You have no items in your shopping cart.
Search
Filters

Condemnation Practice in California

Get all the background, developments, and practice tips you need to represent property owners or government agencies, from a leading eminent domain expert.

Get all the background, developments, and practice tips you need to represent property owners or government agencies, from a leading eminent domain expert.

  • Valuation of condemned property
  • Just compensation and severance damages
  • Public use and necessity defenses
  • Trial preparation, procedure, and strategies
  • Challenging government’s right to take
  • Inverse condemnation and regulatory takings
  • Relocation assistance
  • Income tax consequences of condemnation awards
  • Federal condemnation practice
  • Dozens of pleading forms and practice tips
OnLAW RE94300

Web access for one user.

 

If you are signed in and a new attorney, your adjusted cost appears below.

$ 395.00
Print RE31300

3d edition, 2 looseleaf volumes, updated 10/17

 

If you are signed in and a new attorney, your adjusted cost appears below.

$ 395.00
Add Forms CD to Print RE21308
$ 59.00
Add OnLAW to print RE94300(40)
$ 99.00

Get all the background, developments, and practice tips you need to represent property owners or government agencies, from a leading eminent domain expert.

  • Valuation of condemned property
  • Just compensation and severance damages
  • Public use and necessity defenses
  • Trial preparation, procedure, and strategies
  • Challenging government’s right to take
  • Inverse condemnation and regulatory takings
  • Relocation assistance
  • Income tax consequences of condemnation awards
  • Federal condemnation practice
  • Dozens of pleading forms and practice tips

1

Attorney's Initial Contact With Condemnation Action

Norman E. Matteoni

  • I. INTRODUCTION
    • A. Roles of Counsel 1.1
    • B. Initial Considerations 1.2
  • II. ASSESSING POTENTIAL LAWSUIT
    • A. Property Owner's Background 1.3
    • B. Should Condemnee Retain an Attorney? 1.4
      • 1. Precondemnation Offer 1.5
      • 2. Negotiations After Deposit of Probable Compensation 1.6
    • C. Preliminary Investigation of Value
      • 1. Precedent Knowledge of Client and Attorney 1.7
      • 2. Obtaining Preliminary Appraisal 1.8
  • III. COSTS AND DELAY OF LITIGATION
    • A. Court Costs 1.9
    • B. Attorney and Appraiser Fees 1.10
    • C. Other Expenses 1.11
    • D. Delay 1.12
  • IV. ACCEPTING CASE
    • A. Advising Client
      • 1. Avoiding Overoptimism 1.13
      • 2. Prudence 1.14
      • 3. Collecting Factual Data 1.15
    • B. Attorney Fee Agreements
      • 1. Express Fee Contracts
        • a. Possible Fee Arrangements 1.16
        • b. Contingency Fee Contracts 1.16A
          • (1) Possible Court Review of Fee Arrangements 1.16B
          • (2) Lodestar Multiplier Approach 1.16C
          • (3) Conscionability Standard 1.16D
        • c. Minimum Fees; Liens 1.16E
        • d. When Written Contract Is Required 1.16F
      • 2. Fees in Event of Abandonment 1.17
        • a. Need for Accurate Records 1.17A
        • b. Court Determination of Fees 1.17B
      • 3. Form: Letter Agreement 1.18
      • 4. Form: Attorney-Client Agreement for Inverse Condemnation 1.19
    • C. Notifying Condemnor of Attorney's Representation 1.20
  • V. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND CLIENT COMMUNICATIONS 1.21
    • A. Examples of Potential Misconduct 1.21A
    • B. Decision-Maker 1.22
    • C. Fee Arrangements 1.23
    • D. Communications 1.24
    • E. Contact With Officials 1.25
    • F. Avoiding Representation of Adverse Interests 1.26
    • G. Fee Collection 1.27

2

Attorney's Role in Determining Facts

Norman E. Matteoni

  • I. INTRODUCTION
    • A. General Considerations 2.1
    • B. Scope; Need to Gather Facts 2.2
  • II. OBTAINING INFORMATION FROM CLIENT
    • A. Need for Complete Disclosure 2.3
    • B. Basic Documents 2.4
    • C. Information to Obtain 2.5
      • 1. Pleadings Served 2.6
      • 2. Prior Appraisals, Legal Consultations, and Development Applications 2.7
      • 3. Conversations With Condemnor's Agents 2.8
      • 4. Property Description and Photographs 2.9
      • 5. Title 2.10
      • 6. Mortgages; Deeds of Trust 2.11
      • 7. Other Encumbrances 2.12
      • 8. Leases 2.13
      • 9. Options 2.14
      • 10. General Plan and Zoning 2.15
      • 11. Improvements; Proximity to Services 2.16
      • 12. Property Taxes 2.17
      • 13. Relocation of Home or Business 2.18
      • 14. Partial Take: Severance Damages 2.19
      • 15. View: Esthetic Appeal 2.20
      • 16. Utilities and Water 2.21
      • 17. Vegetation, Soil, Mineral Deposit, and Geologic Considerations 2.22
      • 18. Environmental Reports 2.23
      • 19. Client's Opinions 2.24
  • III. OTHER MEANS OF OBTAINING FACTS
    • A. Attorney's Personal Visit of Property 2.25
    • B. Photo Library and Maps 2.26
    • C. Public Records 2.27
    • D. Condemnor 2.28
    • E. Discovery Procedures 2.29

3

Selection of Valuation Experts

Norman E. Matteoni

  • I. NEED FOR EXPERT TESTIMONY 3.1
  • II. FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN SELECTING PROFESSIONAL APPRAISER 3.2
    • A. Qualifications and Experience 3.3
    • B. Ability to Work With Attorney 3.4
    • C. Conservative Versus Optimistic Appraiser; Bias and Interest 3.5
    • D. Professional Appraisal Societies 3.6
  • III. HIRING APPRAISER 3.7
    • A. Fee Arrangements 3.8
    • B. Form: Appraisal Agreement 3.9
    • C. Court-Appointed Appraisers 3.10
    • D. Initial Consultation Between Appraiser and Attorney 3.11
  • IV. APPRAISAL REPORT 3.12
  • V. USING OTHER VALUATION AND FOUNDATIONAL WITNESSES
    • A. Other Experts 3.13
    • B. Nonexpert Witnesses
      • 1. Lay Witnesses 3.14
      • 2. Owner 3.15

