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California Wage and Hour Law and Litigation

This is your award-winning guide to a constantly developing area of law. Use it as a handbook for counseling your clients about compliance with complex wage and hour rules or as a primer for litigating a wage and hour case whether you represent the employer or the employee.

“...not only provides attorneys with a compendium of recent case law and statutory references, but also contains numerous practice tips that can be relied upon in litigating and settling wage and hour matters. ”
Mark S. Rudy, Rudy, Exelrod, Zieff & Lowe, LLP, San Francisco

This is your award-winning guide to a constantly developing area of law. Use it as a handbook for counseling your clients about compliance with complex wage and hour rules or as a primer for litigating a wage and hour case whether you represent the employer or the employee.

  • New chapter devoted exclusively to PAGA claims
  • Covers both state and federal law
  • Explains meal and rest break rules, a frequent source of litigation and liability
  • Helps avoid misclassification problems
  • Offers advice for workplace policies and best practices
  • Explains state and federal agency proceedings
  • Provides in-depth treatment of the mediation process
  • Assists with litigation strategy whether you represent the plaintiff or defendant
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“...not only provides attorneys with a compendium of recent case law and statutory references, but also contains numerous practice tips that can be relied upon in litigating and settling wage and hour matters. ”
Mark S. Rudy, Rudy, Exelrod, Zieff & Lowe, LLP, San Francisco

This is your award-winning guide to a constantly developing area of law. Use it as a handbook for counseling your clients about compliance with complex wage and hour rules or as a primer for litigating a wage and hour case whether you represent the employer or the employee.

  • New chapter devoted exclusively to PAGA claims
  • Covers both state and federal law
  • Explains meal and rest break rules, a frequent source of litigation and liability
  • Helps avoid misclassification problems
  • Offers advice for workplace policies and best practices
  • Explains state and federal agency proceedings
  • Provides in-depth treatment of the mediation process
  • Assists with litigation strategy whether you represent the plaintiff or defendant

1

Overview of California Wage and Hour Law

Michael D. Singer

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  1.1
  • II.  OVERVIEW OF APPLICABLE LAW
    • A.  Regulatory Scheme  1.2
    • B.  Importance of Employment Relationship  1.3
      • 1.  “ABC” Test for Distinguishing Between Employees and Independent Contractors  1.4
      • 2.  Rebuttable Presumption of Employee Status (Lab C §2750.5)  1.5
      • 3.  Risks of Misclassification  1.6
    • C.  IWC Wage Orders  1.7
      • 1.  Table: Wage Orders by Industry or Occupation  1.8
      • 2.  Enforcement; DLSE Manual  1.9
      • 3.  Public Employers Generally Exempt  1.10
    • D.  Unfair Competition Law  1.11
    • E.  Public Policy
      • 1.  Policies Governing Wages and Working Conditions in General  1.12
      • 2.  Policies Governing Minimum Wages, Overtime, and Payment of Wages  1.13
      • 3.  California Public Policy Supporting Wage and Hour Class Actions  1.14
  • III.  WAGE AND HOUR LAWS AND REGULATIONS
    • A.  Minimum Wages and Contract Wages
      • 1.  Minimum Wages  1.15
        • a.  Exemptions From Minimum Wage  1.16
        • b.  Learners  1.17
        • c.  Minors  1.18
      • 2.  Contract Wages  1.19
    • B.  Split-Shift Premiums  1.20
    • C.  Reporting Time Pay  1.21
    • D.  Living Wage  1.22
    • E.  Maximum Hours and Overtime Pay
      • 1.  Workday and Workweek  1.23
      • 2.  Calculating Regular Pay Rates  1.24
      • 3.  Alternative Workweek Schedules  1.25
      • 4.  Employees Covered by Collective Bargaining Agreements  1.26
      • 5.  Overtime Exemptions  1.27
    • F.  Compensatory Time Off in Lieu of Overtime  1.28
    • G.  Standby or On-Call Time  1.29
    • H.  Prevailing Wage Requirements for Public Works Construction  1.30
      • 1.  Recordkeeping  1.31
      • 2.  Exceptions  1.32
    • I.  Uniforms  1.33
    • J.  Tools and Equipment  1.34
    • K.  Rest and Meal Period Requirements  1.35
      • 1.  Rest Periods  1.36
      • 2.  Meal Periods  1.37
    • L.  Recordkeeping Requirements  1.38
      • 1.  Payroll Statements  1.39
      • 2.  Inspection Rights  1.40
      • 3.  Penalties  1.41
    • M.  Vacation Time  1.42
    • N.  Sick Days, Kin Care, Family and Medical Leave, and Paid Family Leave
      • 1.  Sick Leave  1.43
      • 2.  Kin Care  1.44
      • 3.  Family and Medical Leave  1.45
      • 4.  Paid Family Leave  1.46
    • O.  Timing of Wage Payments; Penalties  1.47
    • P.  Tip Pooling  1.48
    • Q.  Gender-Based Equal Pay Protections  1.49
    • R.  California Fair Pay Act  1.49A
    • S.  Mass Layoff Notice  1.50
    • T.  Indemnity for Expenditures on Uniforms, Tools, and Other Work-Related Expenses  1.51
    • U.  Wage Deductions
      • 1.  General Rule  1.52
      • 2.  Cash Shortage, Breakage, and Equipment Loss  1.53
    • V.  Enforcement
      • 1.  Private Attorneys General Act  1.54
      • 2.  Attorney Fees, Interest, and Costs in Wage Claims  1.55
      • 3.  Penalties  1.56
      • 4.  Statutes of Limitations  1.57

2

Overview of Federal Law

Aashish Y. Desai

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  2.1
  • II.  FEDERAL LAWS GOVERNING WAGES AND HOURS  2.2
  • III.  THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT (FLSA)
    • A.  Coverage Under the FLSA  2.3
    • B.  Interaction of State and Federal Law  2.4
    • C.  Areas Regulated by the FLSA  2.5
    • D.  Areas Not Regulated by the FLSA
      • 1.  Rest Periods  2.6
      • 2.  Meal Periods  2.7
    • E.  Employer-Employee Relationship Required
      • 1.  FLSA Definition of “Employee”
        • a.  Broadly Defined  2.8
        • b.  Independent Contractor versus Employee
          • (1)  Economic Reality Test  2.9
          • (2)  Examples  2.10
      • 2.  FLSA Definition of “Employer”
        • a.  Broadly Defined  2.11
        • b.  Joint Employers  2.12
        • c.  Successor Liability  2.13
    • F.  “In Commerce” Requirement  2.14
      • 1.  Employee Test  2.15
        • a.  “Engaged in Commerce”  2.16
        • b.  “Engaged in the Production of Goods for Commerce”  2.17
        • c.  Employees of Not-for-Profit Organizations  2.18
      • 2.  Enterprise Test  2.19
        • a.  Family Business Exception  2.20
        • b.  Public Entities  2.21
        • c.  Indian Tribes  2.22
    • G.  Exemptions Under the FLSA  2.23
    • H.  Recordkeeping
      • 1.  Overview  2.24
      • 2.  Items Required  2.25
      • 3.  Retention Periods  2.26
      • 4.  No Private Right of Action  2.27
      • 5.  California Rights May Differ  2.28
      • 6.  Burden on Employer  2.29
  • IV.  CLASS CERTIFICATION OF FLSA CLAIMS
    • A.  Opt-in Requirement  2.30
    • B.  Notice to “Similarly Situated” Parties  2.31
    • C.  Two-Tiered Procedure for Certification  2.32
  • V.  ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
    • A.  Generally  2.33
    • B.  Fees Are Mandatory  2.34
    • C.  Defendants Are Not Entitled to Fees  2.35
    • D.  Calculation of Fees  2.36
      • 1.  Establish the Lodestar  2.37
      • 2.  Multiplier  2.38
  • VI.  OTHER LITIGATION ISSUES
    • A.  Waiver of FLSA Claims  2.39
    • B.  California Law May Differ  2.40
    • C.  No Second Opt-in Requirement  2.41
    • D.  Parent and Subsidiary Corporations  2.42
    • E.  Individual Corporate Officers  2.43
    • F.  Representative Testimony  2.44
    • G.  Hybrid Actions Using State and Federal Law  2.45
  • VII.  COMPUTING OVERTIME DAMAGES
    • A.  General Principles  2.46
    • B.  Determining the Workweek  2.47
    • C.  Computing the Regular Rate
      • 1.  In General  2.48
      • 2.  Fluctuating Workweek  2.49
    • D.  Bonuses  2.50
    • E.  Benefit Plans  2.51
    • F.  Belo Plans
      • 1.  Under Federal Law  2.52
      • 2.  California Does Not Permit Belo Plans  2.53

3

The Employment Relationship

Bill Hoerger

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  3.1
  • II.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  3.2
  • III.  WAGE LIABILITY UNDER CALIFORNIA LAW
    • A.  California Statutory Employment Relationship
      • 1.  Statutory and Regulatory Framework  3.3
      • 2.  “Employer” Liability Under the Labor Code  3.4
        • a.  Employment Relationship Applicable to Private-Party Causes of Action  3.5
        • b.  Actions by DLSE May Invoke Wage-Order Definition or Common Law Relationship  3.6
    • B.  Risks of Misclassification  3.7
    • C.  Pleading and Proof  3.7A
    • D.  “Employer” Liability Under Common Law Principles  3.8
      • 1.  “Status” and “Joint Employer” Cases  3.9
      • 2.  Historical Development  3.10
      • 3.  California’s Common Law Approach
        • a.  Evaluate Right to Control  3.11
        • b.  Consider Other Factors in Addition to Control  3.12
        • c.  Consider History and Purposes of Statute  3.13
        • d.  Primary Versus Secondary Factors  3.14
        • e.  Applying the Secondary Factors
          • (1)  Engaged in a Distinct Occupation or Business  3.15
          • (2)  Kind of Occupation  3.16
          • (3)  Skill Required  3.17
          • (4)  Tools and Place of Work  3.18
          • (5)  Length of Time Employed  3.19
          • (6)  Method of Payment  3.20
          • (7)  Part of Regular Business of Employer  3.21
          • (8)  Parties’ Intention and Belief  3.22
          • (9)  Whether Principal Is in Business  3.23
        • f.  Restatement of Employment Law: Distinguishing Agency From Employment  3.24
        • g.  Summary of Common Law Approach  3.25
    • E.  Martinez v Combs and Dynamex v Superior Court  3.26
    • F.  Statutory Liability of Nonemployers to Workers for Wages and Penalties  3.27
    • G.  Contractual Liability for Nonemployers  3.28
    • H.  Alter Ego Liability
      • 1.  Nature of Doctrine  3.29
      • 2.  Application  3.30
      • 3.  Procedures
        • a.  Prior to Conclusion of Trial  3.31
        • b.  Postjudgment  3.32
      • 4.  Litigation Assessment and Pleading Considerations  3.33
  • IV.  WAGE LIABILITY UNDER THE FLSA  3.34
    • A.  Employee or Independent Contractor: “Economic Reality” Test  3.35
    • B.  Examples  3.36
    • C.  Joint Employers  3.37
    • D.  Successor Liability  3.38

