use and Disposal of Sewage Sludge §11.167
      • 4. On-Site Sewage Treatment Systems §11.168
      • 5. Collection System Regulation §11.169
    • E.Groundwater Regulation
      • 1.State Law
        • a. Discharges to Groundwater §11.170
        • b. Regional Board Responsibility §11.171
      • 2. Discharges to Groundwater Subject to State Waste Discharge Requirements §11.172
      • 3. Injection Wells §11.173
        • a. Federal Law §11.174
        • b. State Law §11.175
    • F.Wetlands
      • 1. Definition of Wetland §11.176
      • 2. Dual Jurisdiction §11.177
      • 3. Waste Discharge Requirements (Permits) §11.178
      • 4. Additional Permits §11.179
    • G.Recycled Water Regulation
      • 1.Definition of "Recycled Water"
        • a. Not "Waste" §11.180
        • b. "Recycled Water" §11.181
      • 2.Recycled Water Permitting Options
        • a. Water Reclamation Requirements §11.182
        • b. Master Reclamation Permits §11.183
  • V.AIR QUALITY
    • A. Basic Regulatory Scheme §11.184
      • 1. The Federal Clean Air Act §11.185
        • a. The Environmental Protection Agency §11.186
        • b. National Ambient Air Quality Standards §11.187
        • c. State Implementation Plans §11.188
        • d. New Source Review §11.189
        • e. Emission Standards §11.190
      • 2. The California Clean Air Act §11.191
        • a. The California Air Resources Board §11.192
        • b. The California Ambient Air Quality Standards §11.193
        • c. Attainment Plans §11.194
        • d. New Source Review §11.195
      • 3. Regional Air Quality Regulations §11.196
        • a. Regional Basins §11.197
        • b. Governance and Duties §11.198
        • c. Air Quality Attainment Plans §11.199
          • (1) Five Percent Annual Reduction in Pollutants §11.200
          • (2) Implementation §11.201
        • d.Limit on APCD and AQMD Powers
          • (1) Preservation of Local Land Use Authority §11.202
          • (2) Permitting Requirements §11.203
          • (3) Limit on Trip Reduction Programs §11.204
          • (4) Limit on New Control Measures §11.205
          • (5) Preemption §11.206
        • e. Procedural Requirements for Plan Adoption §11.207
        • f.Procedural Requirements for Rule Adoption
          • (1) Authority §11.208
          • (2) Notice and Hearing §11.209
          • (3) Changes to Proposed Rules §11.210
          • (4) Findings and Rulemaking Record §11.211
      • 4. City Authority §11.212
        • a. Local Government Implementation Measures §11.213
        • b. Permit Checks §11.214
        • c. Proximity of Certain Facilities to Schools §11.215
    • B.Permits
      • 1.District Action on Emissions Permits
        • a.Nonvehicular Sources
          • (1) Permit Requirement §11.216
          • (2) "Air Contaminants" §11.217
        • b. NSR Programs; Offsets §11.218
      • 2. Duration of Permits §11.219
        • a. Market-Based Incentives §11.220
        • b. Applicability of Other Laws §11.221
        • c. Fees §11.222
      • 3.Permit Appeals
        • a. Permit Denials §11.223
        • b. Permit Issuances §11.224
        • c. Exhaustion Requirement §11.225
    • C.Enforcement
      • 1.State Enforcement
        • a. Civil Penalties §11.226
        • b.Variances
          • (1) Hearing Boards §11.227
          • (2) Hearing Procedures §11.228
          • (3) Hearing Board Decisions §11.229
          • (4) Judicial Review §11.230
        • c.Orders for Abatement
          • (1) Issuance §11.231
          • (2) Effect §11.232
          • (3) Violations §11.233
      • 2. Federal Enforcement §11.234
      • 3. Citizen Enforcement §11.235
    • D. Global Warming §11.236
    • E. References §11.237
  • VI.HAZARDOUS WASTE
    • A.Basic Regulatory Scheme
      • 1. Federal Law §11.238
        • a. RCRA §11.239
        • b. CERCLA §11.240
