You have no items in your shopping cart.
Search
Filters

California Trial Practice: Civil Procedure During Trial

Everything you need to know about preparing for all aspects of a civil trial.

 

Everything you need to know about preparing for all aspects of a civil trial.

  • Concise, helpful advice from judges and experienced practitioners on handling trial efficiently
  • Checklists to help you in all phases of pretrial preparation and during trial
  • Planning, preparing, and delivering opening statements and closing arguments
  • CACI jury instructions, jury misconduct, and verdicts
  • Attorney fees and costs
OnLAW CP94190

Web access for one user.

 

If you are signed in and a new attorney, your adjusted cost appears below.

$ 575.00
Print CP32190

3d edition, 3 looseleaf volumes, updated 4/18

 

This book is out of stock through 8/3/2018.  Need immediate access?  OnLAW version is available now.

 

If you are signed in and a new attorney, your adjusted cost appears below.

$ 575.00
Add Forms CD to Print CP22192
$ 59.00
Add OnLAW to print CP94190(40)
$ 129.00

Everything you need to know about preparing for all aspects of a civil trial.

  • Concise, helpful advice from judges and experienced practitioners on handling trial efficiently
  • Checklists to help you in all phases of pretrial preparation and during trial
  • Planning, preparing, and delivering opening statements and closing arguments
  • CACI jury instructions, jury misconduct, and verdicts
  • Attorney fees and costs

1

Handling Trials Efficiently

Hon. Jacqueline A. Connor

Hon. Patricia M. Lucas

James N. Penrod

Hon. Andrew J. Wistrich

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  1.1
  • II.  GENERAL ISSUES
    • A.  Judicial case management  1.2
    • B.  Efficiency and other trial goals  1.2A
      • 1.  Evaluate effect of efficiency technique  1.3
      • 2.  Assess costs of efficiency technique  1.4
    • C.  Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) models  1.5
      • 1.  Arbitration  1.6
      • 2.  Mediation  1.6A
      • 3.  Private judging  1.7
  • III.  STRUCTURING THE TRIAL
    • A.  Jury trial versus bench trial  1.8
    • B.  Severance or separate trial  1.9
    • C.  Consolidation  1.10
    • D.  Changing order of proof  1.11
      • 1.  Bifurcation: Trying dispositive issue first  1.12
      • 2.  Organizing trial around issues instead of parties  1.13
    • E.  Using special masters or referees  1.14
    • F.  Using an expedited jury trial  1.14A
  • IV.  IMPROVING JURY PROCEDURES
    • A.  Selecting the jury
      • 1.  Conducting voir dire  1.15
      • 2.  Using jury questionnaires  1.16
      • 3.  Reducing number of jurors  1.17
      • 4.  Methods of jury selection  1.18
      • 5.  Mini-opening statements  1.18A
    • B.  Techniques for assisting fact-finding process
      • 1.  Juror note-taking  1.19
      • 2.  Juror notebooks  1.19A
      • 3.  Juror questions  1.20
      • 4.  Jury’s access to instructions
        • a.  Preinstructions  1.21
        • b.  Final instructions  1.21A
      • 5.  Verdict forms  1.22
    • C.  Specially selected juries  1.23
  • V.  CONDUCTING THE TRIAL
    • A.  Streamlining evidence  1.24
      • 1.  Narrowing the issues  1.25
      • 2.  Summarizing depositions  1.25A
      • 3.  In limine motions and chambers conferences  1.26
      • 4.  Court’s exclusions  1.27
      • 5.  Stipulations  1.28
      • 6.  Judicial notice  1.29
      • 7.  Presenting trial exhibits
        • a.  Premarking exhibits  1.30
        • b.  Copies of exhibits  1.31
        • c.  Creating visual aids  1.32
    • B.  Disclosing order of witnesses  1.33
    • C.  Interim summaries  1.34
      • 1.  Witness introductions  1.34A
      • 2.  Summaries of testimony  1.35
    • D.  Court-imposed time limits  1.36
      • 1.  Limiting parties’ total trial time  1.37
      • 2.  Abbreviating trial segments  1.38
      • 3.  Mandatory resting when evidence not ready  1.39
    • E.  Courtroom hours and activities
      • 1.  Scheduling half days  1.40
      • 2.  Avoiding recesses  1.41
      • 3.  Starting on time  1.42
      • 4.  Eliminating unnecessary bench and chambers conferences  1.43
      • 5.  Eliminating argumentative behavior of counsel  1.44
    • F.  Court-appointed experts  1.45
  • VI.  MULTIPLE PARTY CASES
    • A.  Relationship among counsel
      • 1.  Similarly aligned parties  1.46
      • 2.  Problems of control  1.47
    • B.  Special designation of counsel  1.48
  • VII.  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  1.49

2

Completing Pretrial Procedures

Marlene I. Camacho

Stephen H. Marcus

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  2.1
  • II.  COMPLETE FINAL DISCOVERY
    • A.  Deadlines for completing discovery before arbitration or trial
      • 1.  If case sent to arbitration
        • a.  Usually no discovery after hearing except by court order  2.2
        • b.  Exception: Expert witness discovery permitted  2.3
      • 2.  If case not sent to arbitration  2.4
        • a.  Effect of local rules  2.5
        • b.  If court allows later discovery  2.6
        • c.  Expert witness discovery  2.7
        • d.  Unlawful detainer and eminent domain discovery  2.8
      • 3.  Determine when to initiate final discovery requests  2.9
    • B.  Making discovery motions before trial
      • 1.  Deadline for court to hear motions  2.10
      • 2.  Moving for additional discovery after deadline dates  2.11
    • C.  Object to discovery that falls within 30 days before trial  2.12
      • 1.  Deposition of client  2.13
      • 2.  Deposition of nonparty witness  2.14
      • 3.  Interrogatories; request for admission; request for production and inspection, copying, testing or sampling of documents or things or entry on land or other property  2.15
      • 4.  Physical, mental, or blood examination  2.16
      • 5.  Expert witness discovery  2.17
    • D.  If trial date continued or new trial ordered  2.18
  • III.  EFFECT OF JUDICIAL ARBITRATION ON PRETRIAL PROCEDURES
    • A.  Requesting trial de novo after arbitration  2.19
    • B.  Effect of judicial arbitration
      • 1.  On CCP §583.310 dismissal period  2.20
      • 2.  On trial-setting procedures when trial de novo requested  2.21
      • 3.  On conduct of trial  2.22
      • 4.  On discovery
        • a.  Complete most discovery before arbitration hearing  2.23
        • b.  Conduct permissible discovery after arbitration award  2.24
  • IV.  OBTAIN TRIAL BY JURY
    • A.  Demand for jury trial
      • 1.  Timing  2.25
      • 2.  How to make demand
        • a.  Case management statement  2.26
        • b.  Check local rules  2.27
        • c.  Announcement on the record  2.28
        • d.  Motion for jury trial  2.29
      • 3.  Requesting jury after waiver  2.30
    • B.  Pay jury fees
      • 1.  Who pays and how to pay  2.31
      • 2.  Time limit for payment of jury fees  2.32
      • 3.  Amount of nonrefundable fee  2.33
      • 4.  Effect of failing to pay fees: Jury trial waived  2.34
      • 5.  Jury fees refunded if case is settled or continued  2.35
    • C.  Expedited jury trials
      • 1.  Mandatory expedited jury trial  2.35A
      • 2.  Expedited trial  2.35B
      • 3.  Opt-Out Procedure  2.35C
      • 4.  Voluntary expedited jury trial  2.35D
  • V.  PUBLICITY, PREJUDICE, AND FAIR TRIAL
    • A.  Client’s right to fair trial may conflict with other rights
      • 1.  Constitutional and statutory provisions on how trials are conducted  2.36
      • 2.  Who can assert right to public trial  2.37
      • 3.  Limitations on public rights
        • a.  Controlling courtroom  2.38
        • b.  Allowing party to present case  2.39
        • c.  Protecting juror’s privacy  2.40
      • 4.  Who can waive right to public trial  2.41
    • B.  Protective orders to prevent publicity and prejudice
      • 1.  Court has authority to issue protective orders  2.42
      • 2.  Requirements to justify gag order  2.43
    • C.  Remedies to dissipate effect of publicity and prejudice  2.44
      • 1.  Motions for continuance and change of venue  2.45
        • a.  Motion for continuance  2.46
        • b.  Motion for change of venue  2.47
        • c.  Supporting affidavits or declarations; Oral argument  2.48
        • d.  Counteraffidavits or declarations  2.49
      • 2.  Bench trial  2.50
      • 3.  Voir dire examination  2.51
        • a.  The dilemma: Asking questions about pretrial publicity may increase prejudice  2.52
        • b.  The solution
          • (1)  Have judge conduct questioning  2.53
          • (2)  Conduct individual voir dire  2.54
          • (3)  Juror questionnaires  2.55
          • (4)  Challenge for cause  2.56
          • (5)  Peremptory challenge  2.57
      • 4.  Instructions to disregard publicity  2.58
      • 5.  Sequestration of jurors  2.59
      • 6.  Juror misconduct  2.60
  • VI.  OBTAIN TRIAL ASSIGNMENT
    • A.  Ascertain procedures under court’s case management rules  2.61
    • B.  Difference between master calendar and one-judge system  2.62
      • 1.  Procedures under one-judge system  2.63
      • 2.  Procedures under master calendar  2.64
    • C.  Consider pretrial motions  2.65
    • D.  Make arrangements for court reporter  2.65A
  • VII.  CHECKLIST: TRIAL PREPARATION  2.66
  • VIII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Request to Opt Out of Mandatory Expedited Jury Trial Procedures (Judicial Council Form EJT-003)  2.67
    • B.  Form: Objection to Request to Opt Out of Mandatory Expedited Jury Trial Procedures (Judicial Council Form EJT-004)  2.68

3

Organizing Trial Materials

Cynthia A. Coe

Christopher B. Hockett

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  3.1
    • A.  Key to conducting effective trial: Organization  3.2
    • B.  Choosing appropriate organizational system  3.3
  • II.  ORGANIZING FILES AND TRIAL MATERIALS  3.4
    • A.  Basic client and case information sheet  3.5
    • B.  File categories
      • 1.  File index  3.6
      • 2.  Examples of file categories  3.7
    • C.  Using computers and other technology  3.8
      • 1.  File management and indexing  3.9
      • 2.  Calendaring dates and deadlines  3.10
      • 3.  Document databases and issue coding  3.11
        • a.  Coding  3.12
        • b.  Optical character readers  3.13
        • c.  Imaging  3.14
      • 4.  Deposition databases  3.15
    • D.  Reorganizing files to eliminate nontrial materials  3.16
  • III.  PREPARING MATERIALS FOR USE AT TRIAL
    • A.  Trial and issue outline
      • 1.  Why to prepare  3.17
      • 2.  How to prepare  3.18
      • 3.  When to prepare  3.19
      • 4.  What to include  3.20
    • B.  Preparing trial notebook; format and contents  3.21
      • 1.  Issue outline  3.22
      • 2.  Trial brief  3.23
      • 3.  Motions in limine  3.24
      • 4.  Materials for voir dire  3.25
      • 5.  Opening statement  3.26
      • 6.  Witness list or information sheets  3.27
      • 7.  Witness examination plan  3.28
        • a.  Anticipated objections to admissibility of documents  3.29
        • b.  Impeachment evidence  3.30
      • 8.  Table of exhibits  3.31
      • 9.  Legal issues and research  3.32
      • 10.  Stipulations, requests for judicial notice, and key discovery responses  3.33
      • 11.  Local rules and standing orders  3.34
      • 12.  Jury instructions  3.35
      • 13.  Closing argument  3.36
      • 14.  Verdict forms  3.37
    • C.  Other trial files  3.38
      • 1.  Pleadings and court orders  3.39
      • 2.  Witness files or binders  3.40
        • a.  Documentary and demonstrative evidence  3.41
        • b.  Anticipated objections to admissibility of documents  3.42
        • c.  Deposition transcripts, videotapes, and recordings  3.43
      • 3.  Legal research  3.44
      • 4.  Optional documentary and demonstrative evidence  3.45
    • D.  Copies of documents
      • 1.  Court may require copies of documents  3.46
      • 2.  Facilitate witness examination by providing copies  3.47
      • 3.  Keep track of costs  3.48
  • IV.  PREPARING TRIAL-RELATED DOCUMENTS TO FILE WITH COURT
    • A.  Trial brief
      • 1.  Why to prepare
        • a.  Educate judge about the case  3.49
        • b.  Briefly develop theory of case  3.50
      • 2.  How to prepare  3.51
      • 3.  Submit as early as possible  3.52
      • 4.  What to include  3.53
    • B.  Supplemental memorandums  3.54
    • C.  Trial subpoenas  3.55
    • D.  Lists of exhibits  3.56
    • E.  Pretrial and trial motions  3.57
    • F.  Voir dire and jury questionnaires  3.58
    • G.  Jury instructions
      • 1.  When to submit  3.59
      • 2.  Required format  3.60
    • H.  Verdict, special interrogatories, and statement of decision  3.61
  • V.  FINAL PREPARATION
    • A.  Documents and demonstrative evidence  3.62
    • B.  Computers and audio-visual equipment  3.63
    • C.  Prepare witnesses and schedule confirmation  3.64
    • D.  Codes, texts, and authorities to bring to court  3.65
    • E.  Ask clerk to mark and number documents  3.66
  • VI.  SAMPLE FORMS
    • A.  Issue outline  3.67
    • B.  Document index  3.68
    • C.  Exhibit log  3.69
  • VII.  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  3.70

4

Compelling Attendance and Production of Evidence

Holly J. Fujie

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  4.1
  • II.  SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES
    • A.  Subpoena of nonparty witnesses  4.2
      • 1.  Advantages of subpoenaing friendly witnesses  4.3
      • 2.  When to use subpoena for parties: time periods for notice expired  4.4
    • B.  Notice to parties, persons “benefiting” from action, or other “related” witnesses  4.5
  • III.  SUBPOENA PROCEDURES
    • A.  Issuing subpoena or subpoena duces tecum  4.6
    • B.  Preparing affidavit or declaration in support of subpoena duces tecum  4.7
      • 1.  Legal requirements  4.8
        • a.  Show good cause  4.9
        • b.  Specify exact matters to be produced  4.10
        • c.  Describe materiality of requested items to case issues  4.11
        • d.  State that witness has possession or control of requested items  4.12
        • e.  Admissible evidence standard: State personally known facts  4.13
      • 2.  Retain original affidavit or declaration until final judgment  4.14
    • C.  Serving subpoena or subpoena duces tecum
      • 1.  Personal service required  4.15
      • 2.  Who may serve subpoena  4.16
      • 3.  Time requirements  4.17
      • 4.  Subpoena power limited to California “residents”  4.18
    • D.  Proof of service; filing optional  4.19
    • E.  Agreement to appear after subpoena served  4.20
  • IV.  SUBPOENAING PARTICULAR WITNESSES OR DOCUMENTS
    • A.  Personal records of consumer  4.21
      • 1.  Timing and service; consumer notice  4.22
      • 2.  Consumer’s objections  4.23
    • B.  Employment records  4.23A
    • C.  Custodian of records
      • 1.  Generally  4.24
      • 2.  When custodian’s attendance not required  4.25
      • 3.  Alternative procedure when custodian’s attendance not required [Deleted]  4.26
      • 4.  Requesting custodian’s personal attendance  4.27
      • 5.  Payment of reasonable costs  4.28
    • D.  Public employees  4.29
    • E.  Minors  4.30
    • F.  Concealed witness  4.31
    • G.  Jailed witness  4.32
    • H.  Testimony from person present in courtroom  4.33
    • I.  Production of evidence from witness on stand  4.34
    • J.  Information to be disclosed by private trusts  4.35
  • V.  NOTICE PROCEDURES FOR PARTIES AND RELATED WITNESSES
    • A.  Notice to attend or notice to attend and produce
      • 1.  Who may be served; fees and mileage  4.36
      • 2.  Time requirements; service  4.37
      • 3.  Contents; no affidavit required to accompany notice to produce  4.38
    • B.  Tactical considerations  4.39
  • VI.  COSTS AND WITNESS FEES
    • A.  Cost of serving subpoena  4.40
    • B.  Ordinary witness fees and mileage  4.41
    • C.  Public employees  4.42
    • D.  Expert witness fees  4.43
    • E.  Witness costs recoverable by successful party  4.44
  • VII.  PROCEDURES FOR OBJECTING TO SUBPOENA OR NOTICE
    • A.  Motion to quash or modify subpoena  4.45
      • 1.  Grounds  4.46
      • 2.  Procedures; timing  4.47
      • 3.  Mandamus when motion denied  4.48
    • B.  Refusal to produce subpoenaed items at trial; objections to admissibility  4.49
    • C.  Written objections to notice to attend and produce; requesting party’s motion to compel production
      • 1.  Procedures for producing party; timing  4.50
      • 2.  Requesting party’s procedures; noticed motion  4.51
  • VIII.  COUNSEL’S OPTIONS WHEN WITNESS DISOBEYS SUBPOENA OR NOTICE
    • A.  Contempt proceedings to enforce subpoena  4.52
    • B.  Civil action for damages  4.53
    • C.  Sanctions for failure to comply with notice to attend and produce  4.54
  • IX.  FORMS
    • A.  Subpoena or subpoena duces tecum of witness
      • 1.  Form: Civil subpoena for personal appearance at trial or hearing (Judicial Council form SUBP-001)  4.55
      • 2.  Form: Civil subpoena (duces tecum) for personal appearance and production of documents and things at trial or hearing and declaration (Judicial Council form SUBP-002)  4.55A
      • 3.  Form: Declaration supporting subpoena duces tecum (CCP §1985)  4.56
      • 4.  Form: Sample letter accompanying subpoena or subpoena duces tecum  4.57
      • 5.  Form: Acknowledgment of service of subpoena and agreement of witness to appear on call (CCP §1985.1)  4.58
    • B.  Subpoena of consumer or employment records
      • 1.  Form: Notice to consumer or employee and objection (Judicial Council form SUBP-025)  4.59
      • 2.  Form: Proof of service of notice to consumer of privacy rights (CCP §1985.3) [Deleted]  4.60
    • C.  Custodian of records
      • 1.  Form: Declaration of custodian of records (Evid C §1561(a))  4.61
      • 2.  Form: Declaration of person copying records (Evid C §1561(c))  4.62
    • D.  Subpoena of concealed witness
      • 1.  Form: Ex parte application for order to serve concealed witness (CCP §1988)  4.63
      • 2.  Form: Supporting declaration of attorney (CCP §1988)  4.64
      • 3.  Form: Supporting declaration of process server (CCP §1988)  4.65
      • 4.  Form: Order for sheriff to serve concealed witness (CCP §1988)  4.66
    • E.  Subpoena of witness confined in jail
      • 1.  Form: Notice of motion and motion for removal and production of prisoner at trial (CCP §§1995–1997)  4.67
      • 2.  Form: Declaration supporting motion for removal and production of prisoner at trial (CCP §§1995–1997)  4.68
    • F.  Notice to party or party-related witness
      • 1.  Form: Notice to attend trial (CCP §1987(b))  4.69
      • 2.  Form: Notice to attend and produce evidence at trial (CCP §1987(b)–(c))  4.70
    • G.  Objecting to subpoena or notice
      • 1.  Form: Notice of motion to quash service of subpoena duces tecum (trial) (CCP §§1987.1–1987.2)  4.71
      • 2.  Form: Declaration supporting motion to quash subpoena duces tecum (trial) (CCP §§1987.1–1987.2)  4.72
      • 3.  Form: Written objections to notice to attend and produce evidence at trial (CCP §1987(c))  4.73

