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Effective Introduction of Evidence in California

In Effective Introduction of Evidence in California, 2d Ed., highly experienced attorneys take you through the preparation and presentation of evidence, so that you can confidently examine and cross-examine witnesses in civil or criminal trials, hearings, and depositions.

 

“This highly practical chapter [on electronic and social media evidence] will give all attorneys who study it a big leg up in the courtroom setting.”
Heather L. Rosing, Klinedinst PC, San Diego

This authoritative guide to the California Evidence Code includes a timely chapter on electronic and social media evidence and succinctly treats other areas of the code in their own chapters, providing a veritable roadmap to statutory and case law. In Effective Introduction of Evidence in California, 2d Ed., highly experienced attorneys take you through the preparation and presentation of evidence, so that you can confidently examine and cross-examine witnesses in civil or criminal trials, hearings, and depositions.

  • Covers all California Evidence Code topics
  • Gives practical guidance in planning and presenting evidence
  • Saves time with sample questions and offers of proof
  • Shows grounds to raise and respond to objections
  • Includes checklists tailored to specific evidence
  • Supports evidentiary presentations with full legal authority
  • Addresses the evolving rules governing electronic and social media evidence, among them:
    • Definitions and general principles governing admission of ESI (Electronically Stored Information) and social media
    • Processes for authenticating ESI, social media, hardware, and software
    • Testimony on ESI and social media evidence: information to elicit, sample questions, use of witnesses
    • Text, instant, and chat room messages
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“This highly practical chapter [on electronic and social media evidence] will give all attorneys who study it a big leg up in the courtroom setting.”
Heather L. Rosing, Klinedinst PC, San Diego

This authoritative guide to the California Evidence Code includes a timely chapter on electronic and social media evidence and succinctly treats other areas of the code in their own chapters, providing a veritable roadmap to statutory and case law. In Effective Introduction of Evidence in California, 2d Ed., highly experienced attorneys take you through the preparation and presentation of evidence, so that you can confidently examine and cross-examine witnesses in civil or criminal trials, hearings, and depositions.

  • Covers all California Evidence Code topics
  • Gives practical guidance in planning and presenting evidence
  • Saves time with sample questions and offers of proof
  • Shows grounds to raise and respond to objections
  • Includes checklists tailored to specific evidence
  • Supports evidentiary presentations with full legal authority
  • Addresses the evolving rules governing electronic and social media evidence, among them:
    • Definitions and general principles governing admission of ESI (Electronically Stored Information) and social media
    • Processes for authenticating ESI, social media, hardware, and software
    • Testimony on ESI and social media evidence: information to elicit, sample questions, use of witnesses
    • Text, instant, and chat room messages

1

How to Ask Questions

Richard P. Caputo

Robert A. Franklin

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  1.1
  • II.  DIRECT EXAMINATION AT TRIAL AND DEPOSITIONS
    • A.  Rules for Effective Questioning  1.2
      • 1.  Make Your Questions Easily Understood  1.3
      • 2.  Be Sure Jurors Can Hear You  1.4
      • 3.  Be Sure Jurors Can Hear Witness  1.5
      • 4.  Listen to Witness’s Answers to Your Questions  1.6
      • 5.  Ask Questions Concerning Every Aspect of Each Important Piece of Evidence  1.7
      • 6.  Appeal to Jurors Who Learn by Seeing and Doing as Well as to Those Who Learn by Listening  1.8
      • 7.  Make Your Questions Interesting  1.9
      • 8.  Put Your Witnesses on in Strategic Order  1.10
      • 9.  Try to Ask Questions That Will Not Be Objectionable  1.11
      • 10.  Do Not Argue With Witness  1.12
      • 11.  Require Witness to Testify to Facts Rather Than to Subjective Conclusions  1.13
      • 12.  Do Not Repeat Questions  1.14
    • B.  Differences Between Questioning at Trial and Depositions  1.15
  • III.  QUESTIONING AT PRELIMINARY HEARING IN CRIMINAL CASE  1.16
  • IV.  EXAMINATION TECHNIQUES
    • A.  Leading Versus Nonleading Questions  1.17
    • B.  Sample Questions
      • 1.  Good Questions  1.18
      • 2.  Poor Questions  1.19
  • V.  SOURCES  1.20
  • VI.  CHART: TRIAL OBJECTIONS  1.21

2

Planning Case: Securing Witnesses and Evidence; Witness Preparation; Trial Notebook

William H. Armstrong

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  2.1
  • II.  PLANNING YOUR CASE
    • A.  Using Evidence to Tell a Story  2.2
    • B.  Creating Trial Outline
      • 1.  Description  2.3
      • 2.  Sample: Plaintiff’s Partial Trial Outline  2.4
  • III.  SECURING WITNESSES AND EVIDENCE
    • A.  Deciding Which Witnesses to Subpoena  2.5
      • 1.  General Pretrial Requirements  2.6
      • 2.  Requirements for Witnesses  2.7
    • B.  Evaluating Documentary or Other Physical Evidence  2.8
  • IV.  PREPARING WITNESSES
    • A.  Meet With Each Witness Before Trial  2.9
    • B.  Common Topics of Discussion  2.10
    • C.  Preparing Expert Witnesses  2.11
  • V.  TRIAL NOTEBOOK
    • A.  Description  2.12
      • 1.  Office Files Are Foundation of Trial Notebook  2.13
      • 2.  When to Start Trial Notebook  2.14
    • B.  How to Prepare Trial Notebook  2.15
  • VI.  SOURCES  2.16

3

How to Combat Objections: In Limine Evidentiary Motions; Bench Conferences; Offers of Proof

Jan Nielsen Little

E. Stewart Moritz

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  3.1
  • II.  HOW TO COMBAT OBJECTIONS  3.2
  • III.  IN LIMINE EVIDENTIARY MOTIONS
    • A.  Description  3.3
      • 1.  Elements of Motion In Limine  3.4
      • 2.  Purpose  3.5
    • B.  Procedures
      • 1.  Who Makes Motion  3.6
      • 2.  Form of Motion  3.7
      • 3.  Timing of Motion  3.8
    • C.  Possible Rulings  3.9
    • D.  Misuse of Motion In Limine  3.10
    • E.  Effect of Motion
      • 1.  Excluding Evidence  3.11
      • 2.  Preserving Issue for Appeal
        • a.  If Trial Court Excludes the Evidence  3.12
        • b.  If Trial Court Admits the Evidence  3.12A
    • F.  Alternatives to In Limine Motions  3.13
    • G.  Table: Should In Limine Motion Be Made?  3.14
    • H.  Sample Motions In Limine
      • 1.  Oral Motion to Exclude Evidence  3.15
      • 2.  Oral Motion to Admit Evidence  3.16
  • IV.  BENCH CONFERENCES
    • A.  Description  3.17
    • B.  When Bench Conferences Appropriate  3.18
    • C.  Disadvantages of Bench Conferences  3.19
    • D.  Sample Approach to Bench by Proponent  3.20
  • V.  OFFERS OF PROOF
    • A.  Description  3.21
    • B.  Timing  3.22
    • C.  Table: Elements of Offer of Proof (Evid C §354)  3.23
    • D.  Reasons to Make Offer of Proof  3.24
    • E.  When Offer of Proof Is Not Required  3.25
    • F.  Sample Offer of Proof  3.26
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  3.27
    • B.  Other  3.28

4

Laying a Foundation: Preliminary Fact Hearings (Evid C §§402–405)

Donald D. Howard

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  4.1
  • II.  GENERAL PROCEDURES
    • A.  When Preliminary Fact Finding Is Necessary (Evid C §402)  4.2
    • B.  When In Limine Motion Should Be Made  4.3
    • C.  Whether Hearing Should Be In or Out of Jury’s Presence  4.4
    • D.  Judge Has Broad Discretion  4.5
    • E.  No Objection Required at Deposition  4.6
    • F.  Check Local Court Rules  4.7
    • G.  When Proffered Evidence Ruled Inadmissible  4.8
  • III.  EVIDENCE CODE §403 HEARINGS
    • A.  Preliminary Facts Subject to Evid C §403 Hearing  4.9
    • B.  Burden of Proof at Evid C §403 Hearing  4.10
    • C.  Conditional Admission of Proffered Evidence  4.11
    • D.  If Judge Decides to Allow Jurors to Hear Proffered Evidence  4.12
    • E.  Judge Required to Instruct Jurors on Their Duty  4.13
  • IV.  EVIDENCE CODE §405 HEARINGS
    • A.  Preliminary Facts Subject to Evid C §405 Hearing  4.14
    • B.  Judge to Decide Which Party Has Burden of Producing Evidence, and to Specify Burden of Proof  4.15
    • C.  Whether Proponent Should Make In Limine Motion  4.16
    • D.  When Preliminary Fact Is Also Fact in Issue  4.17
    • E.  Judge’s Ruling on Preliminary Fact Is Final  4.18
    • F.  Jury Instructions [Deleted]  4.19
  • V.  EVIDENCE CODE §404 HEARINGS  4.20
  • VI.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS  4.21
  • VII.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  4.22
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  4.23
  • VIII.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  4.24
    • B.  Other  4.25