      • 2. State Law: Hazardous Waste Control Act, Hazardous Substance Account Act, and Other Statutes Regulating Wastes and Cleanup §11.241
    • B.Household Hazardous Waste Planning Requirements
      • 1. City Household Hazardous Waste Plans §11.242
      • 2. Regional Hazardous Waste Plans §11.243
    • C. Hazardous Waste Facilities Planning and Approval Requirements §11.244
      • 1. City Planning Requirement §11.245
      • 2.Application to Build Hazardous Waste Facility
        • a. Notice of Intent; City Advisory Committee §11.246
        • b. Time Limits for Processing Applications §11.247
        • c. Appeals §11.248
    • D.Relationship to Water and Air Quality Issues
      • 1. Compliance With Water Quality Requirements §11.249
      • 2. Compliance With Air Quality Requirements §11.250
    • E.Obligations of Property Owners
      • 1. CERCLA Liability §11.251
      • 2. RCRA Liability §11.252
      • 3. Notice to Buyers §11.253
      • 4. Developer Obligations §11.254
    • F. Brownfields Cleanup §11.255
    • G. References §11.256
  • VII.ENDANGERED SPECIES
    • A.Overview of Endangered Species Protection
      • 1. Importance §11.257
      • 2. Scope of Discussion §11.258
    • B.Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973
      • 1. Purpose of ESA §11.259
      • 2. Implementation §11.260
      • 3.Species Protected Under ESA
        • a. Threatened and Endangered Species §11.261
        • b. Candidate Species §11.262
        • c. Modifications to Lists §11.263
        • d. Critical Habitat §11.264
      • 4.Take Prohibition Under ESA
        • a. Prohibition Against "Takings" §11.265
        • b. "Harm" §11.266
        • c. Examples of Projects Affected §11.267
      • 5.Consultation for Federal and "Federal-Nexus" Projects
        • a. Requirement §11.268
        • b. Biological Assessment and Incidental Take Authorization §11.269
        • c. Examples of ESA §7 Consultations §11.270
      • 6.Habitat Conservation Plans and §10(a) "Incidental Take" Permits
        • a. ESA §10(a) §11.271
        • b. Habitat Conservation Plan §11.272
          • (1) Project-Specific Versus Regional HCPs §11.273
          • (2) Multi-Species §10(a) Permits §11.274
          • (3) "No Surprises" and the Permit Revocation Rule §11.275
          • (4) Transferability of Permits §11.276
      • 7.Enforcement
        • a. Federal Enforcement §11.277
          • (1) Jurisdiction and Venue §11.278
          • (2) Limits on Federal Power §11.279
        • b. Citizen Suits §11.280
          • (1) Standing §11.281
          • (2)Burden of Proof
            • (a) Review of Agency Actions §11.282
            • (b) Civil "Takings" Cases §11.283
            • (c) Criminal Cases §11.284
            • (d) Injunctive Relief §11.285
          • (3) Standard of Review of Agency Actions §11.286
          • (4) Notice Requirements §11.287
          • (5) Related Litigation §11.288
        • c. State Court Litigation §11.289
    • C.California Endangered Species Act (CESA)
      • 1. Overview §11.290
      • 2.Species Protected Under the CESA
        • a. Threatened and Endangered Species §11.291
        • b. Candidate Species §11.292
        • c. Listing §11.293
          • (1) Listed Plants §11.294
          • (2) Listed Animals §11.295
        • d."Take" Prohibition Under CESA
          • (1) Definition of "Take" §11.296
          • (2) Incidental Take Permit §11.297
          • (3) Enforcement §11.298
    • D. References §11.299

12

Code Enforcement

  • I. CODE ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY §12.1
  • II.CIVIL ENFORCEMENT
    • A. Enforcement of Local Ordinances §12.2
      • 1.Public Nuisance
        • a. Public Nuisance Generally §12.3
        • b. Doctrine of Nuisance Per Se §12.4
        • c. Judicial Abatement of Public Nuisances §12.5
      • 2. State Housing Law: Notice and Remedies §12.6
        • a. State Housing Law: Civil Penalties and Franchise Tax Board Deductions §12.7