4

Compensable Work Time and Regulation of Work Time

R. Brian Dixon

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  4.1
  • II.  GENERAL CONCEPTS OF WORK TIME
    • A.  Relationship of Federal to State and Local Law  4.2
      • 1.  Federal Law  4.3
      • 2.  State Law
        • a.  Defining Compensable Work Time  4.4
        • b.  Work Time Exclusions  4.5
    • B.  Paying for Work Time With Piece Rates and Commissions  4.5A
    • C.  Work Time as “Suffered or Permitted”  4.6
  • III.  CALCULATING COMPENSABLE WORK TIME  4.6A
    • A.  The De Minimis Rule  4.7
      • 1.  De Minimis Donning and Doffing Time  4.8
      • 2.  Aggregating Activities  4.9
      • 3.  De Minimis Rule Not Incorporated Into State Wage and Hour Law  4.9A
    • B.  Residential Employees  4.9B
  • IV.  WORK TIME BY ACTIVITY  4.10
    • A.  Principal, Preliminary, and Postliminary Activities  4.11
    • B.  Clothes-Changing Time  4.12
    • C.  Meal Periods  4.13
      • 1.  Leaving the Premises  4.14
      • 2.  Variation by Agreement  4.15
    • D.  Rest and Recovery Periods  4.16
    • E.  Adjusting Grievances  4.17
    • F.  Meeting and Training Time  4.18
    • G.  Medical Attention  4.19
    • H.  Civic and Charitable Work   4.20
    • I.  Waiting Time  4.21
      • 1.  Recesses  4.22
      • 2.  Standby Time  4.23
    • J.  Travel Time  4.24
      • 1.  Commute Time  4.25
      • 2.  Out-of-Town Travel  4.26
      • 3.  Travel Under California Law  4.27
    • K.  Sleep Time  4.28
  • V.  REGULATION OF WORK HOURS  4.29
    • A.  Meal Period Intervals  4.30
      • 1.  Meal Period Variations  4.31
      • 2.  Conflict Between Wage Order Meal Period Provisions and Lab C §512  4.32
      • 3.  Limited Obligation to Provide Meal Periods  4.33
      • 4.  Premium for Missed Meal Periods  4.34
    • B.  Rest Periods  4.35
    • C.  Lactation Breaks  4.35A
    • D.  Recovery Periods  4.35B
    • E.  Reporting Time Pay  4.36
      • 1.  Mandatory Meetings  4.37
      • 2.  Reporting Pay Excused  4.38
    • F.  Split-Shift Premium  4.39
    • G.  Maximum Hours  4.40
    • H.  Day of Rest  4.41

5

Payment of Wages

Jeffrey P. Fuchsman

Eric W. Mueller

Richard S. Rosenberg

Matthew T. Wakefield

  • I.  OVERVIEW  5.1
    • A.  Basic Federal Statutes  5.2
    • B.  California Regulatory Scheme: Wage Orders  5.3
    • C.  Information to Be Provided to Employees On Hire  5.3A
  • II.  MANNER OF PAYMENT
    • A.  Time of Payment  5.4
    • B.  Method of Payment; Payroll Debit Cards  5.5
    • C.  Wage Statements  5.6
      • 1.  Employee Damages  5.7
      • 2.  Civil and Criminal Penalties  5.8
  • III.  CALCULATION OF WAGES
    • A.  Hourly, Salary, and Piece-Rate Compensation  5.9
    • B.  Pay for Reporting to Work  5.10
    • C.  Payment of Wages on Termination of Employment  5.11
      • 1.  Rules Applicable to Specific Industries  5.12
      • 2.  Penalties  5.13
    • D.  Commissions and Bonuses  5.14
    • E.  Minimum Wage  5.15
      • 1.  Minors and Learners  5.16
      • 2.  Crediting of Tips Toward Minimum Wage  5.17
    • F.  Meal and Lodging Credits  5.18
    • G.  Volunteers and Interns  5.19
  • IV.  EFFECT OF BENEFITS ON WAGE CALCULATIONS
    • A.  Gratuities
      • 1.  Employees’ Right to Gratuities  5.20
      • 2.  Tip-Pooling Arrangements  5.21
    • B.  Vacation  5.22
    • C.  Sabbatical Leave Distinguished  5.22A
    • D.  Sick Pay  5.23
      • 1.  Employees Covered  5.23A
      • 2.  Request for and Use of Sick Leave  5.23B
      • 3.  Employer Response to Request  5.23C
      • 4.  Accrual, Carryover, and Cap  5.23D
      • 5.  Termination of Employment  5.23E
      • 6.  Recordkeeping and Notice Requirements  5.23F
      • 7.  Existing Policies  5.23G
      • 8.  Enforcement and Penalties  5.23H
      • 9.  Preemption and Scope Issues  5.23I
    • E.  Severance Pay  5.24
  • V.  ADJUSTMENTS TO WAGES
    • A.  Shortages, Breakage, or Losses  5.25
    • B.  Adjustments, Chargebacks, or Deductions  5.26
    • C.  Uniforms, Tools, and Equipment  5.27
    • D.  Indemnification  5.28

6

Regular Rate and Overtime

Jeffrey P. Fuchsman

Eric W. Mueller

Richard S. Rosenberg

Matthew T. Wakefield

  • I.  OVERTIME
    • A.  California Law  6.1
    • B.  Federal Law—FLSA  6.2
    • C.  Exemptions  6.3
    • D.  California Wage Orders: Different Overtime Rules for Different Industries  6.4
    • E.  Phase-In Overtime for Agricultural Workers Act of 2016  6.4A
    • F.  Workweek and Workday
      • 1.  FLSA  6.5
      • 2.  California Law  6.6
    • G.  Alternative Workweek Schedules
      • 1.  Permissible Arrangements  6.7
      • 2.  Implementation
        • a.  Proposal for Alternative Workweek Schedule  6.8
        • b.  Ratification of Alternative Workweek Schedule  6.9
        • c.  Repeal of Alternative Workweek Schedule  6.10
        • d.  Employee Rights  6.11
      • 3.  Health Care Industry  6.12
  • II.  REGULAR RATE OF PAY
    • A.  Hourly and Salaried Employees  6.13
    • B.  Fluctuating Workweek
      • 1.  Under the FLSA  6.14
      • 2.  Not Permitted Under California Law  6.15
      • 3.  Example Illustrating Differences Between Federal and State Approach  6.16
    • C.  Pieceworkers  6.17
    • D.  Commissions and Bonuses  6.18
    • E.  Different Rates of Pay for Employee Doing Different Types of Work
      • 1.  Under California Law  6.19
      • 2.  Under the FLSA  6.20
    • F.  Noncash Wages  6.21
  • III.  EXCLUSIONS FROM THE REGULAR RATE
    • A.  Gifts and Special Occasion Bonuses  6.22
    • B.  Payment for Hours Not Worked or Expenses  6.23
    • C.  Discretionary Bonuses and Payments to Certain Benefit Plans  6.24
    • D.  Other Benefit Plan Contributions  6.25
    • E.  Stock Options and Other Equity Devices  6.26
    • F.  Premium Pay for Overtime  6.27
  • IV.  EXAMPLES OF OVERTIME CALCULATIONS
    • A.  Hourly Employees  6.28
      • 1.  Seventh-Day Premium  6.29
      • 2.  Pieceworkers  6.30
      • 3.  Commissions and Bonus  6.31
    • B.  Salaried Employees  6.32
  • V.  OTHER METHODS OF COMPENSATING OVERTIME
    • A.  Time Off  6.33
    • B.  Make-Up Time Exception in California  6.34

7

Exemptions From Minimum Wage and Overtime Requirements

  • I.  CALIFORNIA EXEMPTIONS
    • A.  Status Is Determined by Salary and Duties  7.1
      • 1.  Salary  7.2
        • a.  Effect of Additional Compensation Paid for Extra Hours Worked  7.3
        • b.  Deductions  7.4
      • 2.  Duties  7.5
    • B.  Executive Exemption  7.6
    • C.  Administrative Exemption  7.7
    • D.  Professional Exemption  7.8
    • E.  Exempt Treatment of Other Particular Occupations
      • 1.  Computer-Related Professionals  7.9
      • 2.  Outside Salespersons  7.10
      • 3.  Commissioned Salespersons  7.11
      • 4.  Other Exemptions  7.12
  • II.  FEDERAL EXEMPTIONS  7.13
    • A.  Executive Exemption  7.14
      • 1.  Salary Test  7.15
      • 2.  Primary Duty  7.16
      • 3.  Supervisory Position  7.17
      • 4.  Authority to Hire or Fire  7.18
    • B.  Administrative Exemption  7.19
      • 1.  Salary Test  7.20
      • 2.  Primary Duty  7.21
      • 3.  Exercise of Discretion and Independent Judgment  7.22
    • C.  Professional Exemption
      • 1.  Learned Professional  7.23
        • a.  Salary Test  7.24
        • b.  Primary Duty  7.25
      • 2.  Creative Professional  7.26
    • D.  Exempt Treatment of Other Particular Occupations
      • 1.  Computer-Related Professionals  7.27
      • 2.  Outside Salespersons  7.28
      • 3.  Certain Agricultural Workers  7.29
    • E.  Miscellaneous Exemptions
      • 1.  From Both Minimum Wage and Overtime Requirements  7.30
      • 2.  From Overtime Requirements Only  7.31