5

Order of Proof and of Witness Examination

Jan Nielsen Little

E. Stewart Moritz

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  5.1
  • II.  ORDER OF PROOF
    • A.  Ground Rules for Order of Proof (CCP §607)  5.2
      • 1.  Court May Conditionally Admit Evidence Out of Order  5.3
      • 2.  Court May Call Its Own Witnesses to Testify  5.4
      • 3.  Severance or Bifurcation Affects Order of Proof
        • a.  In Civil Cases  5.5
        • b.  In Criminal Cases  5.6
    • B.  Factors to Consider Concerning Order of Witnesses  5.7
  • III.  ORDER OF WITNESS EXAMINATION
    • A.  Order of Examination of Each Witness (Evid C §772(a))  5.8
    • B.  Each Phase to Be Completed Before Next Begins  5.9
    • C.  Descriptions of Each Stage of Witness Examination
      • 1.  Direct Examination  5.10
      • 2.  Cross-Examination  5.11
      • 3.  Redirect Examination  5.12
      • 4.  Recross-Examination  5.13
    • D.  Questions Not Within Scope of Previous Examination  5.14
  • IV.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  5.15
    • B.  Code of Civil Procedure  5.16
    • C.  Penal Code  5.17
    • D.  Other  5.18

6

Calling Adverse Parties or Witnesses; Recalling or Excluding Witnesses

Jan Nielsen Little

E. Stewart Moritz

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  6.1
  • II.  CALLING ADVERSE PARTIES OR WITNESSES
    • A.  Rules That Apply to Examination Under Evid C §776  6.2
      • 1.  Leading Questions Permissible  6.3
      • 2.  Counsel for All Other Parties May Also Examine Witness  6.4
    • B.  Procedure for Compelling Adverse Party or Party-Related Witness to Appear  6.5
    • C.  Criminal Cases  6.6
    • D.  Table: Strategy Considerations in Calling Adverse Party or Witness  6.7
  • III.  RECALLING WITNESSES
    • A.  Recalling Excused Witness Usually Not Permitted  6.8
      • 1.  Exception to Rule  6.9
      • 2.  Asking Court to Excuse Witness Subject to Being Recalled Later  6.10
    • B.  Excused Witness No Longer Bound by Court’s Witness Exclusion Order  6.11
    • C.  Strategic Considerations  6.12
  • IV.  EXCLUDING WITNESSES
    • A.  Motion and Order to Exclude Witnesses  6.13
      • 1.  Expert Witnesses Sometimes Allowed to Remain in Courtroom  6.14
      • 2.  Advantages and Disadvantages of Having Judge Exclude Witnesses  6.15
    • B.  Penalty for Disobeying Exclusion Order  6.16
    • C.  Excluding Witnesses at Preliminary Hearing  6.17
  • V.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  6.18
    • B.  Other  6.19

7

Evidence Offered for a Limited Purpose

Jan Nielsen Little

E. Stewart Moritz

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  7.1
  • II.  ADMISSIBILITY
    • A.  Definition  7.2
    • B.  Party’s Request for Limited Admissibility  7.3
      • 1.  When Desirable  7.4
      • 2.  Court’s Limiting Instructions  7.5
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS  7.6
  • IV.  COMMENT  7.7
  • V.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  7.8
    • B.  Other  7.9

8

Accidents: Absence of Similar Ones

William H. Armstrong

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  8.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit  8.2
    • B.  To Object  8.3
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Information to Elicit  8.4
    • B.  Questions to Ask  8.5
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Few Cases on Point  8.6
    • B.  Objection: Lack of Similar Conditions of Use  8.7
    • C.  Consider In Limine Motion  8.8
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  8.9
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  8.10
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  8.11
    • B.  Other  8.12

9

Accidents: Prior or Subsequent Ones

Richard P. Caputo

Robert A. Franklin

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  9.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit  9.2
    • B.  To Object  9.3
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Evidence Offered to Show Notice of Dangerous Condition
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  9.4
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  9.5
    • B.  Evidence Offered of Prior Accident in Same Location
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  9.6
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  9.7
    • C.  Evidence of Prior or Subsequent Accidents Involving Same or Similar Products
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  9.8
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  9.9
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Relevancy Is Primary Consideration  9.10
    • B.  Evidence of Accidents Obtained Through Discovery  9.11
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  9.12
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  9.13
  • VI.  SOURCES  9.14

10

Admissions and Confessions

Nancy M. Naftel

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  10.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit  10.2
    • B.  To Object  10.3
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Statement Made Personally by Civil Party (Evid C §1220)
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  10.4
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  10.5
    • B.  Statement Made Personally by Criminal Defendant (Evid C §1220)
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  10.6
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  10.7
    • C.  Adoptive Admission (Evid C §1221)
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  10.8
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  10.9
    • D.  Authorized Admission (Evid C §1222)
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  10.10
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  10.11
    • E.  Coconspirator Admission (Evid C §1223)
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  10.12
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  10.13
    • F.  Declarant’s Liability or Breach of Duty at Issue (Evid C §1224)
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  10.14
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  10.15
    • G.  Statement by Declarant Whose Interest in Real Property Is at Issue (Evid C §1225)
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  10.16
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  10.17
    • H.  Declarant a Minor Child in Parent’s Action for Child’s Injury (Evid C §1226)
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  10.18
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  10.19
    • I.  Statement by Declarant in Action for Declarant’s Wrongful Death (Evid C §1227)
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  10.20
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  10.21
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Admissibility Determined at Preliminary Fact Hearing  10.22
    • B.  Introducing Admission at Trial  10.23
    • C.  Admission Not Declaration Against Interest  10.24
    • D.  Criminal Cases  10.25
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  10.26
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  10.27
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  10.28
    • B.  Other  10.29

11

Authentication

Holly J. Fujie

David E. Malnick

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  11.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit  11.2
    • B.  To Object  11.3
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Information to Elicit  11.4
    • B.  Questions to Ask
      • 1.  Investigator’s Background  11.5
      • 2.  Description of Recording  11.6
      • 3.  Identification of Recording  11.7
      • 4.  Authentication of Edited Video Recording  11.7A
      • 5.  Impeaching Witness With Recording—Using Sections of Recording as Direct Evidence of a Fact  11.8
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Writings Must Be Authenticated  11.9
      • 1.  Dispensing With Live Testimony  11.10
      • 2.  When to Mark Exhibits for Identification  11.11
    • B.  Demonstrative and Documentary Evidence  11.12
      • 1.  Demonstrative Evidence That Judges Are Inclined to Admit  11.13
      • 2.  Demonstrative Evidence That May Receive Closer Scrutiny  11.14
    • C.  Authentication Subject to Evid C §403  11.15
    • D.  Relevance Standard for Nonwritings  11.16
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  11.17
    • B.  Checklist: Examples of Authentication and Presumptions Affecting Authentication  11.18
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  11.19
    • B.  Other  11.20

12

Books, Maps, Charts, and Treatises: Proving Facts of Notoriety and Interest

Richard P. Caputo

Robert A. Franklin

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  12.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit  12.2
    • B.  To Object  12.3
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Information to Elicit  12.4
    • B.  Questions to Ask  12.5
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Admissible to Prove Generally Known Facts  12.6
    • B.  Judicial Interpretations  12.7
    • C.  Authentication  12.8
    • D.  Preliminary Fact Hearing  12.9
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  12.10
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  12.11
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  12.12
    • B.  Other  12.13

13

Business Records

Holly J. Fujie

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  13.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  Business Records in General
      • 1.  To Admit
        • a.  By Custodian’s Testimony  13.2
        • b.  By Affidavit or Declaration  13.3
      • 2.  To Object  13.4
    • B.  Computer Information
      • 1.  To Admit
        • a.  Accurate Reflection Requirement  13.5
        • b.  Accurate Reflection Presumption  13.6
      • 2.  To Object  13.6A
    • C.  Summaries of Voluminous Documents  13.7
    • D.  Police Reports  13.8
    • E.  Video or Digital Images  13.9
    • F.  To Object [Deleted]  13.10
    • G.  Evidence of No Record
      • 1.  To Admit  13.11
      • 2.  To Object  13.12
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Using Witness to Introduce Business Records
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  13.13
      • 2.  Questions to Ask
        • a.  Testimony of Custodian of Records to Introduce Company Report on Mining Claim  13.14
        • b.  Testimony of Fire Department Employee to Introduce Fire Accident Report  13.15
    • B.  Business Records Introduced by Affidavit or Declaration
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  13.16
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  13.17
    • C.  Introducing Computer Records
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  13.18
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  13.19
    • D.  Absence of Entry in Records
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  13.20
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  13.21
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Records to Which Business-Record Exception Applies  13.22
      • 1.  Only Part of Record May Be Admissible  13.23
      • 2.  Person Who Prepared Record Not Required to Testify  13.24
      • 3.  Mode of Preparation Must Indicate Trustworthiness  13.25
    • B.  Records to Which Business-Record Exception Does Not Apply  13.25A
    • C.  Live Testimony
      • 1.  When to Use Witness to Authenticate Records  13.26
      • 2.  What to Do When Questioning Custodian of Records  13.27
    • D.  Using Affidavit (or Declaration) Instead of Witness to Authenticate Records  13.28
    • E.  Computer Records  13.29
    • F.  Additional Objections Opponent May Make  13.30
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  13.31
    • B.  Alternative Methods of Admissibility
      • 1.  Checklist: Writing Itself Can Be Introduced  13.32
      • 2.  Checklist: Writing Can Only Assist Testimony  13.33
      • 3.  Checklist: Absence of Record  13.34
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code
      • 1.  Record Admitted Through Witness  13.35
      • 2.  Authentication With Affidavit  13.36
    • B.  Other  13.37