        • b. State Housing Law: Relocation Assistance May Be Required §12.8
        • c. State Housing Law: Receiver May Be Appointed §12.9
    • B.Specialized Civil Abatement Actions
      • 1.Unfair Competition Law
        • a. Code Violations as Unfair Competition §12.10
        • b. Unfair Competition Law: Procedural Requirements §12.11
        • c. Unfair Competition Law: Remedies §12.12
      • 2. Red Light Abatement Law §12.13
      • 3. Drug House Abatement Act §12.14
      • 4. Abatement of Buildings Used for Counterfeiting Activities [Deleted] §12.15
      • 5. Abatement of Buildings or Places Used by Criminal Street Gangs for Criminal Activities §12.16
    • C.Civil Remedies
      • 1. Injunctive Relief §12.17
      • 2. Civil Contempt §12.18
      • 3. Criminal Contempt §12.19
      • 4. Civil Penalties and Cost Recovery Generally §12.20
        • a. Civil Penalties and Cost Recovery Under State Housing Law §12.21
        • b. Civil Penalties and Cost Recovery Under Unfair Competition Law §12.22
        • c. Civil Penalties and Cost Recovery in Specified Civil Nuisance Abatement Actions §12.23
        • d. Local Ordinances Permitting Cost Recovery in Nuisance Abatements §12.24
        • e. Local Ordinances Permitting Cost Recovery in Public Nuisance Abatements and Code Enforcement §12.25
        • f. Local Civil Penalties Ordinances §12.26
      • 5. Treble Damages for Repeat Violations and Punitive Damages Possible §12.27
      • 6. Receivership May Be Ordered §12.28
  • III.CRIMINAL ENFORCEMENT
    • A. Misdemeanors Versus Infractions §12.29
      • 1. Penalty Provision §12.30
      • 2. Ongoing Violations §12.31
    • B.Prosecutorial Penalty Options
      • 1. Infractions and Misdemeanors Punishable by Penal Code §12.32
      • 2.Hybrid Systems
        • a. Sliding Scale System §12.33
        • b. Shortcomings of a Sliding Scale System §12.34
        • c. Discretionary Penalty Provisions §12.35
      • 3. Bail Forfeiture and Referrals §12.36
      • 4. Pleas in Abeyance §12.37
    • C.State Criminal Statutes
      • 1. State Housing Law Violations §12.38
      • 2. Criminal Nuisance; Limitation §12.39
    • D.Criminal Procedure
      • 1.Overview of Criminal Justice Process
        • a. Complaint §12.40
        • b. Arraignment and Plea §12.41
        • c. Trial §12.42
      • 2.Due Process Analysis of Complaint
        • a. Notice of Crime §12.43
        • b. Notice of Charges §12.44
      • 3. Identification of Proper Defendants §12.45
      • 4. Strict Criminal Liability Possible §12.46
      • 5. Field Citation Versus Arrest Warrant §12.47
        • a. Field Citations; Alternative to Arrest §12.48
        • b. Consequences of Failure to Appear §12.49
        • c. Criminal Complaint Option §12.50
        • d. Arrest Warrant and Its Execution §12.51
        • e. Notify Warrant Option §12.52
      • 6.Corporate Defendants
        • a. Piercing the Corporate Veil §12.53
        • b. Filing Criminal Complaint Against Corporation §12.54
      • 7.Sentencing and Terms of Probation
        • a. Scope of Probation §12.55
        • b. Conditional Sentence—Summary Probation §12.56
        • c. Probation Terms §12.57
        • d. Infractions and Probation §12.58
      • 8.Probation Revocation
        • a. Grounds for Revocation §12.59
        • b. Probation Revocation Procedure §12.60
          • (1) Show Cause Hearing §12.61
          • (2) Due Process Must Be Observed §12.62
          • (3) Admissible Evidence §12.63
          • (4) Defendant Has Right to Confront Witnesses; Applicable Standard of Proof §12.64
      • 9. Extension of Probation §12.65
      • 10. Cost Recovery in Criminal Code Enforcement §12.66
  • IV.ADMINISTRATIVE ENFORCEMENT
    • A. Administrative and Summary Abatement §12.67
      • 1. Evidence Gathering and Inspection Warrants Under Administrative Abatement §12.68