5

Preparing Witnesses for Trial

William J. Elfving

Marta A. Elliott

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER; DEFINITIONS  5.1
  • II.  ATTORNEY PREPARATION
    • A.  Review case
      • 1.  Testimonial, documentary, and demonstrative evidence  5.2
      • 2.  Depositions; answers to interrogatories  5.3
      • 3.  Complete legal research and pretrial organization  5.4
      • 4.  Consider what writings to use to refresh recollection  5.5
        • a.  Attorney-client privilege  5.6
        • b.  Work-product protection  5.7
    • B.  Select witnesses  5.8
      • 1.  Competency of witness
        • a.  Ability of witness  5.9
        • b.  When witness is judge or juror, or other trier of fact  5.10
        • c.  Show competence if challenged  5.11
      • 2.  Personal knowledge of witness  5.12
    • C.  Decide whether to use expert  5.13
      • 1.  When useful to assist trier of fact  5.14
      • 2.  When expert opinion is necessary  5.15
      • 3.  When expert opinion is unnecessary  5.16
    • D.  Consider attorney as witness  5.17
    • E.  Prepare witness trial materials
      • 1.  Witness files and information sheets  5.18
      • 2.  Witness examination plans  5.19
    • F.  Decide on order of witnesses and timing  5.20
    • G.  Assure attendance of witnesses at trial  5.21
  • III.  PREPARING LAY WITNESSES FOR TRIAL
    • A.  Witness conference with attorney
      • 1.  Timing and location  5.22
      • 2.  Single versus group conference; waiver of privileges  5.23
    • B.  Conducting the conference
      • 1.  Witness gives initial narrative  5.24
      • 2.  Attorney directs remainder of conference  5.25
    • C.  Preliminary matters  5.26
      • 1.  Goal: put witness at ease  5.27
      • 2.  Courtroom basics  5.28
      • 3.  Advise witness what to wear  5.29
      • 4.  Witness demeanor  5.30
      • 5.  Bringing family and friends to court  5.31
    • D.  General rules for testifying  5.32
      • 1.  Tell the truth  5.33
      • 2.  Listen carefully to question and think before answering  5.34
      • 3.  Give complete, responsive answers but do not volunteer information  5.35
      • 4.  Admit mistakes  5.36
      • 5.  Speak loudly  5.37
      • 6.  Look at trier of fact, if possible  5.38
      • 7.  Answer from personal knowledge; do not guess  5.39
      • 8.  Testify “on the record”  5.40
      • 9.  Do not answer over objection  5.41
      • 10.  Do not become hostile, especially during cross-examination  5.42
      • 11.  Comply with court orders or rules  5.43
    • E.  Assess witness’s personality  5.44
    • F.  Preparing young children as witnesses
      • 1.  Putting child at ease  5.45
      • 2.  Types of questions  5.46
      • 3.  Attorney-client privilege  5.47
  • IV.  PREPARING PARTIES AND PARTY-RELATED WITNESSES
    • A.  Witness preparation before attorney conference
      • 1.  Have witness review materials  5.48
      • 2.  When witness should review material  5.49
    • B.  Witness conference with attorney
      • 1.  Timing and location  5.50
      • 2.  Individual versus group conference  5.51
        • a.  Advantages of separate conference  5.52
        • b.  Group conference: Waiver of privileges  5.53
    • C.  General preparation  5.54
    • D.  Prepare party or party-related witness for direct examination
      • 1.  Review witness examination plan
        • a.  Choice of witness  5.55
        • b.  Review questions  5.56
      • 2.  Review law with witness  5.57
      • 3.  Review facts with witness  5.58
      • 4.  Review discovery with witness: Depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions  5.59
      • 5.  Review documentary and demonstrative evidence with witness  5.60
      • 6.  Decide whether witness should use notes  5.61
      • 7.  Practice direct examination  5.62
    • E.  Prepare party or party-related witness for cross-examination
      • 1.  Attorney preparation  5.63
      • 2.  Witness preparation  5.64
  • V.  PREPARING NONPARTY LAY WITNESSES
    • A.  General preparation; no attorney-client privilege  5.65
    • B.  Witness preparation before attorney conference  5.66
    • C.  Individual versus group conference  5.67
    • D.  Witness compensation  5.68
    • E.  Direct and cross-examination  5.69
  • VI.  PREPARING EXPERT WITNESSES
    • A.  Expert witness defined  5.70
    • B.  Attorney preparation
      • 1.  Ascertain matters on which opinion is based  5.71
      • 2.  Understand terminology and subject matter  5.72
      • 3.  Consider discoverability of expert’s file
        • a.  Attorney work-product protection terminated when expert becomes a witness  5.73
        • b.  Expert who serves as both adviser and witness  5.74
        • c.  Waiver of attorney work-product protection based on refreshing recollection  5.75
      • 4.  Review expert’s file  5.76
      • 5.  Review experiments, models, and demonstrations  5.77
    • C.  Prepare expert for direct and cross-examination
      • 1.  Review with expert: Qualifications, publications, and other testimony  5.78
      • 2.  Explain applicable law  5.79
      • 3.  Review opinion
        • a.  Phrasing opinion  5.80
        • b.  Expert opinion on ultimate issue or legal conclusions  5.81
      • 4.  Demeanor  5.82
      • 5.  Compensation  5.83
      • 6.  Review facts and bases for expert’s testimony  5.84
      • 7.  Using hypothetical questions to elicit opinion  5.85
        • a.  What facts to use  5.86
        • b.  Prepare in advance  5.87
        • c.  Anticipate questions about expert’s prior review of hypothetical question  5.88
        • d.  Anticipate cross-examination on hypothetical question  5.89
      • 8.  Practice direct and cross-examination  5.90
  • VII.  ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • A.  Potential perjury by client
      • 1.  Understand professional rules  5.91
      • 2.  What to do if perjury threatened
        • a.  Explain ramifications of perjury  5.92
        • b.  Withdraw from representation  5.93
        • c.  Refuse to call client as witness  5.94
    • B.  Potential perjury by party-related or other witness  5.95
    • C.  Avoid improper coaching  5.96
  • VIII.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Preparing witnesses for trial  5.97
    • B.  Checklist: Instructions to the witness  5.98
    • C.  Checklist: Preparing expert witnesses  5.99

6

Court Conferences and Selected Pretrial Motions

Marlene I. Camacho

Stephen H. Marcus

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  6.1
  • II.  CONFERENCES WITH TRIAL JUDGE
    • A.  Types of trial-related conferences  6.2
      • 1.  Final case management conference  6.3
      • 2.  Chambers conference: taking care of details for trial  6.4
      • 3.  Pretrial conference for expedited jury trial  6.4A
    • B.  Checklist: Questions considered in final conferences  6.5
  • III.  MOTION TO CONTINUE THE TRIAL
    • A.  Authority: Cal Rules of Ct 3.1332  6.6
    • B.  Court has discretion to grant or deny motion  6.7
    • C.  Moving party must establish good cause for a continuance  6.8
      • 1.  Unavailability  6.9
      • 2.  Other grounds for continuance  6.10
    • D.  Factors court must consider  6.10A
    • E.  Statutory grounds for continuance  6.10B
    • F.  Consider alternatives to motion  6.11
      • 1.  Stipulation to continue  6.12
      • 2.  Suggested alternatives to motion  6.13
    • G.  Seek continuance by filing a noticed motion or ex parte application  6.14
      • 1.  Where to make motion or ex parte application  6.15
      • 2.  When to make motion or ex parte application  6.16
    • H.  What to include in motion or application seeking continuance  6.17
      • 1.  Show good cause  6.18
      • 2.  Show due diligence  6.19
      • 3.  Refute prejudice to opposing party  6.20
    • I.  What to include when opposing motion  6.21
      • 1.  Lack of diligence or good cause  6.22
      • 2.  Prejudice if trial continued  6.23
      • 3.  Suggest alternatives or conditions  6.24
      • 4.  Request expenses if motion granted  6.25
  • IV.  DISQUALIFYING THE JUDGE
    • A.  Authority: CCP §§170.1–170.8  6.26
    • B.  Seek to disqualify at earliest opportunity  6.27
    • C.  Obtain information about judges before the actual assignment  6.28
    • D.  Considerations when deciding whether to challenge judge
      • 1.  Disadvantages of challenge  6.29
      • 2.  Effect of disqualification  6.30
      • 3.  Relationship between CCP §§170.3 and 170.6  6.31
    • E.  Disqualification for cause (CCP §170.3)
      • 1.  Grounds: CCP §170.1  6.32
        • a.  Has personal knowledge of disputed facts  6.33
        • b.  Acted as attorney in matter related to proceeding  6.34
        • c.  Has financial interest in matter related to proceeding  6.35
        • d.  Is a party or is related to a party  6.36
        • e.  Is related to an attorney in proceeding  6.37
        • f.  Appears to lack impartiality  6.38
        • g.  Has physical impairment that prevents proper conduct of proceeding  6.39
        • h.  Has arranged for, or participated in discussions concerning, prospective employment as a dispute resolution neutral  6.39A
        • i.  Has received a contribution in excess of $1500 from a party or lawyer in the proceeding  6.39B
      • 2.  Judge may disqualify self  6.40
      • 3.  Parties may waive disqualification
        • a.  Judge may ask for an express waiver  6.41
        • b.  Delay in asserting grounds results in waiver  6.42
      • 4.  Challenge by filing a verified written statement  6.43
        • a.  What to include in statement  6.44
        • b.  Verify statement  6.45
        • c.  When to file  6.46
        • d.  Whom to serve  6.47
        • e.  Only one request unless additional facts discovered  6.48
      • 5.  Judge’s authority after statement filed  6.49
        • a.  Strike statement for no legal grounds  6.50
        • b.  Strike statement as untimely  6.51
        • c.  Proceed if statement was filed after trial or hearing begins  6.52
        • d.  Proceed if statement filed after trial or hearing begins in single-assignment cases  6.53
        • e.  Judge’s additional specific powers  6.54
      • 6.  Judge’s response  6.55
      • 7.  Determining judge’s disqualification  6.56
    • F.  Peremptory challenge under CCP §170.6
      • 1.  Grounds: Prejudice against party or attorney  6.57
      • 2.  Challenge judge by written or oral motion  6.58
        • a.  Where to file  6.59
        • b.  Limitations: One-challenge rule  6.60
        • c.  Withdrawing or waiving challenge  6.61
        • d.  Challenging in a second case  6.62
        • e.  Challenge does not require continuance  6.63
      • 3.  When to make motion  6.64
        • a.  General rule: Before trial or hearing  6.65
        • b.  If only one judge  6.66
        • c.  If judge known 10 days before hearing: 10-day/5-day rule  6.67
        • d.  If judge assigned by master calendar  6.68
        • e.  If judge assigned for all purposes  6.69
        • f.  Law and motion judge  6.70
        • g.  If already appeared before judge in case  6.71
        • h.  After appeal  6.72
        • i.  New trial after writ  6.73
        • j.  In coordinated proceeding  6.74
      • 4.  What to include in motion: Affidavit or declaration to establish prejudice  6.75
      • 5.  Opposing the motion  6.76
      • 6.  Judge disqualified and case transferred  6.77
    • G.  Availability of extraordinary relief  6.78
  • V.  DISMISSING CASE
    • A.  Voluntary dismissal
      • 1.  Authority: CCP §581(c)  6.79
      • 2.  Right to voluntary dismissal not absolute  6.79A
      • 3.  Using dismissal as a trial tactic  6.80
      • 4.  Filing request to voluntarily dismiss  6.81
      • 5.  When to request dismissal: Before trial  6.82
      • 6.  Effect of dismissal
        • a.  If dismissed without prejudice  6.83
        • b.  If dismissed with prejudice  6.84
        • c.  Defendant can recover costs  6.85
    • B.  Involuntary dismissal  6.86
  • VI.  AMENDING PLEADINGS
    • A.  Authority (Cal Rules of Ct 3.1324); grounds (CCP §§473, 576)  6.87
    • B.  When to move to amend  6.88
    • C.  Making noticed motion to amend
      • 1.  Using written motion  6.89
      • 2.  Using amended pleadings that supersede original pleadings  6.90
    • D.  What to include in supporting papers
      • 1.  Notice of motion  6.91
      • 2.  Declaration; supporting memorandum and copy of proposed pleading  6.92
    • E.  What to include in papers opposing motion  6.93
  • VII.  JUDGMENT ON THE PLEADINGS
    • A.  Authority (CCP §438); grounds for motion  6.94
    • B.  When to make motion  6.95
    • C.  Using written noticed motion or oral motion  6.96
    • D.  If opposing motion  6.97
    • E.  Court may allow a curative amendment and continue trial  6.98
  • VIII.  MOTIONS TO BIFURCATE, SEVER, AND CHANGE THE ORDER OF TRIAL  6.99
    • A.  Motion to separately try certain defenses first
      • 1.  Special defenses not involving merits  6.100
      • 2.  Statute of limitations defense  6.101
    • B.  Motion to try certain issues first  6.102
    • C.  Motion for separate trial  6.103
    • D.  Motion to change order of proof  6.104
  • IX.  EXCLUDING WITNESSES AT TRIAL
    • A.  Authority: Evid C §777  6.105
    • B.  Purpose: prevent witnesses from hearing, and being influenced by, other witnesses  6.106
      • 1.  Advantages  6.107
      • 2.  Disadvantages  6.108
  • X.  MOVING TO DISQUALIFY ATTORNEY  6.109
  • XI.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Notice of motion to continue trial  6.110
    • B.  Form: Written statement challenging judge for cause (CCP §170.3(c)(1))  6.111
    • C.  Form: Peremptory challenge and declaration in support of challenge (CCP §170.6)  6.112
    • D.  Form: Consent of client to continued representation by attorney who will testify at trial (Cal Rules of Prof Cond 5–210)  6.113

7

Motions in Limine

Steven E. Schon

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  7.1
  • II.  WHY TO MAKE A MOTION IN LIMINE
    • A.  Purpose of motion  7.2
      • 1.  To exclude particular evidence  7.3
      • 2.  To require proponent to establish foundational facts  7.4
      • 3.  To exclude all evidence and thereby eliminate a cause of action or entire case  7.5
      • 4.  To admit evidence  7.6
    • B.  Strategies regarding use  7.7
      • 1.  Advantages  7.8
        • a.  When moving to exclude evidence  7.9
        • b.  When moving to admit evidence  7.10
      • 2.  Disadvantages  7.11
    • C.  Checklist: Grounds for motion and examples  7.12
  • III.  MAKING A MOTION IN LIMINE
    • A.  When to make motion  7.13
      • 1.  To avoid prejudice  7.14
      • 2.  As required by local rule  7.15
      • 3.  As soon as need for motion is discovered  7.16
    • B.  How to make motion: Oral or written
      • 1.  Written motions preferred  7.17
      • 2.  Oral motions allowed  7.18
    • C.  What to include in motion
      • 1.  State purpose of motion  7.19
      • 2.  Identify evidence  7.20
      • 3.  Discuss legal authority  7.21
      • 4.  Explain why court should rule pretrial  7.22
    • D.  Format and service of written motion  7.23
    • E.  Opposition to motion  7.24
  • IV.  PRELIMINARY FACT-FINDING PROCESS DURING MOTION IN LIMINE  7.25
    • A.  When preliminary fact finding is required  7.26
      • 1.  Evidence Code §403  7.27
      • 2.  Evidence Code §404  7.28
      • 3.  Evidence Code §405  7.29
    • B.  Court conducts hearing when preliminary fact is disputed  7.30
    • C.  Burden of proving preliminary fact  7.31
      • 1.  Who has burden in Evid C §403 hearing  7.32
      • 2.  Who has burden in Evid C §405 hearing  7.33
    • D.  Challenging existence of preliminary fact  7.34
    • E.  Effect of court’s finding preliminary fact
      • 1.  Evidence Code §403  7.35
      • 2.  Evidence Code §405  7.36
  • V.  ACTIONS AFTER COURT RULES ON MOTION  7.37
    • A.  Court grants motion
      • 1.  To exclude evidence  7.38
        • a.  Preserving right to appeal if opposing the motion  7.39
        • b.  Effect of violating order to exclude  7.40
      • 2.  To admit evidence  7.41
    • B.  Court takes motion under submission or makes conditional ruling  7.42
    • C.  Court denies motion to exclude evidence  7.43
      • 1.  Renewing objection  7.44
        • a.  Ask court for different ruling by objecting to evidence at trial  7.45
        • b.  Object to preserve record for appeal  7.46
      • 2.  Stipulation or statement to preserve record  7.47
    • D.  Court denies motion to admit evidence  7.48
  • VI.  FORMS AND EXAMPLES
    • A.  Form: Sample motion in limine  7.49
    • B.  Example: Oral argument on motion in limine  7.50