14

Character: Opinion Evidence

Nancy M. Naftel

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  14.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  Criminal Cases
      • 1.  Using Opinion Evidence Against Defendant or Defense Witness or on Prosecution’s Behalf
        • a.  To Admit  14.2
        • b.  To Object  14.3
      • 2.  Using Opinion Evidence Against Prosecution Witness or on Defendant’s Behalf
        • a.  To Admit  14.4
        • b.  To Object  14.5
    • B.  Civil Cases
      • 1.  To Admit  14.6
      • 2.  To Object  14.7
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Cross-Examination in Criminal Case
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  14.8
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  14.9
    • B.  Direct Examination in Criminal Case
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  14.10
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  14.11
    • C.  Direct Examination in Civil Case
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  14.12
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  14.13
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  When to Use Opinion Character Evidence  14.14
    • B.  Good Faith Questioning Required  14.15
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  14.16
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  14.17
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  14.18
    • B.  Other  14.19

15

Character: Reputation Evidence

Nancy M. Naftel

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  15.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit  15.2
    • B.  To Object  15.3
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS ON DIRECT EXAMINATION
    • A.  Reputation for Truth and Veracity
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  15.4
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  15.5
    • B.  Defendant’s Reputation to Prove Conduct in Criminal Case
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  15.6
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  15.7
    • C.  Victim’s Reputation to Prove Conduct in Criminal Case
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  15.8
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  15.9
    • D.  Reputation Evidence Used to Prove Character, When Character Itself Is in Issue
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  15.10
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  15.11
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Using Character Evidence  15.12
      • 1.  Reputation Evidence Concerning Truth and Veracity  15.13
      • 2.  Character Evidence in Civil Cases  15.14
      • 3.  Character Evidence in Criminal Cases  15.15
      • 4.  Credibility Involving Sexual Issues  15.16
    • B.  Effect of Proposition 8 in Criminal Cases  15.17
    • C.  Witness Selection and Preparation  15.18
    • D.  When to Call Character Witnesses  15.19
    • E.  Cross-Examination of Character Witnesses  15.20
    • F.  Jury Instructions  15.21
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  15.22
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  15.23
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  15.24
    • B.  Other  15.25

16

Character: Specific Acts Evidence

Nancy M. Naftel

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  16.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  Criminal Cases
      • 1.  Using Specific Acts Against Defendant or Defense Witness or on Prosecution’s Behalf
        • a.  To Admit  16.2
        • b.  To Object  16.3
      • 2.  Using Specific Acts Against Prosecution Witness or on Defendant’s Behalf
        • a.  To Admit  16.4
        • b.  To Object  16.5
    • B.  Civil Cases
      • 1.  To Admit  16.6
      • 2.  To Object  16.7
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Evidence of Specific Acts Concerning Witness’s Honesty or Veracity
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  16.8
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  16.9
    • B.  Testimony About Victim’s Character Trait of Aggressiveness
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  16.10
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  16.11
    • C.  Proving Bad Character of Mother in Family Law Case in Which Custody Is in Issue
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  16.12
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  16.13
    • D.  Defendant’s Prior Sexual Conduct With Plaintiff—Offered to Attack Plaintiff’s Credibility in Sexual Harassment Case
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  16.14
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  16.15
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  When to Use Specific Acts Character Evidence  16.16
    • B.  Criminal Cases
      • 1.  To Prove Facts Other Than Disposition  16.17
      • 2.  To Prove Defendant’s Disposition to Commit Charged Offense  16.18
      • 3.  To Attack or Support Credibility  16.19
    • C.  Civil Cases  16.20
    • D.  Sexual Conduct Cases  16.21
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  16.22
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  16.23
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  16.24
    • B.  Other  16.25

17

Commercial Lists and the Like

Donald D. Howard

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  17.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit  17.2
    • B.  To Object  17.3
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS ON DIRECT EXAMINATION
    • A.  Introducing Price Lists of Several Manufacturers in a Particular Industry
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  17.4
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  17.5
    • B.  Introducing Component Equipment Catalog That Is Standard Throughout an Entire Industry
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  17.6
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  17.7
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Preliminary Fact Hearing  17.8
    • B.  Published Compilations for Narrow Markets  17.9
    • C.  Listings That Rank Items  17.10
    • D.  Examples of Acceptable Items  17.11
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  17.12
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  17.13
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  17.14
    • B.  Other  17.15

18

Community History, Public Interest in Property, and Boundaries

Donald D. Howard

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  18.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit
      • 1.  Community Reputation  18.2
      • 2.  Statements  18.3
    • B.  To Object  18.4
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Community Reputation Concerning Public Interest in Property
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  18.5
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  18.6
    • B.  Community Reputation Concerning Customs Affecting Land
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  18.7
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  18.8
    • C.  Statements Concerning Boundaries of Land
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  18.9
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  18.10
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Community Reputation Concerning Community History  18.11
    • B.  Community Reputation Concerning Public Interest in Property in the Community  18.12
    • C.  Consider In Limine Motion  18.13
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  18.14
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  18.15
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  18.16
    • B.  Other  18.17

19

Credibility

Donald D. Howard

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  19.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit  19.2
    • B.  To Object  19.3
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Supporting Credibility: Witness’s Ability to Perceive and Lack of Bias
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  19.4
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  19.5
    • B.  Attacking Credibility: Nonexistence of Fact Testified to by Witness
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  19.6
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  19.7
    • C.  Attacking Credibility: Witness’s Character for Honesty, Veracity, or Their Opposites
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  19.8
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  19.9
    • D.  Attacking Credibility: Prior Inconsistent Statement
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  19.10
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  19.11
    • E.  Attacking Credibility: Witness’s Bias, Interest, or Other Motive in Testifying
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  19.12
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  19.13
    • F.  Attacking Credibility: Witness’s Opportunity to Perceive Matter on Which Testifying
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  19.14
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  19.15
    • G.  Attacking Credibility: Using Prior Inconsistent Statement to Attack Credibility of Your Own Witness
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  19.16
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  19.17
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  General Scope of Credibility Evidence (Evid C §780)  19.18
      • 1.  Credibility Almost Always a Question of Fact for Jury  19.19
      • 2.  Character Evidence Is Not Limited to Honesty, Truthfulness, or Their Opposites  19.20
      • 3.  “Opening the Door” to Impeaching Evidence  19.21
    • B.  Rehabilitation  19.22
    • C.  Impeachment on Collateral Matters  19.23
    • D.  Jury Instructions to Consider During Questioning  19.24
      • 1.  Civil Jury Instructions  19.25
      • 2.  Criminal Jury Instructions  19.26
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  19.27
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  19.28
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  19.29
    • B.  Other  19.30

20

Declarations Against Interest

Holly J. Fujie

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  20.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit  20.2
    • B.  To Object  20.3
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Testimony Reporting Declarant’s Statement Against Interest
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  20.4
      • 2.  Questions to Ask
        • a.  Adverse Pecuniary or Proprietary Interest  20.5
        • b.  Risk of Civil or Criminal Liability  20.6
        • c.  Declarant’s Claim Would Be Invalidated  20.7
        • d.  Risk of Hatred, Ridicule, or Social Disgrace  20.8
    • B.  Testimony Showing Declarant Unavailable as Witness
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  20.9
      • 2.  Questions to Ask
        • a.  Testimony Privileged  20.10
        • b.  Declarant Disqualified Because of Incapacity  20.11
        • c.  Declarant Disqualified Because of Inability to Tell Truth  20.12
        • d.  Declarant Dead  20.13
        • e.  Declarant Ill  20.14
        • f.  Declarant Cannot Be Located  20.15
        • g.  Declarant in Another State (Civil Case)  20.16
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Burden on Opponent to Object  20.17
    • B.  Declarant’s Statement
      • 1.  Must Be Trustworthy  20.18
      • 2.  Must Expose Declarant to Civil or Criminal Liability  20.19
      • 3.  Confrontation Clause Issues [Deleted]  20.19A
      • 4.  Must Be Against Declarant’s Interests When Made  20.20
      • 5.  May Be Against Declarant’s Social Interest  20.20A
    • C.  Criminal Cases
      • 1.  Defendant’s Right of Confrontation
        • a.  Testimonial Hearsay
          • (1)  Exclusion of Testimonial Hearsay Under Crawford  20.20B
          • (2)  Exceptions to Excludability of Testimonial Hearsay  20.20C
          • (3)  Limitations on Cross-Examination  20.20D
        • b.  Nontestimonial Hearsay  20.20E
      • 2.  Expert Testimony May Be Required [Deleted]  20.21
      • 3.  Establishing Declarant’s Unavailability in Criminal Cases  20.22
    • D.  Procedure to Determine Declarant’s Competence [Deleted]  20.23
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  20.24
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  20.25
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  20.26
    • B.  Other  20.27