      • 2. Summary (Emergency) Abatement May Be Necessary §12.69
      • 3. Consent or Court Order for Abatement Work §12.70
      • 4. State Housing Law: Demolition or Repair §12.71
      • 5. Administrative Abatement Procedures for Substandard Residential Buildings §12.72
      • 6. Vehicle Abatement Laws §12.73
      • 7. Sign Enforcement Restrictions §12.74
      • 8. Vacant Residential Property Acquired Through Foreclosure §12.75
        • a. Procedure for Enforcement Under CC §2929.3 §12.76
        • b. Local Ordinances Are Not Preempted §12.77
    • B. Administrative Hearings and Due Process §12.78
      • 1. Notice §12.79
      • 2. Impartial Hearing Body or Officer Required §12.80
      • 3. Conduct of the Hearing §12.81
    • C.Other Available Administrative Processes
      • 1. Mediation and Office Hearings §12.82
      • 2. Recordation of Violation Notices §12.83
      • 3. Notice of Pending Action §12.84

13

Liability and Litigation

  • I. INTRODUCTION §13.1
  • II. MANDATE/JUDICIAL REVIEW OF MUNICIPAL DECISIONS §13.2
    • A. Traditional Mandamus §13.3
      • 1.When Traditional Mandamus Is Proper Method of Review
        • a. Ministerial Versus Discretionary Acts §13.4
        • b. No Other Adequate Remedy §13.5
        • c. Quasi-Legislative Versus Adjudicatory Acts §13.6
      • 2. Scope of Review in Traditional Mandamus Action §13.7
        • a. No Inquiry Into Legislators' Motives §13.8
        • b. Impact on Scope of Review in Land Use Cases §13.9
      • 3. Admissible Evidence in Traditional Mandamus Action §13.10
      • 4. Burden of Proof in Traditional Mandamus Action §13.11
        • a. Abuse of Discretion Standard §13.12
        • b. Presumption of Validity §13.13
        • c. Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies §13.14
      • 5. Statute of Limitations Applicable to Traditional Mandamus Actions §13.15
      • 6. Appeal of Orders in Mandamus Actions §13.16
    • B. Administrative Mandamus §13.17
      • 1. Scope of Review in Administrative Mandamus Actions §13.18
        • a. Standard of Review in Administrative Mandamus Actions §13.19
          • (1) Substantial Evidence Test §13.20
          • (2) Independent Judgment Test §13.21
        • b. Admissible Evidence in Administrative Mandamus Actions §13.22
        • c. Burden of Proof in Administrative Mandamus Actions §13.23
      • 2. Statute of Limitations Applicable to Administrative Mandamus Actions §13.24
    • C. Constitutional Limitations on Mandate/Judicial Review of Legislation §13.25
      • 1. Equal Protection (Discriminatory Classification) §13.26
      • 2. Substantive Due Process (Arbitrary or Unreasonable Regulation) §13.27
      • 3. Ripeness §13.28
  • III.GOVERNMENT CLAIMS ACT
    • A. Claims Requirement §13.29
    • B. Actions for Which Claims Are Required §13.30
    • C. Actions for Which Claims Are Not Required §13.31
      • 1. Statutory Exceptions §13.32
      • 2. Actions for Relief Other Than Money or Damages §13.33
      • 3. Defenses to Public Agency Action—No Claim Required §13.34
      • 4. Actions Based on Roster of Public Agencies §13.35
        • a. Which Agencies Must File Information §13.36
        • b. Information Required §13.37
        • c. When Information Must Be Filed §13.38
      • 5. Cross-Complaints in Actions Commenced by Entity §13.39
      • 6. Local Claim Requirements §13.40
        • a. By Ordinance §13.41
        • b. By Contract §13.42
    • D.Claim Presentation Procedures
      • 1. What Constitutes a Sufficient Claim §13.43
        • a. Required Contents §13.44
        • b. Use of Local Forms §13.45
        • c. Substantial Compliance With Claim Presentation Requirements §13.46
        • d. Examples of Unconventional Claims §13.47
        • e. Nonclaims §13.48
        • f. Complaints §13.49
      • 2. Who Must Present a Claim and to Whom §13.50
        • a. Heirs §13.51