8

Jury Selection

Gary Christopherson

Ron A. Northup

Thomas O. Perry

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  8.1
  • II.  RIGHT TO JURY TRIAL AND WAIVER
    • A.  “Trial jury” defined; number of jurors  8.2
    • B.  Determining right to jury trial; gist of action test  8.3
      • 1.  Actions at law entitled to jury trial  8.4
      • 2.  Actions in equity not entitled to jury trial  8.5
      • 3.  Legal and equitable issues in same case  8.6
        • a.  Order of proof  8.7
        • b.  Concurrent jurisdiction at law and in equity  8.8
      • 4.  Jury trial right in specific types of actions
        • a.  Declaratory relief  8.9
        • b.  Probate proceedings  8.10
        • c.  Eminent domain  8.11
        • d.  Inverse condemnation  8.12
        • e.  Equitable Indemnity  8.12A
      • 5.  Advisory jury in equitable actions  8.13
    • C.  Making demand for jury trial; jury fee deposit  8.14
    • D.  Waiver of jury trial
      • 1.  Manner of waiver  8.15
      • 2.  Relief from waiver within court’s discretion  8.16
      • 3.  Effect of waiver after reversal of judgment  8.17
    • E.  Denial of right to jury trial reviewable by writ or appeal  8.18
    • F.  Agreeing to an expedited jury trial  8.18A
  • III.  SELECTING PROSPECTIVE JURORS
    • A.  Jury service is obligation for all persons; statutory authority  8.19
    • B.  Random selection required  8.20
    • C.  Jury pool must be composed of representative cross-section of community  8.21
    • D.  Juror qualifications  8.22
    • E.  Exemption from jury service  8.23
    • F.  Excuses from jury service
      • 1.  “Undue hardship” defined  8.24
      • 2.  Jury commissioner hears and rules on excuses  8.25
  • IV.  ISSUING JURY SUMMONS
    • A.  Service and content of summons  8.26
    • B.  Issuance of immediate summons in emergency situations  8.27
    • C.  Failure to respond to summons  8.28
    • D.  Fees for jury service  8.29
  • V.  VOIR DIRE EXAMINATION
    • A.  Pre-voir dire conference  8.30
    • B.  Seating prospective jurors; mini-opening statements  8.31
    • C.  Methods of jury selection
      • 1.  Traditional method  8.32
      • 2.  “Six-pack” method  8.33
    • D.  Purpose and importance of examination  8.34
    • E.  Questioning by judge and counsel  8.35
      • 1.  Order of questioning  8.36
      • 2.  Examination by trial judge  8.37
      • 3.  Examination by counsel  8.38
      • 4.  Scope of voir dire questions
        • a.  Permissible questions  8.39
        • b.  Improper questioning  8.40
      • 5.  Objecting to improper examination
        • a.  Objection to examination by judge  8.41
        • b.  Objection to examination by counsel  8.42
    • F.  Juror questionnaires
      • 1.  Deciding whether to use juror questionnaire  8.43
      • 2.  Preparing juror questionnaire  8.44
      • 3.  Jury questionnaires used for voir dire are matters of public record  8.45
    • G.  Practice tips: how to conduct effective voir dire  8.46
    • H.  Using jury box chart to organize information  8.47
    • I.  Particular areas of inquiry
      • 1.  Insurance  8.48
      • 2.  Racial or religious background  8.49
      • 3.  Type of injury  8.50
      • 4.  Damages  8.51
      • 5.  Law  8.52
    • J.  Using advice of jury consultant  8.53
  • VI.  CHALLENGES
    • A.  Challenges for cause
      • 1.  Exercised by both counsel and court  8.54
      • 2.  Number of challenges  8.55
      • 3.  Challenging entire panel for cause  8.56
      • 4.  Grounds  8.57
        • a.  General disqualification  8.58
        • b.  Implied bias  8.59
        • c.  Actual bias  8.60
      • 5.  Waiver of challenge  8.61
      • 6.  Concealed bias: effect on motion for new trial  8.62
      • 7.  Right to appeal ruling on challenge for cause  8.63
    • B.  Peremptory challenges
      • 1.  When and how exercised  8.64
      • 2.  Number of challenges depends on number of sides  8.65
      • 3.  Court may not reopen jury selection and permit further peremptory challenges  8.66
      • 4.  Discriminatory use of peremptory challenges prohibited
        • a.  Excluding members of cognizable group  8.67
        • b.  Establishing a prima facie case of discriminatory purpose  8.67A
        • c.  Cognizable versus noncognizable groups  8.68
        • d.  Making a Wheeler/Batson objection  8.69
        • e.  Review on appeal  8.70
      • 5.  Effect of passing  8.71
      • 6.  Practice tips: How to exercise peremptory challenges  8.72
  • VII.  ADMINISTERING OATH TO JURORS  8.73
  • VIII.  ALTERNATE JURORS
    • A.  Grounds for having alternate jurors  8.74
    • B.  Voir dire examination  8.75
    • C.  Challenges  8.76
    • D.  Oath  8.77
  • IX.  JURY ISSUES ARISING DURING TRIAL
    • A.  Illness or disqualification of juror  8.78
    • B.  Admonition to jury  8.79
    • C.  Substitution of juror during deliberations  8.80
  • X.  SAMPLE FORMS
    • A.  Juror questionnaires
      • 1.  Form: Juror questionnaire for civil cases (Judicial Council form MC-001)  8.81
      • 2.  Sample juror questions  8.82
    • B.  Sample jury box chart  8.83
  • XI.  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  8.84

9

Opening Statement

Weyman I. Lundquist

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  9.1
  • II.  DESCRIPTION OF OPENING STATEMENT
    • A.  Purpose and limitations  9.2
    • B.  Importance to trial  9.3
  • III.  ORDER OF PRESENTATION
    • A.  Standard procedures  9.4
      • 1.  Multiple party litigation  9.5
      • 2.  Special situations  9.6
    • B.  Defendant should not reserve opening statement  9.7
  • IV.  PLANNING OPENING STATEMENT
    • A.  Preparation generally  9.8
      • 1.  Rehearsal techniques  9.9
      • 2.  Time limitations  9.10
    • B.  Developing visual aids
      • 1.  Demonstrative or documentary evidence  9.11
      • 2.  Whiteboard or pad  9.12
    • C.  Moving to exclude witnesses  9.13
    • D.  Using motions in limine  9.14
    • E.  Recording opening statement  9.15
  • V.  DELIVERING OPENING STATEMENT TO JURY
    • A.  Introductory remarks
      • 1.  Explaining role of opening statement  9.16
      • 2.  Outlining order of trial  9.17
    • B.  Form of presentation  9.18
      • 1.  Demeanor and style  9.19
      • 2.  Personalizing attorney and client  9.20
    • C.  What to avoid  9.21
      • 1.  Improper mention of evidence  9.22
      • 2.  Argument  9.23
      • 3.  Overstatement  9.24
      • 4.  References to law  9.25
    • D.  Establishing case theme  9.26
    • E.  Stating facts and issues
      • 1.  Plaintiff’s perspective  9.27
      • 2.  Defendant’s perspective  9.28
    • F.  Handling particular problems
      • 1.  Evidence of uncertain admissibility  9.29
      • 2.  Disclosing weaknesses; avoid admissions  9.30
      • 3.  Reading from pleadings  9.31
      • 4.  Explaining special situations  9.32
    • G.  Discussing damages  9.33
    • H.  Concluding opening statement  9.34
  • VI.  OPENING STATEMENT IN BENCH TRIAL  9.35
  • VII.  PROCEDURES FOR OPPOSING PARTY
    • A.  Making objections
      • 1.  Right to object during opposing party’s opening statement  9.36
      • 2.  State specific grounds for objection  9.37
      • 3.  Handle objections carefully: When not to object  9.38
    • B.  Reserving comments for closing argument  9.39
    • C.  Moving for nonsuit or directed verdict after opening statement
      • 1.  Nonsuit  9.40
      • 2.  Directed verdict  9.41
  • VIII.  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  9.42

10

Evidence Overview

Donald F. Miles

Marla J. Miller

Professor Leo J. O’Brien

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  10.1
  • II.  PREPARE TO USE EVIDENCE AT TRIAL
    • A.  Identify evidence to use at trial  10.2
    • B.  Checklist: steps to prepare for evidentiary issues  10.3
    • C.  Review evidence in light of evidentiary rules  10.4
  • III.  BURDENS AND PRESUMPTIONS
    • A.  Consider burdens and presumptions when preparing to present evidence at trial  10.5
    • B.  Burden of proof  10.6
    • C.  Burden of producing evidence  10.7
    • D.  Presumptions  10.8
      • 1.  Conclusive presumptions  10.9
      • 2.  Rebuttable presumptions  10.10
        • a.  Presumptions concerning burden of producing evidence  10.11
        • b.  Presumptions concerning burden of proof  10.12
  • IV.  RELEVANCE
    • A.  Generally admissible  10.13
    • B.  Credibility and understanding the witness  10.14
    • C.  Material fact or issue  10.15
    • D.  Court’s discretion to exclude relevant evidence  10.16
  • V.  HEARSAY
    • A.  Hearsay generally not admissible  10.17
      • 1.  Statement defined  10.18
      • 2.  For truth of matter asserted or stated  10.19
    • B.  Nonhearsay statements  10.20
    • C.  Exceptions to hearsay rule  10.21
      • 1.  Admissions or statements attributed to a party  10.22
      • 2.  Prior statements  10.23
      • 3.  Exceptions when declarant unavailable  10.24
      • 4.  Business records  10.25
      • 5.  Official and public records  10.26
      • 6.  List of other hearsay exceptions  10.27
  • VI.  PRIVILEGES
    • A.  Based on statutory or constitutional authority  10.28
    • B.  Objecting based on a privilege  10.29
    • C.  Privilege against self-incrimination  10.30
    • D.  Lawyer-client privilege  10.31
    • E.  Privilege not to testify against spouse  10.32
    • F.  Privilege not to be called as witness against spouse  10.33
    • G.  Confidential marital communications privilege  10.34
    • H.  Physician-patient privilege  10.35
    • I.  Psychotherapist-patient privilege  10.36
    • J.  Penitent or clergyman privilege  10.37
    • K.  Sexual assault victim-counselor privilege  10.38
    • L.  Domestic violence victim-counselor privilege  10.39
    • M.  Privilege for official information  10.40
    • N.  Privilege for identity of informer  10.41
    • O.  Voter’s privilege  10.42
    • P.  Trade secrets privilege  10.43
    • Q.  Journalist’s immunity from contempt  10.44
  • VII.  EVIDENCE EXCLUDED FOR POLICY REASONS
    • A.  Generally  10.45
    • B.  Subsequent remedial conduct  10.46
      • 1.  Public policy to encourage repairs  10.47
      • 2.  When admissible  10.48
    • C.  Settlement negotiations  10.49
      • 1.  Public policy to encourage settlement  10.50
      • 2.  When admissible  10.51
    • D.  Evidence of liability insurance  10.52
      • 1.  Public policy favoring insurance and irrelevance of evidence  10.53
      • 2.  When admissible  10.54
    • E.  Character evidence  10.55
      • 1.  Types of character evidence admissible  10.56
      • 2.  When admissible  10.57
      • 3.  Using character evidence to impeach  10.58
  • VIII.  SUBSTITUTES FOR TESTIMONY
    • A.  Judicial notice  10.59
    • B.  Stipulations  10.60
    • C.  Judicial admission  10.61
  • IX.  WITNESSES
    • A.  Competence  10.62
      • 1.  Incapacity to communicate or understand oath  10.63
      • 2.  Prior disqualifying status  10.64
      • 3.  Lack of personal knowledge  10.65
    • B.  Lay opinion  10.66
    • C.  Scope of direct and cross-examination  10.67
      • 1.  Direct examination  10.68
      • 2.  Cross-examination  10.69
      • 3.  Redirect and recross-examinations
        • a.  Redirect examination  10.70
        • b.  Recross-examination  10.71
    • D.  Form of the question
      • 1.  Judge has control over types of questions  10.72
      • 2.  Checklist: Objections to form of question  10.73
    • E.  Impeachment
      • 1.  Consider credibility of witness  10.74
      • 2.  Prior inconsistent statements—powerful impeachment  10.75
    • F.  Expert witnesses  10.76
      • 1.  Qualifications  10.77
      • 2.  Eliciting expert witness’s testimony  10.78
      • 3.  Ultimate issue  10.79
      • 4.  Cross-examination of expert witness  10.80
  • X.  EXHIBITS
    • A.  Substantive and procedural requirements  10.81
    • B.  Relevance  10.82
    • C.  Authenticity  10.83
    • D.  Proof of content of writing evidence  10.84
    • E.  Hearsay evidence  10.85
    • F.  Evidence Code §352  10.86
  • XI.  ELECTRONIC AND SOCIAL MEDIA EVIDENCE
    • A.  General Principles Governing Admission  10.86A
    • B.  Authentication Issues  10.86B
      • 1.  Website postings and webpage printouts  10.86C
      • 2.  Social media postings  10.86D
      • 3.  Text messages  10.86E
  • XII.  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  10.87

11

Examining Witnesses

Geoffrey L. Thomas

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  11.1
  • II.  PREPARING FOR EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES
    • A.  Balancing planned examination with flexibility  11.2
    • B.  Techniques for communicating with trier of fact  11.3
      • 1.  Educating judge or jury  11.4
      • 2.  Reinforcing key points
        • a.  Defining events  11.5
        • b.  Themes  11.6
        • c.  Visual aids  11.7
      • 3.  Exploring human interest elements  11.8
      • 4.  Using examples familiar to jurors  11.9
    • C.  Different types of witnesses  11.10
      • 1.  Friendly witnesses  11.11
      • 2.  Hostile witnesses  11.12
      • 3.  Neutral third parties  11.13
      • 4.  Expert witnesses  11.14
    • D.  Examiner’s questioning style  11.15
    • E.  Examining witness: Basic rules
      • 1.  Remember instructions to witness  11.16
      • 2.  Courtroom decorum  11.17
      • 3.  What not to do during examinations  11.18
  • III.  PREEXAMINATION CONSIDERATIONS
    • A.  Competency of witness  11.19
      • 1.  Objecting party has burden of showing incompetency  11.20
      • 2.  Court decides competency as preliminary fact (Evid C §405)  11.21
      • 3.  Guidelines for deciding competency  11.22
    • B.  Personal knowledge of witnesses  11.23
      • 1.  Party offering testimony has burden of showing personal knowledge  11.24
      • 2.  Court decides personal knowledge as preliminary fact (Evid C §403)  11.25
    • C.  Preparation of witnesses generally  11.26
    • D.  Excluding witnesses at trial  11.27
  • IV.  INTERPRETERS AND TRANSLATORS
    • A.  Deciding when to use interpreters and translators
      • 1.  When required  11.28
        • a.  Court-provided interpreter  11.29
        • b.  Using interpreter for more than one purpose  11.30
      • 2.  When permitted  11.31
    • B.  Choosing an interpreter
      • 1.  Certified interpreter preferred  11.32
      • 2.  Finding the right interpreter  11.33
    • C.  Procedure for appointment
      • 1.  Check local rules and lists  11.34
      • 2.  Ask court to appoint interpreter  11.35
      • 3.  Objecting to appointment  11.36
    • D.  Examination with interpreter or translator  11.37
      • 1.  Interpreter must take oath  11.38
      • 2.  Ask questions of witness, not interpreter  11.39
      • 3.  Accuracy of translation  11.40
      • 4.  Objecting to interpreter  11.41
    • E.  Compensation and costs
      • 1.  Party employs interpreter or translator  11.42
      • 2.  Court appoints interpreter or translator  11.43
  • V.  SEQUENCE OF PRESENTING EVIDENCE
    • A.  Order of proof and phases of examination  11.44
    • B.  Sequence of witnesses; practical considerations  11.45
    • C.  Order of evidence with multiple parties  11.46
  • VI.  DIRECT EXAMINATION
    • A.  Planning direct examination to elicit facts  11.47
    • B.  Benefits of planning direct examination  11.48
    • C.  Attorney’s demeanor during examination  11.49
    • D.  Avoid problems when framing questions  11.50
      • 1.  Compound questions  11.51
      • 2.  Questions having double negatives  11.52
      • 3.  Questions having long words or technical phrases  11.53
      • 4.  Leading questions about material matters  11.54
        • a.  Not usually allowed on direct examination  11.55
        • b.  Exceptions: When allowed  11.56
      • 5.  Questions calling for narrative answer  11.57
      • 6.  Questions assuming facts not in evidence  11.58
      • 7.  Cumulative or repetitive questions
        • a.  Questions asked of same witness  11.59
        • b.  Questions asked of different witnesses  11.60
      • 8.  Argumentative questions  11.61
      • 9.  Questions calling for speculative answer  11.62
    • E.  Refreshing witness’s recollection
      • 1.  Ask more specific question  11.63
      • 2.  Show witness a writing  11.64
      • 3.  Types of writings to use to refresh recollection  11.65
      • 4.  When recollection not refreshed  11.66
      • 5.  Production and admissibility of writings used  11.67
      • 6.  Previously hypnotized witness  11.68
    • F.  Past recollection recorded  11.69
      • 1.  Establish foundation  11.70
      • 2.  Types of writings to use as past recollection recorded  11.71
    • G.  Examining custodian of records  11.72
    • H.  Examining adverse party or adverse witness
      • 1.  Who is adverse party or witness  11.73
      • 2.  Why to call adverse party or witness  11.74
      • 3.  How to conduct examination  11.75
    • I.  Anticipating cross-examination  11.76
    • J.  Preparing for and handling objections
      • 1.  Memorandum of law  11.77
      • 2.  Preliminary facts  11.78
      • 3.  Offer of proof  11.79
      • 4.  Prepare alternative theories of admissibility  11.80
      • 5.  Move forward  11.81
  • VII.  CROSS-EXAMINATION
    • A.  Planning cross-examination to elicit facts and discredit adverse witnesses  11.82
    • B.  Scope of cross-examination  11.83
      • 1.  Making adverse witnesses your own  11.84
      • 2.  Determining scope of direct examination  11.85
    • C.  Prepare for cross-examination
      • 1.  Review file to anticipate direct testimony  11.86
      • 2.  Prepare outline  11.87
    • D.  Deciding whether to cross-examine  11.88
      • 1.  Disadvantages of cross-examination
        • a.  Allows witness to expand testimony  11.89
        • b.  Creates sympathy for witness  11.90
        • c.  Reinforces “expertise” of witness  11.91
        • d.  Risks losing jury’s attention  11.92
      • 2.  If you decide to skip cross-examination
        • a.  Forces opposing counsel to rely on direct testimony  11.93
        • b.  Risks making witness look stronger  11.94
      • 3.  Consider limiting extent of cross-examination  11.95
    • E.  Conducting examination
      • 1.  Complete in one session  11.96
      • 2.  Do not restate that witness is under oath  11.97
      • 3.  Know when to stop  11.98
    • F.  Tone of questioning  11.99
      • 1.  When to use aggressive tone  11.100
      • 2.  Avoid sarcasm or rudeness  11.101
      • 3.  Do not argue  11.102
      • 4.  When cross-examining family members  11.103
    • G.  Framing questions and controlling witness  11.104
      • 1.  Use short, easy-to-understand questions  11.105
      • 2.  Identify subject before asking question  11.106
      • 3.  Control pace and sequence of examination  11.107
      • 4.  Avoid questions that permit narrative answers  11.108
      • 5.  Know the answer  11.109
      • 6.  Choose words that may influence answer  11.110
      • 7.  Ask leading questions  11.111
      • 8.  Summarize to obtain more specific answers  11.112
      • 9.  Avoid repeating questions from direct  11.113
    • H.  Grounds for attacking credibility
      • 1.  Witness’s perception, memory, or ability to narrate  11.114
      • 2.  Witness’s bias, interest, or other motive  11.115
      • 3.  Witness’s prior felony conviction  11.116
      • 4.  Witness’s character  11.117
      • 5.  Prior inconsistent statements  11.118
        • a.  Types of statements to use  11.119
        • b.  Extrinsic evidence  11.120
        • c.  Confirm direct testimony first  11.121
        • d.  Read inconsistent statement  11.122
        • e.  Include inconsistency in question  11.123
        • f.  Follow-up  11.124
    • I.  Protecting your witness during cross-examination  11.125
  • VIII.  REDIRECT AND RECROSS-EXAMINATION; REBUTTAL AND SURREBUTTAL
    • A.  Redirect
      • 1.  Deciding whether to conduct redirect examination  11.126
      • 2.  Follow same rules as for direct examination  11.127
    • B.  Recross-examination  11.128
    • C.  Rebuttal and surrebuttal  11.129
  • IX.  EXPERT OPINION TESTIMONY
    • A.  Qualifying expert  11.130
      • 1.  What to ask  11.131
      • 2.  Waiving testimony about qualifications  11.132
      • 3.  If expert testifies to facts  11.133
    • B.  Establish bases for opinion  11.134
      • 1.  Proper bases for opinion  11.135
      • 2.  Improper bases for opinion  11.136
      • 3.  If basis is another’s opinion  11.137
      • 4.  Inadmissible basis subject to cross-examination  11.138
      • 5.  If opinion based on new scientific technique  11.139
    • C.  Eliciting opinion
      • 1.  Ask expert to state opinion  11.140
      • 2.  Hypothetical questions  11.141
        • a.  What facts to use in hypothetical question  11.142
        • b.  How to ask a hypothetical question  11.143
        • c.  When not to use hypothetical questions  11.144
    • D.  Testimony about compensation and experience as witness  11.145
    • E.  Cross-examination of expert
      • 1.  General rules  11.146
        • a.  Hypothetical questions  11.147
        • b.  Compensation and experience as witness  11.148
        • c.  Calling rebuttal or other experts  11.149
      • 2.  Expert cross-examination subjects
        • a.  Checklist: Expert’s qualifications and opinion  11.150
        • b.  Questions about publications  11.151
  • X.  ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: PERJURED TESTIMONY DURING TRIAL
    • A.  Know professional rules
      • 1.  Duty not to knowingly allow perjury  11.152
      • 2.  Duty to keep client’s confidences and secrets  11.153
    • B.  Determine whether perjury was committed  11.154
    • C.  What to do if perjury committed
      • 1.  Request a recess  11.155
      • 2.  Confer privately with client or witness  11.156
      • 3.  Explain ramifications of correcting testimony  11.157
      • 4.  Try to remove testimony from record  11.158
      • 5.  Move to withdraw  11.159
        • a.  California rule: Do not disclose reason for withdrawal  11.160
        • b.  ABA rules: Disclose perjury  11.161
      • 6.  When perjury is of nonparty witness
        • a.  Disclose nonparty perjury  11.162
        • b.  Do not disclose perjury if confidentiality would be violated  11.163
        • c.  Under ABA rules  11.164
        • d.  May need to withdraw  11.165
        • e.  Move to strike or for mistrial  11.166
      • 7.  If witness is party related  11.167
      • 8.  Do not rely on perjured testimony in argument  11.168
  • XI.  APPENDIX: LEADING QUESTIONS  11.169