4

Just Compensation

Norman E. Matteoni

  • I. BASIC CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACHES TO VALUATION
    • A. Just Compensation Standard: Fair Market Value 4.1
    • B. The Prospective Purchaser 4.1A
    • C. Determination of Fair Market Value and Highest and Best Use 4.2
      • 1. Enhancement and Blight Due to Project Impact 4.3
        • a. Direct and Indirect Enhancement 4.4
        • b. "Probability of Inclusion" Test for Enhancement 4.5
        • c. Separate Public Project 4.6
        • d. Effect of Blight on Value 4.7
        • e. Precondemnation Damages 4.8
      • 2. Highest and Best Use
        • a. Physical Nature of Parcel 4.9
        • b. Future Adaptability 4.10
          • (1) Feasibility Studies 4.11
          • (2) Probability of Zoning Change or Land Use Approval 4.12
            • (a) Sources of Zoning Information 4.13
            • (b) Rezoning or Development Due to Project 4.14
            • (c) Evidence of Improper Zoning 4.15
            • (d) Witness Qualifications 4.16
            • (e) Other Land Development Controls 4.17
        • c. Interim Value 4.18
        • d. Evaluating Existing Zones of Value 4.19
          • (1) Partial Taking 4.20
          • (2) Combining Parcels; "Assemblage" Theory 4.21
    • D. Date of Valuation 4.22
      • 1. Commencement of Action, Trial Date, or Date of Deposit 4.23
      • 2. Fixtures and Improvements 4.24
      • 3. Bifurcated Trials 4.25
      • 4. Valuation Date on Retrial 4.26
    • E. Basic Approaches to Valuation 4.27
      • 1. Market Data Approach; Comparable Sales
        • a. Trial Court's Discretion
          • (1) Authority 4.28
          • (2) Weighing Aspects of Comparability 4.29
        • b. Effect of Public Improvement on Comparability 4.30
        • c. Good Faith Sale Required 4.31
        • d. Comparability of Sale
          • (1) Time and Location of Sale 4.32
          • (2) Nature of Land and Improvements 4.33
        • e. Assemblage and Comparable Sales 4.34
        • f. Sale for "Money" or Equivalent 4.35
        • g. Unit of Comparison 4.36
        • h. Preparing Comparable Sales Data
          • (1) Search of Records 4.37
          • (2) Confirmation of Information 4.38
        • i. Form: Information Worksheet 4.39
      • 2. Cost Approach
        • a. Definition 4.40
        • b. Appraiser's Role
          • (1) Estimating Land Value and Cost of Improvements 4.41
            • (a) Determining Unit Cost 4.42
            • (b) Unit-in-Place Method 4.43
          • (2) Depreciation 4.44
          • (3) Replacement and Reproduction 4.45
          • (4) Illegal Structures and Code Violations 4.45A
      • 3. Income Approach 4.46
        • a. Appraiser's Alternative Applications 4.47
          • (1) Building Residual Approach 4.48
          • (2) Land Residual and Overall Capitalization Processes 4.49
          • (3) Gross Rent Multiplier 4.50
        • b. Legal Tests of Income Approach 4.51
        • c. Form: Capitalization Summary Worksheet 4.52
      • 4. Economic or Developer's Approach; Unimproved Lands 4.53
      • 5. Special Purpose Property 4.54
  • II. SPECIFIC VALUATION PROBLEMS
    • A. Fixtures, Equipment, and Improvements 4.55
    • B. Inventory; Personal Property 4.56
    • C. Leaseholds 4.57
      • 1. Theories of Valuation 4.58
      • 2. Elements of Valuation 4.59
      • 3. Apportionment of Award Between Lessor and Lessee 4.60
        • a. Total Take 4.61
        • b. Partial Take 4.62
        • c. Improvements, Fixtures, and Equipment 4.63
    • D. Goodwill
      • 1. Historical Development of Goodwill Compensation 4.64
      • 2. Goodwill Valuation in Indirect Condemnation 4.65
      • 3. Requirements for Compensation 4.66
      • 4. Notice of Right to Claim Loss of Goodwill 4.67
      • 5. Claiming Goodwill 4.68
      • 6. Entitlement Issue and Burden of Proof 4.69
        • a. Loss Must Be Caused by Taking 4.70
        • b. Loss Cannot Reasonably Be Prevented 4.71
      • 7. No Compensation Benefits Available Under Relocation Assistance 4.72
      • 8. Loss of Goodwill Is Not Compensated From Other Source 4.73
      • 9. Valuation Methods 4.74
        • a. Excess Earnings Approach 4.75
        • b. Gross and Net Income Multipliers 4.76
        • c. Seller's Discretionary Cash Method 4.77
        • d. Cost to Create 4.77A
      • 10. Date of Valuation 4.78
    • E. Easements
      • 1. Valuation When Condemned Property Already Burdened With Easement 4.79
      • 2. Valuation When Condemned Property Served by Easement 4.79A
      • 3. Valuation of Abutter's Rights 4.79B
      • 4. Valuation When Public Agency Imposes Easement 4.80
      • 5. Temporary Construction Easement 4.81
    • F. Dedication Problems
      • 1. Power to Dedicate 4.82
      • 2. Effect on Valuation of Property Subject to Dedication 4.83
      • 3. Implied Dedication of Public Recreational Easements: Gion Doctrine 4.84
    • G. Trees and Shrubs 4.85
    • H. Harvesting Crops 4.86
    • I. Mineral and Natural Resources 4.87
    • J. Environmental Liability for Contamination 4.88
      • 1. The California Land Reuse and Revitalization Act of 2004 4.89
      • 2. School Districts (CCP §§1263.710–1263.770) 4.90
      • 3. Practical Considerations; Effect on Valuation 4.91
      • 4. Insurance 4.92
    • K. Creek Land 4.93

5

Severance Damages

Norman E. Matteoni

  • I. INTRODUCTION 5.1
    • A. Nature and Theory of Severance Damage 5.2
    • B. Roles of Court and Jury in Assessing Severance Damage 5.3
  • II. REQUIREMENTS OF SEVERANCE DAMAGES
    • A. The Public Project 5.3A
    • B. Existence of Larger Parcel 5.4
      • 1. Unity of Use 5.5
      • 2. Unity of Ownership 5.6
      • 3. Physical Contiguity 5.7
    • C. Causation 5.8
    • D. Improvement Need Not Be Located on Property Taken; Symons Rule Abrogated 5.9
    • E. Damages Available Only From Appropriate Condemning Agency 5.10
  • III. MEASURING SEVERANCE DAMAGES 5.11
    • A. Diminution in Value
      • 1. Comparison of Before and After Values 5.12
      • 2. Form: Attorney's Worksheet: Computation of Diminution of Remainder's Value 5.13
    • B. Cost to Cure 5.14
    • C. Development Potential of Property in Before Condition and Feasibility Studies 5.15
    • D. Increased Development Costs and Other Development Impacts 5.16
    • E. Measurement When Project Not Completed 5.17
    • F. Improvements Straddling Take Line 5.18
    • G. Condemnee's Duty to Mitigate Damages 5.19
  • IV. EXAMPLES OF COMPENSABLE SEVERANCE DAMAGES
    • A. Interference With Access
      • 1. Nature of Right 5.20
      • 2. Types of Access Problems 5.21
        • a. Immediate Access to Adjacent Street 5.22
        • b. Diversion of Traffic on Streets 5.23
        • c. Reasonable Access to Next Intersecting Street in Either Direction 5.24
      • 3. Determination and Measurement 5.25
    • B. Loss of Use
      • 1. Interference With Remainder During Construction Period 5.26
      • 2. Temporary Construction Easement 5.27
    • C. Recovering Nuisance- or Noxious-Type Damages
      • 1. Noise, Dust, Fumes, and Vibrations 5.28
      • 2. Fear of Hazards and Risk From Project 5.29
    • D. Agricultural Land 5.30
    • E. Special Purpose Property 5.31
    • F. Other Types of Severance Damages 5.32
  • V. BENEFITS
    • A. Nature of Benefits 5.33
    • B. Distinction in Admissibility Between Special Benefits and General Benefits Eliminated; Beveridge Rule Abrogated 5.34
      • 1. Historical Examples of Special Benefits 5.35
      • 2. Historical Examples of General Benefits 5.36
    • C. Measurement of Benefits 5.37
    • D. Other Benefits Problems
      • 1. Benefits From Concurrent But Separate Public Project 5.38
      • 2. Special Assessment Proceedings 5.39
    • E. Special Verdict to Ascertain Specific Amounts on Claims of Severance Damage 5.40