        • b. Children's Claims §13.52
        • c. Spouses' Claims §13.53
        • d. Workers' Compensation Carrier §13.54
        • e. Class Actions §13.55
      • 3.When to Present a Claim
        • a. Time for Presentation §13.56
        • b. Calculation of the Presentation Period §13.57
          • (1) General Rule on Cause of Action Accrual §13.58
          • (2) When Accrual Is Delayed §13.59
        • c. Tolling of the Presentation Period §13.60
        • d. Notice of Untimely Claim §13.61
        • e. Amendments to Claims §13.62
    • E.Consideration of Claim
      • 1. Notice of Insufficiency §13.63
      • 2.Time to Act on Claim
        • a. Entity Has 45 Days to Act on Claim §13.64
        • b. Failure to Timely Act Is Rejection by Operation of Law §13.65
      • 3. Types of Entity Action on Claim §13.66
      • 4. Notice of Entity Action on Claim §13.67
    • F.Statute of Limitations for Filing Action on Claims
      • 1. Actions in Which Claim Is Required §13.68
      • 2. Actions in Which No Claim Is Required §13.69
      • 3. Avoiding Waiver of Statute of Limitations §13.70
    • G. Late Claim Procedures §13.71
      • 1. Time Limit §13.72
      • 2. Grounds for Relief §13.73
        • a. Standard for Excusable Neglect §13.74
        • b. Minors §13.75
        • c. Incapacitated Adults §13.76
        • d. Equitable Estoppel §13.77
      • 3. Evaluation of Late Claim Applications §13.78
      • 4. Action on Late Claim Applications §13.79
    • H. Petition to Be Relieved From Claims Requirement §13.80
      • 1. Time Limit §13.81
      • 2. Grounds for Relief §13.82
      • 3. Statute of Limitations if Petition Granted §13.83
      • 4. Review of Determination §13.84
        • a. If Petition Is Granted §13.85
        • b. If Petition Is Denied §13.86
  • IV.INDEMNIFICATION OF PUBLIC EMPLOYEES AND OFFICERS
    • A.General Obligations
      • 1. Duty to Defend §13.87
      • 2. Duty to Indemnify §13.88
    • B. Scope of Employment §13.89
    • C. Punitive Damages §13.90
  • V. MUNICIPAL LIABILITY §13.91
    • A. Principles of Immunity §13.92
      • 1. Tort Immunities Generally §13.93
      • 2. Specific Immunities Under Government Claims Act §13.94
    • B. Municipal Tort Liability Generally §13.95
      • 1. Discretionary Acts §13.96
        • a. Discretionary Versus Ministerial Acts §13.97
        • b. Employee Immunity §13.98
        • c. Mandatory Duties §13.99
      • 2. Dangerous Condition of Public Property §13.100
        • a. What Constitutes "Owned or Controlled" Property §13.101
        • b. What Constitutes a "Dangerous Condition" §13.102
          • (1) Dangerous Condition on Adjacent Property §13.103
          • (2) Trivial Defect on Property §13.104
        • c. What Constitutes "Legal Cause" of Injury §13.105
        • d. What Constitutes Notice of Dangerous Condition §13.106
        • e. Affirmative Defenses to Action for Dangerous Condition of Property §13.107
      • 3.Checklist for Approaching Tort Liability
        • a. Before Lawsuit Is Filed §13.108
        • b. After Lawsuit Is Filed §13.109
    • C. Municipal Liability for Intentional Torts §13.110
    • D.Municipal Liability for Libel and Slander
      • 1. Legislative or Other Official Proceeding §13.111
      • 2. Discharge of Official Duty §13.112
      • 3. Civil Rights Liability for Defamation §13.113
    • E. Municipal Liability for Constitutional Claims §13.114
    • F. Municipal Liability for Civil Rights/42 USC §1983 Claims §13.115
      • 1. Scope of §1983 §13.116
        • a. Constitutional Rights §13.117
        • b. Other Rights and Interests §13.118
        • c. Property Interests §13.119
        • d. Liberty Interests §13.120
        • e. Violation of Federal Laws §13.121
        • f. Wrongful Death §13.122
        • g. Section 1983 Actions in State Court §13.123
      • 2.Immunities Under §1983
        • a. No Immunity Under §1983 for Local Governments §13.124