12

Effective Use of Discovery

Donald W. Carlson

John B. Hook

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  12.1
  • II.  REQUIREMENTS FOR STENOGRAPHICALLY RECORDED DEPOSITIONS
    • A.  General requirements  12.2
    • B.  Effect of stipulations  12.3
    • C.  Notice and certification requirements by deposition officer  12.4
    • D.  Obtaining and using copies of transcripts
      • 1.  When to request copies  12.5
      • 2.  Obtaining copy of transcript before correction  12.6
      • 3.  Obtaining certified copy  12.7
    • E.  Making corrections and changes to transcript
      • 1.  When deponent may change record  12.8
      • 2.  Deponent’s action must be noted on record  12.9
      • 3.  When correction advisable  12.10
      • 4.  When correction not advisable  12.11
      • 5.  If typographical or transcription errors  12.12
      • 6.  When moving to suppress deposition  12.13
    • F.  Custody of transcript and when to file  12.14
    • G.  Using enlargements  12.15
  • III.  REQUIREMENTS FOR AUDIO OR VIDEO RECORDED DEPOSITIONS
    • A.  Notice or agreement for recording deposition
      • 1.  General requirements  12.16
      • 2.  When other parties may record  12.17
    • B.  Stenographic transcript is official record  12.18
    • C.  Requirements for operator  12.19
    • D.  Setup of equipment  12.20
    • E.  Be prepared for the deposition  12.21
    • F.  Prepare witnesses  12.22
    • G.  Procedural requirements
      • 1.  Identification  12.23
      • 2.  Stipulations  12.24
      • 3.  Objections  12.25
      • 4.  Authentication or foundation  12.26
      • 5.  Statement of conclusion  12.27
      • 6.  If more than one unit of electronic storage necessary  12.28
    • H.  Corrections and changes  12.29
    • I.  Custody of recording  12.30
    • J.  May review recording  12.31
  • IV.  USING DEPOSITIONS AT TRIAL
    • A.  Use at trial in general  12.32
    • B.  Procedures that affect use at trial
      • 1.  Improper notice  12.33
      • 2.  Effect of stipulations  12.34
      • 3.  Effect of objections  12.35
    • C.  Effect of adding or substituting parties after deposition taken  12.36
    • D.  General considerations when using at trial  12.37
      • 1.  Obtaining stipulation as to admissibility  12.38
      • 2.  Use of depositions by any party
        • a.  To contradict or impeach deponent  12.39
        • b.  On findings of court  12.40
        • c.  If treating or consulting physician or other expert witness  12.41
        • d.  May use part or all of deposition  12.42
        • e.  Effect of substitution of parties  12.43
        • f.  Using depositions in subsequent actions  12.44
    • E.  Determining appropriateness of offering deposition testimony into evidence
      • 1.  For own party  12.45
      • 2.  For adverse party  12.46
    • F.  Offering deposition testimony into evidence
      • 1.  Necessity for offer  12.47
      • 2.  Reading deposition into evidence
        • a.  Consider timing  12.48
        • b.  Manner of reading  12.49
        • c.  If lengthy passages involved  12.50
      • 3.  Consider exchanging lists of testimony to be offered  12.51
      • 4.  Request hearing outside jurors’ presence  12.52
      • 5.  Request that judge explain depositions  12.53
    • G.  Offering deposition testimony of adverse party  12.54
      • 1.  Determining who is adverse party  12.55
      • 2.  Using deposition testimony during cross-examination  12.56
      • 3.  Using deposition testimony during presentation of client’s case  12.57
    • H.  Using deposition as substitute for trial testimony  12.58
      • 1.  If witness lives more than 150 miles from place of trial  12.59
      • 2.  If witness unavailable  12.60
      • 3.  If exceptional circumstances  12.61
    • I.  Using deposition to refresh memory  12.62
    • J.  Using deposition to impeach by showing prior inconsistent statement  12.63
      • 1.  Pinning down trial testimony  12.64
      • 2.  Using foundational questions  12.65
      • 3.  Confronting witness with inconsistency  12.66
    • K.  Using deposition testimony to rehabilitate
      • 1.  By showing prior consistent statement  12.67
      • 2.  By additional deposition testimony  12.68
    • L.  Using client’s deposition  12.69
    • M.  Preserving the record
      • 1.  Using objections  12.70
        • a.  How to object  12.71
        • b.  Objecting to own deposition question  12.72
      • 2.  When use of deposition denied  12.73
    • N.  Using depositions taken in another action
      • 1.  Using against party (or successor in interest) to former action
        • a.  When they may be used  12.74
        • b.  Admission under Evidence Code  12.75
        • c.  Limitations and objections  12.76
      • 2.  Using against party who was not party to former action  12.77
    • O.  Using audio or video recorded depositions
      • 1.  When appropriate  12.78
      • 2.  Written notice of intention to offer recorded deposition into evidence required  12.79
      • 3.  Objections must be in writing  12.80
      • 4.  Admissibility objections  12.81
      • 5.  Stenographic record necessary  12.82
      • 6.  Check local requirements  12.83
      • 7.  Deposition of treating physician or other expert
        • a.  Using deposition in lieu of live testimony  12.84
        • b.  Conducting discovery deposition before use of expert’s deposition  12.85
      • 8.  Requirements for video operator if video used at trial  12.86
      • 9.  Rules for setting up equipment and handling video recording  12.87
      • 10.  Using computer software programs  12.88
    • P.  Marking deposition for use at trial  12.89
    • Q.  Determine advisability of summary or index
      • 1.  Purpose of summary  12.90
      • 2.  Form of summary or index  12.91
      • 3.  Who prepares summary  12.92
      • 4.  When to prepare summary  12.93
      • 5.  Index key pages  12.94
      • 6.  Prepare chronology index  12.95
      • 7.  When to prepare both summary and index  12.96
    • R.  Requesting electronic copy  12.97
  • V.  USING INTERROGATORIES AT TRIAL
    • A.  General requirements
      • 1.  Answers must be signed and verified  12.98
      • 2.  Moving to compel responses  12.99
      • 3.  Amending or supplementing answers to interrogatories before trial  12.100
      • 4.  Moving for order to make first response binding  12.101
      • 5.  Preparing summaries or enlargements
        • a.  When appropriate  12.102
        • b.  If used to impeach or as admissions  12.103
      • 6.  Prepare copies for court and opposing counsel  12.104
      • 7.  Request production of originals  12.105
      • 8.  Evaluate filing requirements  12.106
    • B.  Using interrogatories at trial
      • 1.  Use against responding party only  12.107
      • 2.  Check local rules for filing requirements  12.108
      • 3.  Offering interrogatory responses into evidence  12.109
      • 4.  Using answers to restrict presentation of evidence
        • a.  To exclude witness not named in answers  12.110
        • b.  To exclude evidence not in answer  12.111
        • c.  To exclude evidence inconsistent with prior answer to interrogatory  12.112
      • 5.  Using answers during presentation of party’s case  12.113
      • 6.  Using answers given in another action  12.114
      • 7.  Using answers to impeach
        • a.  Consider benefits  12.115
        • b.  Review procedures  12.116
      • 8.  Using party witness who did not sign verification  12.117
      • 9.  Using client’s answers  12.118
      • 10.  Preserving the record
        • a.  Handling objections  12.119
        • b.  When nonresponding party requests limiting instruction  12.120
        • c.  Protecting record when response erroneously excluded  12.121
  • VI.  USING REQUESTS FOR ADMISSION AT TRIAL
    • A.  General requirements  12.122
      • 1.  When response not timely served  12.123
      • 2.  Withdrawal or amendment of admissions  12.124
      • 3.  Requests not filed with court  12.125
    • B.  Using requests for admission at trial
      • 1.  How used  12.126
      • 2.  Admission conclusively establishes admitted matter  12.127
      • 3.  Admission may preclude introduction of contrary evidence  12.128
      • 4.  Admission may not be used in other actions  12.129
      • 5.  Court may limit scope of use  12.130
    • C.  Recovering expenses for requests  12.131
      • 1.  When court may not award expenses  12.132
      • 2.  Timing of motion  12.133
      • 3.  Procedure for making motion  12.134
  • VII.  CHECKLISTS AND SAMPLE FORMS
    • A.  Checklist: Using deposition testimony  12.135
    • B.  Checklist: Special considerations if deposition is audio or video recorded  12.136
    • C.  Sample questions and answers: Impeaching with deposition testimony  12.137
    • D.  Checklist: Introducing answers to interrogatories or requests for admission  12.138
    • E.  Sample form: Designation of deposition  12.139

13

Trial Exhibits

Peter J. Busch

Donald F. Miles

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  13.1
  • II.  DEFINITIONS
    • A.  Documentary evidence  13.2
    • B.  Demonstrative evidence  13.3
    • C.  Real evidence  13.4
    • D.  Exhibits  13.5
    • E.  Evidence  13.6
    • F.  Proffered evidence  13.7
  • III.  WAYS TO USE DOCUMENTARY, DEMONSTRATIVE, AND REAL EVIDENCE DURING TRIAL
    • A.  As substantive evidence  13.8
    • B.  To refresh recollection  13.9
    • C.  As past recollection recorded  13.10
    • D.  To impeach  13.11
    • E.  To rehabilitate  13.12
    • F.  As aid for judicial notice  13.13
  • IV.  PRETRIAL PREPARATION OF EXHIBITS
    • A.  Checklist: Pretrial preparation  13.14
    • B.  Determining need for exhibits  13.15
    • C.  Identifying sources of exhibits  13.16
      • 1.  Formal discovery  13.17
      • 2.  Informal discovery and investigation  13.18
      • 3.  Custom-made exhibits
        • a.  Checklist: Need for custom-made exhibit  13.19
        • b.  Common examples  13.20
    • D.  Determining how evidence can be admitted  13.21
      • 1.  Relevance  13.22
      • 2.  Authenticity  13.23
      • 3.  “Substantial similarity”  13.24
      • 4.  Chain of custody  13.25
        • a.  Burden of proof  13.26
        • b.  Procedure to establish chain of custody  13.27
    • E.  Organizing exhibits  13.28
    • F.  Determining when to use exhibit; tactical considerations  13.29
      • 1.  During opening statement  13.30
      • 2.  During trial  13.31
      • 3.  During closing argument  13.32
    • G.  Preparing witnesses to use exhibits
      • 1.  Review exhibit with witness  13.33
      • 2.  Exhibit used to refresh recollection must be produced  13.34
    • H.  Complying with local mandatory pretrial procedures
      • 1.  Exchange of exhibit lists  13.35
      • 2.  Exchange of exhibits  13.36
      • 3.  Stipulations on admissibility  13.37
      • 4.  Premarking exhibits  13.38
    • I.  Preparing for demonstrations and experiments; using photographs and video recordings
      • 1.  Demonstrations and experiments
        • a.  Planning required before trial  13.39
        • b.  Prior notice of demonstration or experiment recommended  13.40
        • c.  Preparations on day of demonstration or experiment  13.41
      • 2.  Photographs and video recordings  13.42
        • a.  Considerations in taking photographs and making video recordings  13.43
        • b.  Uses for photographs and video recordings at trial  13.44
  • V.  HANDLING EXHIBITS DURING TRIAL
    • A.  Procedural guidelines for offering exhibits into evidence  13.45
      • 1.  Mark for identification  13.46
        • a.  When to mark  13.47
        • b.  Manner of marking  13.48
        • c.  Content of mark  13.49
      • 2.  Disclose to opposing counsel
        • a.  Disclosure before trial  13.50
        • b.  Disclosure during trial  13.51
      • 3.  Disclose to judge  13.52
      • 4.  Demonstrate admissibility of exhibit
        • a.  Establish foundational facts  13.53
        • b.  Checklist: Procedural steps for establishing foundational facts  13.54
      • 5.  Offer exhibit into evidence  13.55
      • 6.  Obtain court’s ruling on admissibility
        • a.  Court’s failure to make immediate ruling  13.56
        • b.  Provisional admission of evidence  13.57
      • 7.  Disclose substance of exhibit to jury  13.58
        • a.  Read exhibit to jury  13.59
        • b.  Show exhibit to jury  13.60
      • 8.  Reoffer exhibits into evidence  13.61
    • B.  Admission of deposition testimony and former testimony
      • 1.  Deposition testimony  13.62
      • 2.  Former testimony  13.63
  • VI.  DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: ADMISSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS  13.64
    • A.  Authentication defined  13.65
    • B.  Methods for authenticating writings  13.66
      • 1.  Stipulations  13.67
      • 2.  Testimony of witnesses  13.68
        • a.  Maker of writing; sample foundation  13.69
        • b.  Witness who saw writing made or executed; sample foundation  13.70
        • c.  Witness familiar with writer’s handwriting; sample foundation  13.71
        • d.  Witness familiar with printout or download of social media post  13.71A
        • e.  Expert authentication  13.72
      • 3.  Admitting business records by affidavit  13.73
      • 4.  Authentication by trier of fact  13.74
      • 5.  Writing authenticated by response to communication  13.75
      • 6.  Authentication by contents of writing  13.76
      • 7.  Authentication by adverse party’s admission  13.77
    • C.  Self-authenticating writings  13.78
      • 1.  Acknowledged writings  13.79
      • 2.  Uniform Commercial Code documents  13.80
      • 3.  Official seals or signatures on official writings  13.81
      • 4.  Ancient documents  13.82
    • D.  Authenticating altered writings  13.83
    • E.  Exceptions to authentication  13.84
  • VII.  DEMONSTRATIVE EVIDENCE: FOUNDATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  Foundation varies depending on type of demonstrative evidence  13.85
    • B.  Methods for laying foundation
      • 1.  Stipulations  13.86
      • 2.  Testimony of witnesses  13.87
      • 3.  Admissions by adverse party  13.88
      • 4.  Judicial notice  13.89
    • C.  Substantial similarity  13.90
    • D.  Specific types of demonstrative evidence; foundation required
      • 1.  Photographs  13.91
        • a.  Sample foundation  13.92
        • b.  Photograph must be substantially similar to disputed event  13.93
      • 2.  Video recordings
        • a.  Foundational requirements  13.94
        • b.  Day-in-the-life films  13.95
        • c.  Surveillance video  13.96
        • d.  Photographic re-creation of events  13.97
        • e.  Sample foundation for video recording  13.98
      • 3.  X rays  13.99
      • 4.  Drawings, diagrams, charts, graphs, maps, and models
        • a.  Foundational requirements  13.100
        • b.  Medical drawings  13.101
        • c.  Models  13.102
        • d.  Skeletons  13.103
        • e.  Drawing pad or whiteboard  13.104
      • 5.  Audio recordings  13.105
      • 6.  Exhibitions of persons or prosthetic devices  13.106
      • 7.  Electronic evidence
        • a.  Electronically stored information  13.107
          • (1)  Business record exception  13.107A
          • (2)  Self-authenticating public record exception  13.107B
        • b.  Animations and simulations  13.108
      • 8.  Scientific evidence  13.109
      • 9.  Jury view
        • a.  Foundational requirements  13.110
        • b.  Attendance at and testimony during jury view  13.111
  • VIII.  REAL EVIDENCE
    • A.  Admissibility requirements  13.112
    • B.  Examples of real evidence: wreckage and other objects  13.113
  • IX.  MAKING AND MEETING OBJECTIONS
    • A.  Making objections; waiver  13.114
    • B.  Particular objections
      • 1.  Irrelevant  13.115
      • 2.  Lack of foundation  13.116
      • 3.  Unduly prejudicial, misleading, or time-consuming (Evid C §352)  13.117
      • 4.  Exhibit not produced in response to discovery request  13.118
      • 5.  Hearsay  13.119
      • 6.  Privileged  13.120
      • 7.  Opinions in writings  13.121
      • 8.  Secondary evidence rule
        • a.  General rule  13.122
        • b.  Particular applications and limitations  13.123
      • 9.  Writing used to refresh recollection not produced at hearing  13.124
      • 10.  Writing not shown to other counsel  13.125
      • 11.  Prohibited documentary evidence  13.126
        • a.  Vehicle accident reports  13.127
        • b.  Coroner’s inquest verdicts  13.128
        • c.  Records and proceedings of medical staffs and committees; exceptions  13.129
    • C.  Tactical considerations in making objections
      • 1.  Motions in limine to exclude evidence  13.130
      • 2.  Sidebar conferences  13.131
      • 3.  Preserving the record; opposing proof of preliminary facts  13.132
    • D.  Meeting objections
      • 1.  Anticipating objections; preparation  13.133
      • 2.  Motions in limine to admit evidence  13.134
      • 3.  Offering exhibit for limited purpose  13.135
      • 4.  Offering exhibit conditioned on subsequent testimony  13.136
      • 5.  Excising objectionable entries in exhibit  13.137
      • 6.  Offers of proof  13.138
  • X.  EXHIBITS PERMITTED IN JURY ROOM  13.139
  • XI.  SAMPLE FORMS
    • A.  Sample exhibit log  13.140
    • B.  Form: Sample stipulation regarding use of documents at trial  13.141
    • C.  Sample Evidence Memorandum  13.142
  • XII.  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  13.143