6

Public Use and Necessity Defenses

Norman E. Matteoni

  • I. INTRODUCTION
    • A. Constitutional and Statutory Limitations on Eminent Domain 6.1
    • B. Significance of Public Use and Necessity 6.2
    • C. Public Use and Necessity Distinguished 6.3
  • II. PUBLIC USE
    • A. Definition 6.4
      • 1. Kelo v City of New London Decision 6.5
      • 2. Redevelopment 6.6
    • B. Determination of Public Use 6.7
    • C. Negotiated Acquisition in Lieu of Condemnation Action 6.8
    • D. Defenses
      • 1. Lack of Authority to Condemn 6.9
        • a. Public Utilities 6.10
        • b. Authority of Private Persons 6.11
      • 2. Erroneous Determination of Public Use 6.12
      • 3. No Intent to Put Property to Designated Use 6.13
      • 4. No Intent to Use Property Within Reasonable Time 6.14
      • 5. Excess Property Taken 6.15
      • 6. Condemnation for Exchange Purposes 6.16
  • III. DEFENSE THAT LAND IS ALREADY APPROPRIATED TO PUBLIC USE; MORE NECESSARY PUBLIC USE 6.17
    • A. Prior Public Use 6.18
    • B. Multiple Use 6.19
    • C. More Necessary Public Use
      • 1. Determination of More Necessary Public Use 6.20
      • 2. Statutory Provisions 6.21
    • D. Restriction on Location of Highway Projects 6.22
    • E. Restrictions on Acquisition of State Park Land 6.23
    • F. Primary Powers of Certain Agencies 6.24
  • IV. NECESSITY
    • A. Introduction 6.25
      • 1. Sample Form: Notice of Adopting Resolution of Necessity 6.26
      • 2. Sample Form: Resolution of Necessity to Condemn Real Property 6.27
    • B. Conclusive Evidence Statutes 6.28
    • C. Chevalier Rule Superseded by CCP §1245.255 6.29
    • D. Rebuttable Presumption 6.30
    • E. Challenges 6.31
      • 1. Constitutional and Procedural Challenges 6.32
      • 2. CEQA Challenges 6.33
      • 3. Project Impact on Agricultural Preserve Land 6.34
  • V. PROCEDURE IN ALLEGING AND CHALLENGING PUBLIC USE AND NECESSITY
    • A. Complaint 6.35
    • B. Answer or Demurrer 6.36
    • C. Waiver of Challenge to the Right to Take 6.36A
    • D. Raising Objection at Hearing on Resolution 6.37
    • E. Burden of Proof 6.38
    • F. Trial 6.39
    • G. Remedy on Successful Right to Take Challenge 6.39A
  • VI. CHECKLIST: PUBLIC USE AND NECESSITY DEFENSES 6.40

7

Negotiation and Relocation Assistance

Norman E. Matteoni

  • I. INTRODUCTION 7.1
  • II. DISPARATE POSITIONS OF PARTIES 7.2
    • A. Condemnor's Dual Responsibilities 7.3
    • B. Guidelines to Encourage Acquisition by Negotiation 7.4
    • C. Condemnor's Staff Expertise; Cost of Preparation 7.5
    • D. Pressures on Condemnee 7.6
    • E. Limited Authority of Condemnor's Negotiator 7.7
  • III. MULTIPLE INTEREST HOLDERS 7.8
  • IV. SUBJECTS FOR NEGOTIATION 7.9
  • V. PREPARATION FOR NEGOTIATION 7.10
    • A. Interview Client 7.10A
    • B. Ascertain Market Conditions 7.10B
    • C. Review Pleadings 7.10C
    • D. Identify Legal Issues 7.10D
    • E. Consider Obtaining an Appraisal 7.10E
    • F. Consider Retaining Other Experts 7.10F
    • G. Research the Condemnor 7.10G
  • VI. NEGOTIATION TECHNIQUES
    • A. Approach to Negotiation 7.11
    • B. Basic Rules 7.12
    • C. Pretrial Offer and Demand 7.13
    • D. Exchange of Appraisals 7.14
  • VII. ROLE OF COURT IN NEGOTIATION 7.15
  • VIII. FORM: SETTLEMENT AGREEMENT 7.16
  • IX. RELOCATION ASSISTANCE
    • A. California Law 7.17
    • B. Federally Funded Projects 7.18
    • C. Relocation Benefits Not Part of Condemnation Trial 7.19
    • D. Case Law on Allowable Benefits 7.20

8

Pleadings

Norman E. Matteoni

  • I. PRACTICE GUIDE TO INITIATING CONDEMNATION ACTION 8.1
    • A. Environmental Review 8.2
    • B. Review of Title and Physical Conditions Affecting Property 8.3
    • C. Appraisal 8.4
    • D. Summary Statement of Value 8.5
    • E. Negotiations 8.6
    • F. Relocation Assistance 8.7
    • G. Statutory Offer 8.8
    • H. Notice of Intent to Condemn 8.9
    • I. Hearing on Adoption of Resolution 8.10
    • J. Update and Review of Appraisal Report 8.11
    • K. Project Plan 8.12
    • L. Physical Inspection Report 8.13
    • M. Hazardous Materials Study 8.14
    • N. Re-review of Preliminary Title Report 8.15
    • O. Maps and Property Description 8.16
    • P. Preparation of Summons and Complaint 8.17
    • Q. Deposit of Probable Compensation 8.18
    • R. Motion for Order of Possession 8.19
  • II. COMPLAINT
    • A. Statutory Requirements 8.20
    • B. Form: Complaint 8.21
    • C. Amendment to Complaint 8.21A
  • III. JURISDICTION AND PROCESS
    • A. Jurisdiction 8.22
    • B. Venue 8.23
    • C. Summons; Service of Process 8.24
    • D. Lis Pendens
      • 1. Statutory Requirements 8.25
      • 2. Form: Lis Pendens 8.26
    • E. Entry for Preliminary Surveys and Studies
      • 1. Statutory Scheme 8.27
      • 2. Scope of Precondemnation Entry; Property Reserve 8.27A
  • IV. CONDEMNOR'S RIGHT TO POSSESSION BEFORE JUDGMENT
    • A. Statutory Authority 8.28
    • B. Form: Notice of Deposit 8.29
    • C. Form: Summary Appraisal Statement 8.30
    • D. Procedure 8.31
      • 1. Order for Possession Before Judgment 8.32
      • 2. Objection to Possession of Grounds of Hardship 8.32A
      • 3. Form: Notice of Motion and Motion for Order of Possession 8.33
      • 4. Form: Memorandum in Support of Order for Possession 8.34
      • 5. Form: Declaration in Support of an Order for Possession 8.35
      • 6. Form: Order for Possession 8.36
    • E. Service 8.37
    • F. Stay of Order Until Ruling on Objections to Take 8.38
    • G. Injunction in Lieu of Order of Possession 8.39
    • H. Effect of Order for Early Possession 8.40
    • I. Deposit of Probable Compensation and Withdrawal 8.41
    • J. Increase of Deposit 8.42
      • 1. Form: Application for Withdrawal of Deposit of Probable Compensation 8.43
      • 2. Form: Objection to Withdrawal of Deposit of Probable Compensation 8.44
      • 3. Form: Report of Service of Objections to Withdrawal 8.45
      • 4. Form: Order for Withdrawal of Deposit 8.46
      • 5. Investment of Deposit 8.47
  • V. CONDEMNEE'S PLEADINGS
    • A. Disclaimer
      • 1. Use 8.48
      • 2. Form: Disclaimer 8.49
    • B. Answer
      • 1. Statutory Requirements 8.50
      • 2. Contents 8.51
      • 3. Pleading Precondemnation Damages by Answer or Cross-Complaint 8.52
      • 4. Affirmative Defenses 8.53
      • 5. Form: Answer 8.54
      • 6. Service 8.55
      • 7. Amendment of Answer 8.56
    • C. Demurrer 8.57
    • D. Cross-Complaint 8.58
  • VI. CONSOLIDATION AND SEPARATION
    • A. Discretion of Court 8.59
    • B. Procedure for Consolidation or Separation 8.60
      • 1. Notice of Motion for Order of Consolidation 8.61
      • 2. Supporting Memorandum 8.62
      • 3. Motion for Order of Separation 8.63
    • C. Tactical Precautions 8.64
  • VII. CONDEMNOR'S RIGHT TO ABANDON TAKING
    • A. Basis 8.65
    • B. Implied Abandonment 8.66
    • C. Compensation of Condemnee
      • 1. Litigation Expenses 8.67
      • 2. Damages Related to Abandonment 8.68
      • 3. Cost Bill 8.69
      • 4. Condemnor's Recovery of Deposit of Probable Compensation 8.70
    • D. Benefit of Hazardous Material Cleanup on Abandonment 8.71