8

Workplace Policies and Best Practices

Marlene Muraco

  • I.  THE IMPORTANCE OF WRITTEN POLICIES  8.1
  • II.  KEY CONSIDERATIONS IN DRAFTING WAGE AND HOUR POLICIES  8.2
  • III.  KEY POLICIES  8.3
    • A.  Overtime  8.4
    • B.  Timekeeping  8.5
    • C.  Defining “Workweek” and “Workday”  8.6
    • D.  Make-Up Time  8.7
    • E.  Holiday Pay and Floating Holidays  8.8
    • F.  Vacation  8.9
    • G.  Meal Periods  8.10
    • H.  Rest Periods  8.11
    • I.  Employee Classifications  8.12
    • J.  Confidentiality of Pay Practices  8.13
    • K.  Payment of Wages  8.14
    • L.  Payment of Final Wages  8.15
    • M.  Commissions  8.16
    • N.  Deductions From Wages
      • 1.  Restrictions  8.17
      • 2.  Form: Sample Salary Deduction Policy Approved by U.S. Department of Labor for FLSA Purposes Only  8.18
      • 3.  California Law  8.19
    • O.  Expense Reimbursement  8.20
    • P.  Time Worked  8.21
    • Q.  Bonuses  8.22
  • IV.  TABLE: LEGAL HOLIDAYS  8.23
  • V.  SAMPLE POLICIES
    • A.  Form: Sample Business Expense Reimbursement Policy  8.24
    • B.  Form: Sample Meal and Rest Break Policy  8.25
    • C.  Form: Acknowledgment of Receipt of Meal Period and Rest Break Policy  8.26

9

Workplace Posting and Recordkeeping Requirements

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  9.1
  • II.  CHECKLIST: NOTICE-POSTING REQUIREMENTS  9.2
    • A.  California Law
      • 1.  Notice of California Minimum Wage  9.3
      • 2.  Payday Notice  9.4
      • 3.  Security for Payroll: Certain Occupations  9.5
      • 4.  Earned Income Tax Credit Notification  9.6
      • 5.  Withholding Allowance Certificate Notice to Employees  9.7
      • 6.  Wage Orders  9.8
      • 7.  State Disability Insurance and Unemployment Insurance  9.9
      • 8.  California Family Rights Act  9.10
      • 9.  State Paid Sick Leave Notice  9.10A
      • 10.  Pregnancy Leave  9.11
      • 11.  Family Temporary Disability Leave  9.12
      • 12.  Time Off to Vote  9.13
      • 13.  Organizing Agricultural Workers  9.14
      • 14.  Farm Labor Contract Rates  9.14A
    • B.  Local Ordinances  9.15
    • C.  Federal Law
      • 1.  Fair Labor Standards Act Minimum Wage Notices  9.16
      • 2.  Family and Medical Leave Act  9.17
      • 3.  Military Leave  9.18
      • 4.  Davis-Bacon Act  9.19
      • 5.  Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act  9.20
      • 6.  McNamara-O’Hara Service Contract Act  9.21
      • 7.  Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act  9.22
      • 8.  Federal Longshore and Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act  9.23
      • 9.  Posting of ERISA Plan “Notice to Interested Parties” Required by IRS  9.24
      • 10.  Notice of Intention to Hire Foreign Nationals  9.25
  • III.  RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS  9.26
    • A.  California Law
      • 1.  Employee Wage Records  9.27
      • 2.  Public Works Contractors  9.28
      • 3.  Records for Monitoring Wage Discrimination on Basis of Gender  9.29
      • 4.  Records for Unemployment Insurance Purposes  9.30
      • 5.  Gratuities  9.31
      • 6.  Employment of Minors  9.32
      • 7.  Wage Order Requirements  9.33
      • 8.  Deductions From Cash Payment of Wages  9.34
      • 9.  California Income Tax Records  9.35
      • 10.  CFRA Requirements  9.36
      • 11.  Spoliation of Evidence  9.37
      • 12.  Employee Damages  9.38
      • 13.  Civil and Criminal Penalties  9.39
    • B.  Federal Law
      • 1.  Fair Labor Standards Act  9.40
      • 2.  ADEA  9.41
      • 3.  Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act  9.42
      • 4.  FMLA  9.43
      • 5.  Tax Records
        • a.  Records Relating to Taxable Income  9.44
        • b.  Income Tax Withholding Records  9.45
        • c.  Federal Unemployment Tax Records  9.46
        • d.  FICA Contributions Records  9.47
      • 6.  Supply Contractor Records (Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act)  9.48
      • 7.  Service Contractor Records (McNamara-O’Hara Service Contract Act)  9.49
      • 8.  Contractor Records Under Davis-Bacon Act  9.50
      • 9.  Records on Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers  9.51
      • 10.  Records Relating to ERISA Benefits  9.52
    • C.  Chart: Recommended Retention of Personnel Records  9.53
    • D.  Chart: Summary of Recordkeeping and Statutory Retention Requirements  9.54

10

Employment of Minors

Laura Fleming

  • I.  OVERVIEW OF APPLICABLE LAW
    • A.  California Laws  10.1
    • B.  Federal Law  10.2
  • II.  EMPLOYMENT OF MINORS UNDER CALIFORNIA LAW
    • A.  Who Is Covered by California’s Child Labor Provisions?  10.3
    • B.  Who Is Exempt From the Child Labor Provisions of California Law?  10.4
    • C.  What Jobs May a Minor Employee Perform Under California Law?
      • 1.  California Occupational Restrictions on Minors Under Age 12
        • a.  Permitted Occupations for Minors Under Age 12  10.5
        • b.  Prohibited Occupations for Minors Under Age 12  10.6
      • 2.  California Occupational Restrictions on Minors Ages 12 to 13
        • a.  Permitted Occupations for Minors Ages 12 and Older  10.7
        • b.  Prohibited Occupations for Minors Under Age 14  10.8
      • 3.  California Occupational Restrictions on Minors Ages 14 to 15
        • a.  Permitted Occupations for Minors Ages 14 and Older  10.9
        • b.  Prohibited Occupations for Minors Under Age 16  10.10
        • c.  Apprentice and Student-Learner Exceptions  10.11
      • 4.  California Occupational Restrictions on Minors Ages 16 to 17
        • a.  Permitted Occupations for Minors Ages 16 and Older  10.12
        • b.  Prohibited Occupations for Minors Under Age 18  10.13
    • D.  What Hours May a Minor Employee Work Under California Law?
      • 1.  Limits on Working Hours for Minors Ages 13 and Younger  10.14
      • 2.  Limits on Working Hours for Minors Ages 14 to 15  10.15
      • 3.  Limits on Working Hours for Minors Ages 16 to 17  10.16
    • E.  How Are California’s Child Labor Provisions Enforced?
      • 1.  Mandatory Work Permits  10.17
      • 2.  Penalties for Violations  10.18
      • 3.  Child Labor Protection Act of 2014  10.18A
    • F.  Helpful Resources Regarding Employment of Minors Under California Law  10.19
  • III.  EMPLOYMENT OF MINORS UNDER FEDERAL LAW (FLSA)
    • A.  Who Is Covered by the Child Labor Provisions of the FLSA?  10.20
    • B.  Who Is Exempt From the Child Labor Provisions of the FLSA?  10.21
    • C.  What Jobs May a Minor Employee Perform Under the FLSA?  10.22
      • 1.  Permitted Occupations for Minors Ages 13 and Younger  10.23
      • 2.  Occupational Restrictions on Minors Ages 14 and 15
        • a.  Permitted Occupations for Minors Ages 14 and Older  10.24
        • b.  Prohibited Occupations for Minors Under Age 16  10.25
        • c.  Training Program Exemption  10.26
      • 3.  Occupational Restrictions on Minors Ages 16 to 17
        • a.  Permitted Occupations for Minors Ages 16 and Older  10.27
        • b.  Prohibited Occupations for Minors Under Age 18  10.28
        • c.  Apprentice and Student-Learner Exemptions  10.29
    • D.  What Hours May a Minor Employee Work Under the FLSA?
      • 1.  Limits on Working Hours for Minors Ages 14 to 15  10.30
      • 2.  Limits on Working Hours for Minors Ages 16 to 17  10.31
    • E.  How Are the Child Labor Provisions of the FLSA Enforced?
      • 1.  Nonmandatory Age Certificates  10.32
      • 2.  Penalties for Violations  10.33
    • F.  Helpful Resources Regarding Employment of Minors Under the FLSA  10.34
  • IV.  SUMMARY CHART OF CALIFORNIA AND FEDERAL CHILD LABOR LAWS  10.35

11

DLSE Enforcement of Wage and Hour Laws

Anne Hipshman

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Structure of Division of Labor Standards Enforcement (DLSE)  11.1
    • B.  Governing Law  11.2
    • C.  DLSE’s Enforcement of Wage and Hour Laws  11.3
  • II.  WAGE CLAIM ADJUDICATION
    • A.  Wage Claim Versus Civil Action  11.4
    • B.  Types of Wage Claims Adjudicated  11.5
    • C.  Wage Claim Procedures—In General
      • 1.  Filing Claim  11.6
      • 2.  Potential DLSE Actions on Claim  11.7
      • 3.  Berman Hearing Procedure  11.8
        • a.  DLSE May Undertake Preliminary Investigation  11.9
        • b.  Informal Conference  11.10
        • c.  Administrative Complaint and Answer  11.11
        • d.  No Discovery or Prehearing Motions  11.12
        • e.  Conduct of Hearing
          • (1)  Proceedings Not Governed by APA  11.13
          • (2)  Rules Regarding Admission of Evidence  11.14
          • (3)  When Employer Fails to Answer or Appear  11.15
        • f.  Effect of Arbitration Agreement  11.15A
      • 4.  Order, Decision, or Award  11.16
      • 5.  Enforcement of Judgment  11.16A
      • 6.  Appeal to Superior Court  11.17
        • a.  Posting an Undertaking  11.18
        • b.  Procedure for Filing Appeal  11.19
        • c.  Costs and Attorney Fees on Appeal  11.20
      • 7.  Employer’s Willful Failure to Pay  11.20A
    • D.  Wage Claims in the Garment Industry  11.20B
      • 1.  Joint Liability  11.20C
      • 2.  Initiating Claim; DLSE Response  11.20D
      • 3.  DLSE Investigation and Assessment  11.20E
      • 4.  Meet-and-Confer Conference  11.20F
      • 5.  Hearing  11.20G
      • 6.  Order, Decision, or Award  11.20H
      • 7.  Recovery of Costs and Attorney Fees  11.20I
      • 8.  Appeal to Superior Court  11.20J
  • III.  INVESTIGATIONS OF EMPLOYERS
    • A.  Bureau of Field Enforcement (BOFE)  11.21
      • 1.  Special Enforcement Plans  11.22
      • 2.  Scope of BOFE’s Investigative Authority  11.23
      • 3.  Prevailing Wage Enforcement  11.23A
      • 4.  Investigation Procedures  11.24
    • B.  Employer Audits  11.25
    • C.  Issuance of Citations
      • 1.  Violations of Wage and Hour Laws  11.26
      • 2.  Appeal of Citation  11.27
  • IV.  RETALIATION COMPLAINT INVESTIGATIONS (LAB C §98.7)  11.27A
    • A.  Remedies  11.27B
    • B.  Citations  11.27C
  • V.  ENFORCEMENT OF PREVAILING WAGE LAWS FOR PUBLIC WORKS  11.27D
  • VI.  JOINT TASK FORCES  11.28
  • VII.  LICENSING AND REGISTRATION OF EMPLOYERS  11.29