14

Judicial Notice, Admissions, and Stipulations

Pamela Phillips

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  14.1
    • A.  Means of establishing undisputed facts  14.2
    • B.  Relevancy requirement  14.3
    • C.  Tactical considerations
      • 1.  Advantages  14.4
      • 2.  Disadvantages  14.5
  • II.  JUDICIAL NOTICE  14.6
    • A.  Mandatory judicial notice (Evid C §451)  14.7
      • 1.  California and United States law  14.8
      • 2.  California city and county charters  14.9
      • 3.  Regulations of state and federal agencies  14.10
      • 4.  California rules of professional conduct and rules of court  14.11
      • 5.  Federal rules of pleading, practice, and procedure  14.12
      • 6.  English words, phrases, and legal expressions  14.13
      • 7.  Universally known matters  14.14
    • B.  Discretionary judicial notice (Evid C §452)  14.15
      • 1.  Law of sister states  14.16
      • 2.  Resolutions and private acts of United States and California legislatures  14.17
      • 3.  Regulations and legislative enactments of public entities  14.18
      • 4.  Official acts of legislative, executive, and judicial departments of United States or any state  14.19
      • 5.  Court records  14.20
      • 6.  Local, sister state, and federal rules of court  14.21
      • 7.  Foreign law  14.22
      • 8.  Matters of common knowledge  14.23
      • 9.  Verifiable matters  14.24
  • III.  JUDICIAL NOTICE PROCEDURES
    • A.  Party requesting judicial notice
      • 1.  No formal request of mandatory matters under Evid C §451 necessary  14.25
      • 2.  Discretionary matters under Evid C §452 may become mandatory on request  14.26
        • a.  Request for judicial notice  14.27
        • b.  Sufficient notice to other parties; timing  14.28
        • c.  Sufficient information to court  14.29
      • 3.  Burden on requesting party  14.30
      • 4.  Using exhibit to support request for judicial notice  14.31
      • 5.  Protecting the record  14.32
      • 6.  Asking for jury instruction  14.33
    • B.  Grounds for objecting to judicial notice  14.34
    • C.  Judicial notice on court’s own motion  14.35
    • D.  Trial court’s ruling
      • 1.  Sources of information court may rely on  14.36
        • a.  Consideration of extrinsic aids  14.37
        • b.  Appointment of expert  14.38
        • c.  When foreign law is subject of judicial notice  14.39
      • 2.  Judicial notice of matters of “substantial consequence” to the case  14.40
      • 3.  Court’s refusal to take judicial notice  14.41
      • 4.  Judicial notice by trial court in subsequent proceedings  14.42
  • IV.  JUDICIAL ADMISSIONS
    • A.  Admissions made in pleadings or on trial record
      • 1.  Judicial admissions conclusively establish facts  14.43
      • 2.  Procedures  14.44
      • 3.  Requesting jury instruction  14.45
    • B.  Admissions in prior actions  14.46
  • V.  STIPULATIONS
    • A.  Stipulated facts  14.47
      • 1.  Authority to bind client  14.48
      • 2.  Procedures
        • a.  Timing  14.49
        • b.  Form of stipulation  14.50
      • 3.  Requesting jury instruction  14.51
    • B.  Stipulated testimony  14.52
  • VI.  CASE EXAMPLES: MATTERS THAT HAVE BEEN GIVEN JUDICIAL NOTICE IN CALIFORNIA COURTS  14.53
  • VII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Request for judicial notice at trial (Evid C §§452–453)  14.54
    • B.  Form: Proposed jury instruction regarding judicially noticed matter  14.55

15

Making Trial Objections and Protecting the Record

Joseph W. Cotchett

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  15.1
  • II.  UNDERSTANDING THE RECORD AND ITS IMPORTANCE
    • A.  Record defined  15.2
    • B.  Importance of record  15.3
  • III.  PRETRIAL AND SPECIAL PROCEDURES FOR PRESERVING THE RECORD  15.4
    • A.  Conferences with trial judge  15.5
      • 1.  Request court reporter  15.6
      • 2.  Preserve issues for appeal  15.7
    • B.  Motion in limine  15.8
      • 1.  Make sure motion is on the record  15.9
      • 2.  Preserve issues for appeal  15.10
    • C.  Preliminary fact hearing; requiring proper foundation before admission of evidence  15.11
  • IV.  MAKING A CLEAR RECORD DURING TRIAL
    • A.  Conferences, stipulations, and court rulings on the record  15.12
    • B.  Transcript of testimony  15.13
      • 1.  Audible and clear  15.14
      • 2.  Items to clarify for the record  15.15
    • C.  Documents and other exhibits
      • 1.  Clearly mark exhibits for identification  15.16
      • 2.  Offer exhibit into evidence  15.17
      • 3.  Using exhibits during trial  15.18
  • V.  MAKING OBJECTIONS DURING TRIAL TO PRESERVE RECORD
    • A.  Purpose of objections
      • 1.  To exclude inadmissible evidence  15.19
      • 2.  To prevent other errors at trial
        • a.  During opening statement  15.20
        • b.  Unqualified witness  15.21
        • c.  During closing argument  15.22
      • 3.  To preserve objection on the record for appeal  15.23
    • B.  When objection waived  15.24
      • 1.  Failure to get objection on the record  15.25
      • 2.  Untimely objection waives error  15.26
      • 3.  Invited error: Waiver by offering inadmissible evidence  15.27
      • 4.  Court fails to rule  15.28
      • 5.  When no waiver
        • a.  Admitting evidence would result in unfair trial  15.29
        • b.  Change in law  15.30
        • c.  Stipulation as to form  15.31
    • C.  Deciding whether to object  15.32
      • 1.  Reasons not to object  15.33
      • 2.  Alternatives to objecting  15.34
    • D.  Preparing for objections  15.35
    • E.  How to object
      • 1.  Objection must be timely  15.36
      • 2.  Briefly and specifically state grounds for objection  15.37
        • a.  State correct grounds for objection  15.38
        • b.  General objections not usually sufficient  15.39
          • (1)  Use general objection to gain time  15.40
          • (2)  When general objection may be sufficient  15.41
    • F.  Continuing objection
      • 1.  If court allows  15.42
      • 2.  May be better to repeat objection  15.43
    • G.  Move to strike if answer given before court sustains objection  15.44
  • VI.  RESPONDING TO OBJECTION  15.45
    • A.  Discussing or arguing objection  15.46
      • 1.  Sidebar or chambers conferences  15.47
      • 2.  When to use sidebar conference  15.48
      • 3.  How to request sidebar conference  15.49
    • B.  Offer of proof  15.50
      • 1.  When to consider offer of proof  15.51
      • 2.  Usually required if objection sustained to preserve record  15.52
      • 3.  Circumstances when not required  15.53
      • 4.  Make offer on the record, outside jury’s presence  15.54
      • 5.  What to include in offer of proof  15.55
        • a.  Substance of evidence  15.56
        • b.  Purpose of evidence  15.57
        • c.  Relevancy of evidence  15.58
        • d.  Availability of evidence  15.59
      • 6.  When to renew  15.60
    • C.  Limited admissibility of evidence  15.61
      • 1.  After objection, offering party should state limited purpose  15.62
      • 2.  Objecting party: Ask for exclusion of evidence or limiting instruction  15.63
      • 3.  Waiver if failure to request limiting instruction  15.64
  • VII.  COURT’S RULING  15.65
    • A.  Reserved ruling  15.66
    • B.  If no ruling, considered overruled  15.67
    • C.  After ruling, be careful to preserve objection  15.68
  • VIII.  FORM: EVIDENTIARY OBJECTIONS  15.69

16

Misconduct of Counsel and Court

Hon. James J. Marchiano

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  16.1
  • II.  REGULATION OF LEGAL PROFESSION
    • A.  Regulation of attorneys
      • 1.  Under Business and Professions Code  16.2
      • 2.  Under Rules of Professional Conduct  16.3
      • 3.  Regulation by judiciary  16.4
      • 4.  Under local rules  16.5
      • 5.  Influence of ABA guidelines  16.6
    • B.  Regulation of judges  16.7
  • III.  COURTROOM ETIQUETTE AND APPEARANCE
    • A.  Suggestions for courtroom conduct  16.8
      • 1.  Courtroom demeanor  16.9
      • 2.  Positions in the courtroom  16.10
      • 3.  Addressing the court  16.11
      • 4.  Addressing the jury  16.12
      • 5.  Opening address  16.13
      • 6.  Examining witnesses  16.14
      • 7.  Making objections  16.15
    • B.  Review local court rules  16.16
    • C.  Guidelines for appropriate attire  16.17
  • IV.  GUIDELINES FOR ETHICAL CONDUCT BY ATTORNEYS
    • A.  Consequences of a breach of ethics
      • 1.  Business and Professions Code Provisions  16.18
      • 2.  State bar proceedings  16.19
    • B.  Ethical conduct in court
      • 1.  Maintain respect for court  16.20
        • a.  Arguing with judge in front of jury  16.21
        • b.  General scope of advocacy  16.22
        • c.  Attorney’s right to argue against, or test validity of, a ruling  16.23
        • d.  Judge’s duty to protect court’s integrity  16.24
      • 2.  Affirmative duty to inform court of misrepresentation  16.25
      • 3.  Must argue fairly  16.26
      • 4.  Handling news media releases  16.27
      • 5.  Avoid private communications with court  16.28
      • 6.  Avoid gifts to judge or court officials  16.29
      • 7.  Be punctual  16.30
    • C.  Ethical conduct toward opposing counsel  16.31
    • D.  Ethical conduct toward clients
      • 1.  Control of litigation
        • a.  Procedural matters  16.32
        • b.  Client’s substantive rights  16.33
        • c.  Effect of stipulations by counsel  16.34
        • d.  Counsel’s ethical obligations versus unethical actions authorized by client  16.35
      • 2.  Duty to represent client competently  16.36
      • 3.  Duty to represent client within bounds of law  16.37
      • 4.  When attorney is witness for client  16.38
        • a.  When written consent required  16.39
        • b.  When written consent not required  16.40
      • 5.  Representing multiple parties  16.41
      • 6.  Representing client with interests adverse to former client’s interests  16.42
      • 7.  Avoid emotional involvement  16.43
    • E.  Ethical conduct toward jury
      • 1.  Communication with or investigation of jurors prohibited
        • a.  Before trial  16.44
        • b.  After trial  16.45
      • 2.  Avoid undue solicitude for jurors  16.46
      • 3.  Report juror misconduct  16.47
    • F.  Ethical conduct toward witnesses
      • 1.  Compensation of lay and expert witnesses
        • a.  Compensation must not depend on outcome of trial  16.48
        • b.  Reasonable fees and expenses allowed  16.49
      • 2.  Suppression of evidence or hiding of witnesses prohibited  16.50
      • 3.  Prepare witnesses to testify at trial  16.51
      • 4.  Treatment of opposing witnesses  16.52
  • V.  GUIDELINES FOR ETHICAL JUDICIAL CONDUCT
    • A.  Code of Judicial Conduct  16.53
    • B.  General guidelines in Code of Judicial Conduct  16.54
    • C.  Judge may obtain expert’s advice on the law [Deleted]  16.55
    • D.  Conduct regarding public comments  16.56
    • E.  If judge becomes aware of unprofessional conduct  16.57
    • F.  Judge’s control over course of trial  16.58
    • G.  When judge is trier of fact  16.59
    • H.  Admonishing counsel allowed  16.60
    • I.  Commenting on omissions and defects  16.61
    • J.  Calling or examining witnesses  16.62
    • K.  Attempting to settle case  16.63
    • L.  Commenting on evidence  16.64
    • M.  Commenting on a privilege  16.65
  • VI.  ATTORNEY MISCONDUCT
    • A.  What constitutes misconduct  16.66
    • B.  Effect of misconduct  16.67
    • C.  Court must report misconduct  16.68
    • D.  Examples of misconduct
      • 1.  Disparaging remarks  16.69
      • 2.  Accusations of willful suppression of evidence  16.70
      • 3.  Other improper comments  16.71
      • 4.  Insinuating and improper questions and objections  16.72
      • 5.  Appeals to jurors’ prejudice or sympathy  16.73
        • a.  Wealth or poverty  16.74
        • b.  Corporate status or wealth  16.75
        • c.  Jurors’ self-interest  16.76
        • d.  Military service  16.77
        • e.  Race, nationality, or religion  16.78
        • f.  “Golden rule” argument  16.79
      • 6.  Reference to insurance  16.80
      • 7.  Reading law to jury  16.81
      • 8.  Motions made in jury’s presence  16.82
      • 9.  Calling jurors by name  16.83
      • 10.  Conversations with jurors  16.84
      • 11.  Reference to inadmissible evidence  16.85
      • 12.  Exhibiting prejudicial matter or objects not in evidence  16.86
      • 13.  News media releases  16.87
      • 14.  Reading jurors’ notes  16.88
      • 15.  Arguing matters not in evidence  16.89
    • E.  Anticipating and preventing misconduct  16.90
  • VII.  REMEDIES FOR ATTORNEY MISCONDUCT
    • A.  Action by counsel
      • 1.  Timely objection; waiver  16.91
      • 2.  Object and assign improper matter as misconduct  16.92
      • 3.  Request admonition to cure misconduct  16.93
    • B.  Remedies for attorney misconduct
      • 1.  Consider requesting sanctions for bad faith or frivolous action  16.94
      • 2.  Consider moving for mistrial  16.95
      • 3.  Evaluate moving for new trial  16.96
      • 4.  Determine whether appeal appropriate
        • a.  Objection and request for admonition usually necessary  16.97
        • b.  Standard for setting aside verdict  16.98
      • 5.  Contempt citation for misconduct
        • a.  Contempt defined  16.99
        • b.  Purpose of contempt  16.100
        • c.  Limitations on use of contempt power  16.101
        • d.  Aggressive advocacy distinguished  16.102
        • e.  Civil and criminal contempt
          • (1)  General distinction  16.103
          • (2)  When civil characterized as criminal  16.104
          • (3)  Civil contempt distinguished from misdemeanor criminal contempt  16.105
          • (4)  When double jeopardy an issue  16.106
        • f.  Forms of contempt
          • (1)  Direct contempt  16.107
          • (2)  Indirect contempt  16.108
          • (3)  Hybrid form of contempt  16.109
        • g.  Procedures for direct or hybrid contempt
          • (1)  Court has summary power to punish  16.110
          • (2)  Hearing may not be required  16.111
          • (3)  Judge may warn first or request an explanation  16.112
          • (4)  Written judgment of contempt required  16.113
        • h.  Procedures for indirect contempt
          • (1)  Must have notice and opportunity to be heard  16.114
          • (2)  Proceeding initiated with declaration or affidavit  16.115
          • (3)  Court issues warrant of attachment or order to show cause  16.116
          • (4)  Accused should serve and file counterdeclaration  16.117
          • (5)  Affidavits constitute pleadings  16.118
          • (6)  Hearing procedure  16.119
          • (7)  Rights of accused  16.120
          • (8)  Right to disqualify judge  16.121
          • (9)  Judge may defer adjudication of contempt  16.122
        • i.  Penalty for civil contempt
          • (1)  In general  16.123
          • (2)  Separate contemptuous acts  16.124
          • (3)  Failure to perform an act  16.125
          • (4)  Recalcitrant witness  16.126
        • j.  Stay of sentence
          • (1)  When stay required  16.127
          • (2)  When stay not required  16.128
        • k.  Appealability of judgment of contempt  16.129
  • VIII.  JUDICIAL MISCONDUCT
    • A.  When judge fails to meet standards of conduct  16.130
    • B.  Examples of judicial misconduct
      • 1.  Judicial intemperance  16.131
      • 2.  Prejudging case  16.132
      • 3.  Showing partiality  16.133
      • 4.  Interfering with witnesses  16.134
      • 5.  Improper examination of witnesses  16.135
      • 6.  Coercing waiver of substantive or procedural right  16.136
      • 7.  Compelling settlement  16.137
      • 8.  Receiving evidence when court not in session  16.138
      • 9.  Coercing jury verdict
        • a.  Telling jury they must agree  16.139
        • b.  Distinguish proper advice  16.140
      • 10.  Communicating with jurors during deliberations  16.141
    • C.  No formula for determining misconduct  16.142
  • IX.  REMEDIES FOR JUDICIAL MISCONDUCT
    • A.  Action by counsel
      • 1.  Object to misconduct or assign misconduct as error  16.143
      • 2.  Request curative admonition  16.144
    • B.  Review remedies available
      • 1.  Consider moving for mistrial  16.145
      • 2.  Evaluate moving for new trial  16.146
      • 3.  Determine whether appeal appropriate  16.147
  • X.  EXAMPLES OF ACTS OR OMISSIONS THAT ARE CONTEMPTS OF COURT’S AUTHORITY  16.148
  • XI.  EXAMPLES OF REMEDIES FOR MISCONDUCT OF COUNSEL  16.149