9

Trial Preparation and Trial

Norman E. Matteoni

  • I. OVERVIEW OF CONDEMNATION PROCEDURE: PRACTICE GUIDE FOR HANDLING A CONDEMNATION ACTION 9.1
    • A. Eminent Domain Is a Special Proceeding 9.2
    • B. Initiating the Action; Resolution of Necessity 9.3
    • C. Order of Possession; Deposit of Probable Compensation 9.4
    • D. Withdrawal of Deposit 9.5
    • E. Right-to-Take Challenges 9.6
    • F. Discovery Rules 9.7
    • G. 60-Day and 20-Day Rules 9.8
    • H. Assignment of Judge for All Purposes 9.9
    • I. Collateral Issues 9.10
    • J. Preference for Trial 9.11
    • K. Date of Value 9.12
    • L. Plaintiff and Defendant Roles Are Reversed 9.13
    • M. No Burden of Proof 9.14
    • N. Selection of Jury 9.15
    • O. Prima Facie Case 9.16
    • P. Special Rules of Evidence 9.17
    • Q. View of Condemned Property 9.18
    • R. Closing 9.19
    • S. Jury Instructions and Verdict 9.20
    • T. Apportionment Hearing 9.21
    • U. Costs 9.22
    • V. Litigation Expenses 9.23
    • W. Judgment and Final Order 9.24
  • II. TRIAL PREPARATION AND DISCOVERY
    • A. Initial Trial Preparation
      • 1. Factual and Legal Preparation 9.25
      • 2. Valuation Issue 9.26
      • 3. Public Use and Necessity Issues 9.27
      • 4. Property Interest as an Issue 9.28
    • B. Discovery
      • 1. Conventional Techniques 9.29
        • a. Local Agency Witnesses 9.29A
        • b. Request for Public Records 9.29B
      • 2. Statutory Exchange of Appraisal Data 9.30
        • a. Limitations on Testimony at Trial 9.31
        • b. Form: Demand or Cross-Demand for Exchange of Information 9.32
        • c. Form: Responsive List of Expert Witnesses 9.33
      • 3. Form: Statement of Valuation Data 9.34
      • 4. Case Management Process
        • a. At-Issue Memorandum and Case Management Conference 9.35
        • b. Pretrial Conference 9.36
        • c. Checklist: Pretrial in Los Angeles County 9.37
        • d. Shortcomings of Pretrial Exchange of Valuation Data Procedure 9.38
        • e. Pretrial Offer and Demand 9.39
        • f. The 20-Day Period 9.40
    • C. Final Preparation
      • 1. Attorney's Independent Investigation 9.41
      • 2. Final Conferences 9.42
      • 3. Preparation of Trial Brief 9.43
  • III. TRIAL
    • A. Preliminary Trial Considerations
      • 1. Introduction to Trial Tactics 9.44
      • 2. Burden of Proof 9.45
      • 3. Burden of Going Forward 9.46
      • 4. Functions of Court and Jury 9.47
      • 5. In Limine Motions 9.48
        • a. Sixty Days Before Trial 9.49
        • b. At Trial 9.50
      • 6. Bifurcation and Separate Trials 9.51
      • 7. Time for Trial 9.52
      • 8. Continuance of Trial 9.52A
    • B. Jury Selection
      • 1. General Considerations 9.53
      • 2. Voir Dire 9.54
      • 3. Condemnor's Juror 9.55
      • 4. Condemnee's Juror 9.56
      • 5. Other Considerations 9.57
    • C. Prima Facie Phase 9.58
      • 1. Public Use and Necessity 9.59
      • 2. Condemnor's Engineering Witness 9.60
    • D. Opening Statement in Valuation Phase 9.61
    • E. Witnesses
      • 1. Lay Witnesses
        • a. Owner 9.62
        • b. Other Nonprofessional Witnesses 9.63
      • 2. Expert Witnesses and Hearsay Evidence 9.64
    • F. Presentation of Direct Examination
      • 1. General Tactics 9.65
      • 2. Direct Examination of Appraisal Witness
        • a. Checklist: Topics of Examination 9.66
        • b. Foundational Examination
          • (1) Checklist: Qualifications of Appraisal Witness 9.67
          • (2) Checklist: Investigation by Appraiser 9.68
          • (3) Checklist: Description of Property 9.69
          • (4) Checklist: Date of Evaluation 9.70
        • c. Opinions of Value 9.71
          • (1) Approaches to Valuation 9.72
          • (2) Checklist: Examination for Opinion Matters 9.73
          • (3) Subjects of Examination
            • (a) Highest and Best Use 9.74
            • (b) Comparable Sales 9.75
            • (c) Reproduction/Replacement Cost Study 9.76
            • (d) Income/Productivity Study 9.77
            • (e) Severance Damages 9.78
            • (f) Benefits 9.79
      • 3. Objections
        • a. Matters on Which Opinion of Value Cannot Be Based 9.80
          • (1) Sales to Condemning Agencies 9.80A
          • (2) Offers and Options 9.80B
          • (3) Assessed Value 9.80C
          • (4) Speculative Value 9.80D
          • (5) Opinion of Value of Other Property 9.80E
          • (6) Capitalized Value of Income on Other Property 9.80F
          • (7) Offers of Settlement 9.80G
          • (8) Sale of Subject Property After Lis Pendens 9.80H
          • (9) Amount of Deposit or Withdrawal 9.80I
          • (10) Property Owner's Appraisals for Other Purposes 9.80J
          • (11) Noncompensable Items 9.80K
          • (12) Unsanctioned Valuation Methodology 9.80L
        • b. Voir Dire of Witness on Alleged Comparable Sales and Foundational Matter 9.81
        • c. "Backdooring" Sales 9.82
        • d. Motion to Strike 9.83
    • G. Cross-Examination
      • 1. General Points of Exploration 9.84
      • 2. Cross-Examination on Value
        • a. Market Data/Comparable Sales Approach 9.85
        • b. Cost Approach 9.86
        • c. Income Approach 9.87
        • d. Developer's Approach versus Price per Buildable Foot 9.88
      • 3. Failure to Present Evidence of Initial Appraisal 9.89
      • 4. Revised Appraisal 9.90
      • 5. Check on Arithmetic 9.91
      • 6. Controlling Opposing Appraiser's Testimony 9.92
    • H. Rebuttal Evidence 9.93
    • I. Demonstrative Evidence (e.g., Maps, Photographs, Videotapes, Models, and Computer Simulations) 9.94
    • J. View of Premises 9.95
    • K. Final Argument 9.96
    • L. Counsel Misconduct 9.97
    • M. Jury Instructions 9.98
    • N. Verdict
      • 1. Statutory Requirements 9.99
      • 2. Form: Verdict 9.100
      • 3. Special Verdict to Ascertain Specific Amounts on Different Claims 9.101
      • 4. Basis of Award 9.102
    • O. Juror Misconduct 9.103
    • P. Expedited Jury Trial 9.104
    • Q. Alternative Dispute Resolution
      • 1. Statutory Processes 9.105
      • 2. Utility of Arbitration 9.106
      • 3. Scope of Judicial Review 9.107
    • R. Practicing Before Public Utilities Commission
      • 1. Function as Court of Eminent Domain 9.108
      • 2. Disposition of Operating Utility Property 9.109