12

DOL Enforcement of Wage and Hour Laws

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  DOL Jurisdiction  12.1
    • B.  Organization of Wage and Hour Division  12.2
  • II.  INVESTIGATIONS
    • A.  How Prompted  12.3
    • B.  Conciliation  12.4
    • C.  Entry Into Workplace and Initial Conference  12.5
    • D.  Investigation  12.6
      • 1.  Inspection of Records  12.7
      • 2.  Interviews of Employees  12.8
      • 3.  Scope in Time  12.9
    • E.  Final Conference and Disposition  12.10
  • III.  CIVIL ACTIONS
    • A.  Remedies Available in Suits by the DOL
      • 1.  Generally  12.11
      • 2.  Injunctive Relief in “Hot Goods” Cases  12.12
      • 3.  Penalties  12.13
    • B.  Private Suits  12.14
      • 1.  Retaliation by Employer Prohibited  12.15
      • 2.  Burden of Proof  12.16
      • 3.  Employer’s Reliance on WHD Letter Ruling  12.17
      • 4.  Personal Liability of Officers  12.18
      • 5.  Successor Liability  12.19
      • 6.  Business and Professions Code §17200  12.20
      • 7.  Union Employees May Bypass Grievance and Arbitration Procedure  12.21
    • C.  Statute of Limitations  12.22
    • D.  Contempt  12.23
    • E.  Criminal Actions  12.24
    • F.  Settlements and Releases of Claims Under Federal Law  12.25

13

Mediating Wage and Hour Disputes

Todd F. Jackson

Kirsten G. Scott

Meryl C. Maneker

Peter S. Rukin

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Importance of Mediation for Wage and Hour Cases  13.1
    • B.  What Is Mediation?  13.2
    • C.  Advantages of Mediation  13.3
    • D.  When Mediation May Be Inappropriate  13.4
  • II.  DETERMINING WHEN TO MEDIATE
    • A.  Voluntary Mediation  13.5
      • 1.  Prefiling Mediation in Single-Plaintiff Cases  13.6
      • 2.  Precertification Mediation in Class Actions  13.7
      • 3.  Postcertification Mediation in Class Actions  13.8
    • B.  Mandatory Mediation  13.9
  • III.  PREPARING FOR THE MEDIATION
    • A.  Importance of Thorough Preparation  13.10
    • B.  Gathering Information
      • 1.  Obtaining Any Needed Discovery  13.11
      • 2.  Consider Conducting Informal Discovery  13.12
      • 3.  Completing Any Necessary Factual Investigation  13.13
    • C.  Analyzing Strengths and Weaknesses of Case  13.14
      • 1.  Assessing Potential Damages to Determine Settlement Value  13.15
      • 2.  Researching Your Opponent and Judge  13.16
      • 3.  Knowing Your Mediator  13.17
    • D.  Preparing Client for Mediation  13.18
      • 1.  Managing Expectations About Process  13.19
        • a.  Explaining Mediator’s Role  13.20
        • b.  Explaining Counsel’s Role  13.21
        • c.  Explaining Client’s Role  13.22
      • 2.  Managing Expectations About Value of Case  13.23
    • E.  Preparing the Mediation Brief
      • 1.  Contents  13.24
      • 2.  Should You Exchange Briefs With Opposing Party?  13.25
  • IV.  THE MEDIATION PROCESS
    • A.  Selecting the Mediator  13.26
    • B.  Determining Who Should Attend  13.27
    • C.  Paying for Mediation  13.28
    • D.  Mediation Confidentiality
      • 1.  General Rules  13.29
      • 2.  Limitations
        • a.  Settlement Discussions Outside Formal Mediation  13.30
        • b.  Underlying Factual Information  13.31
        • c.  Removal to Federal Court  13.32
        • d.  Court-Ordered Review of Information  13.32A
      • 3.  Confidentiality of Settlement Agreement  13.33
    • E.  Mediation Procedures
      • 1.  Joint Opening Session  13.34
      • 2.  Separate Caucuses  13.35
      • 3.  Settlement Agreement
        • a.  Need for Written Document  13.36
        • b.  Terms to Include
          • (1)  Single-Plaintiff Cases  13.37
          • (2)  Class Actions  13.38
        • c.  Special Considerations in Settlement of Cases Under FLSA  13.39

13A

PAGA Claims

Michael D. Singer

  • I.  ENACTMENT AND PURPOSE  13A.1
  • II.  VIOLATIONS GIVING RISE TO PAGA CLAIMS
    • A.  Violations Identified in Lab C §2699.5  13A.2
    • B.  Health and Safety Violations  13A.3
    • C.  Other Labor Code and Wage Order Violations  13A.4
  • III.  PREREQUISITE FOR FILING SUIT: NOTICE TO EMPLOYER AND THE LWDA  13A.5
    • A.  Contents of Notice  13A.6
    • B.  LWDA Response  13A.7
    • C.  Employer’s Opportunity to Cure  13A.8
  • IV.  PAGA ACTIONS
    • A.  Parties
      • 1.  Plaintiffs  13A.9
      • 2.  Representative as Fiduciary  13A.10
      • 3.  Defendants  13A.11
    • B.  Complaint  13A.12
    • C.  Discovery  13A.13
    • D.  Remedies  13A.14
      • 1.  Remedies for Subsequent Violations  13A.15
      • 2.  Labor Code §558 Issues  13A.16
      • 3.  Wage Statement Claims  13A.17
      • 4.  Meal Period Claims  13A.18
      • 5.  Attorney Fees and Costs  13A.19
    • E.  Settlement  13A.20
    • F.  PAGA Claims and Arbitration  13A.21
    • G.  Removal and Federal Jurisdiction Under CAFA  13A.22
    • H.  Class Action Issues
      • 1.  Meeting Class Certification Requirements  13A.23
      • 2.  Tolling of Statute of Limitations for Individual Claims  13A.24
      • 3.  Enhancements for Lead Plaintiffs  13A.25
      • 4.  Commonality and Manageability Issues  13A.26
      • 5.  Trial Plan  13A.27
      • 6.  Appeal  13A.28
    • I.  Res Judicata  13A.29

14

Litigating Wage and Hour Cases: Plaintiffs’ Perspective

Peter S. Rukin

Jessica Riggin

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  14.1
  • II.  INITIAL CASE INTAKE
    • A.  Determining Whether Wage and Hour Issue Exists  14.1A
    • B.  Information Gathering
      • 1.  From the Client
        • a.  Conducting the Initial Interview  14.2
        • b.  Gathering Documents in Client’s Possession  14.3
      • 2.  From Putative Class Members  14.4
      • 3.  From Third-Party Witnesses  14.5
      • 4.  From Other Sources
        • a.  Information Available Online  14.6
        • b.  Public Records Act Requests  14.7
    • C.  Assessing the Case  14.8
      • 1.  The Merits of the Legal Claims
        • a.  Determining Which Laws May Apply  14.9
        • b.  Performing Damage Calculation  14.10
      • 2.  The Client as Litigant and Class Representative
        • a.  Job Performance Generally Unimportant  14.11
        • b.  Other Areas of Inquiry  14.12
      • 3.  Identifying the Proper Defendant
        • a.  Who Is an Employer?  14.13
        • b.  Is Employer a Solvent and Viable Defendant?  14.13A
      • 4.  Is Case Appropriate for Class Certification?  14.14
    • D.  Considerations Regarding Arbitration Agreements  14.15
    • E.  Representation Agreement  14.15A
  • III.  PREPARING THE COMPLAINT
    • A.  General Rules of Pleading in Wage and Hour Cases  14.15B
    • B.  Allegations Specific to Class and Collective Actions  14.15C
  • IV.  PRECERTIFICATION MOTION PRACTICE AND ROADBLOCKS
    • A.  Forum and Case Management Issues  14.16
      • 1.  State Court
        • a.  Related Cases
          • (1)  Determining When Cases Are Related  14.17
          • (2)  Duty to Provide Notice; Contents  14.18
        • b.  Consolidation  14.19
        • c.  Coordination  14.20
          • (1)  Petition for Coordination  14.21
          • (2)  Relevant Factors  14.22
          • (3)  Procedures Following Coordination  14.23
      • 2.  Federal Court
        • a.  Related Cases  14.24
        • b.  Multidistrict Litigation  14.25
    • B.  Surviving Early Challenges to Maintenance of Class Action  14.26
    • C.  Precertification Summary Judgment Motions and Other Early Merits Challenges  14.27
    • D.  Overlapping Cases and Settlements
      • 1.  When There Has Been a Prior Class Certification Ruling  14.28
      • 2.  When There Has Been a Prior Settlement  14.29
  • V.  DISCOVERY  14.30
    • A.  Informal Investigations
      • 1.  Timing  14.31
      • 2.  Information That Can Be Gathered Informally  14.32
      • 3.  Prelitigation Demands  14.33
    • B.  Formal Discovery
      • 1.  Functions  14.34
      • 2.  Creating Discovery Plan  14.35
      • 3.  Discovery of Class Member Information  14.36
  • VI.  CLASS CERTIFICATION  14.37
    • A.  Timing of Motion  14.38
    • B.  Requirements  14.39
      • 1.  Numerosity  14.40
      • 2.  Commonality  14.41
      • 3.  Typicality  14.42
      • 4.  Adequacy  14.43
        • a.  Adequacy of Class Counsel  14.44
        • b.  Adequacy of Class Representatives  14.45
        • c.  “Conflicts” Not Usually Ground to Deny Certification  14.46
    • C.  Certification of FLSA Collective Actions  14.46A
    • D.  Other Certification Issues
      • 1.  The Class Definition  14.47
        • a.  When Class Differs in Scope From Class Alleged in Complaint  14.48
        • b.  Subclasses  14.49
      • 2.  Hybrid Rule 23/FLSA Actions  14.50
      • 3.  Claims for Civil Penalties Under PAGA  14.51
    • E.  Checklist  14.52
  • VII.  SUMMARY JUDGMENT AND SUMMARY ADJUDICATION
    • A.  When Use May Be Appropriate  14.53
    • B.  Rule Against One-Way Intervention  14.54
  • VIII.  MEDIATION  14.55
  • IX.  SETTLEMENT
    • A.  Preparing the Settlement Agreement  14.56
    • B.  Potential Settlement Issues
      • 1.  Waiver and Release  14.57
      • 2.  Tax Allocation of Settlement Payment  14.58
      • 3.  Special Considerations in Class Actions
        • a.  Nonreversionary Versus Reversionary Settlements  14.59
        • b.  Cy Près Beneficiaries  14.60
        • c.  Attorney Fees  14.61
        • d.  Named Plaintiffs Enhancement Payments  14.62
    • C.  Settlement Procedures
      • 1.  State Court Class Actions  14.63
      • 2.  Federal Class Actions and FLSA Collective Actions  14.64
      • 3.  Single-Plaintiff Cases and Representative Actions Under PAGA  14.65
  • X.  SELECTED ISSUES IN WAGE AND HOUR TRIALS  14.66
    • A.  Bench Trial or Jury Trial?  14.67
    • B.  Representative Evidence  14.68
    • C.  Bifurcation
      • 1.  Liability and Damages  14.69
      • 2.  Common Versus Individual Issues  14.70
      • 3.  Pilot/Bellwether Cases  14.71