21

Dispositive Instruments and Ancient Writings

William H. Armstrong

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  21.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  Dispositive Instruments
      • 1.  To Admit  21.2
      • 2.  To Object  21.3
    • B.  Ancient Writings
      • 1.  To Admit  21.4
      • 2.  To Object  21.5
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Dispositive Instruments
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  21.6
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  21.7
    • B.  Ancient Writings
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  21.8
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  21.9
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Dispositive Instruments  21.10
    • B.  Ancient Writings  21.11
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  21.12
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  21.13
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code
      • 1.  Dispositive Instruments  21.14
      • 2.  Ancient Writings  21.15
      • 3.  Official Records and Documents That Affect Property  21.16
    • B.  Other  21.17

22

Dying Declarations

Holly J. Fujie

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  22.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit  22.2
    • B.  To Object  22.3
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Information to Elicit  22.4
    • B.  Questions to Ask
      • 1.  Introduction of Death Certificate  22.5
      • 2.  Examination of Medical Witness  22.6
      • 3.  Examination of Witness Who Heard Declarant  22.7
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Immediate Death Not Necessary for Admissibility  22.8
    • B.  Objection Required  22.9
    • C.  Foundation Issues  22.10
    • D.  Matters After Preliminary Fact Hearing
      • 1.  Opponent May Still Discredit Dying Declaration  22.11
      • 2.  Proponent Should Provide Supporting Evidence  22.12
  • V.  CHECKLIST
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  22.13
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  22.14
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  22.15
    • B.  Other  22.16

23

Experiments and Scientific Tests

Ajay B. Kundaria

Jan Nielsen Little

E. Stewart Moritz

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  23.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  Experiments
      • 1.  To Admit  23.2
      • 2.  To Object  23.3
    • B.  Scientific Tests
      • 1.  To Admit  23.4
      • 2.  To Object  23.5
    • C.  View by Trier of Fact
      • 1.  To Admit  23.6
      • 2.  To Object  23.7
    • D.  Exhibition of Person
      • 1.  To Admit  23.8
      • 2.  To Object  23.9
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Information to Elicit  23.10
    • B.  Questions to Ask  23.11
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Experiments  23.12
    • B.  Scientific Techniques
      • 1.  “General Acceptance” Test  23.13
      • 2.  Kelly Rule Applies to New Scientific Techniques  23.14
      • 3.  Criminal Cases: Effect of Cal Const Art I, §28(f)(2) on Use of Kelly Rule  23.15
      • 4.  Examples: Scientific Tests That Have Been Specifically Approved  23.16
      • 5.  Examples: Scientific Tests That Have Been Specifically Disapproved  23.17
      • 6.  Use of In Limine Motions  23.18
      • 7.  View by Trier of Fact  23.19
      • 8.  Exhibition of Person  23.20
  • V.  CHECKLIST: WITNESSES TO SUBPOENA  23.21
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  23.22
    • B.  Code of Civil Procedure  23.23
    • C.  Family Code  23.24
    • D.  Penal Code  23.25
    • E.  Other  23.26

24

Expert Witnesses

Holly J. Fujie

David E. Malnick

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  24.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit  24.2
    • B.  To Object  24.3
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Direct Examination of Forensic Economist
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  24.4
      • 2.  Questions to Ask
        • a.  Qualifying the Expert  24.5
        • b.  Education  24.6
        • c.  Work Experience  24.7
        • d.  Publications  24.8
        • e.  Qualification of Expert in Other Cases  24.9
        • f.  Basis for Expert’s Opinion  24.10
        • g.  Summary of Expert’s Opinion  24.11
    • B.  Introducing Diagram
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  24.12
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  24.13
    • C.  Using Opposition Witness as Your Expert
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  24.14
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  24.15
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Proponent’s Pretrial Considerations
      • 1.  Disclosure Requirements in Civil Cases  24.16
      • 2.  Controlling Expert’s Time and Tasks  24.17
      • 3.  If Treating Physician Will Testify  24.18
      • 4.  If Designated Expert Becomes Unavailable  24.19
      • 5.  Local Rule Requirements  24.20
    • B.  Proponent’s Trial Considerations
      • 1.  Expert’s Purpose at Trial  24.21
      • 2.  Be Creative in Presenting Your Experts  24.22
      • 3.  Points to Cover During Examination  24.23
      • 4.  Kelly Rule  24.24
      • 5.  Basis for Opinion  24.25
      • 6.  Admitting Evidence Relied on by Expert  24.26
      • 7.  Using Hypothetical Questions  24.27
      • 8.  Submitting Jury Instructions  24.28
    • C.  Opponent’s Considerations
      • 1.  Requesting Preliminary Fact Hearing  24.29
      • 2.  Bases for Challenge  24.30
      • 3.  Cross-Examination of Expert (Evid C §721)  24.31
      • 4.  Prosecutorial Misconduct Involving Excluded Testimony  24.32
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  24.33
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  24.34
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  24.35
    • B.  Other  24.36

25

Family History: Statements, Reputation, and Records

William H. Armstrong

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  25.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit
      • 1.  Out-of-Court Statements  25.2
      • 2.  Reputation  25.3
      • 3.  Records  25.4
    • B.  To Object  25.5
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Statements
      • 1.  Declarant’s Place of Birth
        • a.  Information to Elicit  25.6
        • b.  Questions to Ask  25.7
      • 2.  Another’s Place of Birth
        • a.  Information to Elicit  25.8
        • b.  Questions to Ask  25.9
    • B.  Reputation
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  25.10
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  25.11
    • C.  Records
      • 1.  Church Record
        • a.  Information to Elicit  25.12
        • b.  Questions to Ask  25.13
      • 2.  Marriage Certificate
        • a.  Information to Elicit  25.14
        • b.  Questions to Ask  25.15
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Authenticating Records  25.16
    • B.  Admissible Secondary Evidence  25.17
    • C.  Preliminary Fact Hearing Usually Desirable  25.18
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  25.19
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  25.20
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  25.21
    • B.  Other  25.22

26

Felony Conviction: To Impeach in Civil Trials

William H. Armstrong

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  26.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit  26.2
    • B.  To Object  26.3
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Surprise Impeachment
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  26.4
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  26.5
    • B.  Impeachment Using Judgment of Conviction
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  26.6
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  26.7
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Find Out About Prior Convictions Before Trial  26.8
    • B.  When Your Witness Has Prior Felony Conviction  26.9
    • C.  When Opponent’s Witness Has Prior Felony Conviction
      • 1.  Consider Making In Limine Motion  26.10
      • 2.  Be Cautious About Surprising Your Opponent  26.11
      • 3.  Good Faith Basis Necessary Before Inquiring About Prior Felony Conviction  26.12
      • 4.  Procedures for Proving Prior Conviction  26.13
    • D.  Application of Criminal Law Rules on Use of Felony Convictions to Impeach in Civil Trials  26.14
    • E.  Introducing Prior Felony Conviction at Deposition  26.15
    • F.  Prior Felony Conviction Used to Prove Fact Necessary to Judgment  26.16
  • V.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  26.17
    • B.  Other  26.18

27

Prior Convictions: To Impeach in Criminal Trials

Nancy M. Naftel

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  27.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit  27.2
    • B.  To Object  27.3
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Questions to Use to Impeach Witness Who Is Testifying
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  27.4
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  27.5
    • B.  Introducing Record of Judgment of Conviction
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  27.6
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  27.7
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Preliminary Fact Hearing Usually Held  27.8
    • B.  Effect of Proposition 8  27.9
      • 1.  Prior Felony Convictions May Be Used to Impeach Any Witness  27.10
      • 2.  Trial Court Discretion to Exclude Prior Convictions
        • a.  Moral Turpitude Required  27.11
        • b.  Evid C §352 Considerations  27.12
        • c.  Defendant Must Testify to Raise Error on Appeal  27.13
      • 3.  Rules on Misdemeanor Prior Convictions  27.14
      • 4.  Juvenile Adjudications  27.15
      • 5.  Challenging Prior Convictions on Constitutional Grounds  27.16
    • C.  Procedures for Impeaching Witness  27.17
      • 1.  Good Faith Questions About Prior Conviction Required  27.18
      • 2.  Proving Witness’s Identity as Convicted Person  27.19
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  27.20
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  27.21
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  27.22
    • B.  California Constitution  27.23
    • C.  Other  27.24

28

Former Testimony

Holly J. Fujie

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  28.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit
      • 1.  Any Person’s Former Testimony  28.2
      • 2.  Adverse Party’s Deposition Testimony  28.3
    • B.  To Object  28.4
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Party Same in Former Action
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  28.5
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  28.6
    • B.  Party Different in Former Action
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  28.7
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  28.8
    • C.  Deposition Used to Impeach Party
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  28.9
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  28.10
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Admissible Former Testimony  28.11
      • 1.  Obtain Ruling on Objections to Former Testimony  28.12
      • 2.  Meet Burden of Presenting Evidence  28.13
      • 3.  Present Evidence on Unavailability of Witness  28.14
      • 4.  Satisfy Authentication Rules  28.15
      • 5.  Lodge Transcript With Court  28.16
    • B.  Same Standard for Recorded Testimony  28.17
    • C.  Former Testimony Need Not Be in Writing  28.18
    • D.  Ineffective Assistance of Counsel at Previous Hearing  28.19
    • E.  Using Former Testimony to Impeach  28.20
    • F.  Opponent May Attack Former Testimony Even If Admitted  28.21
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  28.22
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  28.23
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  28.24
    • B.  Other  28.25