10

Apportionment, Judgment, and Posttrial

Norman E. Matteoni

  • I. APPORTIONMENT OF AWARD AND TAXES
    • A. Introduction 10.1
    • B. Apportionment Procedure 10.2
    • C. Leaseholds
      • 1. Value of Lessee's Right to Possession and Use 10.3
      • 2. Fixtures 10.4
      • 3. Machinery and Equipment Used in Place 10.5
      • 4. Value of Lessor's Ownership Interest 10.6
      • 5. Condemnation Provisions in Leases
        • a. Use 10.7
        • b. Considerations for Drafting 10.8
        • c. Form: Condemnation Award Clause Favorable to Lessor 10.9
        • d. Form: Condemnation Award Clause Favorable to Lessee 10.10
    • D. Easements 10.11
    • E. Contractors, Managers, and Suppliers 10.12
    • F. Grantor-Grantee
      • 1. Title Transfer During Pendency of Condemnation 10.13
      • 2. Option to Purchase 10.14
      • 3. Reversionary Interests 10.15
    • G. Encumbrances; Liens 10.16
    • H. Property Taxes
      • 1. Generally 10.17
      • 2. Purchase of "Comparable Property" to Replace Condemned Property (Rev & T C §68) 10.17A
      • 3. Form: Application for Refund of Tax 10.18
  • II. JUDGMENT AND POSTTRIAL
    • A. Statement of Decision 10.19
    • B. Judgment 10.20
      • 1. Form: Judgment 10.21
      • 2. Possession After Judgment 10.22
      • 3. Postjudgment Procedure for Increase of Deposit for Ongoing Prejudgment Possession 10.23
      • 4. Finality of Judgment 10.24
      • 5. Time of Payment 10.25
      • 6. Installment Payments 10.26
    • C. Final Order of Condemnation
      • 1. Contents and Effect 10.27
      • 2. Form: Final Order of Condemnation 10.28
      • 3. Assessment of Costs and Litigation Expenses 10.29
      • 4. Award of Litigation Expenses 10.30
        • a. Entitlement 10.30A
        • b. Guidelines 10.30B
        • c. Substantial Evidence 10.30C
        • d. Settlement 10.30D
        • e. Property Owner's Expenses 10.30E
        • f. Making and Attacking Claim 10.30F
        • g. Discovery 10.30G
        • h. Evidentiary Hearing 10.30H
        • i. Award of Attorney Fees 10.30I
    • D. Interest on Award 10.31
      • 1. When Interest Begins to Accrue 10.32
      • 2. When Interest Ceases to Accrue 10.33
      • 3. Withdrawal of Deposit 10.34
      • 4. Offset of Interest 10.35
    • E. Appeal and New Trial
      • 1. Application of General Civil Rules 10.36
      • 2. Basis of Appeal or New Trial 10.37
      • 3. Appeal of Judgment and Orders 10.38
      • 4. Costs on Appeal 10.39

11

Federal Condemnation Practice

Norman E. Matteoni

  • I. INTRODUCTION 11.1
  • II. SPECIAL FEATURES OF FEDERAL SUBSTANTIVE LAW 11.2
  • III. FEDERAL POLICY ON REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION 11.3
  • IV. RELOCATION ASSISTANCE; MOVING COSTS 11.4
  • V. BASIC PROCEDURAL PROVISIONS; JURISDICTION AND VENUE 11.5
  • VI. PUBLIC USE AND NECESSITY 11.6
    • A. Environmental Protection 11.6A
    • B. Delegation of Eminent Domain Power to Nonfederal Agencies 11.6B
  • VII. PLEADING
    • A. Institution of Action; Notice of Filing Complaint 11.7
    • B. Joinder and Separation 11.8
    • C. Answer 11.9
    • D. Form: Notice of Appearance 11.10
    • E. Amendment of Pleadings 11.11
  • VIII. POSSESSION AND TITLE 11.12
    • A. Declaration of Taking 11.13
    • B. Deposit 11.14
  • IX. DISCOVERY 11.15
    • A. Master Scheduling Order 11.15A
    • B. Expert's Report 11.15B
  • X. VALUATION
    • A. Just Compensation: Fair Market Value 11.16
    • B. Determination of Value 11.17
    • C. Enhancement and Blight 11.18
    • D. Other Direct Losses 11.19
    • E. Severance Damages and Special Benefits 11.20
    • F. Goodwill 11.21
    • G. Special Purpose Property 11.21A
  • XI. ABANDONMENT AND DISMISSAL 11.22
  • XII. TRIAL 11.23
  • XIII. COSTS AND FEES 11.24
  • XIV. INTEREST 11.25
  • XV. LOCAL PRETRIAL RULES 11.25A
    • A. Northern District 11.26
    • B. Eastern District 11.27
    • C. Central District 11.28
    • D. Southern District 11.29
  • XVI. SOVEREIGN IMMUNITY 11.30
  • XVII. TUCKER ACT 11.31
  • XVIII. TAKING UNDER STATE'S POWER OF EMINENT DOMAIN 11.32