15

Litigating Wage and Hour Cases: Defendants’ Perspective

Meryl C. Maneker

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Emergence and Growth of Wage and Hour Litigation  15.1
    • B.  Wage and Hour Cases Can Mean Significant Potential Exposure for Employers  15.2
    • C.  Familiarity With Class Action Law and Procedure Is Essential  15.3
  • II.  INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS ON RECEIPT OF THE COMPLAINT  15.4
    • A.  Undertaking Early Factual Investigation  15.5
      • 1.  What Information to Gather  15.6
      • 2.  Interviewing Knowledgeable Employees  15.7
    • B.  Undertaking Early Assessment of Plaintiffs’ Claims  15.8
    • C.  Initial Corrective Action  15.9
  • III.  RESPONDING TO THE COMPLAINT  15.10
    • A.  Most Commonly Asserted Claims  15.11
    • B.  Removal to Federal Court  15.12
      • 1.  Grounds for Removal
        • a.  Diversity Jurisdiction  15.13
        • b.  Federal Question Jurisdiction  15.14
        • c.  Class Action Fairness Act of 2005 (CAFA)  15.15
          • (1)  Requirements for Removal  15.16
          • (2)  Consent of All Defendants Not Required  15.17
          • (3)  One-Year Rule Inapplicable to CAFA Cases  15.18
      • 2.  Strategy Considerations Regarding Removal  15.19
    • C.  Corralling Competing Cases: Coordination, Consolidation, and Related Cases  15.20
    • D.  Challenging Class Allegations  15.21
    • E.  Challenging the Scope of the Case
      • 1.  Prior Overlapping Cases and Settlements  15.22
        • a.  When There Has Been a Prior Settlement  15.23
        • b.  When There Has Been a Prior Class Certification Ruling  15.24
      • 2.  Determining the Proper Defendant
        • a.  Nonemployer Entities  15.25
        • b.  Individuals  15.26
      • 3.  Challenging Particular Causes of Action or Claims for Relief
        • a.  Motion to Strike Request for Punitive Damages  15.27
        • b.  Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies Under PAGA  15.28
        • c.  Statute of Limitations Issues  15.29
      • 4.  No Private Right of Action
        • a.  Under the Labor Code  15.30
        • b.  Under IWC Wage Orders  15.31
    • F.  Defense Considerations Related to Arbitration Agreements
      • 1.  Arbitration of Wage and Hour Cases  15.32
      • 2.  Class Action Waivers
        • a.  Enforceability  15.33
        • b.  Severability of Class Action Waiver  15.34
        • c.  Class Action Waivers Outside Arbitration [Deleted]  15.35
    • G.  Answering the Complaint  15.36
  • IV.  DISCOVERY
    • A.  Gathering Information in Defendant’s Possession  15.37
    • B.  Considering Bifurcating Discovery on Class Certification  15.38
    • C.  Discovery From Plaintiffs
      • 1.  Importance of Written Discovery  15.39
      • 2.  Investigation of Named Plaintiffs  15.40
      • 3.  Deposing the Named Plaintiff  15.41
    • D.  Third-Party Discovery
      • 1.  Plaintiffs’ Employment History  15.42
      • 2.  Discovery From Putative Class Members  15.43
    • E.  Responding to Discovery
      • 1.  Request for Class List  15.44
        • a.  Use of Opt-out Notice Protects Putative Class Members’ Privacy Interests  15.45
          • (1)  Opt-out Notice May Not Be Required  15.46
          • (2)  Defendant May Provide Its Own Notice  15.47
          • (3)  Continued Viability of Opt-in Procedure Unclear  15.48
          • (4)  Alternative Method  15.49
        • b.  When Court Intervention Is Required
          • (1)  Balance Danger of Abuse of Process Against Rights of Parties  15.50
          • (2)  Protective Orders  15.51
        • c.  What Contact Information Must Be Disclosed  15.52
        • d.  Requests for Financial Information  15.53
        • e.  Content of Notice  15.54
        • f.  Cost of Notice  15.55
      • 2.  Depositions of Persons Most Knowledgeable  15.56
      • 3.  Surveys  15.57
      • 4.  Requests for Time Cards, Audits, and Other Forms of Data  15.58
    • F.  Precertification Communication With Putative Class Members
      • 1.  General Rule  15.59
        • a.  Contact by Plaintiff’s Counsel  15.60
        • b.  Contact by Defense Counsel  15.61
        • c.  Discovery of Putative Class Member Communications With Counsel  15.62
      • 2.  Represented Parties and Restrictions of Rule 4.2  15.63
      • 3.  Declarations From Putative Class Members  15.64
      • 4.  Precertification Settlement With Putative Class Members  15.65
    • G.  Protective Orders  15.66
  • V.  OPPOSING CLASS CERTIFICATION  15.67
    • A.  Timing of Class Certification Motions
      • 1.  State Law  15.68
      • 2.  Federal Law  15.69
    • B.  Papers in Opposition to Motion  15.70
    • C.  Attacking Plaintiffs’ Showing in Support of Certification
      • 1.  Requirements for Class Certification  15.71
        • a.  Ascertainability and Numerosity Not Usually at Issue  15.72
        • b.  Contesting Commonality  15.73
          • (1)  Exemption Claims  15.74
          • (2)  Meal Break and Rest Period Claims  15.75
          • (3)  Independent Contractor Claims  15.76
          • (4)  Off-the-Clock Claims  15.77
        • c.  Contesting Typicality  15.78
        • d.  Contesting Adequacy
          • (1)  Of Counsel  15.79
          • (2)  Of Class Representative  15.80
        • e.  Contesting Superiority  15.81
          • (1)  Administrative Alternatives  15.82
          • (2)  Substantial Benefits to Litigants and Court  15.83
      • 2.  Specific Evidence to Marshal in Opposition  15.84
        • a.  Declarations of Putative Class Members  15.85
        • b.  Studies, Surveys, and Analyses of Data  15.86
        • c.  Expert Testimony  15.87
        • d.  Evidence of Company Policy and Practices  15.88
    • D.  Class Certification in Special Cases  15.89
      • 1.  Class Certification Required for Unfair Competition Law (UCL) Claims  15.90
      • 2.  Class Certification Not Required for Claims Under PAGA  15.91
    • E.  Appellate Review and the “Death Knell” Doctrine  15.92
    • F.  Affirmative Motions to Decertify Class  15.93
    • G.  Denial of Class Certification in Prior Action May Serve as Collateral Estoppel  15.94
    • H.  Class Certification Order and Class Notice  15.95
    • I.  Postcertification Motions to Decertify  15.96
  • VI.  USE OF MOTIONS FOR SUMMARY JUDGMENT
    • A.  Timing in Relation to Class Certification Motion
      • 1.  Precertification
        • a.  Plaintiffs Limited by Rule Against “One-Way Intervention”  15.97
        • b.  By Defendant  15.98
      • 2.  Postcertification
        • a.  By Plaintiffs  15.99
        • b.  By Defendant
          • (1)  Reason to Bring Motion  15.100
          • (2)  Issues or Claims Amenable to Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication  15.101
    • B.  Types of Evidence to Submit in Support of Summary Judgment Motion  15.102
      • 1.  Expert Witnesses and Related Evidence
        • a.  Studies  15.103
        • b.  Surveys  15.104
        • c.  Statistical Evidence  15.105
        • d.  Expert Testimony  15.106
      • 2.  Percipient Witness Evidence
        • a.  Percipient Witness Testimony  15.107
        • b.  Putative Class Member Testimony  15.108
        • c.  Testimony From Defendant’s “Persons Most Knowledgeable”  15.109
      • 3.  Documentary Evidence
        • a.  Company Policies  15.110
        • b.  Job Descriptions  15.111
        • c.  Performance Evaluations  15.112
        • d.  Disciplinary Records  15.113
  • VII.  MEDIATION  15.114
  • VIII.  SETTLEMENT OF WAGE AND HOUR CASES  15.115
    • A.  Procedural Overview in Class Action Context  15.116
    • B.  Preparing the Settlement Agreement: Key Terms
      • 1.  Settlement Class  15.117
      • 2.  Settlement Amount  15.118
      • 3.  Payments to Settlement Class
        • a.  Calculation of Amount  15.119
        • b.  Reversionary Versus Common Fund (Fluid Recovery) Settlements  15.120
          • (1)  Civil Procedure Code Section 384(b) Does Not Preclude Claims-Made Settlements  15.121
          • (2)  Unclaimed Funds May Be Residue Under Code of Civil Procedure §384(b)  15.122
        • c.  Characterization of Payments  15.123
      • 4.  Attorney Fees and Costs  15.124
      • 5.  Enhancement Payments to Class Representatives  15.125
      • 6.  Claims Administration and Costs  15.126
      • 7.  Employee Withholding and Payroll Taxes  15.127
      • 8.  Release of Claims  15.128
        • a.  Unclear Whether PAGA Claims Are Released With Underlying Labor Code Claims  15.129
        • b.  Paying Portion of Settlement to LWDA  15.130
        • c.  Labor Code §206.5  15.131
        • d.  Date Through Which Claims Released  15.132
      • 9.  Nonmonetary Relief  15.133
      • 10.  Bust-Up Provision  15.134
      • 11.  Notice to Class and Submission of Claims  15.135
    • C.  Providing Notice of Settlement  15.136
      • 1.  Notices  15.137
      • 2.  Claim Forms  15.138
      • 3.  No Duty of Class Counsel to Contact Class Members  15.139
    • D.  Objections to Settlements  15.140
    • E.  Standard for Approval of Class Action Settlement
      • 1.  Settlement Must Be Fair, Adequate, and Reasonable  15.141
        • a.  Factors to Determine Fairness of Settlement  15.142
        • b.  When There May Be Presumption of Fairness  15.143
      • 2.  Precertification Settlements
        • a.  Subject to Higher Level of Scrutiny  15.144
        • b.  Lower Standard for Certifying Settlement Class  15.145
  • IX.  SELECTED ISSUES RELATED TO TRIALS OF WAGE AND HOUR CLASS ACTIONS
    • A.  Whether Trial Is to Court or Jury  15.146
    • B.  Use of Representative Evidence  15.147
  • X.  DEFENDING SINGLE-PLAINTIFF WAGE AND HOUR CASES  15.148
    • A.  Employee Has Choice of Filing in Court or Before Labor Commissioner  15.149
    • B.  Cases on Appeal From Labor Commissioner Administrative Hearing  15.150
      • 1.  Timing of Appeal  15.151
      • 2.  Decision Is Subject to De Novo Review on Appeal  15.152
      • 3.  Costs and Attorney Fees Are Available to Nonappealing Prevailing Party  15.153
      • 4.  Effect of Failure to Appeal Labor Commissioner Decision  15.154