17

Jury Management

Hon. James J. Marchiano

Stephen A. McFeely

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  17.1
  • II.  JURY MANAGEMENT DURING VOIR DIRE
    • A.  Managing prospective jurors  17.2
    • B.  Jurors given introductory information about voir dire process  17.3
    • C.  Juror misconduct during voir dire: Concealment of bias  17.4
  • III.  JURY MANAGEMENT DURING TRIAL
    • A.  Jurors assemble in jury room or outside courtroom  17.5
    • B.  Jury permitted breaks during trial  17.6
    • C.  Jurors may take notes during trial  17.7
    • D.  When jury may see physical evidence or exhibits  17.8
    • E.  Jury may view the scene on motion of party or court  17.9
  • IV.  JURY MISCONDUCT DURING TRIAL
    • A.  Receiving or communicating facts from sources outside evidence  17.10
      • 1.  Facts based on personal knowledge or observations may be improper  17.11
      • 2.  Considering facts not in evidence creates presumption of prejudice  17.12
      • 3.  Unauthorized viewing outside courtroom is improper  17.13
      • 4.  Reading or listening to news media accounts of trial is improper  17.14
    • B.  Improper communications among jurors or with others
      • 1.  When jurors discuss case among themselves before submission  17.15
      • 2.  When jurors communicate with others about trial  17.16
      • 3.  Improper communications create presumption of prejudice  17.17
      • 4.  When communications improper but not prejudicial  17.18
      • 5.  Juror may be held in contempt for improper communications  17.19
    • C.  Inattentiveness during trial
      • 1.  Jurors have duty to listen carefully  17.20
      • 2.  Inattentiveness may or may not be held prejudicial  17.21
      • 3.  Court must be notified of any juror inattentiveness  17.22
  • V.  REMEDIES FOR JUROR MISCONDUCT
    • A.  Object to any misconduct or irregularity  17.23
    • B.  Request admonition  17.24
    • C.  Request replacement with alternate if necessary  17.25
    • D.  Consider moving for mistrial  17.26
    • E.  Consider moving for new trial
      • 1.  When misconduct discovered after verdict  17.27
      • 2.  Three-step inquiry by court  17.28
      • 3.  Preparing support for motion  17.29
      • 4.  If conduct improper but not prejudicial  17.30
      • 5.  Impeaching jury’s verdict  17.31
      • 6.  If motion denied  17.32

18

Motions During Trial

Randall B. Christison

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER
    • A.  Motions covered  18.1
    • B.  Chart: Trial motions  18.2
  • II.  PROCEDURES FOR MAKING TRIAL MOTIONS
    • A.  Form of motion
      • 1.  Usually oral; when written papers advisable  18.3
      • 2.  Making a Record  18.4
    • B.  Timing  18.5
    • C.  Opposing party’s options  18.6
  • III.  MOTION FOR NONSUIT
    • A.  Checklist: Procedures for making or opposing motion  18.7
    • B.  Nature of Motion
      • 1.  Nonsuit is equivalent to involuntary dismissal  18.8
      • 2.  Purpose: to eliminate nonmeritorious actions or remedy correctable defects  18.9
      • 3.  Court decides whether nonsuit judgment is adjudication on merits  18.10
    • C.  Partial nonsuit
      • 1.  Dismisses action on some issues  18.11
      • 2.  Preparing written order after judgment of partial nonsuit  18.12
      • 3.  Allows appellate review only after final judgment  18.13
    • D.  Test for granting motion: “Sufficient substantiality”
      • 1.  No evidence of “sufficient substantiality” to support judgment  18.14
      • 2.  Make motion when opening statement either does not state cause of action or establishes affirmative defense  18.15
      • 3.  Make motion when variation between pleading and proof  18.16
      • 4.  Make motion after presentation of evidence when evidence insufficient  18.17
      • 5.  Court may not weigh evidence when ruling on motion  18.18
      • 6.  Opposing party must ensure that evidence is adequate to support verdict  18.19
      • 7.  Consider appellate consequences; courts reluctant to affirm nonsuit motions  18.20
      • 8.  Failing to grant judgment may be reversible error  18.21
    • E.  Timing
      • 1.  Jury trial: Motion can be made after either opening statement or presentation of evidence  18.22
      • 2.  Bench trial: Motion can be made only after plaintiff’s opening statement  18.23
    • F.  Procedures for moving party
      • 1.  Make motion outside jury’s presence  18.24
      • 2.  Oral motion: Specify grounds  18.25
      • 3.  Draft written supporting papers when issues complicated  18.26
    • G.  Procedures for opposing party
      • 1.  Supplement opening statement; waiver  18.27
      • 2.  Move to reopen after presentation of evidence; waiver  18.28
      • 3.  If motion granted, request court order: Remaining parties cannot shift blame to dismissed party  18.29
    • H.  Effect of granting motion; costs; appeal
      • 1.  Operates as adjudication on merits  18.30
      • 2.  Prevailing party entitled to costs  18.31
      • 3.  Appeal from judgment after motion granted  18.32
      • 4.  Upholding judgment correctly decided on merits  18.33
      • 5.  Reversal if sufficient evidence supports judgment for plaintiff  18.34
  • IV.  MOTION FOR DIRECTED VERDICT
    • A.  Checklist: Procedures for making or opposing motion  18.35
    • B.  Nature of Motion
      • 1.  Make motion when evidence insufficient to support other party’s case  18.36
      • 2.  Compared with motion for nonsuit  18.37
      • 3.  Jury’s obligation to return verdict  18.38
    • C.  Motion for partial directed verdict  18.39
    • D.  Motion for judgment under CCP §630(f) after discharge of jury
      • 1.  Judgment based on directed verdict test  18.40
      • 2.  Time requirements: Notice within 10 days of jury’s discharge  18.41
    • E.  Test for granting motion
      • 1.  Other party’s evidence not “sufficiently substantial”  18.42
      • 2.  Motion inappropriate when evidence substantially conflicts  18.43
      • 3.  Make motion when nonexistence of essential fact established as matter of law  18.44
      • 4.  Evidence viewed in light favorable to nonmoving party  18.45
      • 5.  Evidence unfavorable to nonmoving party cannot be considered  18.46
    • F.  Timing
      • 1.  Making motion at close of presentation of evidence  18.47
      • 2.  Making motion at other times  18.48
    • G.  Procedures for moving party
      • 1.  Make motion outside jury’s presence  18.49
      • 2.  Oral motion: Specify grounds  18.50
      • 3.  Written supporting memorandum desirable when issues complicated  18.51
    • H.  Procedures for opposing party
      • 1.  Argue that moving party failed to adequately specify grounds  18.52
      • 2.  Ask to reopen case; waiver  18.53
    • I.  Effect of granting motion; costs; judgment
      • 1.  Operates as adjudication on merits  18.54
      • 2.  Prevailing party entitled to costs  18.55
      • 3.  Order of judgment  18.56
  • V.  MOTION FOR CONTINUANCE
    • A.  Checklist: Procedures for making or opposing motion  18.57
    • B.  Nature of motion
      • 1.  Disfavored  18.58
      • 2.  Consider alternatives  18.59
    • C.  Satisfying grounds for continuance  18.60
    • D.  Procedures for moving party
      • 1.  Written noticed motion or ex parte application; supporting declarations  18.61
      • 2.  Making oral motion  18.62
    • E.  Procedures for opposing party
      • 1.  Suggest alternatives or conditions to continuance  18.63
      • 2.  Ask for payment of costs  18.64
  • VI.  MOTION TO REOPEN CASE
    • A.  Checklist: Procedures for making or opposing motion  18.65
    • B.  Nature of motion
      • 1.  Motion asks for opportunity to offer new evidence  18.66
      • 2.  Within court’s discretion  18.67
      • 3.  Bench trial: Reopening alternative to new trial  18.68
      • 4.  Reopening on court’s own motion  18.69
    • C.  Requirements
      • 1.  Grounds: Good cause required  18.70
      • 2.  Showing of due diligence  18.71
    • D.  Timing
      • 1.  Asking to reopen case after motion for nonsuit or directed verdict  18.72
      • 2.  Making motion immediately after oversight or surprise; waiver  18.73
      • 3.  Making motion after argument  18.74
      • 4.  Making motion after submission in bench trial  18.75
      • 5.  Reopening case after judgment in bench trial  18.76
    • E.  Procedures for moving party
      • 1.  Oral motion during trial  18.77
      • 2.  Written motion after submission in bench trial  18.78
    • F.  Procedures for opponent
      • 1.  Motion for nonsuit or directed verdict pending  18.79
      • 2.  Motion to reopen after submission  18.80
    • G.  Appeal after judgment only  18.81
  • VII.  MOTION FOR MISTRIAL
    • A.  Checklist: Procedures for making or opposing motion  18.82
    • B.  Nature of motion
      • 1.  Asks to terminate trial  18.83
      • 2.  Consider alternatives  18.84
    • C.  Grounds: Preventing fair trial  18.85
      • 1.  Statutory grounds  18.86
      • 2.  Judge unable to complete trial  18.87
    • D.  Timing
      • 1.  Prejudicial effect from cumulative errors or irregularities  18.88
      • 2.  Single act of misconduct or serious irregularity  18.89
    • E.  Procedures for moving party
      • 1.  Objection on record and request for admonition; waiver of right to mistrial  18.90
      • 2.  Motion for mistrial and argument outside jury’s presence  18.91
      • 3.  Oral motion: Specify grounds  18.92
      • 4.  Admonishment of jury after motion denied; protecting the record  18.93
      • 5.  Proceeding with trial after motion taken under submission  18.94
      • 6.  Moving for mistrial in bench trial  18.95
    • F.  Procedures for opposing party
      • 1.  Suggest alternative means to cure prejudice  18.96
      • 2.  Argue when appropriate that motion was not made immediately following misconduct  18.97
    • G.  Effect of court’s ruling: Motion granted
      • 1.  Deciding when case will be retried  18.98
      • 2.  Reinstate case to trial calendar  18.99
      • 3.  Order not appealable  18.100
    • H.  When motion denied
      • 1.  Appellate review from judgment  18.101
      • 2.  Waiver on appeal  18.102
  • VIII.  MOTION TO AMEND PLEADINGS TO CONFORM TO PROOF
    • A.  Checklist: Procedures for making or opposing motion  18.103
    • B.  Nature of motion
      • 1.  Amendments liberally granted during trial  18.104
      • 2.  Denial of amendments that raise new issues after close of evidence  18.105
    • C.  Curing immaterial variances
      • 1.  Showing no prejudice to other party  18.106
      • 2.  General rule: Amendments limited to causes of action in complaint  18.107
      • 3.  Exception: New causes of action permitted when based on same set of facts  18.108
    • D.  Curing material variances
      • 1.  Variance has misled other party  18.109
      • 2.  Ordering continuance (recess) or vacating submission of court case; waiver  18.110
    • E.  Failure of proof  18.111
    • F.  Timing
      • 1.  Motion may be granted at any time  18.112
      • 2.  Making timely motion; tactics  18.113
      • 3.  Conforming pleadings to proof after judgment  18.114
    • G.  Procedures for moving party
      • 1.  Methods of amending pleadings  18.115
      • 2.  Oral motion: Submit written amendment  18.116
      • 3.  Arguing motion  18.117
    • H.  Procedures for opposing party
      • 1.  Before motion made: Object on grounds of relevancy or move for nonsuit  18.118
      • 2.  Failure to challenge variance; waiver  18.119
      • 3.  Arguing against motion when made; grounds  18.120
    • I.  Effect of granting motion
      • 1.  Opposing party’s request to produce evidence  18.121
      • 2.  Granting opposing party continuance and costs  18.122
      • 3.  Abuse of discretion test on appeal  18.123
  • IX.  FORMS
    • A.  Motion for nonsuit
      • 1.  Form: Motion for judgment of nonsuit (CCP §581c)  18.124
      • 2.  Form: Judgment of nonsuit (after opening statement) (CCP §581c)  18.125
      • 3.  Form: Judgment of nonsuit (after close of evidence) (CCP §581c)  18.126
    • B.  Motion for judgment after discharge of jury
      • 1.  Form: Notice of motion for judgment (CCP §630(f))  18.127
      • 2.  Form: Order for entry of judgment (CCP §630(f))  18.128
    • C.  Motion for directed verdict
      • 1.  Form: Motion for directed verdict (CCP §630)  18.129
      • 2.  Form: Judgment on directed verdict (CCP §630)  18.130
    • D.  Form: Notice of motion to reopen case (CCP §607(6))  18.131
    • E.  Amending pleadings to conform to proof
      • 1.  Form: Motion for leave to amend pleadings to conform to proof  18.132
      • 2.  Form: Order granting leave to amend  18.133
      • 3.  Form: Amendment to pleading  18.134

19

Closing Argument

Mary E. Alexander

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  19.1
  • II.  GENERAL ISSUES
    • A.  Right to argue in jury trial; waiver  19.2
    • B.  Argument and rebuttal argument
      • 1.  Plaintiff’s counsel  19.3
      • 2.  Defense Counsel  19.4
    • C.  Order of argument  19.5
      • 1.  Multiple plaintiffs or defendants  19.6
      • 2.  When more than one attorney represents a party  19.7
    • D.  Argument in bench trials  19.8
  • III.  PLANNING AND PREPARING ARGUMENT
    • A.  Importance of closing argument  19.9
    • B.  Structuring argument  19.10
    • C.  Deciding objectives  19.11
    • D.  Using visual aids  19.12
    • E.  Managing time limits  19.13
  • IV.  CONTENT OF CLOSING ARGUMENT
    • A.  Statement of case  19.14
    • B.  Summary of facts and issues  19.15
    • C.  Burden of proof; preponderance of evidence  19.16
    • D.  The law
      • 1.  Parties’ rights and duties  19.17
      • 2.  Jury instructions  19.18
    • E.  Witness testimony and key evidence
      • 1.  Problem witnesses  19.19
      • 2.  Damages  19.20
    • F.  Verdict form  19.21
    • G.  Conclusion: Final five minutes  19.22
  • V.  LATITUDE PERMITTED DURING ARGUMENT
    • A.  Comment on evidence; inferences  19.23
      • 1.  Credibility of witnesses  19.24
      • 2.  Opposing party’s failure to produce witnesses or other evidence
        • a.  When comments are allowed  19.25
        • b.  When comments are prohibited
          • (1)  Witnesses available to both sides  19.26
          • (2)  Exercise of privilege  19.27
      • 3.  Evidence admitted for limited purpose  19.28
      • 4.  Reading evidence taken at former trial or hearing  19.29
    • B.  Discussing the law and jury instructions  19.30
    • C.  Referring to matters of common knowledge  19.31
    • D.  Reading from books and newspapers  19.32
    • E.  Referring to pleadings  19.33
  • VI.  TECHNIQUES FOR DELIVERING ARGUMENT
    • A.  Demeanor and language  19.34
    • B.  Dealing with inattentive jurors  19.35
    • C.  Appealing to jury “leaders”  19.36
    • D.  Relying on visual aids  19.37
    • E.  Using trial transcript  19.38
  • VII.  ARGUING DAMAGES IN PERSONAL INJURY TRIALS
    • A.  Plaintiff’s counsel  19.39
      • 1.  Medical expenses  19.40
      • 2.  Wage loss
        • a.  Past wage loss  19.41
        • b.  Impairment of earnings capacity; future wage loss  19.42
      • 3.  Physical injuries  19.43
      • 4.  Pain and suffering  19.44
        • a.  Golden rule argument prohibited  19.45
        • b.  Per diem argument permissible  19.46
      • 5.  Final remarks on damages  19.47
    • B.  Defense counsel  19.48
      • 1.  Admitted liability  19.49
      • 2.  Doubtful liability  19.50
  • VIII.  PROCEDURES FOR OPPOSING PARTY
    • A.  Making objections during argument
      • 1.  Tactical considerations  19.51
      • 2.  Timely objection and request for curative admonition; waiver  19.52
      • 3.  How to make objections  19.53
    • B.  Moving for mistrial  19.54
    • C.  Protecting the record when improper visual aids permitted during closing argument  19.55
  • IX.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: spotting impermissible arguments  19.56
    • B.  Checklist: Grounds for objections during closing argument  19.57