12

Income Tax Consequences of Condemnation Awards

Henry Veit

  • I. INTRODUCTION
    • A. Importance of Early Study of Tax Consequences 12.1
    • B. Taking Is a Sale 12.2
  • II. CONDEMNATION GAIN RECOGNIZED; NO REPLACEMENT PROPERTY ACQUIRED
    • A. Normal Rules 12.3
    • B. IRC §1231 Rules 12.4
  • III. CONDEMNATION GAIN DEFERRED; QUALIFIED REPLACEMENT PROPERTY ACQUIRED
    • A. Tax-Free Replacement Under IRC §1033
      • 1. Basic Operation 12.5
      • 2. Depreciation Recapture 12.6
      • 3. Replacement Property Costing Less Than Condemnation Award 12.7
      • 4. Replacement Property Costing More Than Condemnation Award 12.8
      • 5. No Requirement for Tracing Proceeds 12.9
      • 6. Holding Period of Replacement Property 12.10
      • 7. Acquisition of More Than One Replacement Parcel 12.11
      • 8. Involuntary Exchange of Property for Property 12.12
    • B. Involuntary Conversions Qualifying for Tax-Free Replacement Treatment
      • 1. Introduction 12.13
      • 2. Sale Under Threat or Imminence of Condemnation 12.14
      • 3. Irrigation and Reclamation Districts 12.15
    • C. Qualified Replacement Property 12.16
      • 1. "Like-Kind" Test 12.17
      • 2. "Similar or Related in Service or Use" Test; Functional Use 12.18
      • 3. Investment in Improvements to Other Property 12.19
      • 4. Acquisition From Related Person 12.20
    • D. Special Problems of Tax-Free Replacement
      • 1. Tenant's Interest in Lease 12.21
      • 2. Short-Term Condemnation 12.22
      • 3. Effect of Mortgage and Other Liens Against Condemned Property 12.23
      • 4. Single Economic Unit Rule 12.24
      • 5. Depreciation on Replacement Property 12.25
      • 6. Successor to Owner of Condemned Property 12.26
      • 7. Replacement by Investment in Corporate, Partnership, or Commonly Owned Property 12.27
    • E. Replacement Period 12.28
    • F. Elections on Tax Return 12.29
    • G. Statute of Limitations on Deficiency Assessments 12.30
  • IV. CONDEMNATION OF HOME 12.31
  • V. EASEMENTS 12.32
  • VI. SEVERANCE DAMAGES 12.33
    • A. Importance of Specific Allocation 12.34
    • B. Tax Treatment 12.35
    • C. Allowable Deductions and Offsets 12.36
  • VII. INVERSE CONDEMNATION 12.37
    • A. Casualty Loss Deduction Not Taken 12.38
    • B. Casualty Loss Deduction Taken 12.39
    • C. Tax-Free Replacement 12.40
    • D. Lost Profits 12.41
  • VIII. RELOCATION ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS 12.42
  • IX. CALIFORNIA PROPERTY TAX EXEMPTION 12.43

13

General Background on Inverse Condemnation

Norman E. Matteoni

  • I. INTRODUCTION
    • A. Direct Condemnation Contrasted With Inverse Condemnation 13.1
      • 1. Damage by Public Entity 13.1A
      • 2. Regulatory Takings 13.1B
    • B. Failure to Use Direct Condemnation May Result in Inverse Condemnation Action 13.2
  • II. ELEMENTS OF INVERSE CONDEMNATION ACTION 13.3
    • A. Ownership 13.3A
    • B. Public Project 13.3B
    • C. Taking or Damaging 13.3C
    • D. Causation 13.3D
  • III. COMPENSABLE DAMAGES
    • A. Types of Compensable Damages 13.4
    • B. Measure of Compensation 13.5
    • C. Multiple Defendants 13.6
  • IV. INVERSE CONDEMNATION AND TORT LAW
    • A. Confusion Between Theories of Recovery 13.7
      • 1. Proximate Cause 13.7A
      • 2. Property Accepted for Public Purpose 13.7B
      • 3. Negligent Maintenance 13.7C
      • 4. Property Damage During Police Action 13.7D
    • B. Choice of Action 13.8
      • 1. Pleading Tort Theories 13.8A
      • 2. Pleading Inverse Condemnation 13.8B
      • 3. Pleading in the Alternative 13.8C
      • 4. Joining Causes of Action 13.8D
      • 5. Remedies 13.8E
    • C. Combining Inverse With Direct Condemnation Action 13.9

14

Causes of Action for Physical Taking or Damage

Norman E. Matteoni

  • I. INTRODUCTION 14.1
  • II. LAND STABILITY 14.2
  • III. WATER DAMAGE 14.3
    • A. Surface Water 14.4
    • B. Stream Water; Alteration by Public Project 14.5
    • C. Flood Damage 14.6
    • D. Rights in Water 14.7
    • E. Regulation of Waters 14.8
    • F. Sovereign Rights in Navigable Waters 14.9
  • IV. OVERFLYING AIRCRAFT 14.10
  • V. INTERFERENCE WITH OR LOSS OF ACCESS 14.11
  • VI. LOSS OF USE DURING CONSTRUCTION 14.12
  • VII. NOISE, DUST, FUMES, AND VIBRATIONS 14.13
  • VIII. FIRE DAMAGE 14.13A
  • IX. HEALTH HAZARDS FROM PROJECT 14.14
  • X. IMPACT OF IMPENDING PROJECT—UNREASONABLE PRECONDEMNATION ACTIVITY 14.15
  • XI. GOOD FAITH MITIGATION DAMAGES 14.16

15

Causes of Action for Regulatory Taking

Norman E. Matteoni

  • I. INTRODUCTION
    • A. Unreasonable Exercise of Police Power 15.1
    • B. Jurisdiction: State or Federal 15.1A
    • C. Types of Challenges to Land Use Regulation 15.2
      • 1. Facial and Applied Challenges 15.3
      • 2. Distinguishing Takings and Substantive Due Process 15.4
    • D. Key United States Supreme Court Cases 15.5
  • II. TAKING BY LAND USE ENACTMENT
    • A. Introduction 15.6
    • B. Regulatory Taking Generally 15.7
    • C. Agins Decision and Its Impact 15.8
    • D. First English Decision 15.9
    • E. Loss of Substantially All Economically Viable Use 15.10
    • F. Reasonable Expectations 15.11
    • G. Lucas Decision 15.12
    • H. Lingle Decision 15.13
  • III. DOWNZONING AND OPEN SPACE ZONING 15.14
  • IV. PROTECTIVE ZONING IN HAZARDOUS AREAS 15.15
  • V. AESTHETIC ZONING 15.16
  • VI. PLANNING 15.17
  • VII. CONTROLLED GROWTH 15.18
  • VIII. RENT CONTROL AND AFFORDABLE HOUSING 15.19
  • IX. REGULATIONS FOR PROTECTION OF NATURAL RESOURCES 15.20
  • X. TEMPORARY REGULATIONS 15.21
  • XI. EMERGENCY REGULATIONS 15.22
  • XII. ABATEMENT OF NUISANCE 15.23
  • XIII. DEVELOPMENT DEDICATIONS, CONDITIONS, AND FEES 15.24
    • A. Determination of Amount of Fees 15.25
    • B. Nollan Decision 15.26
    • C. Dolan Decision 15.27
    • D. Earlier California Case Law 15.28
  • XIV. BUSINESS REGULATIONS 15.29
  • XV. CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS WASTE 15.30