Selected Developments

January 2019 Update

Overview of California Wage and Hour Law

  • The California Supreme Court explicitly stated that California’s wage and hours laws are controlling to the extent they are more protective of workers than federal rule. See Alvarado v Dart Container Corp. (2018) 4 C5th 542, 553, in §1.2.

  • California has adopted the three-part “ABC” test for distinguishing between employees and independent contractors for purposes of IWC wage orders. See Dynamex Operations W., Inc. v Superior Court (2018) 4 C5th 903, in §1.4.

  • Wage orders take precedence over the common law to the extent they conflict. See Troester v Starbucks Corp. (2018) 5 C5th 829, 839, in §1.7.

  • A void DLSE policy on overtime pay calculation may be considered for its persuasive value, and a court exercising its independent judgment may consider and adopt that as its own if it believes it to be correct. See Alvarado v Dart Container Corp. (2018) 4 C5th 542, 567, in §1.9.

  • Current local minimum wages are listed in §1.15.

  • Timekeeping that rounds employee punch in/out times to the nearest quarter of an hour is permissible if the policy is fair and neutral on its face and is used in a manner that will not result, over a period of time, in failure to properly compensate employees in the aggregate for all the time they have actually worked. See AHMC Healthcare, Inc. v Superior Court (2018) 24 CA5th 1014, 1027 (when evidence demonstrated that rounding system was neutral on its face and overcompensated employees overall by significant amount, plaintiff failed to create triable issue by showing that bare majority of employees lost minor amounts of time over particular period), in §1.19.

  • California does not follow the FLSA’s de minimis doctrine, and thus employers may not require employees to routinely work minutes off the clock without compensation. See Troester v Starbucks Corp. (2018) 5 C5th 829, 848, in §1.19.

  • The regular rate of pay for overtime in periods in which an employee receives a flat sum bonus is calculated by dividing the bonus by all actual nonovertime hours even if an employee did not work 40 hours and multiplying by 1.5. See Alvarado v Dart Container Corp. (2018) 4 C5th 542, 573 (noting that other types of nonhourly compensation, such as production or piecework bonus or commission, may increase in size in rough proportion to number of hours worked, including overtime hours, and therefore different analysis may be warranted), in §1.24.

  • A staffing agency employer’s actual or constructive knowledge that an employee was not taking compliant meal breaks does not establish liability because an employer has no obligation to ensure that employees actually take provided breaks. See Serrano v Aerotek, Inc. (2018) 21 CA5th 773, 781, in §1.37.

  • The court in Canales v Wells Fargo Bank, N.A. (2018) 23 CA5th 1262, 1271, found §14.1.1 in the DLSE’s Policies and Interpretations Manual to be void as an underground regulation to the extent it requires an employer to provide a wage statement on termination. See §1.39.

  • Only the absence of the hours worked on the wage statement will give rise to an inference of injury; the absence of accurate wages is remedied by the violated wage and hour law itself. See Maldonado v Epsilon Plastics, Inc. (2018) 22 CA5th 1308, 1336, in §1.39.

  • Female employee’s prior salary alone or in combination with other factors may not be used to justify wage differential under the federal Equal Pay Act because the prior salary is not a “factor other than sex.” See Rizo v Yovino (9th Cir 2018) 887 F3d 453, 456, in §1.49A.

The Employment Relationship

  • In Dynamex Operations W., Inc. v Superior Court (2018) 4 C5th 903, the California Supreme Court held that, in determining whether a worker is properly classified as an employee or independent contractor for purposes of IWC wage orders, the “suffer or permit to work” definition of “employ” found in the wage orders may be relied on and, further, that the “ABC” test is used to determine whether the “suffer or permit to work” standard has been met. See §§3.5–3.6, 3.7A, 3.26.

  • The court in Atempa v Pedrazzani (2018) 27 CA5th 803, 817, found a corporate officer liable under both Lab C §§558 and 1197.1, rejecting the argument that alter ego liability was a precursor to finding liability on the part of the corporate official. See §3.27.

Compensable Work Time and Regulation of Work Time

  • California has not adopted the federal de minimis rule in the wage and hour context. See Troester v Starbucks Corp. (2018) 5 C5th 829, 841 (“Nothing in the language of the wage orders or Labor Code shows an intent to incorporate the federal de minimis rule”), in §4.9A.

  • A policy that allowed employees to buy discounted meals if the meal was eaten at the restaurant did not violate Lab C §512(a) because purchase of the meal was entirely voluntary and there was no evidence that employer pressured employees to buy the discounted meal. See Rodriguez v Taco Bell Corp. (9th Cir 2018) 896 F3d 952, 956, in §4.14.

  • An employer need not ensure that an employee actually take meal periods provided. See Serrano v Aerotek, Inc. (2018) 21 CA5th 773, 781 (Brinker does not require employer to “police” taking of meal breaks and mere knowledge that they are not being taken does not establish liability), in §4.33.

Payment of Wages

  • The California Supreme Court has accepted the Ninth Circuit’s requests in two cases to answer questions related to wage statements and payment of wages and the application of Lab C §226 to airline employees. First, in Ward v United Airlines, Inc. (9th Cir 2018) 889 F3d 1068, the supreme court will answer the following two questions: (1) Does the Railway Labor Act exemption in Wage Order 9–2004 (8 Cal Code Regs §11090) bar a wage statement claim brought under Lab C §226 by an employee who is covered by a collective bargaining agreement? and (2) Does Lab C §226 apply to wage statements provided by an out-of-state employer to an employee who resides in California, receives pay in California, and pays California income tax on her wages, but who does not work principally in California or any other state? Second, in Oman v Delta Air Lines, Inc. (9th Cir 2018) 889 F3d 1075, the supreme court will answer the following three questions: (1) Do Lab C §§204 and 226 apply to wage payments and wage statements provided by an out-of-state employer to an employee who, in the relevant pay period, works in California only episodically and for less than a day at a time? (2) Does California minimum wage law apply to all work performed in California for an out-of-state employer by an employee who works in California only episodically and for less than a day at a time? and (3) Does the Armenta/Gonzalez bar on averaging wages apply to a pay formula that generally awards credits for all hours on duty, but which in certain situations resulting in high pay, does not award credit for all hours on duty? See §5.3.

  • Payments to a union vacation trust fund authorized by the Labor Management Relations Act were not required to be itemized on wage statements. See Mora v Webcor Constr., L.P. (2018) 20 CA5th 211, 219, in §§5.6, 5.22.

  • In Maldonado v Epsilon Plastics, Inc. (2018) 22 CA5th 1308, 1336, the court confirmed that a claim under Lab C §226(a) for inaccurate wage statements fails when the wage statement is allegedly “inaccurate” because it reflected the wrong overtime rate of pay but does in fact accurately reflect the wages paid to the employee. See §5.6.

  • In Raines v Coastal Pac. Food Distribs., Inc. (2018) 23 CA5th 667, the plaintiff’s wage statements did not include the overtime hourly rate of pay but did include both the number of overtime hours worked by the employee and the total overtime pay. The court concluded that the plaintiff did not suffer an injury because the overtime hourly rate could be “promptly and easily” determined by simple arithmetic from the information on the wage statement: “Although many people cannot perform the calculation in their heads, it can be easily performed by use of a pencil and paper or a calculator; no additional documents or information are necessary.” 23 CA5th at 677. See §5.7.

  • The employer fulfilled its duty under Lab C §§201 and 226 by providing discharged employees with last wages in-store by cashier’s checks and then mailing itemized wage statements to the employees. See Canales v Wells Fargo Bank, N.A. (2018) 23 CA5th 1262, 1269, in §5.11.

  • The employer did not violate the 72-hour deadline in Lab C §202(a) when the employee sent his e-mail resignation after hours on Friday and the employer mailed his last check the following Tuesday. See Nishiki v Danko Meredith, APC (2018) 25 CA5th 883, 890, in §5.11.

  • A court does not have discretion to reduce or waive waiting time penalties for equitable reasons. See Diaz v Grill Concepts Servs., Inc. (2018) 23 CA5th 859, 874, in §5.13.

  • Under the Consolidated Appropriations Act, passed on March 23, 2018, employers that pay employees at least the federal minimum wage and do not take a tip credit may establish a tip-pooling arrangement that includes employees who do not customarily and regularly receive tips, such as cooks and dishwashers. See Pub L 115–141, §1201(c), 132 Stat 1148, in §5.21.