20

Jury Instructions

James A. Richman

  • I.  OVERVIEW
    • A.  Scope of chapter  20.1
    • B.  Checklist: How to draft effective instructions  20.2
    • C.  Jury instructions are statements of law  20.3
      • 1.  Jury must follow court’s proper instructions  20.4
      • 2.  Counsel’s duty to submit proposed instructions  20.5
      • 3.  Waiver for party’s failure to submit instructions; exception  20.6
    • D.  Parties’ right to jury instructions
      • 1.  Instructions permitted on all theories of case  20.7
      • 2.  Instructions on alternative theories or defenses allowed  20.8
    • E.  Tactical considerations
      • 1.  Instructions help plan case  20.9
      • 2.  Opening statement; prepare jury for key instructions  20.10
      • 3.  Final argument: Use exact language of key jury instructions  20.11
  • II.  PREPARING FORM INSTRUCTIONS
    • A.  What are CACI instructions?  20.12
    • B.  Approved form instructions preferred in state court
      • 1.  Judicial Council recommends use of CACI  20.13
      • 2.  Counsel must complete form instructions properly  20.14
      • 3.  Form instructions generally upheld on appeal  20.15
      • 4.  Restrictions on certain jury instructions must be observed  20.16
    • C.  Procedure for requesting jury instructions
      • 1.  Format of request  20.17
      • 2.  Number of copies required  20.18
    • D.  Modification of form instructions; notification to court required  20.19
  • III.  DRAFTING ORIGINAL INSTRUCTIONS
    • A.  Format requirements  20.20
    • B.  Language of instructions
      • 1.  Simple language preferred  20.21
      • 2.  Avoid technical language  20.22
      • 3.  Gender-neutral language required  20.23
      • 4.  Proposed instruction must state law properly  20.24
    • C.  Sources of law for jury instructions  20.25
      • 1.  Statutes: Verbatim quotations preferred to paraphrasing  20.26
      • 2.  Court opinions: Verbatim excerpts not recommended  20.27
      • 3.  Miscellaneous: form books, program materials, hornbooks, dictionaries  20.28
    • D.  Effect of parties’ failure to comply with format and content requirements  20.29
  • IV.  ORGANIZING JURY INSTRUCTIONS
    • A.  Sequence of instructions
      • 1.  Organize instructions in logical order  20.30
      • 2.  Judge has discretion to give instructions in particular order  20.31
    • B.  Using instructions in the alternative
      • 1.  Prepare alternative instructions on important legal issues  20.32
      • 2.  Doctrine of invited error may bar alternative instruction  20.33
  • V.  TIME REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  Time for submission depends on subject matter of instruction  20.34
    • B.  Late submission of jury instructions within court’s discretion  20.35
    • C.  Serving proposed instructions  20.36
  • VI.  COURT’S RESPONSIBILITY ON JURY INSTRUCTIONS
    • A.  When sua sponte instructions are required
      • 1.  Sua sponte defined  20.37
      • 2.  Court has discretion to instruct  20.38
      • 3.  Form of sua sponte instructions  20.39
    • B.  Correcting or modifying erroneous instructions
      • 1.  Generally no duty to modify or correct  20.40
      • 2.  Exception  20.41
    • C.  Hearing and ruling on instructions
      • 1.  Court’s duties at chambers conference before final argument  20.42
      • 2.  Court reporter should be present at chambers conference  20.43
      • 3.  Court’s refusal of instruction  20.44
        • a.  Court need not endorse reason for refusal on instruction  20.45
        • b.  Consequences of court’s failure to endorse  20.46
    • D.  Instructing jury during trial
      • 1.  Timing within court’s discretion  20.47
      • 2.  Before deliberations  20.48
      • 3.  During trial  20.49
      • 4.  Immediately before final argument  20.50
      • 5.  Case examples of reversible error by court relating to jury instructions  20.51
  • VII.  REINSTRUCTION OF JURY DURING DELIBERATIONS
    • A.  Permitted only if requested by jury  20.52
      • 1.  Meet with judge before reinstruction  20.53
      • 2.  Court can give omitted instructions sua sponte  20.54
    • B.  Court can assist in jury deliberations  20.55
    • C.  Counsel’s preparation of jury instructions to go to jury room: “Clean” copy preferred  20.56
  • VIII.  PREPARING OBJECTIONS TO OPPONENT’S JURY INSTRUCTIONS AND THOSE PREPARED BY THE COURT
    • A.  When and how to object  20.57
    • B.  Protecting the record  20.58
    • C.  Proper documentation of error  20.59
    • D.  Objectionable instructions
      • 1.  Inaccurate statements of law  20.60
      • 2.  Argumentative instructions
        • a.  Defined  20.61
        • b.  Instruction should state rules of law, not argue evidence  20.62
      • 3.  Repetitive instructions
        • a.  Defined  20.63
        • b.  Reversible error results only if instruction caused prejudice  20.64
      • 4.  Formula instructions
        • a.  Defined  20.65
        • b.  Formula instructions criticized  20.66
        • c.  Exception: Formula instruction permitted if certain criteria satisfied  20.67
      • 5.  Conflicting or contradictory instructions  20.68
      • 6.  Irrelevant instructions  20.69
      • 7.  Fact-assuming instructions  20.70
  • IX.  CORRECTING INSTRUCTIONAL ERRORS DURING TRIAL
    • A.  Erroneous instruction can be corrected by subsequently given correct instruction  20.71
    • B.  Incomplete or incorrect instruction can be cured by another instruction  20.72
  • X.  INSTRUCTIONAL ERROR ON APPEAL
    • A.  Automatic exceptions and objections
      • 1.  Defined  20.73
      • 2.  Limitations on CCP §647  20.74
    • B.  Doctrine of invited error
      • 1.  Defined  20.75
      • 2.  If proper alternative instructions are requested, doctrine of invited error not a bar  20.76
      • 3.  Party may object to own instruction when no instruction should be given  20.77
      • 4.  Unidentified instruction constitutes invited error  20.78
    • C.  Prejudicial error must be shown
      • 1.  Defined  20.79
      • 2.  Examples of reversible error based on erroneous instructions  20.80
  • XI.  JURY INSTRUCTION FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample request for jury instructions and index  20.81
    • B.  Form: Sample CACI instruction  20.82
    • C.  Form: Sample special instruction  20.83

21

Jury Deliberations

Stephanie L. Berman

Stephen A. McFeely

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  21.1
  • II.  LOGISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • A.  Custody of jury during deliberations  21.2
    • B.  Location and schedule for deliberations  21.3
    • C.  Service providers appointed for jurors with disabilities  21.4
    • D.  Payment for jury’s meals; recovery of costs for meals  21.5
    • E.  Smoking prohibited  21.6
    • F.  Outside communications discouraged
      • 1.  Using cellular telephones  21.7
      • 2.  Using beepers  21.8
  • III.  JURY’S DELIBERATIVE PROCESS
    • A.  Jury chooses foreperson  21.9
    • B.  Disposition of alternates  21.10
    • C.  Judge admonishes jury at separations  21.11
    • D.  Counsel may stipulate to streamline deliberations  21.12
    • E.  Jurors must deliberate with open minds  21.13
    • F.  Length of deliberations varies; jury deadlock  21.14
  • IV.  WHEN JUROR ABSENT OR ILL, OR GOOD CAUSE FOR DISCHARGE
    • A.  All jurors must be present to deliberate  21.15
    • B.  When court may discharge juror  21.16
    • C.  Hearing to determine good cause to discharge  21.17
    • D.  Review factors affecting court’s willingness to discharge
      • 1.  When juror ill  21.18
      • 2.  Discharge for other reasons  21.19
  • V.  WHEN ALTERNATE JUROR MUST BE USED
    • A.  How chosen  21.20
    • B.  Deliberations must begin anew  21.21
    • C.  Possible actions if alternate juror unavailable  21.22
    • D.  Continuing with less than full jury  21.23
  • VI.  WHEN JURORS REQUEST INFORMATION DURING DELIBERATIONS
    • A.  Jury requests information through bailiff or designated court officer  21.24
    • B.  When jurors request that testimony be reread  21.25
    • C.  When instructions may be reread and further instructions added  21.26
    • D.  Requests to view the scene will be rejected  21.27
    • E.  Requests for collateral aids will be rejected  21.28
  • VII.  WHEN JURORS REQUEST MATERIALS IN JURY ROOM DURING DELIBERATIONS
    • A.  Materials Allowed
      • 1.  Documents or exhibits admitted into evidence  21.29
      • 2.  Juror’s notes and juror-drawn diagrams  21.30
      • 3.  Jury instructions allowed if sanitized  21.31
    • B.  Materials not allowed
      • 1.  Deposition transcripts or videotapes  21.32
      • 2.  Pleadings not received into evidence  21.33
      • 3.  Other items not permitted in jury room  21.34
  • VIII.  JURY MISCONDUCT DURING DELIBERATIONS
    • A.  Conducting improper experiments  21.35
    • B.  Improper communications during deliberations  21.36
    • C.  Resorting to chance or using quotient to arrive at verdict  21.37
    • D.  Improper calculations to include attorney fees  21.38
    • E.  Consumption of alcohol may be misconduct  21.39
    • F.  Discussion of improper topics  21.40
    • G.  Mistakes in law by jurors  21.41
    • H.  Misconduct to show bias  21.42
    • I.  When smoking by jurors a problem  21.43
  • IX.  CHECKLIST: REMEDIES FOR MISCONDUCT DURING DELIBERATIONS  21.44

22

Verdicts

Arthur L. Sherwood

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  22.1
  • II.  GENERAL AND SPECIAL VERDICTS
    • A.  Authority; definitions  22.2
    • B.  Compared with judgment  22.3
    • C.  General verdicts
      • 1.  Without special findings  22.4
      • 2.  With special findings  22.5
    • D.  Special verdicts; required for punitive damages  22.6
    • E.  Written verdicts required  22.7
  • III.  PREPARING VERDICT FORMS
    • A.  Checklist  22.8
    • B.  Procedures  22.9
      • 1.  Submission and Service  22.10
      • 2.  Timing  22.11
    • C.  Drafting considerations
      • 1.  General verdicts
        • a.  Without special findings  22.12
        • b.  With special findings  22.13
      • 2.  Special verdicts  22.14
    • D.  Tactical issues; when to use
      • 1.  General verdicts
        • a.  Without special findings  22.15
        • b.  With special findings  22.16
      • 2.  Special verdicts  22.17
  • IV.  OBJECTING TO FORM OF VERDICT
    • A.  When to object: Chambers conference  22.18
    • B.  How to preserve record; waiver  22.19
  • V.  RETURN OF VERDICT
    • A.  Delivery of verdict  22.20
      • 1.  Number of jurors needed for verdict  22.21
      • 2.  Polling jury; waiver  22.22
    • B.  Entry of verdict in minutes  22.23
  • VI.  DEFECTIVE VERDICTS
    • A.  Internal inconsistencies in verdict  22.24
    • B.  Special findings inconsistent with general verdict
      • 1.  Judgment must be in accord with special findings  22.25
      • 2.  Procedures for entering judgment on findings  22.26
    • C.  Partial verdict  22.27
    • D.  Irregularities and ambiguities  22.28
    • E.  Curing defective verdict
      • 1.  Judge’s clarification of verdict  22.29
      • 2.  Jury’s reconsideration of verdict  22.30
      • 3.  Procedures; waiver  22.31
    • F.  Impeaching improper verdict  22.32
    • G.  Judicial interest in upholding verdicts  22.33
  • VII.  FORMS: VERDICTS AND JURY INSTRUCTIONS ON VERDICTS  22.34
    • A.  General verdicts without special findings
      • 1.  Form: Jury instruction  22.35
      • 2.  Form: General verdict form (CACI VF-5000—two-party lawsuit, single cause of action)  22.36
      • 3.  Form: General verdict (one plaintiff, two defendants, cross-complaint)  22.37
    • B.  General verdicts with special findings
      • 1.  Form: Jury instruction  22.38
      • 2.  Form: Special findings on general verdict  22.39
    • C.  Special verdicts
      • 1.  Sample Form: Jury instruction (CACI 5012)  22.40
      • 2.  Form: Special verdict  22.41

23

Judgments

Richard A. Fond

Ellen R. Rosen

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER
    • A.  Judgment after trial  23.1
    • B.  Ways to obtain judgment with or without trial  23.2
  • II.  DISTINGUISHING TYPES OF JUDGMENTS FROM OTHER SIMILAR RULINGS
    • A.  Final and interlocutory judgments, appealable  23.3
    • B.  Conditional, alternative, and deficiency judgments  23.4
    • C.  Separate judgments and “single judgment” rule  23.5
  • III.  SUBSTANTIVE FACTORS AFFECTING VALIDITY AND ENFORCEABILITY OF JUDGMENTS
    • A.  Lack of jurisdiction  23.6
    • B.  Death or dissolution of party
      • 1.  Before action  23.7
      • 2.  During action, before judgment  23.8
      • 3.  After judgment  23.9
    • C.  Bankruptcy proceedings  23.10
    • D.  Death or disability of judge  23.11
    • E.  Disqualification of judge  23.12
  • IV.  FORMAL REQUIREMENTS AFFECTING VALIDITY AND ENFORCEABILITY OF JUDGMENTS
    • A.  Basic requirement of certainty  23.13
    • B.  Avoid incorporation of documents by reference  23.14
    • C.  Additional requirements for special types of judgments
      • 1.  Injunctions  23.15
      • 2.  Recovery of property  23.16
      • 3.  Installment judgments  23.17
    • D.  Judgments rendered by temporary judges or commissioners  23.18
  • V.  ENTRY OF JUDGMENT
    • A.  Entry as clerical act  23.19
    • B.  Procedures in jury trial  23.20
      • 1.  Time requirements for entry  23.21
      • 2.  Judgment on special verdict  23.22
    • C.  Procedures after bench trial  23.23
      • 1.  When statement of decision requested  23.24
      • 2.  When statement of decision not requested or waived  23.25
      • 3.  Drafting proposed judgment  23.26
    • D.  Judge’s signature required  23.27
    • E.  Notice of entry of judgment  23.28
  • VI.  CORRECTING AND MODIFYING JUDGMENTS
    • A.  Power to correct clerical mistakes but not judicial error  23.29
    • B.  Correction of errors nunc pro tunc  23.30
    • C.  Modification to bind alter ego of judgment debtor  23.31
  • VII.  EFFECT OF ENTRY OF JUDGMENT ON SUBSEQUENT PROCEEDINGS
    • A.  Effect on enforcing judgment against defendants: Joint and several judgments  23.32
    • B.  Effect on motion for new trial  23.33
    • C.  Effect on filing of appeal  23.34
    • D.  Res judicata and collateral estoppel effect  23.35
    • E.  Duration and renewal measured from entry  23.36
  • VIII.  REGISTRATION OF SISTER STATE JUDGMENT  23.36A
  • IX.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Judgment on verdict in jury trial  23.37
    • B.  Form: Judgment after bench trial  23.38
    • C.  Form: Alternative judgment for plaintiff in bench trial  23.39
    • D.  Form: Notice of entry of judgment or order (Judicial Council Form CIV-130)  23.40
    • E.  Form: Application for entry of judgment on sister-state judgment (Judicial Council Form EJ-105)  23.41
    • F.  Form: Notice of entry of judgment on sister-state judgment (Judicial Council Form EJ-110)  23.42

24

Bench Trials

Susan T. Kumagai

Gary T. Lafayette

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  24.1
  • II.  GENERAL ISSUES
    • A.  When bench trial required  24.2
    • B.  Tactical considerations  24.3
    • C.  Judge’s role
      • 1.  Fact-finding function  24.4
      • 2.  Taking judicial notice  24.5
      • 3.  Viewing evidence outside courtroom  24.6
  • III.  TRIAL PROCEDURES
    • A.  Order of proof  24.7
    • B.  Submitting trial briefs  24.8
    • C.  Chambers conference  24.9
    • D.  Objecting to evidence  24.10
    • E.  Making trial motions  24.11
    • F.  Closing argument at court’s discretion  24.12
    • G.  Reopening case  24.13
  • IV.  MOTION FOR JUDGMENT
    • A.  Checklist: Procedures for making or opposing motion for judgment  24.14
    • B.  Nature of motion
      • 1.  Any party can move for judgment  24.15
      • 2.  Purpose: to eliminate need to present own evidence  24.16
      • 3.  Compared with nonsuit or new trial motions  24.17
    • C.  Judge’s ruling
      • 1.  Duty to weigh evidence  24.18
      • 2.  Judge can consider any party’s evidence  24.19
      • 3.  Granting partial judgment  24.20
      • 4.  Deferring the ruling  24.21
    • D.  Timing  24.22
    • E.  Procedures for moving party
      • 1.  Oral motion  24.23
      • 2.  Written motion with supporting memorandum  24.24
    • F.  Procedures for opposing party  24.25
    • G.  Effect of granting motion
      • 1.  Adjudication on merits  24.26
      • 2.  Statement of decision required  24.27
      • 3.  Entry of judgment; Costs  24.28
      • 4.  Substantial evidence test on appeal  24.29
  • V.  TENTATIVE DECISION
    • A.  Required after bench trial  24.30
    • B.  Function of tentative decision  24.31
    • C.  Tentative decision may be oral or written  24.32
    • D.  Tentative decision in municipal courts [Deleted]  24.33
  • VI.  STATEMENT OF DECISION
    • A.  Requesting statement of decision  24.34
      • 1.  Time limit  24.35
      • 2.  Written request advisable  24.36
    • B.  Trials concluded in 1 day: Statement of decision may be oral  24.37
    • C.  Trials longer than 1 day
      • 1.  Who prepares statement  24.38
      • 2.  Parties’ proposals on content  24.39
      • 3.  Time limit for preparing statement  24.40
      • 4.  Proposed judgment also required  24.41
      • 5.  Failure to timely submit statement  24.42
      • 6.  Written statement advisable  24.43
    • D.  Contents  24.44
    • E.  Objections  24.45
    • F.  Hearing  24.46
    • G.  Court’s signing and filing  24.47
    • H.  Effect in bifurcated trial  24.48
    • I.  Modifying or vacating statement of decision  24.49
    • J.  Appellate review: Statement that does not resolve principal issues  24.50
  • VII.  NO STATEMENT OF DECISION
    • A.  Procedures when statement of decision not requested or waived  24.51
    • B.  When party is not entitled to statement of decision  24.52
  • VIII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Motion for judgment under CCP §631.8  24.53
    • B.  Form: Judgment on motion under CCP §631.8  24.54