16

Defenses to Inverse Condemnation Actions

Norman E. Matteoni

  • I. DEFENSES GENERALLY APPLICABLE TO BOTH PHYSICAL AND REGULATORY TAKINGS
    • A. Introduction 16.1
    • B. Police Power 16.2
    • C. Eleventh Amendment 16.3
    • D. Statute of Limitations 16.4
  • II. DEFENSES PRIMARILY APPLICABLE TO PHYSICAL TAKINGS
    • A. Estoppel by Judgment or Deed 16.5
    • B. Dedication and Adverse Possession 16.6
    • C. Public Use as Defense to Injunctive Relief 16.7
    • D. Equitable Indemnity 16.8
    • E. Collateral Source Rule 16.9
  • III. DEFENSES PRIMARILY APPLICABLE TO REGULATORY TAKINGS
    • A. Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies and Claims 16.10
    • B. Waiver 16.10A
    • C. Ripeness
      • 1. Final Determination 16.11
      • 2. Availability of State Court Remedy 16.12
    • D. Availability of Less Drastic Remedy: Invalidation Versus Taking 16.13
    • E. Legislative Immunity for Permit Activities 16.14
    • F. Federal Abstention 16.15
  • IV. ANSWERS TO POLICE POWER DEFENSE IN REGULATORY TAKINGS CASES
    • A. Zoning in Bad Faith 16.16
    • B. Vested Rights 16.17

17

Trial and Posttrial Considerations

Norman E. Matteoni

  • I. INITIATING ACTION
    • A. Initial Interview and Preparation 17.1
    • B. Claim Is Not Prerequisite to Litigation 17.2
    • C. Period During Which Suit Must Be Instituted 17.3
    • D. Accrual of Cause of Action 17.4
    • E. Date of Valuation 17.5
  • II. FORM: COMPLAINT FOR PHYSICAL TAKING OR DAMAGE 17.6
  • III. BASIC ALLEGATIONS AND CHECKLISTS: COMPLAINT FOR REGULATORY TAKING 17.7
  • IV. TWO-PHASE TRIAL 17.8
  • V. BURDEN OF PROOF 17.9
  • VI. TRIAL CONSIDERATIONS 17.10
    • A. Physical Taking Trial 17.11
    • B. Regulatory Taking Trial 17.12
  • VII. JUDGMENT 17.13
  • VIII. COSTS, FEES, AND INTEREST
    • A. Recovery of Costs and Expenses 17.14
    • B. Attorney Fees 17.15
    • C. Interest 17.16
    • D. Attorney Fees on Appeal 17.17
  • IX. JURY INSTRUCTIONS FOR INVERSE CONDEMNATION ACTIONS 17.18

 

CONDEMNATION PRACTICE IN CALIFORNIA

(3d Edition)

October 2016

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

  

File Name

Book Section

Title

CH01

Chapter 1

Attorney’s Initial Contact With Condemnation Action

01-018

§1.18

Letter Agreement

01-019

§1.19

Attorney-Client Agreement for Inverse Condemnation

CH03

Chapter 3

Selection of Valuation Experts

03-009

§3.9

Appraisal Agreement

CH04

Chapter 4

Just Compensation

04-039

§4.39

Information Worksheet

04-052

§4.52

Capitalization Summary Worksheet

04-067

§4.67

Notice of Right to Claim Loss of Goodwill

CH05

Chapter 5

Severance Damages

05-013

§5.13

Attorney’s Worksheet: Computation of Diminution of Remainder’s Value

CH06

Chapter 6

Public Use and Necessity Defenses

06-026

§6.26

Sample Form: Notice of Adopting Resolution of Necessity

06-027

§6.27

Sample Form: Resolution of Necessity to Condemn Real Property

06-040

§6.40

Checklist: Public Use and Necessity Defenses

CH07

Chapter 7

Negotiation and Relocation Assistance

07-016

§7.16

Form: Settlement Agreement

CH08

Chapter 8

Pleadings

08-021

§8.21

Complaint

08-026

§8.26

Lis Pendens

08-029

§8.29

Notice of Deposit

08-030

§8.30

Summary Appraisal Statement

08-033

§8.33

Notice of Motion and Motion for Order of Possession

08-034

§8.34

Memorandum in Support of Order for Possession

08-035

§8.35

Declaration in Support of an Order for Possession

08-036

§8.36

Order for Possession

08-043

§8.43

Application for Withdrawal of Deposit of Probable Compensation

08-044

§8.44

Objection to Withdrawal of Deposit of Probable Compensation

08-045

§8.45

Report of Service of Objections to Withdrawal

08-046

§8.46

Order for Withdrawal of Deposit

08-049

§8.49

Disclaimer

08-054

§8.54

Answer

08-061

§8.61

Notice of Motion for Order of Consolidation

CH09

Chapter 9

Trial Preparation and Trial

09-032

§9.32

Demand or Cross-Demand for Exchange of Information

09-033

§9.33

Responsive List of Expert Witnesses

09-034

§9.34

Statement of Valuation Data

09-037

§9.37

Checklist: Pretrial in Los Angeles County

09-066

§9.66

Checklist: Topics of Examination

09-067

§9.67

Checklist: Qualifications of Appraisal Witness

09-068

§9.68

Checklist: Investigation by Appraiser

09-069

§9.69

Checklist: Description of Property

09-070

§9.70

Checklist: Date of Evaluation

09-073

§9.73

Checklist: Examination for Opinion Matters

09-100

§9.100

Verdict

CH10

Chapter 10

Apportionment, Judgment, and Posttrial

10-009

§10.9

Condemnation Award Clause Favorable to Lessor

10-010

§10.10

Condemnation Award Clause Favorable to Lessee

10-018

§10.18

Application for Refund of Tax

10-021

§10.21

Judgment

10-028

§10.28

Final Order of Condemnation

CH11

Chapter 11

Federal Condemnation Practice

11-010

§11.10

Notice of Appearance

CH17

Chapter 17

Trial and Posttrial Considerations

17-006

§17.6

Form: Complaint for Physical Taking or Damage

17-007

§17.7

Basic Allegations and Checklists: Complaint for Regulatory Taking

17-018

§17.18

Jury Instructions for Inverse Condemnation Actions

 

Selected Developments

September 2017 Update

This update addresses the most significant statutory and regulatory changes since the previous update was published. Among the most significant recent developments are the following:

In the long-awaited decision in City of Perris v Stamper (2016) 1 C5th 576, the California Supreme Court applied the project effect rule to determine the applicability of a dedication requirement to the valuation of property condemned. The supreme court also held in Stamper that the constitutionality of a dedication requirement under Nollan and Dolan is for the court to decide. See discussion in §§4.5, 4.12, 4.83, 5.16.

A loss of goodwill claim for a nonprofit organization was recognized in People ex rel Dep't of Transp. v Presidio Performing Arts Found. (2016) 5 CA5th 190. See §§4.66, 4.77.

For a case on the valuation of underground natural gas storage, and distinguishing the decision in PG&E v Zuckerman (1987) 189 CA3d 1113 on that topic, see Central Valley Gas Storage LLC v Southam (2017) 11 CA5th 686, discussed in §4.87.

A new section has been added with detailed discussion of how to define the "public project" for purposes of determining severance damages. See §5.3A.

In another long-awaited decision, the California Supreme Court approved the use of the precondemnation entry statute for geologic borings, as well as extensive environmental studies, on the basis of the legislature's corrective amendments to the statute since 1923. Property Reserve, Inc. v Superior Court (California Dep't of Water Resources) (2016) 1 C5th 151. See detailed discussion in §8.27A.