29

Habit or Custom Evidence

Jan Nielsen Little

E. Stewart Moritz

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  29.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit  29.2
    • B.  To Object  29.3
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Information to Elicit  29.4
    • B.  Questions to Ask  29.5
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Character Versus Custom  29.6
    • B.  Habit Evidence in Criminal Cases  29.7
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  29.8
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  29.9
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  29.10
    • B.  Other  29.11

30

Judgments Offered in Civil Cases

Richard P. Caputo

Robert A. Franklin

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  30.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  Criminal Conviction Punishable as Felony
      • 1.  To Admit  30.2
      • 2.  To Object  30.3
    • B.  Judgment Offered in Indemnity or Warranty Action
      • 1.  To Admit  30.4
      • 2.  To Object  30.5
    • C.  Judgment of Third Person’s Liability, Obligation, or Duty
      • 1.  To Admit  30.6
      • 2.  To Object  30.7
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Offered to Prove Fact Essential to Judgment
      • 1.  Steps to Take  30.8
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  30.9
    • B.  Offered to Prove Liability
      • 1.  Steps to Take  30.10
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  30.11
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Prior Conviction Must Be Punishable as Felony Under Hearsay Exception  30.12
    • B.  Judgment Must Be Final  30.13
    • C.  Preliminary Fact Hearing  30.14
    • D.  Exception Not Applicable If Matter Is Res Judicata or Collaterally Estopped  30.15
    • E.  Exception Not Applicable in Criminal Cases  30.16
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Procedures for Admitting Judgments  30.17
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  30.18
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  30.19
    • B.  Other  30.20

31

Judicial Notice

William H. Armstrong

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  31.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  Mandatory Judicial Notice (Evid C §§451–452)
      • 1.  To Admit  31.2
      • 2.  To Object  31.3
    • B.  Permissive Judicial Notice (Evid C §452)
      • 1.  To Admit  31.4
      • 2.  To Object  31.5
  • III.  SAMPLE REQUESTS
    • A.  Steps to Take  31.6
    • B.  Matters to Be Judicially Noticed
      • 1.  California Statute (Evid C §451(a))  31.7
      • 2.  Dictionary Definition (Evid C §451(e))  31.8
      • 3.  Another State’s Statute (Evid C §452(a))  31.9
      • 4.  Official Court Record (Evid C §452(d))  31.10
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Benefits of Judicial Notice  31.11
    • B.  Mandatory Judicial Notice (Evid C §451)  31.12
    • C.  Permissive Judicial Notice (Evid C §452)  31.13
    • D.  Computer-Generated Official Court Records of Criminal Convictions (Evid C §452.5(a))  31.14
    • E.  Procedures for Requesting Judicial Notice
      • 1.  Raise Matter In Limine  31.15
      • 2.  Comply With Local Court Rules  31.16
      • 3.  Provide “Sufficient Information” to Support Request  31.17
      • 4.  When Requesting Judicial Notice of Court Records  31.18
      • 5.  Request Applicable Jury Instruction  31.19
      • 6.  Consider Court Order Prohibiting Opposing Parties From Presenting Evidence on Judicially Noticed Matter  31.20
    • F.  Court’s Ruling
      • 1.  Court May Rely on Any “Pertinent Information”  31.21
      • 2.  Matters of “Substantial Consequence”  31.22
      • 3.  Court’s Refusal to Take Judicial Notice  31.23
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Procedures for Providing Court With Sufficient Information  31.24
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  31.25
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  31.26
    • B.  Other  31.27

32

Lay Witnesses: Competence and Qualification

Donald D. Howard

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  32.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit
      • 1.  Lay Witnesses  32.2
      • 2.  Judges  32.3
      • 3.  Jurors  32.4
      • 4.  Lawyers  32.5
    • B.  To Object  32.6
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Lay Witnesses Must Understand Duty to Tell the Truth
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  32.7
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  32.8
    • B.  Lay Witness Must Have Personal Knowledge
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  32.9
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  32.10
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Different Standards for Ruling on Competence and on Personal Knowledge  32.11
      • 1.  Competence Determined Under Evid C §405  32.12
      • 2.  Personal Knowledge Decided Under Evid C §403  32.13
      • 3.  Hearing in or out of Jury’s Presence  32.14
      • 4.  Evidence to Support Competence and Personal Knowledge  32.15
    • B.  Lawyer’s Testimony: Cal Rules of Prof Cond 5–210 Applies Only to Jury Trials  32.16
    • C.  Children’s Testimony: Criminal Jury Trials  32.17
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  32.18
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  32.19
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  32.20
    • B.  California Rules of Professional Conduct  32.21
    • C.  Other  32.22

33

Lay Witnesses: Opinion Testimony

Nancy M. Naftel

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  33.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  Lay Testimony Generally
      • 1.  To Admit  33.2
      • 2.  To Object  33.3
    • B.  Lay Testimony on Sanity
      • 1.  To Admit  33.4
      • 2.  To Object  33.5
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Lay Witness’s Opinion on Speed and Distance
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  33.6
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  33.7
    • B.  Lay Witness’s Opinion on Description and Identity in Criminal Case
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  33.8
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  33.9
    • C.  Intimate Acquaintance’s Opinion on Sanity
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  33.10
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  33.11
    • D.  Subscribing Witness’s Opinion on Sanity
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  33.12
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  33.13
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Determining Whether Lay Opinion Is Permitted  33.14
    • B.  Lay Witness Must Have Personal Knowledge of Facts  33.15
    • C.  Jury Instructions  33.16
    • D.  Examples: Topics on Which Lay Witnesses Have Been Allowed to Give Opinion  33.17
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  33.18
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  33.19
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  33.20
    • B.  Other  33.21

34

Lay Witnesses: Rehabilitation

Donald D. Howard

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  34.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit  34.2
    • B.  To Object  34.3
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Information to Elicit  34.4
    • B.  Questions to Ask  34.5
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Prevention Is Better Than Cure  34.6
    • B.  Criminal Cases: Using Expert to Rehabilitate Witness  34.7
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  34.8
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  34.9
  • VI.  SOURCES  34.10

35

Nonhearsay

William H. Armstrong

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  35.1
  • II.  MISCELLANEOUS NONHEARSAY  35.1A
  • III.  REQUIREMENTS FOR INTRODUCTION OF OUT-OF-COURT STATEMENT FOR NONHEARSAY PURPOSE
    • A.  To Admit  35.2
    • B.  To Object  35.3
  • IV.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Information to Elicit  35.4
    • B.  Questions to Ask  35.5
  • V.  COMMENT
    • A.  Show That Statement Is Nonhearsay and Relevant  35.6
    • B.  Opponent May Request Limiting Instruction  35.7
  • VI.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  35.8
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  35.9
  • VII.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  35.10
    • B.  Other  35.11

36

Official Records and Writings

Donald D. Howard

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  36.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  Record Made by Public Employee
      • 1.  To Admit  36.2
      • 2.  To Object  36.3
    • B.  Record of Vital Statistics (Birth, Death, Marriage)
      • 1.  To Admit  36.4
      • 2.  To Object  36.5
    • C.  Statement of Opinion in Official Record
      • 1.  To Admit  36.6
      • 2.  To Object  36.7
    • D.  Absence of Public Record
      • 1.  To Admit  36.8
      • 2.  To Object  36.9
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Record Made by Public Employee
      • 1.  Steps to Take  36.10
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  36.11
    • B.  Statement of Opinion in Official Record
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  36.12
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  36.13
    • C.  Record of Vital Statistics
      • 1.  Steps to Take  36.14
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  36.15
    • D.  Absence of Public Record
      • 1.  Step to Take  36.16
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  36.17
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Record Made by Public Employee  36.18
    • B.  Statement of Opinion in Official Record  36.19
    • C.  Record of Vital Statistics  36.20
    • D.  Absence of Official Record  36.21
    • E.  Computer Records  36.21A
    • F.  Authentication  36.22
    • G.  Admissible Secondary Evidence  36.23
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Admissibility of Public Records  36.24
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  36.25
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  36.26
    • B.  Health and Safety Code  36.27
    • C.  Other  36.28

37

Parol Evidence

Holly J. Fujie

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  37.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit  37.2
    • B.  To Object  37.3
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Written Modification of Contract Made in Concurrent Agreement
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  37.4
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  37.5
    • B.  Prior Written Modification of Contract
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  37.6
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  37.7
    • C.  Oral Modification of Contract
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  37.8
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  37.9
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Parol Evidence and Statute of Frauds  37.10
    • B.  Statutes That Supersede CCP §1856  37.11
    • C.  Procedure for Deciding Parol Evidence Issue  37.12
    • D.  Possible Actions by Opponent to Combat Parol Evidence  37.13
  • V.  CHECKLIST: WITNESSES TO SUBPOENA  37.14
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Code of Civil Procedure  37.15
    • B.  Civil Code  37.16
    • C.  Other  37.17