Regular Rate and Overtime

  • In a case brought by security guard employees alleging violations of an employer’s duty to pay wages immediately upon termination, the California Supreme Court has granted review in Melendez v San Francisco Baseball Assocs. LLC (review granted Jan. 10, 2018, S245607; opinion at 16 CA5th 339 to remain published and citable until further order) to determine whether the wage claims under Lab C §201 require the interpretation of a collective bargaining agreement and are thus preempted by §301 of the LMRA. See §6.1.

  • The United States Supreme Court has noted that exemptions under the FLSA deserve a “fair reading” rather than a narrow construction because the exemptions “are as much a part of the FLSA’s purpose as the overtime-pay requirement.” Encino Motorcars, LLC v Navarro (2018) 584 US ___, 138 S Ct 1134, 1142. See §6.3.

  • If an employee is paid a flat sum as a bonus for working until the end of the season or for each day worked, the regular rate of pay is determined by dividing the amount of the bonus by the total number of nonovertime hours actually worked during the relevant pay period. See Alvarado v Dart Container Corp. (2018) 4 C5th 542, 568, in §§6.18, 6.31.

Exemptions From Minimum Wage and Overtime Requirements

  • Exemption from overtime requirements applies to “service advisors,” i.e., employees at car dealerships who consult with customers about service needs and sell servicing solutions. See Encino Motorcars, LLC v Navarro (2018) 584 US ___, 138 S Ct 1134, 1140, in §7.31.

PAGA Claims

  • Under PAGA, a notice is insufficient if it is limited to the plaintiffs’ claims because it does not “give the [Labor and Workforce Development Agency] an adequate opportunity to decide whether to allocate resources to investigate.” See Khan v Dunn-Edwards Corp. (2018) 19 CA5th 804, 809, in §13A.6.

  • The California Supreme Court has granted review in Kim v Reins Int’l Cal., Inc. (review granted Mar. 28, 2018, S246911; opinion at 18 CA5th 1052 to remain published and citable until further order) to determine whether an employee bringing a PAGA action loses standing to pursue representative claims as an “aggrieved employee” by dismissing his or her individual claims. See §§13A.9–13A.10.

  • The California Supreme Court may rule on the propriety of individual PAGA actions in Lawson v ZB, N.A. (review granted Mar. 21, 2018; superseded opinion at 18 CA5th 705 to remain published and citable until further order), which raises the question of the arbitrability of individual wage claims brought under PAGA. See §§13A.9, 13A.16.

  • PAGA’s “aggrieved employee” standing requirements permit an employee alleging aggrieved status for one Labor Code provision to assert claims under other Labor Code provisions, absent allegations that those violations were also suffered by the representative. See Huff v Securitas Sec. Servs. USA, Inc. (2018) 23 CA5th 745, 754 (“any Labor Code penalties recoverable by state authorities may be recovered in a PAGA action by a person who was employed by the alleged violator and affected by at least one of the violations alleged in the complaint”), in §13A.14.

Litigating Wage and Hour Cases: Plaintiffs’ Perspective

  • The United States Supreme Court has held that arbitration agreements containing class action waivers are enforceable. See Epic Sys. Corp. v Lewis (2018) ___ US ___, 138 S Ct 1612, in §14.15.

  • Named plaintiffs must be members of the class they seek to represent. See Sali v Corona Reg’l Med. Ctr. (9th Cir 2018) 889 F3d 623, 634, in §14.43.

  • Federal courts assessing the adequacy of the representation ask whether the named plaintiffs and their counsel (1) have any conflicts of interest with other class members and (2) will prosecute the action vigorously on behalf of the class. See Sali v Corona Reg’l Med. Ctr. (9th Cir 2018) 889 F3d 623, 634, in §14.44.

  • Absent a valid statistical survey showing that only a small number of the putative class members might have been properly classified and that they could be readily identified, the trial court did not abuse its discretion in ruling that the trial plan did not adequately manage the employer’s affirmative defenses. See Duran v U.S. Bank Nat’l Ass’n (2018) 19 CA5th 630, 643, in §14.52.

Litigating Wage and Hour Cases: Defendants’ Perspective

  • The United States Supreme Court held in Epic Sys. Corp. v Lewis (2018) ___ US ___, 138 S Ct 1612, that arbitration agreements containing class action waivers are enforceable. See §15.33.

  • When the arbitration agreement is not governed by the FAA, the enforceability of the agreement’s class waiver is determined using Gentry’s four-part analysis. See Muro v Cornerstone Staffing Solutions, Inc. (2018) 20 CA5th 784, 792, in §15.33.

  • Whether a good faith dispute that wages were owed exists such that defendant’s failure to pay wages was not willful under Lab C §203. See Diaz v Grill Concepts Servs., Inc. (2018) 23 CA5th 859, 867.

About the Authors

AASHISH Y. DESAI (Chapter 2: Overview of Federal Law) is the founder of the Desai Law Firm, P.C. in Costa Mesa, where he primarily handles class and collective actions involving antitrust law, state and federal wage and hour law, consumer fraud, lender liability law, and unfair business practices. In 2005, 2006, and 2007, Mr. Desai was selected by his peers as a “Rising Star” in Class Action Law by Super Lawyers Magazine, a privilege reserved for only 2.5 percent of the “Best Young Lawyers in Southern California.” In 2009 and 2010, he was selected as a Super Lawyer. He has written extensively on the subject of California class and collective actions, including articles for BNA’s Class Action Litigation Report, Los Angeles Daily Journal, Los Angeles Lawyer, Texas Business Litigation Magazine, Consumer Attorneys’ FORUM Magazine, and the Orange County Lawyer Magazine. He has been closely involved in class action and employment law issues on numerous appeals, published district court opinions, and been an amicus for various organizations. Mr. Desai served as an Adjunct Professor at Chapman University School of Law from 2004–2006, and he frequently speaks on class action, employment law, reasonable attorney fees, and federal procedure for various organizations. Mr. Desai received his B.A. degree in Economics from the University of Texas in Austin and his J.D. degree from the University of Houston Law Center. Mr. Desai is licensed to practice law in California and Texas. He can be reached at desai@mocalaw.com.

R. BRIAN DIXON (Chapter 4: Compensable Work Time and Regulation of Work Time) is a shareholder of Littler Mendelson in its San Francisco office. Mr. Dixon’s practice includes all aspects of employee compensation, including minimum wage, prevailing wage, overtime obligations, and incentive compensation plans. He represents employers in compensation disputes with the United States Department of Labor, California’s Division of Labor Standards Enforcement, the enforcement agencies of other states, and private plaintiffs. Mr. Dixon also provides employers with a full range of counsel and legal representation, from consulting on individual disciplinary decisions to representation in state and federal courts. His practice has included wrongful termination issues, equal employment opportunity matters, and labor relations concerns. He received his B.A. from the University of Rochester and his J.D. from Stanford University School of Law. Mr. Dixon has authored books concerning compensation, including Federal Wage and Hour Laws, the Wage and Hour Handbook of the California Trucking Association, and a Guide to Compensating Employees for the California Association of Children’s Homes. In addition, he is the general editor for Aspen Publishers’ 2007 and 2008 Wage and Hour Answer Book.

LAURA FLEMING (Chapter 10: Employment of Minors) is Of Counsel with Payne & Fears in Irvine. Ms. Fleming specializes in employment litigation and represents employers in all aspects of California labor and employment law. Her practice includes preventative counseling, workplace investigations, administrative complaints, union arbitrations and negotiations, single-plaintiff employment disputes and wage and hour class action litigation. She received a B.A. (cum laude) in linguistics from Harvard University in 1993 and a J.D. (cum laude) from Harvard Law School in 1997. Ms. Fleming was selected to Southern California Rising Stars in Employment and Labor Law in 2007 and 2008 by Southern California Super Lawyers magazine. She was a regular columnist for the Shanghai Star and has contributed articles to the Orange County Lawyer. Ms. Fleming frequently speaks at seminars on various employment law topics, including immigration law. Prior to joining Payne & Fears LLP, Ms. Fleming was an associate at O’Melveny & Myers LLP in Shanghai and Newport Beach.

JEFFREY P. FUCHSMAN (Chapter 5: Payment of Wages and Chapter 6: Regular Rate and Overtime) is a partner in the Glendale firm Ballard Rosenberg Golper & Savitt, LLP, a labor and employment law firm representing management exclusively. For more than 25 years, Mr. Fuchsman has successfully defended employers in a wide range of employment law matters, including wage and hour class actions, wrongful termination, discrimination, and sexual harassment lawsuits. Mr. Fuchsman has appeared in state and federal courts throughout California, and has argued cases before the California Court of Appeal and the Ninth Circuit of Appeals. Mr. Fuchsman was co-counsel for the employer in a landmark case before the California Supreme Court on constructive discharge, Turner v Anheuser-Busch, Inc. (1994) 7 C4th 1238. He also counsels companies on day-to-day employment law issues, including wage and hour, family and medical leave, drug testing, investigations, employee discipline, and terminations. Mr. Fuchsman is also a frequent author and speaker on various labor and employment law topics. He received his B.A. in Economics from the State University of New York at Albany in 1979 and is a 1982 graduate of the University of San Diego School of Law.

ANNE HIPSHMAN (Chapter 11: DLSE Enforcement of Wage and Hour Laws) received her B.S. in 1976 from the University of California, Berkeley, and her J.D. in 1980 from Golden Gate University School of Law. Since becoming an attorney, Ms. Hipshman has practiced in the area of labor and employment law, with an emphasis on wage and hour issues. After several years in private practice, she joined the legal section of the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement (DLSE) in 1989, where she is currently a senior staff attorney. From 2000 to 2005, she served as assistant chief counsel of the DLSE.

BILL HOERGER (Chapter 3: The Employment Relationship) is a Director of Litigation, Advocacy and Training for California Rural Legal Assistance, Inc. in San Francisco. Mr. Hoerger focuses on wage and hour litigation and issues of employee-independent contractor misclassification. He has taught extensively on these issues in state and national legal services conferences. Mr. Hoerger received a B.S. in 1964 and an M.S. in 1968 from Ohio State University and a J.D. in 1970 from the University of Chicago Law School.

TODD F. JACKSON (Chapter 13: Mediating Wage and Hour Disputes) received his B.A. from Johns Hopkins University and his J.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Mr. Jackson is a shareholder of Feinberg, Jackson, Worthman & Wasow in Oakland, where he represents employees in class action cases involving overtime pay, pension benefits, and employment discrimination. He is a frequent panel speaker on employee benefits and wage and hour law and has written articles on ERISA fiduciary rules and wage and hour litigation.