        • b. Individual Immunities §13.125
          • (1) Absolute Immunity §13.126
          • (2) Qualified Immunity §13.127
        • c. Immunity for States §13.128
        • d. Collateral Estoppel §13.129
      • 3. Prima Facie Case for §1983 Claim §13.130
        • a. Required Allegations §13.131
          • (1) Deprivation of Federally Protected Right §13.132
          • (2) Action Under Color of State Law §13.133
        • b. Required Causation §13.134
        • c. Municipal Policy or Custom §13.135
          • (1) Liability May Arise From Acts of Lower-Level Employees §13.136
          • (2) Liability May Arise From a Pattern of Inadequate Training §13.137
          • (3) Policy or Custom Must Be Attributable to a Policy-Maker §13.138
          • (4) Violation Must Be Caused by Policy or Custom §13.139
        • d. Defendant's State of Mind: Specific Intent Is Not Required §13.140
      • 4. Availability of Remedies Under State Law §13.141
      • 5. Proper Defendants Under §1983 §13.142
      • 6. Liability for Causing the Acts of Others §13.143
      • 7. Duty to Provide Defense in §1983 Suits §13.144
      • 8.Remedies Under §1983
        • a. Damages §13.145
          • (1) Nominal Damages §13.146
          • (2) Compensatory Damages §13.147
          • (3) Punitive Damages §13.148
        • b. Injunctions §13.149
        • c. Attorney Fees and Costs §13.150
        • d. Civil Penalties §13.151
      • 9. Forum Considerations: State Versus Federal Court §13.152
      • 10. Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies §13.153
      • 11. Statute of Limitations for §1983 Claims §13.154
    • G. Municipal Antitrust Liability §13.155
    • H. Municipal Contract Liability §13.156
    • I. Personal Liability of Officers and Employees §13.157
    • J. No Municipal Liability for Punitive Damages §13.158
    • K.Municipal Liability for Attorney Fees
      • 1. Arbitrary or Capricious Administrative Actions §13.159
      • 2. Attorney Fees in Civil Rights Actions §13.160
        • a. What Constitutes Successful Party §13.161
        • b. Calculating Attorney Fees Awards §13.162
      • 3. Attorney Fees in Eminent Domain, Inverse Condemnation, and Mandamus Actions §13.163
      • 4. Attorney Fees in Other Actions §13.164
      • 5. Private Attorney General Doctrine/CCP §1021.5 §13.165
        • a. What Constitutes Prevailing or Successful Party §13.166
        • b. How to Calculate Amount of Award §13.167
    • L.Right of Municipality to Recover Attorney Fees
      • 1. Motion for Costs and Attorney Fees Under CCP §1038 §13.168
        • a. Criteria for Granting Motion §13.169
        • b. Timing of Motion §13.170
      • 2. Motion for Sanctions Under CCP §128.7 §13.171
      • 3. Discovery Costs §13.172
      • 4. Implied Indemnity §13.173
      • 5. Contract Claims §13.174
  • VI.ACTIONS BROUGHT BY MUNICIPALITY
    • A. Municipality as Plaintiff §13.175
    • B. Equitable Estoppel Defense as Applied to Municipalities §13.176
      • 1. General Elements of Estoppel §13.177
      • 2. Application of Estoppel Defense Against Cities Depends on Two Additional Factors §13.178
      • 3. Cases Considering Application of Estoppel Defense to Municipalities §13.179
    • C. Application of Claims Statute to Suit by One City Against Another Public Entity §13.180
    • D. Indemnity Actions by Municipalities §13.181
      • 1. Express (Contractual) Indemnity §13.182
      • 2. Joint Powers Agreements §13.183
      • 3. Equitable Indemnity §13.184
    • E. Subrogation Actions by Municipalities §13.185
    • F.Validation Actions Brought by Municipalities
      • 1. When Validation Action Is Used §13.186
      • 2. Validation Procedures §13.187
      • 3. Legislative Validation Actions §13.188
      • 4. Remedies for Violation of Ordinance §13.189
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