38

Past Recollection Recorded

Nancy M. Naftel

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  38.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit  38.2
    • B.  To Object  38.3
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Information to Elicit  38.4
    • B.  Questions to Ask  38.5
      • 1.  Witness Recorded Own Statement  38.6
      • 2.  Another Person Recorded Statement Under Witness’s Supervision  38.7
      • 3.  Another Person Recorded Statement at Witness’s Request  38.8
      • 4.  Another Person Recorded Statement in Course of Duty  38.9
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Witness Preparation  38.10
    • B.  Total Lack of Memory Not Required  38.11
    • C.  Opponent’s Excising of Objectionable Material  38.12
    • D.  Accident Reports  38.13
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  38.14
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  38.15
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  38.16
    • B.  Other  38.17

39

Physical Evidence

Jan Nielsen Little

E. Stewart Moritz

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  39.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit
      • 1.  Writing  39.2
      • 2.  Nonwriting  39.3
    • B.  To Object  39.4
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Steps to Take  39.5
    • B.  Questions to Ask  39.6
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Substantive and Demonstrative Evidence Distinguished  39.7
    • B.  Demonstrative Evidence
      • 1.  Examples  39.8
      • 2.  Demonstrative Evidence Is Persuasive  39.9
      • 3.  In Limine Ruling Is Advisable  39.10
    • C.  Satisfy Pretrial Discovery Requirements  39.11
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  39.12
    • B.  Checklist: Procedures for Introducing Physical Evidence at In Limine Motion  39.13
    • C.  Checklist: Procedures for Introducing Physical Evidence During Trial  39.14
  • VI.  SOURCES  39.15

40

Prior Consistent Statements

Holly J. Fujie

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  40.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit
      • 1.  Rehabilitation of Testifying Witness  40.2
      • 2.  Rehabilitation of Hearsay Declarant  40.3
    • B.  To Object  40.4
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Prior Consistent Statement Introduced on Direct Examination of Witness to Prior Statement
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  40.5
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  40.6
    • B.  Prior Consistent Statement Introduced on Redirect Examination of Witness After Impeachment
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  40.7
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  40.8
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Prior Statements of Testifying Witnesses  40.9
    • B.  Prior Statements of Hearsay Declarants  40.10
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  40.11
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  40.12
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  40.13
    • B.  Other  40.14

41

Prior Inconsistent Statements

Holly J. Fujie

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  41.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit
      • 1.  Impeachment of Testifying Witness  41.2
      • 2.  Impeachment of Hearsay Declarant  41.3
    • B.  To Object  41.4
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Impeachment of Testifying Witness
      • 1.  Steps to Take  41.5
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  41.6
    • B.  Impeachment Through Another Witness’s Testimony
      • 1.  Steps to Take  41.7
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  41.8
    • C.  Impeachment of Hearsay Declarant
      • 1.  Steps to Take  41.9
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  41.10
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Prior Inconsistent Statements of Testifying Witnesses (Evid C §1235)  41.11
      • 1.  Authentication Necessary if Statement in Writing  41.12
      • 2.  Procedures for Impeaching Witnesses With Prior Inconsistent Statements  41.13
      • 3.  Meeting Opponent’s Objections  41.14
      • 4.  Statements Made During Judicial Arbitration Not Admissible at Trial  41.15
    • B.  Prior Inconsistent Statements of Hearsay Declarants (Evid C §1202)  41.16
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  41.17
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  41.18
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  41.19
    • B.  Other  41.20

42

Prior Identifications

Nancy M. Naftel

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  42.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit  42.2
    • B.  To Object  42.3
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Civil Case: Identity of Driver in Automobile Accident
      • 1.  Witness Testifies to Own Prior Identification
        • a.  Information to Elicit  42.4
        • b.  Questions to Ask  42.5
      • 2.  Officer Testifies to Another’s Prior Identification
        • a.  Information to Elicit  42.6
        • b.  Questions to Ask  42.7
    • B.  Criminal Case: Identity of Robbery Suspect
      • 1.  Witness Testifies to Prior Identification at Crime Scene
        • a.  Information to Elicit  42.8
        • b.  Questions to Ask  42.9
      • 2.  Witness Testifies to Prior Identification Made From Photographic Lineup
        • a.  Information to Elicit  42.10
        • b.  Questions to Ask  42.11
      • 3.  Witness Testifies to Prior Identification Made at Live Lineup
        • a.  Information to Elicit  42.12
        • b.  Questions to Ask  42.13
      • 4.  Witness Testifies to Assisting in Creation of Drawing of Suspect
        • a.  Information to Elicit  42.14
        • b.  Questions to Ask  42.15
      • 5.  Police Officer Testifies to Having Heard Witness Describe Defendant
        • a.  Information to Elicit  42.16
        • b.  Questions to Ask  42.17
      • 6.  Police Officer Testifies to Having Shown Photographs to Witness
        • a.  Information to Elicit  42.18
        • b.  Questions to Ask  42.19
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  In Limine Hearings on Pretrial Identification Procedures  42.20
    • B.  Other Procedural Vehicles for Challenging Prior Identifications  42.21
    • C.  Effect of Eyewitness Testimony at Trial  42.22
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  42.23
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  42.24
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  42.25
    • B.  Other  42.26

43

Privileges and Confidential Communications

Holly J. Fujie

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  43.1
  • II.  COMBATING ASSERTION OF PRIVILEGE
    • A.  Privilege Must Have Been Claimed Before Trial If Privileged Information Was Requested
      • 1.  Civil Cases  43.2
      • 2.  Criminal Cases  43.3
    • B.  Procedures at Trial to Determine if Privilege Applies  43.4
    • C.  Defeating a Privilege
      • 1.  Communication Not Privileged  43.5
      • 2.  Exception to Privilege Prevents Its Assertion  43.5A
      • 3.  There Is No Privilege Holder  43.6
      • 4.  Privilege Was Waived  43.7
    • D.  Effect of Opposing Counsel’s Waiver of Privilege at Trial  43.8
    • E.  No Waiver by Interception of Privileged Electronic Communications Such as Internet Communication  43.9
  • III.  CHECKLIST: WITNESSES TO SUBPOENA  43.10
  • IV.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  43.11
    • B.  Code of Civil Procedure  43.12
    • C.  Penal Code  43.13
    • D.  Other  43.14
  • V.  TABLE: VARIOUS STATUTORY PRIVILEGES  43.15

44

Refreshing Recollection

William H. Armstrong

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  44.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit  44.2
    • B.  To Object  44.3
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Refreshing Recollection When Writing Produced in Court
      • 1.  Steps to Take  44.4
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  44.5
    • B.  Refreshing Recollection When Writing Not Produced
      • 1.  Steps to Take  44.6
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  44.7
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Prepare Witnesses About Material to Be Reviewed Before Testifying  44.8
      • 1.  What May Be Used to Refresh Recollection  44.9
      • 2.  Effect of Failure to Produce Writing Used to Refresh Testimony  44.10
    • B.  When Writing Used to Refresh Recollection May Be Introduced Into Evidence  44.11
    • C.  Using Document to Refresh Recollection as Foundation for Impeachment  44.12
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  44.13
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  44.14
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  44.15
    • B.  Other  44.16

45

Relevance

Richard P. Caputo

Robert A. Franklin

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  45.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit  45.2
    • B.  To Object  45.3
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Cross-Examination of Defendant Doctor in Medical Malpractice Case
      • 1.  Steps to Take  45.4
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  45.5
    • B.  Direct Examination of Expert in Product Liability Action
      • 1.  Steps to Take  45.6
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  45.7
    • C.  Direct Examination of Expert in Pedestrian-Vehicle Accident
      • 1.  Steps to Take  45.8
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  45.9
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Test for Determining Relevance  45.10
    • B.  Evidence Irrelevant If Issue Not in Dispute  45.11
    • C.  When Relevant Evidence May Be Excluded (Evid C §352)  45.12
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  45.13
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  45.14
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  45.15
    • B.  Other  45.16

46

Remainder Offered to Explain Part Admitted

Jan Nielsen Little

E. Stewart Moritz

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  46.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit  46.2
    • B.  To Object  46.3
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Direct Examination of Plaintiff in Wrongful Employment Termination Case
      • 1.  Steps to Take  46.4
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  46.5
    • B.  Cross-Examination of Plaintiff in Wrongful Employment Termination Case
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  46.6
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  46.7
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Application of Rule of Completeness  46.8
    • B.  Rule May Apply to Otherwise Inadmissible Evidence  46.9
    • C.  Strategic Considerations  46.10
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  46.11
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  46.12
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  46.13
    • B.  Other  46.14

47

Secondary Evidence Rule: Copies and Other Evidence to Prove Content of Writing

Jan Nielsen Little

E. Stewart Moritz

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  47.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit  47.2
    • B.  To Object  47.3
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Proponent Introduces Photocopy (Evid C §§1521, 1550)
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  47.4
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  47.5
    • B.  Proponent Introduces Computer Records (Evid C §§1521, 1552)
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  47.6
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  47.7
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Proving Content of Writing  47.8
    • B.  Relevant Definitions  47.9
    • C.  Criminal Proceedings  47.10
    • D.  Printed Representations
      • 1.  Photographic Reproductions  47.10A
      • 2.  Computer Information and Computer Programs  47.11
      • 3.  Images Stored on Video or Digital Media  47.12
    • E.  Copies of Official Writings
      • 1.  Governmental Entity Has Custody of Original  47.13
      • 2.  Governmental Entity Has Custody of Copy  47.14
    • F.  Federal Law on Proving Content of Writings (Fed R Evid 1001–1008)  47.15
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  47.16
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  47.17
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  47.18
    • B.  Penal Code  47.19
    • C.  Other  47.20