MERYL C. MANEKER (Chapter 13: Mediating Wage and Hour Disputes and Chapter 15: Litigating Wage and Hour Cases: Defendants’ Perspective) received her A.B. in 1983 from Brown University and her J.D. in 1988 from New York University School of Law. Ms. Maneker is a partner at Wilson Turner Kosmo LLP in San Diego, where her practice focuses on the defense of class actions and, in particular, of employers in cases involving wage and hour laws. She also defends employers in claims of wrongful termination, discrimination and harassment, and violations of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Among other community involvements, she is the cochair of the Lawyer Representatives Committee of the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of California and a member of the Board of Directors of the Lawyers Club of San Diego.

ERIC W. MUELLER (Chapter 5: Payment of Wages and Chapter 6: Regular Rate and Overtime) is an attorney with the Glendale law firm of Ballard Rosenberg Golper & Savitt, LLP, a labor and employment firm exclusively representing management. Mr. Mueller defends employers on the entire spectrum of employment law litigation and labor relations matters. His work includes providing advice and counsel on employment law strategy and compliance as well as traditional labor relations matters (union organizing, collective bargaining, strikes/picketing, grievance handling and arbitration, and the acquisition/divestiture of unionized business). He received his B.A. in Business Economics from the University of California, Santa Barbara, and his J.D. from the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law.

MARLENE MURACO (Chapter 8: Workplace Policies and Best Practices) is a shareholder with the San Jose office of Littler Mendelson, the nation’s largest labor and employment law firm representing management. She has successfully defended employers in litigation involving the full panoply of employment law claims but has a particular specialty in wage and hour class actions. Ms. Muraco also regularly advises employers on practical, thorough compliance with employment and labor law, with a focus on employers’ operational and strategic needs—skills she honed during the 7 years she spent 2 days per week on-site at a Fortune 100 company providing legal advice and practical guidance on employment issues to the company’s human resources and employee relations staff. Ms. Muraco is a contributing author to Littler Mendelson on Employment Law Class Actions (LexisNexis 2007), the Wage and Hour Answer Book (Wolters Kluwer 2009) and Employment Arbitration Agreements: A Practical Guide (Aspen Publishers 2009). She is also the author of the following books: Managing Workplace Harassment—A Guide for Preventing, Addressing and Resolving Harassment Issues on the Job; Hire & Fire Module: Ten Steps to Help You Stay Out of Court; and Family and Medical Leave Act: A Ten-Step Federal and State Compliance Guide for Employers.

JESSICA RIGGIN (Chapter 14: Litigating Wage and Hour Cases: Plaintiffs’ Perspective) graduated summa cum laude from Boston College in 2008 and obtained her law degree from Columbia University School of Law in 2011. Following law school, she clerked for the Hon. David O. Carter of the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California. Ms. Riggin is currently an associate at Rukin Hyland Doria & Tindall LLP in San Francisco, where her practice involves a wide range of employment law matters, from wage and hour class and collective actions to individual sexual harassment and wrongful termination cases. Ms. Riggin also advises individual clients with respect to contract and severance negotiations. She is a member of the Labor and Employment Law Section of the California State Bar and moderated the Case Law Update Panel at the Section’s 2014 Advanced Wage and Hour Conference.

RICHARD S. ROSENBERG (Chapter 5: Payment of Wages and Chapter 6: Regular Rate and Overtime) is a founding partner of Ballard Rosenberg Golper & Savitt LLP in Glendale. He is a graduate of the College of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University and the University of Santa Clara Law School. Mr. Rosenberg has spent his entire career (32 years) providing advice and counsel to management (exclusively) on the entire spectrum of labor relations and employment law matters. He was recognized as a Southern California Super Lawyer by Los Angeles Magazine and the Journal of Law and Politics for 2009. Mr. Rosenberg has received this recognition each year since the award was created. In addition, he was named among the Best Lawyers in America. In 2007, he was named by the San Fernando Valley Business Journal as among the Top 25 attorneys in the San Fernando Valley. Mr. Rosenberg’s work includes advice on employment law strategy and compliance, as well as litigation, covering such diverse areas as wage-hour collective and class actions, traditional labor relations matters (union organizing, strikes/picketing, collective bargaining, grievance handling and arbitration, and the acquisition/divestiture of unionized businesses), class actions and individual claims for employment discrimination, sexual and other workplace harassment, wrongful termination, whistleblower complaints, occupational safety and health, trade secret protection/enforcement, WARN Act compliance, immigration law compliance, FMLA, ADA, COBRA, HIPAA, and Sarbanes-Oxley and ARRA whistleblower matters. Mr. Rosenberg is a recognized expert in wage and hour law. He and his partners have written a leading treatise on wage-hour law for California lawyers as part of Advising California Employers and Employees (published by CEB). As part of the firm’s preventive practice, Mr. Rosenberg designs and presents customized internal management training programs on a broad range of employment law matters. He has trained well over 15,000 business executives and managers on labor and employment law compliance.

PETER S. RUKIN (Chapter 13: Mediating Wage and Hour Disputes and Chapter 14: Litigating Wage and Hour Cases: Plaintiffs’ Perspective) received his B.A. in 1988 from the University of Illinois and his J.D. in 1991 from New York University School of Law. Following law school, he served as a law clerk to U.S. District Court Judge Harry D. Leinenweber in Chicago. Mr. Rukin is a partner with Rukin Hyland Doria & Tindall LLP in San Francisco, where he specializes in complex litigation with a focus on wage and hour claims. He also represents clients in cases involving discrimination, harassment, wrongful termination, breach of contract, whistleblower retaliation, and mass layoff/WARN Act violations. Mr. Rukin frequently speaks and writes on employment issues and currently serves on the Executive Committee of the California State Bar’s Labor and Employment Section. He is also a member of the California Employment Lawyers Association and serves on the San Francisco Regional Board of the New Israel Fund.

KIRSTEN G. SCOTT (Chapter 13: Mediating Wage and Hour Disputes) received her B.A. in 1999 from the University of Pennsylvania and her J.D. in 2007 from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Ms. Scott is an associate with Lewis, Feinberg, Lee, Renaker & Jackson P.C. in Oakland, where she focuses on plaintiff-side wage-and-hour, discrimination, and employee benefits law. She has served as a judicial extern for the Honorable Charles R. Breyer of the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California and as a legal intern with the EEOC and the Legal Aid Society-Employment Law Center.

MICHAEL D. SINGER (Chapter 1: Overview of California Wage and Hour Law) is a 1984 graduate of the University of California, Hastings College of the Law and the managing partner of Cohelan Khoury & Singer in San Diego. He is a contributor to the California State Bar, Litigation Section, Los Angeles Daily Journal, Orange County Lawyer, and Consumer Attorneys of California publications on class action and employment issues and regularly contributes amicus curiae briefs and letters on employment issues on behalf of the California Employment Lawyers Association. He briefed and argued as amicus curiae in National Steel & Shipbuilding Co. v Superior Court (2006) 135 CA4th 1072 (finding Lab C §226.7 pay constitutes compensation) and argued for plaintiffs in Brinker Int’l Inc. v Superior Court before the Fourth District Court of Appeal (supporting class certification of meal, rest, and off-the-clock compensation claims). Mr. Singer has reviewed and coordinated amicus filings on multiple wage and hour issues in the California Supreme Court and Courts of Appeal, including Keller v Tuesday Morning, Inc. (2009); Chindarah v Pick Up Stix (2009); Lu v Hawaiian Gardens Casino (2009); Watkins v Wachovia (2009); Brinkley v Public Storage (2009); Group Brewer v Premier Golf (2008); Ghazaryan v Diva Limousine (2008); Bufil v Dollar Fin. Group (2008); BCBG Overtime Cases (2008); Kenny v Supercuts (2008); Salazar v Avis (2008); and Estrada v FedEx Ground Package Sys. (2007). Mr. Singer is a CLE lecturer on class action procedure and wage and hour issues, including at commercial seminars in San Diego, San Francisco, Orange County, and Los Angeles and presentations before the San Diego and Orange County Bar Associations.

MATTHEW T. WAKEFIELD (Chapter 5: Payment of Wages and Chapter 6: Regular Rate and Overtime) is a partner with the firm of Ballard Rosenberg Golper & Savitt, LLP in Charlotte, North Carolina. Mr. Wakefield graduated in 1984 from California State University, Hayward, and received his law degree in 1994 from the University of San Diego School of Law, where he was a member of the Order of the Coif and the Executive Editor of the Law Review. He is a recipient of the Brundage and Zellmann Award for Excellence in Labor Law and the American Jurisprudence Award for Civil Procedure.

About the 2019 Update Authors

AASHISH Y. DESAI is the update author of Chapter 2 (Overview of Federal Law). See his biography in the About the Authors section.

JEFFREY P. FUCHSMAN is an update author of Chapter 5 (Payment of Wages) and Chapter 6 (Regular Rate and Overtime). See his biography in the About the Authors section.

TODD F. JACKSON is an update author of Chapter 13 (Mediating Wage and Hour Disputes). See his biography in the About the Authors section.

MERYL C. MANEKER is an update author of Chapter 15 (Litigating Wage and Hour Cases: Defendants’ Perspective). See her biography in the About the Authors section.

ERIC W. MUELLER is an update author of Chapter 5 (Payment of Wages) and Chapter 6 (Regular Rate and Overtime). See his biography in the About the Authors section.

CYNTHIA L. RICE is the Director of Litigation, Advocacy, Training at California Rural Legal Assistance, Inc., in Oakland, and is the update author of Chapter 3 (The Employment Relationship).

JESSICA RIGGIN, of Rukin Hyland & Riggin LLP, is an update author of Chapter 14 (Litigating Wage and Hour Cases: Plaintiffs’ Perspective). See her biography in the About the Authors section.

PETER S. RUKIN, of Rukin Hyland & Riggin LLP, is an update author of Chapter 14 (Litigating Wage and Hour Cases: Plaintiffs’ Perspective). See his biography in the About the Authors section.

MICHAEL D. SINGER is the update author of Chapter 1 (Overview of California Wage and Hour Law) and Chapter 13A (PAGA Claims). See his biography in the About the Authors section.

MATTHEW T. WAKEFIELD is an update author of Chapter 5 (Payment of Wages) and Chapter 6 (Regular Rate and Overtime). See his biography in the About the Authors section.

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