In City of San Jose v Superior Court (2017) 2 C5th 608, the California Supreme Court addressed the extent of the reach of a public records request to include disclosure of e-mails in the personal accounts of public employees and officials conducting public business. See §9.29B.

For new discussion and practice tips on how to conduct cross-examination to draw out details of the project from the project construction plans that affect the property, especially in the case of design build projects, see §9.60.

For new discussion of the use of Google Earth® aerial (overhead and oblique) images, drone videos, PowerPoint® presentations, and similar tools in condemnation litigation, see §§9.94–9.95.

In Alaska Dep't of Natural Resources v U.S. (9th Cir 2016) 816 F3d 580, 587, the Ninth Circuit ruled that when a state's claim under the Quiet Title Act (28 USC §2409a) is barred, it may not litigate title to contested rights of way on Indian lands "through the back door" by asserting a condemnation claim under 25 USC §357. See §11.12.

In Boxer v City of Beverly Hills (2016) 246 CA4th 1212, the court held that residential property owners do not have a property right to an unobstructed view when large trees growing on a city park do not physically invade their property. Also, the fire risk posed by the trees was speculative. See §§13.3A, 13.4, 14.13A.

For an application of the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Arkansas Game & Fish Comm'n v U.S. (2012) 568 US ___, 133 S Ct 511, to temporary flood damage arising from storm surge during Hurricane Katrinia caused by the Army Corps of Engineers' construction, expansions, operation, and failure to maintain the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet, see St. Bernard Parish Gov't v U.S. (2015) 121 Fed Cl 687 (a detailed opinion on foreseeability, causation, and intervening events). See §14.6.

In its much-anticipated decision in Murr v Wisconsin (2017) ___ US ___, 137 S Ct 1933, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a local regulation that effectively merged an undeveloped lot with an adjacent developed lot in the same ownership was not a taking, after analyzing three factors: (1) how title is treated under state and local law, (2) the physical characteristics of the undeveloped parcel, and (3) the economic impact on the combined lots. See §§15.5, 15.10, 15.20.

The court in City of Corona v AMG Advertising, Inc. (2016) 244 CA4th 291 upheld against a constitutional challenge a city ordinance prohibiting all new offsite billboards after 2004 but allowing ones that were erected before the ordinance's enactment to be relocated if a permit was obtained. See §15.16.

Landlord-tenant lawyers may recall that in Levin v City & County of San Francisco (ND Cal 2014) 71 F Supp 3d 1072, a federal district court held unconstitutional an ordinance requiring landlords who sought to withdraw their rent-controlled property from the rental market to pay an extraordinary lump-sum payout to regain possession. (The formula for the payout was the monthly rental rate at the time of the notice of withdrawal, multiplied by 24.) After the city amended its ordinance in light of that decision, the Ninth Circuit dismissed the city's appeal as moot, in Levin v City & County of San Francisco (9th Cir, Mar. 13, 2017, No. 14–17283) 2017 US App Lexis 4384. See §15.19.

Because there is no specific statute of limitations for an action brought under 42 USC §1983, the federal courts look to the law of the state in which the action arises for the applicable statute of limitations. If identical §1983 claims are pursued in different forums, a federal court has held that the statute of limitations is equitably tolled in the second filed action only during the pendency of the claim in the first filed action. See Honchariw v County of Stanislaus (ED Cal, Nov. 14, 2016, 1:16–cv–1183–LJO—BAM) 2016 US Dist Lexis 157422, discussed in the Note in §16.4.

In Lynch v California Coastal Comm'n (July 6, 2017, S221980) 2017 Cal Lexis 5054, the supreme court reinforced the rule that acceptance of the benefits of a permit bars the owner from challenging the conditions of that permit. In Lynch, the property owners accepted a Coastal Commission permit to restore a seawall that protected their residential properties, but in order to proceed, they had to accept conditions that the permit will expire in 20 years and that the owners had to record a deed restriction stating that the condition restricted the properties. See §16.10A.

In a bizarre inverse condemnation case, Daniel & Francine Scinto Found. v City of Orange (CD Cal, Aug. 3, 2016, SA CV 15–1537–DOC) 2016 US Dist Lexis 102060, the court applied the U.S. Supreme Court's ripeness test enunciated in Williamson County Reg'l Planning Comm'n v Hamilton Bank (1985) 473 US 172, 105 S Ct 3108, when the plaintiff presented the court with an inadequate record with which to determine whether there was any definitive municipal action to bar a church from use of property. See §16.11.

About the Third Edition Authors

NORMAN E. MATTEONI, author of chapters 1–11 and 13–17, is a partner with Matteoni, O'Laughlin & Hechtman, and practices in San Jose. Mr. Matteoni earned his A.B. degree in 1960 and his J.D. degree in 1963 from the University of Notre Dame. He was an attorney in the office of the Santa Clara County Counsel, where he tried condemnation cases for various condemning agencies and served as an attorney to the planning commission and board of supervisors on zoning and planning matters. After entering private practice in 1974, he has represented primarily property owners in condemnation cases, but also represents public agencies from time to time. He has written extensively on condemnation law and was a consultant to the California Law Revision Commission on Eminent Domain. He has served on the former State Bar Committee on Condemnation, and was its chairperson for two years. He also lectures on condemnation topics at Santa Clara University School of Law and various continuing education programs.

HENRY VEIT, author of chapter 12, is a shareholder and officer of Lerner & Veit, a Professional Corporation, and practices in San Francisco. He received his B.S. degree in Economics from the Wharton School of Finance and Commerce in 1957, and his J.D. degree from the University of Wisconsin Law School in 1961. He is a member of the State Bar of both California and Wisconsin, and is also a member of the Wisconsin Foundation. From 1961 until 1966, he was employed by the Internal Revenue Service. He has been in the private practice of law since 1967, specializing in tax and related matters, and has served on the planning committee for CEB's Institutes for Advanced Tax Planning for Real Property Transactions.

RICHARD G. OPPER, author of former Appendix A (on the use of the Polanco Redevelopment Act in eminent domain actions), is a principal of Opper & Varco LLP in San Diego. He attended the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law, where he received his J.D. degree in 1976, and the Kennedy School, Harvard, where he received an M.P.A. degree in 1987. He gratefully acknowledges the substantial assistance of his associate, Ryan D. Moroney (Lewis and Clark School of Law, J.D. 2001), and his partner, Linda C. Beresford (University of California, Berkeley, School of Law, J.D. 1998), in researching and writing former Appendix A. Mr. Opper maintains a website at http://www.Envirolawyer.com.

OnLAW System Requirements:
Desktop: Windows XP, 7 or 8, Mac OS 10.8
Mobile: iOS6, iOS7, Android 4.2
Firefox, Chrome, IE and Safari browsers

Note: OnLAW may work with some devices running older versions of these Operating Systems or Windows RT; however, functionality is not guaranteed.

Please see FAQs for more details.
Products specifications
PRACTICE AREA Public Law
PRODUCT GROUP Publication
PRACTICE AREA Real Property
Products specifications
PRACTICE AREA Public Law
PRODUCT GROUP Publication
PRACTICE AREA Real Property