48

Secondary Evidence Rule: Oral Testimony to Prove Content of Writing

Richard P. Caputo

Robert A. Franklin

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  48.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit
      • 1.  Writing Lost or Destroyed (Evid C §1523(b))  48.2
      • 2.  Writing Not Reasonably Procurable (Evid C §1523(c))  48.3
      • 3.  Writing Summarizing Voluminous Records (Evid C §1523(d))  48.4
    • B.  To Object  48.5
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Information to Elicit  48.6
    • B.  Questions to Ask  48.7
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Witness’s Personal Knowledge of Original  48.8
    • B.  Relevance; Evid C §405  48.9
    • C.  Proof of Loss or Destruction  48.10
    • D.  Federal Law on Oral Testimony  48.11
  • V.  CHECKLIST: WITNESSES TO SUBPOENA  48.12
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  48.13
    • B.  Other  48.14

49

Spontaneous and Contemporaneous Statements; Statements by Abuse Victims

Holly J. Fujie

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  49.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit
      • 1.  Spontaneous Statements  49.2
      • 2.  Contemporaneous Statements  49.3
      • 3.  Statements by Victims of Abuse or Violence
        • a.  Child Dependency Exception to Hearsay Rule  49.3A
        • b.  Other Hearsay Exceptions for Statements Made by Victims of Abuse or Violence  49.3B
    • B.  To Object  49.4
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Spontaneous Statement
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  49.5
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  49.6
    • B.  Contemporaneous Statement
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  49.7
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  49.8
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Objections to Spontaneous Statements  49.9
      • 1.  Lapse of Time May Make Statement Inadmissible  49.10
      • 2.  Statements Made in Response to Questions  49.11
    • B.  Affidavits Setting Forth Contemporaneous Statements [Deleted]  49.12
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  49.13
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  49.14
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  49.15
    • B.  Other  49.16

50

Statements of State of Mind, Emotion, or Physical Sensation

Nancy M. Naftel

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  50.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit
      • 1.  Present State of Mind, Emotion, or Physical Sensation  50.2
      • 2.  Prior State of Mind, Emotion, or Physical Sensation  50.3
      • 3.  Statements by Minors for Purposes of Medical Treatment Involving Child Abuse  50.3A
    • B.  To Object  50.4
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Present State of Mind, Emotion, or Physical Sensation
      • 1.  Criminal Case: Victim’s State of Mind
        • a.  Information to Elicit  50.5
        • b.  Questions to Ask  50.6
      • 2.  Criminal Case: Defendant’s State of Mind
        • a.  Information to Elicit  50.7
        • b.  Questions to Ask  50.8
    • B.  Previous State of Mind, Emotion, or Physical Sensation
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  50.9
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  50.10
    • C.  Abused Child’s Statements Made for Purpose of Medical Treatment
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  50.10A
      • 2.  Sample Questions  50.10B
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Difference Between Statements Admitted as Nonhearsay and Under Evid C §§1250–1252  50.11
    • B.  Strategic Considerations  50.12
    • C.  Difference Between Evid C §§1250 and 1251  50.13
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  50.14
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  50.15
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  50.16
    • B.  Other  50.17

51

Stipulations; Undisputed Facts

Jan Nielsen Little

E. Stewart Moritz

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  51.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS  51.2
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Stipulation
      • 1.  Steps to Take  51.3
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  51.4
    • B.  Undisputed Facts
      • 1.  Steps to Take  51.5
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  51.6
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Circumstances Giving Rise to Stipulations  51.7
    • B.  Effect of Stipulations  51.8
    • C.  Strategic Considerations  51.9
    • D.  Ask Judge to Inform Jury of Significance of Stipulation  51.10
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  51.11
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  51.12
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Code of Civil Procedure; Evidence Code  51.13
    • B.  Other  51.14

52

Subsequent Repairs or Other Remedial Conduct

Richard P. Caputo

Robert A. Franklin

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  52.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  To Admit  52.2
    • B.  To Object  52.3
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Impeaching Witness
      • 1.  Steps to Take  52.4
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  52.5
    • B.  Establishing Control of Premises
      • 1.  Steps to Take  52.6
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  52.7
    • C.  Strict Liability Case
      • 1.  Steps to Take  52.8
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  52.9
  • IV.  COMMENT  52.10
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  52.11
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  52.12
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  52.13
    • B.  Other  52.14

53

Wills and Claims Against Estates: Admissible Relevant Statements

Nancy M. Naftel

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  53.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  Statement by Unavailable Declarant
      • 1.  To Admit  53.2
      • 2.  To Object  53.3
    • B.  Statement by Decedent
      • 1.  To Admit  53.4
      • 2.  To Object  53.5
  • III.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Statement by Unavailable Declarant
      • 1.  Information to Elicit (Evid C §1260)  53.6
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  53.7
    • B.  Statement by Decedent
      • 1.  Information to Elicit (Evid C §1261)  53.8
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  53.9
  • IV.  COMMENT
    • A.  Differences Between Evid C §§1260 and 1261  53.10
    • B.  Lost or Destroyed Wills  53.11
    • C.  In Limine Hearings  53.12
  • V.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Witnesses to Subpoena  53.13
    • B.  Checklist: Alternative Methods of Admissibility  53.14
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  53.15
    • B.  Other  53.16

54

Electronic and Social Media Evidence

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  54.1
  • II.  DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES GOVERNING ADMISSION OF ESI
    • A.  ESI Defined  54.2
      • 1.  Definition of “Writing” Includes ESI  54.3
      • 2.  Definition of “Original” as Applied to ESI  54.4
    • B.  Social Media Defined  54.5
    • C.  General Principles Governing Admission of ESI
      • 1.  ESI Must Meet Relevancy Standards Like Other Evidence  54.6
        • a.  Only Relevant Evidence Admissible  54.7
        • b.  Court May Exclude Relevant Evidence  54.8
      • 2.  ESI Must Be Authenticated  54.9
        • a.  Proponent Must Show Writing Is Authentic  54.10
        • b.  Authenticity Is Determined Twice  54.11
        • c.  Ways to Authenticate ESI  54.12
  • III.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  ESI
      • 1.  To Admit
        • a.  Connect ESI to User  54.13
        • b.  Authenticate Computer Hardware and Software  54.14
        • c.  Federal Foundation Test for ESI  54.15
      • 2.  To Object  54.16
    • B.  Social Media Evidence
      • 1.  To Admit: Authenticate the Social Media Post  54.17
        • a.  Authenticate Identity of Social Media Post’s Author  54.18
        • b.  Authenticate a Printout or Download of the Social Media Post  54.19
      • 2.  To Object: Raise Issue of Alteration or Falsification  54.20
  • IV.  TESTIMONY ON ESI AND SOCIAL MEDIA EVIDENCE, INFORMATION TO ELICIT, AND SAMPLE QUESTIONS
    • A.  Using Witness to Introduce ESI  54.21
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  54.22
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  54.23
    • B.  Using Witness to Introduce Social Media Evidence  54.24
      • 1.  Information to Elicit  54.25
      • 2.  Questions to Ask  54.26
  • V.  COMMENT
    • A.  Authenticating Internet Website Posts or Webpage Printouts  54.27
      • 1.  Heightened Court Scrutiny  54.28
      • 2.  Witness Testimony  54.29
      • 3.  Printout Alone Insufficient  54.30
    • B.  Authenticating Text, Instant, and Chat Messages  54.31
    • C.  Introducing Nonverbal Online Communication  54.32
  • VI.  SOURCES
    • A.  Evidence Code  54.33
    • B.  Federal Rules of Evidence  54.34

Selected Developments

November 2017 Update

Summarized below are some of the more important developments included in this update since publication of the November 2016 Update.

Authentication

In People v Landry (2016) 2 C5th 52, cited in §11.2, photocopies of jailhouse letters were properly authenticated by testimony on the protocol for monitoring and copying such letters and by the documents themselves.

In U.S. v Browne (3d Cir 2016) 834 F3d 403, 411, circumstantial evidence was sufficient to authenticate Facebook chat sessions. See §54.31.

Character: Specific Acts Evidence

Four new cases in which evidence of other crimes was properly admitted include People v Thompson (2016) 1 C5th 1043, 1113 (evidence of defendant’s prior incidents of financial fraud properly admitted as evidence of motive in trial on conspiracy to commit murder); People v Sanchez (2016) 63 C4th 411, 453 (evidence that defendant used stun gun in prior robbery properly admitted to show identity in later case involving robbery using stun gun); Butler v LeBouef (2016) 248 CA4th 198, 205 (evidence that attorney befriended two elderly persons and drafted trusts that benefited himself or his associates admissible to show common plan or scheme); and People v Fruits (2016) 247 CA4th 188, 203 (evidence of prior threats made to victim were probative on specific elements of crime of making criminal threats such as defendant’s intent and victim’s sustained and reasonable fear). By contrast, the court in People v Williams (2017) 7 CA5th 644, 677, held that the evidence of uncharged robberies was improperly admitted when no evidence showed defendant was the perpetrator (but the error was harmless). See §16.17.

Competency

In People v Cortez (2016) 63 C4th 101, cited in §32.11, the court of appeal erred in concluding that the hearsay declarant lacked personal knowledge about whether defendant knew of and went along with the plan to shoot the victims; given the evidence at trial, personal knowledge was an issue for the jury.

Declarations Against Interest

The court is required to examine the entire statement’s context to determine whether it disserves the declarant’s interest. People v Grimes (2016) 1 C5th 698 (trial court erred in parsing statements of actual killer to exclude statements that defendant was not involved in murder and appeared surprised). See §20.19.

In People v Cortez (2016) 63 C4th 101, 126, cited in §20.19, the court held that, viewed in context, the codefendant’s statement identifying the defendant by name as the person who accompanied him at the shooting disserved codefendant’s penal interest.

Electronic and Social Media Evidence

The court in State of New Jersey v Hannah (NJ Super 2016) 151 A3d 99 found sufficient substantial evidence that defendant posted the tweet at issue. See §§54.13, 54.18. See also People v Evensen (2016) 4 CA5th 1020, 1026 (motion to suppress denied when police used software tools that identified Internet Protocol address as site that downloaded child pornography using peer-to-peer network; defendant had no reasonable expectation of privacy in shared folder), in §54.13.

Expert Witnesses

In David v Hernandez (2017) 13 CA5th 692, the trial court granted a motion in limine excluding expert testimony that defendant’s ability to drive was impaired by marijuana use. See §23.18.

In lawsuit alleging negligent treatment by an ambulance crew, plaintiff’s expert’s declarations failed to demonstrate that opinions were based on matters experts reasonably relied on in forming opinions and made assumptions of fact without evidentiary support. See Sanchez v Kern Emergency Med. Transp. Corp. (2017) 8 CA5th 146 in §24.25.

The California Supreme Court has held that when the time to exchange expert witness information has expired before a summary judgment motion is made and a party objects to a declaration from an undisclosed expert, admissibility of the expert’s opinion “can and must be determined before the summary judgment motion is resolved.” See Perry v Bakewell Hawthorne, LLC (2017) 2 C5th 536, 543, in §24.16.

In People v Stamps (2016) 3 CA5th 988, the court reversed a drug possession conviction when the expert’s opinion was based solely on inadmissible hearsay in the form of pictures from the Ident-A-Drug website. See §§24.25, 54.28.

Judicial Notice

California Rules of Court 3.1306(c) was amended to allow counsel requesting judicial notice of material in a file from the same court in which the matter will be heard to either arrange with the clerk to have the file in the courtroom at the hearing or to confirm with the clerk that the file is electronically accessible to the court. See chap 31.

Limited Purpose Evidence

In Seibert v City of San Jose (2016) 247 CA4th 1027, 1061 n15, the court noted that, although a request under Evid C §355 apparently may be made at any time before the matter is submitted to the trier of fact, “the party seeking to limit the evidence is usually best served by having the fact finder immediately apprised that the evidence has a limited purpose.” See §7.5.

Privileges and Confidential Communications

On the issue of who holds the privilege in a federal investigation of a former governor, the Ninth Circuit has held that the State of Oregon, not the former governor, holds the privilege for the former governor’s communications with government attorneys on potential conflicts of interest. See Grand Jury Subpoena v Kitzhaber (9th Cir 2016) 828 F3d 1083, 1092, in §43.6.

In N.S. v Superior Court (2017) 7 CA5th 713, the court held that a nonminor, juvenile court dependent did not tender the issue of mental condition that would waive privilege by asserting mental illness as the basis for continued jurisdiction. See §43.7.

Relevance

In Moore v Mercer (2016) 4 CA5th 424, the court excluded otherwise relevant evidence of the amount the medical finance company paid for medical liens because it would involve undue time to try collateral issues. See §45.12.

Rule of Completeness

The California Supreme Court reinforced its “broad approach to the admissibility of the remainder of a conversation” under Evid C §356 (the rule of completeness) by holding that after the witness was cross-examined using the transcript of an interview, the recordings of the entire conversation were properly admitted. See People v Clark (2016) 63 C4th 522, 599, in §46.8.

About the Authors

WILLIAM H. ARMSTRONG, B.A., 1964, Stanford University; LL.B., 1967, Stanford Law School. Mr. Armstrong is a partner of Armstrong & Associates, LLP in Oakland. He has tried about 50 jury trials, including five in federal court, with an average duration of five weeks. He was the mayor of Walnut Creek from 1980 to 1981, a member of the Walnut Creek City Council from 1977 to 1982, and the president of the Regional Arts Fundraising Campaign in Walnut Creek from 1983 to 1993. He has been a member of the Stanford Law School Advisory Committee on Environmental and Toxic Tort Law since 1992. Mr. Armstrong has served as the update author during the entire life of this book.

RICHARD P. CAPUTO, B.S., 1953, Santa Clara University; LL.B., 1956, Santa Clara Law School. Mr. Caputo is a partner of Caputo & Caputo in San Jose. He specializes in personal injury, products liability, and professional negligence cases. Mr. Caputo is a litigation specialist certified by the National Board of Trial Advocacy and by the American Board of Professional Liability Attorneys. He was the president of the Santa Clara County Trial Lawyers’ Association in 1982 and was on the California Trial Lawyers’ Association Board of Governors from 1983 to 1993. The Santa Clara County Trial Lawyers’ Association recognized him with the “Outstanding Trial Lawyer Award” in 1993.

ROBERT A. FRANKLIN, B.S., 1976, Santa Clara University; J.D., 1979, Southwestern Law School. Mr. Franklin practices with Murray & Murray in Palo Alto. He specializes in civil litigation with an emphasis in commercial and secured transactions and insolvency. Mr. Franklin served as the chair of the Executive Committee of the Bankruptcy and Commercial Law Section of the Santa Clara County Bar Association in 1998.

HOLLY J. FUJIE, A.B., 1975, and J.D., 1978, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Ms. Fujie is a judge of the Los Angeles County Superior Court. Before becoming a bench officer, Judge Fujie was a litigation shareholder of Buchalter Nemer, PC in Los Angeles. She specialized in complex civil litigation, and served as the chair of the firm’s insurance group. She is a past president of the California State Bar and also served as a member of the Bar’s Board of Governors. She is also a member of numerous other boards of professional associations, and speaks frequently on diversity, litigation, and work balance issues. Ms. Fujie is an author of chapter 4 on compelling attendance and production of evidence in California Trial Practice: Civil Procedure During Trial (3d ed Cal CEB).

DONALD D. HOWARD, B.A., 1965, University of Kansas; LL.B., 1968, Stanford Law School. Mr. Howard practiced law in San Jose from 1973 to 1998 and now practices in Monterey, specializing in business litigation and products liability. He served as a trial and defense counsel and military judge with the United States Navy from 1969 to 1973.

JAN NIELSEN LITTLE, A.B., 1978, University of California, Berkeley; J.D., 1981, Yale Law School. Ms. Little is a partner of Keker & Van Nest, LLP in San Francisco. She specializes in complex business litigation and white collar criminal defense. She is a current member of the U.S. Attorney’s Defense Liaison Group and the U.S. District Court’s Criminal Justice Working Group. For over a decade, she has lectured extensively for both state and national continuing legal education providers, with an emphasis on litigation and white collar crime issues. She has been listed in “Best Lawyers in America” since 2005 and has been honored with numerous other awards. In 1995, she received the first “Significant Contributions to Justice Award” from the California Attorneys for Criminal Justice. She clerked for Judge William W. Schwarzer in the Northern District of California from 1981 to 1982. Ms. Little served as a trial attorney with the United States Department of Justice from 1982 to 1986, where she received a Special Commendation Award in 1984.

DAVID E. MALNICK, B.A., 1967, American University; J.D., 1971, McGeorge Law School. The late Mr. Malnick practiced law in San Jose, specializing in professional liability, products liability, and personal injury cases. He was president of the Santa Clara County Trial Lawyers’ Association in 1987 and held certificates of recognition as an experienced trial lawyer in the fields of products liability and professional liability from the California Trial Lawyers’ Association. He had lectured on trial advocacy at Stanford University Law School and the University of Santa Clara Law School, and had served as a faculty member of the federal practice program, U.S. District Court, Northern District. Mr. Malnick had also lectured at Kazakhstan National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan.

E. STEWART MORITZ, B.A., 1990, Yale University; J.D., 1995, Vanderbilt University School of Law. Mr. Moritz formerly practiced law with Keker & Van Nest in San Francisco, specializing in civil litigation. He clerked for the Hon. Gilbert S. Merritt, chief judge of the Sixth Circuit United States Court of Appeals, from 1995 to 1996.

NANCY M. NAFTEL, A.B., 1964, University of California, Berkeley; J.D., 1980, Western State University College of Law. Ms. Naftel was a deputy district attorney with the Los Angeles County District Attorney’s Office from 1983 until her retirement in November 1999. She worked in the Labor Relations Division in the Office of the County Counsel in Los Angeles from 1981 to 1983.

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PRACTICE AREA Evidence
PRODUCT GROUP Publication