25

Motions After Trial

John S. Gilmore

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  25.1
  • II.  MOTION FOR JUDGMENT NOTWITHSTANDING THE VERDICT (JNOV)
    • A.  Description and use
      • 1.  Motion for JNOV tests sufficiency of evidence presented during trial  25.2
      • 2.  Motion for directed verdict not required beforehand  25.3
      • 3.  Who can move for JNOV  25.4
    • B.  Grounds for motion
      • 1.  Jury verdict not supported by substantial evidence  25.5
      • 2.  No other reasonable conclusion may be drawn from evidence; judge cannot weigh evidence  25.6
      • 3.  Genuine verdict required  25.7
        • a.  When verdict defective  25.8
        • b.  Motion for judgment under CCP §630(f)  25.9
    • C.  Procedures
      • 1.  Move for JNOV and new trial at same time  25.10
      • 2.  All issues must be determined before motion may be made in bifurcated trial  25.11
      • 3.  Written motion required  25.12
      • 4.  Time requirements  25.13
      • 5.  Motion made by court subject to different filing and notice requirements  25.14
    • D.  Trial judge’s ruling on motion
      • 1.  After deadline for filing and serving new trial motion  25.15
      • 2.  Before time to rule on new trial motion expires  25.16
      • 3.  Process judgment form without delay  25.17
      • 4.  Order granting JNOV may be limited to certain issues  25.18
    • E.  Review on appeal
      • 1.  Merits of ruling on motion can be reached on appeal from judgment  25.19
      • 2.  Judgments notwithstanding the verdict are frequently reversed  25.20
      • 3.  Denial of motion will be upheld on appeal if substantial evidence supports verdict  25.21
  • III.  MOTION FOR NEW TRIAL
    • A.  Description and use
      • 1.  Motion appropriate only if injustice occurred  25.22
      • 2.  Compared with motion for JNOV  25.23
      • 3.  Partial new trial  25.24
      • 4.  Motion in bifurcated trial  25.25
    • B.  Grounds for motion  25.26
      • 1.  Irregularity in proceedings or abuse of discretion (CCP §657(1))  25.27
        • a.  Prompt objection to impropriety may cure prejudicial effect and avoid waiver  25.28
        • b.  New trial proper after flagrant misconduct even when party failed to object  25.29
      • 2.  Jury misconduct (CCP §657(2))
        • a.  Jury misconduct raises rebuttable presumption of prejudice  25.30
        • b.  Appellate review of entire record may rebut presumption of prejudice  25.31
        • c.  Waiver for failure to advise court of jury impropriety  25.32
      • 3.  Accident or surprise (CCP §657(3))
        • a.  Unexpected condition, diligence, and prejudice required  25.33
        • b.  Disfavored ground  25.34
        • c.  Case examples  25.35
      • 4.  Newly discovered evidence (CCP §657(4))
        • a.  Evidence must be likely to produce different result  25.36
        • b.  Ground disfavored  25.37
      • 5.  Excessive or inadequate damages (CCP §657(5))
        • a.  Conditional order for new trial may be granted  25.38
        • b.  Court has duty to weigh evidence  25.39
        • c.  Motion may be granted on issue of damages when liability correctly determined  25.40
        • d.  Use of remittitur to reduce excessive damages limited  25.41
        • e.  Appellate court may review conditional order under CCP §662.5  25.42
        • f.  Denial of motion difficult to overturn  25.43
      • 6.  Insufficiency of evidence (CCP §657(6))
        • a.  Court must reweigh evidence  25.44
        • b.  Order granting motion on this ground usually affirmed on appeal  25.45
      • 7.  Verdict or decision against law (CCP §657(6))
        • a.  Same test as for directed verdict and motion for JNOV  25.46
        • b.  Court may not reweigh evidence  25.47
      • 8.  Error in law (CCP §657(7))
        • a.  Motion granted only when court’s rulings in error  25.48
        • b.  Waiver for failure to assert error of law  25.49
      • 9.  Inability to obtain transcript (CCP §§657.1, 914)  25.50
    • C.  Tactical considerations  25.51
    • D.  Time requirements
      • 1.  When notice of intention to move for new trial must be filed  25.52
      • 2.  When court must rule on motion  25.53
      • 3.  Prematurely filed notice has no effect  25.54
      • 4.  Court’s specification of reasons to be filed after ruling  25.55
      • 5.  Time limits are jurisdictional  25.56
    • E.  Procedures
      • 1.  Checklist: Motion for new trial  25.57
      • 2.  Preparing the motion
        • a.  Notice of intention to move for new trial must state grounds  25.58
        • b.  Brief and accompanying documents must be filed within 10 days after notice is filed  25.59
      • 3.  Supporting affidavits or declarations
        • a.  When required  25.60
        • b.  Must be filed within 10 days after notice is filed  25.61
        • c.  Jury irregularity or misconduct declarations may not reflect subjective reasoning  25.62
        • d.  When jury declarations necessary  25.63
    • F.  Hearing (CCP §661)  25.64
    • G.  Trial judge’s ruling on motion  25.65
      • 1.  Statement of grounds  25.66
      • 2.  Specification of reasons  25.67
    • H.  Review on appeal
      • 1.  Order granting motion  25.68
      • 2.  Order denying motion  25.69
      • 3.  Party prevailing on motion should file cross-appeal  25.70
      • 4.  When moving party should appeal original judgment  25.71
  • IV.  MOTION TO SET ASIDE AND VACATE JUDGMENT
    • A.  Description and use; grounds
      • 1.  Appropriate when original judgment is contrary to facts found by court or jury  25.72
      • 2.  Party’s substantial rights must be materially affected  25.73
      • 3.  Moving party need not be original party to action  25.74
    • B.  Procedures
      • 1.  Noticed motion required  25.75
      • 2.  Timing  25.76
    • C.  Trial judge’s ruling; appeal  25.77
  • V.  MOTION TO CORRECT CLERICAL ERROR
    • A.  Description and use; grounds
      • 1.  Motion appropriate to conform record to actual judgment or order  25.78
      • 2.  Motion may not be granted to remedy judicial error  25.79
    • B.  Procedures
      • 1.  Timing: Clerical error may be corrected at any time  25.80
      • 2.  Notice  25.81
      • 3.  Nunc pro tunc orders  25.82
    • C.  Trial judge’s ruling; appeal  25.83
  • VI.  SPECIAL POSTJUDGMENT MOTIONS
    • A.  Postjudgment procedures involving public entities
      • 1.  Settlement conference may be held after judgment  25.84
      • 2.  Posttrial order may regulate payment of awards  25.85
    • B.  Posttrial motions in medical malpractice actions
      • 1.  Medical malpractice damages subject to periodic payments  25.86
      • 2.  Postverdict motion may reduce damages  25.87
    • C.  Writ of error coram vobis  25.88
    • D.  Writ of error coram nobis  25.89
  • VII.  FORMS
    • A.  Motion for JNOV
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion for JNOV (CCP §629)  25.90
      • 2.  Form: Order Granting or Denying JNOV (CCP §629)  25.91
    • B.  Motion for new trial
      • 1.  Form: Notice of intention to move for new trial (jury trial) (CCP §§657–661)  25.92
      • 2.  Form: Notice of intention to move for new trial (bench trial) (CCP §§657–662)  25.93
      • 3.  Form: Order granting motion for new trial  25.94
      • 4.  Form: Order denying motion for new trial  25.95
    • C.  Motion to vacate judgment and enter different judgment
      • 1.  Form: Notice of motion to vacate judgment and enter different judgment (CCP §663)  25.96
      • 2.  Form: Order granting motion to vacate judgment and enter different judgment (jury’s special verdict) (CCP §663)  25.97
      • 3.  Form: Order granting motion to vacate judgment and enter different judgment (court’s statement of decision) (CCP §663)  25.98
    • D.  Motion to correct clerical error
      • 1.  Form: Notice of motion to correct clerical error (CCP §473)  25.99
      • 2.  Form: Order granting motion to correct clerical error (CCP §473)  25.100

26

Recovering Attorney Fees

Steven Evans Kirby

Paul J. Neibergs

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  26.1
  • II.  REVIEW GENERAL GROUNDS FOR RECOVERY
    • A.  General provisions  26.2
    • B.  In federal court or under federal law  26.3
  • III.  WHEN RECOVERY PROVIDED BY STATUTE  26.4
    • A.  Court usually awards fees to prevailing party  26.5
    • B.  General retroactive effect  26.6
    • C.  Same rule governing cost awards generally applies  26.7
    • D.  Recovery statute applies to trial court proceedings and appellate court proceedings  26.8
    • E.  Apportionment and liability among losing parties  26.9
    • F.  When constitutional issue of equal protection of law raised  26.10
  • IV.  RECOVERY OF ATTORNEY FEES BASED ON BAD FAITH ACTIONS OR TACTICS UNDER CCP §128.5
    • A.  Effective dates; applicability  26.11
    • B.  Application of CCP §128.5
      • 1.  Bad faith actions or tactics   26.12
      • 2.  Frivolousness   26.13
    • C.  Elements of CCP §128.5 sanctions award
      • 1.  Fees may be awarded against client, attorney, or both  26.13A
      • 2.  Court must state reasons for imposing sanctions  26.13B
      • 3.  Amount of fees awardable  26.13C
      • 4.  Period for which fees may be awarded  26.13D
      • 5.  No sanctions for costs or expenses unrelated to the litigation  26.13E
      • 6.  Fees for time spent obtaining sanctions  26.13F
      • 7.  Procedure for bringing motion for sanctions  26.13G
    • D.  When sanctions may be awarded [Deleted]
      • 1.  In judicial arbitration and other judicial proceedings [Deleted]  26.14
      • 2.  Against public entities [Deleted]  26.15
      • 3.  After plaintiff dismisses case [Deleted]  26.16
      • 4.  Assessed as punitive damages [Deleted]  26.17
    • E.  Court will review subjective bad faith [Deleted]  26.18
      • 1.  If entire action or defense in bad faith [Deleted]  26.19
      • 2.  If action filed or maintained in bad faith [Deleted]  26.20
    • F.  Who can be sanctioned [Deleted]  26.21
    • G.  Notice and opportunity to be heard are required [Deleted]  26.22
    • H.  Standing to bring motion [Deleted]  26.23
    • I.  Requirements for the order [Deleted]
      • 1.  Must be specific [Deleted]  26.24
      • 2.  Written order required [Deleted]  26.25
    • J.  Amount of fees awardable [Deleted]  26.26
    • K.  Period for which fees awarded [Deleted]  26.27
    • L.  Appealability of award [Deleted]  26.28
    • M.  Examples of proper sanction awards under CCP §128.5 [Deleted]  26.29
    • N.  Examples of improper sanction awards under CCP §128.5 [Deleted]  26.30
    • O.  Guidelines for amount of award [Deleted]  26.31
  • V.  RECOVERY OF ATTORNEY FEES BASED ON BAD FAITH ACTIONS OR TACTICS UNDER CCP §128.7
    • A.  Purpose of statute  26.32
    • B.  Effective for complaints or proceedings filed on or after January 1, 1995  26.33
    • C.  Look to federal decisions for interpretation  26.34
    • D.  Requirements for signing  26.35
    • E.  Certification requirements  26.36
    • F.  Reasonable inquiry required  26.37
    • G.  Sanctions are discretionary  26.38
    • H.  Frivolous motion for sanctions is also subject to sanction  26.39
    • I.  Discovery not covered  26.40
    • J.  Procedure for bringing motion for sanctions
      • 1.  Separate motion required  26.41
      • 2.  No time period specified  26.42
      • 3.  Motion must be specific  26.43
      • 4.  General serving and filing requirements  26.44
    • K.  Court may initiate order to show cause  26.45
    • L.  Court must describe violation  26.46
    • M.  Scope of sanctions allowed  26.47
    • N.  Expenses and fees for motion may be awarded  26.48
    • O.  Limitations on sanctions  26.49
    • P.  Who may be sanctioned  26.50
    • Q.  Court may assess punitive damages  26.51
    • R.  Appeal of sanction  26.52
    • S.  Order denying sanctions  26.53
  • VI.  RECOVERY OF ATTORNEY FEES UNDER THE CIVIL RIGHTS ATTORNEY’S FEES AWARDS ACT OF 1976 (42 USC §1988)  26.54
    • A.  Award need not be proportionate to amount of damages  26.55
    • B.  Adjustment for delay in payment  26.56
    • C.  If contingent fee agreement  26.57
    • D.  Using time records  26.58
    • E.  When settlement agreement  26.59
    • F.  Applies in state court  26.60
  • VII.  AWARD OF ATTORNEY FEES UNDER PRIVATE ATTORNEY GENERAL RULE (CCP §1021.5)
    • A.  What it is  26.61
    • B.  When it applies  26.62
    • C.  Pre-litigation attempt to enforce important right  26.63
    • D.  Prevailing party  26.64
    • E.  Causation  26.65
    • F.  Vindication of important right  26.66
    • G.  Significant public benefit
      • 1.  Several factors considered  26.67
      • 2.  Examples  26.68
    • H.  Private benefit and burden  26.69
    • I.  Whether private action necessary  26.70
    • J.  Applicability beyond injunction or damage actions  26.71
      • 1.  Criminal proceedings  26.72
      • 2.  Administrative proceedings  26.73
    • K.  Appellate court can determine or remand on applicability of CCP §1021.5  26.74
    • L.  Appealability  26.75
    • M.  Procedure  26.76
  • VIII.  WHEN RECOVERY PROVIDED BY CONTRACT
    • A.  General interpretation of provisions  26.77
    • B.  No waiver of attorney fees  26.78
    • C.  Fee award provision applies to entire contract  26.79
    • D.  Retroactivity of amendments  26.80
    • E.  Both sides benefit from provisions  26.81
    • F.  Purpose of CC §1717  26.82
    • G.  Applies to reciprocal fee clauses  26.83
    • H.  Applicability of CC §1717 to contracts with comprehensive or limited fee clauses  26.84
    • I.  Examples of typical actions under CC §1717
      • 1.  Express or implied warranties  26.85
      • 2.  When case includes cause of action for which award of fees not proper  26.86
      • 3.  If contract illegal  26.87
      • 4.  Eviction or unlawful detainer  26.88
      • 5.  Promissory note  26.89
      • 6.  When contract found unenforceable as to a party  26.90
      • 7.  In case of arbitration  26.91
      • 8.  If attorney chooses to litigate in propria persona  26.92
      • 9.  If prevailing party’s fees paid by insurance carrier  26.93
    • J.  Fees awarded to party prevailing on contract
      • 1.  Court determines  26.94
      • 2.  If damages awarded on causes of action not on contract  26.95
      • 3.  When cross-complaint  26.96
      • 4.  When no prevailing party  26.97
      • 5.  Award on appeal  26.98
      • 6.  When multiple agreements  26.99
    • K.  Only a party under CC §1717 awarded fees
      • 1.  Guidelines ambiguous  26.100
      • 2.  If noncontracting party involved  26.101
        • a.  Real estate broker  26.102
        • b.  Competing lienholders to property  26.103
        • c.  Action to remove cloud on title to trust property  26.104
        • d.  Property conveyed to third person  26.105
        • e.  Recovery of fees when lender does not sign subcontract  26.106
      • 3.  Expanded concept of prevailing parties
        • a.  Nonsignatory defendant may be entitled to attorney fees  26.107
        • b.  Fees may be awarded to litigant benefiting from result of judgment between other contracting litigants  26.108
      • 4.  Actions on book accounts  26.109
        • a.  Exempt parties  26.110
        • b.  Fee limits  26.111
    • L.  Fees incurred to enforce judgment  26.112
  • IX.  RECOVERY OF ATTORNEY FEES UNDER EQUITABLE THEORIES
    • A.  Common fund doctrine
      • 1.  What it is  26.113
      • 2.  When it applies  26.114
      • 3.  Examples of actions in which common fund doctrine applies  26.115
      • 4.  Grounds for denying application of doctrine  26.116
    • B.  Substantial benefit theory
      • 1.  What it is
        • a.  Characterized as outgrowth of common fund doctrine  26.117
        • b.  Purpose is to prevent unjust enrichment  26.118
      • 2.  When it applies  26.119
      • 3.  Examples of actions applying substantial benefit theory  26.120
  • X.  RECOVERY OF ATTORNEY FEES AS DAMAGES
    • A.  When recoverable as damages  26.121
    • B.  When not recoverable as damages  26.122
    • C.  Recovery for breach of insurer’s duty of good faith and fair dealing  26.123
    • D.  Recovery for tort of another or third party tort
      • 1.  What it is and when it applies  26.124
      • 2.  When damages may not be appropriate or the doctrine does not apply  26.125
    • E.  Recovery in other actions  26.126
  • XI.  FEE AWARDS BASED ON EXPRESS OR IMPLIED INDEMNITY CLAIMS
    • A.  Fee award when contractual indemnity  26.127
    • B.  Fee award when implied indemnity  26.128
    • C.  Fee award when good faith settlement agreement involved  26.129
    • D.  Recoverability of fees for obtaining indemnification  26.130
  • XII.  DETERMINING AMOUNT OF AWARD
    • A.  Fees must be reasonable  26.131
      • 1.  Factors court considers in determining reasonableness  26.132
      • 2.  Preserving issue of reasonableness  26.133
      • 3.  If contingency fee agreement  26.134
    • B.  Determining fees under federal law  26.135
    • C.  When no actual expenses incurred  26.136
    • D.  If attorney fees exceed amount in controversy  26.137
    • E.  Fees need not be apportioned  26.138
    • F.  Jurisdictional limitation in limited civil cases  26.139
    • G.  Special rules for determining awards based on particular theories  26.140
    • H.  If award based on cost bill or motion  26.141
    • I.  Appealability of award  26.142
  • XIII.  REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR RECOVERING ATTORNEY FEES
    • A.  Pleading considerations  26.143
    • B.  Settling fee claims  26.144
    • C.  Relationship to judgment  26.145
    • D.  General procedures for claiming attorney fees
      • 1.  Under California Rules of Court  26.146
      • 2.  Awards based on statute  26.147
      • 3.  Awards based on contract  26.148
      • 4.  Awards based on equitable theories  26.149
      • 5.  Awards based on indemnification  26.150
    • E.  Fee motion procedure  26.151
    • F.  Fees for appellate services  26.152
    • G.  Fees for pressing fee claims  26.153
  • XIV.  CHECKLIST: MOTION PROCEDURE  26.154
  • XV.  FORMS AND DOCUMENTS USED IN FEE MOTIONS  26.155

27

Recovering Costs and Obtaining Interest

Steven Evans Kirby

Paul J. Neibergs

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER
    • A.  Recovering costs  27.1
    • B.  Obtaining interest  27.2
  • II.  RIGHT TO RECOVER COSTS IS STATUTORY  27.3
    • A.  Primary governing statutes  27.4
    • B.  Recovery governed by statute in effect at time right accrues  27.5
    • C.  Judgment must be final to recover  27.6
    • D.  Court may award costs when settlement agreement silent  27.7
  • III.  PREVAILING PARTY ENTITLED TO COSTS
    • A.  Cost recovery matter of right for prevailing party  27.8
      • 1.  Costs recoverable for action or proceeding  27.9
      • 2.  Parties and pleadings defined  27.10
      • 3.  Prevailing party defined  27.11
      • 4.  When court will determine prevailing party  27.12
    • B.  Examples of prevailing parties
      • 1.  Party with net monetary recovery
        • a.  Based on final judgment  27.13
        • b.  When damages offset  27.14
      • 2.  Party in whose favor dismissal is entered
        • a.  When voluntary dismissal  27.15
        • b.  When dismissal result of parties’ settlement  27.15A
        • c.  When intervention involved  27.16
      • 3.  In cross-complaint when neither plaintiff nor defendant prevails  27.17
      • 4.  Defendant may be prevailing party if plaintiffs do not recover  27.18
  • IV.  EXAMPLES OF RECOVERABLE COSTS SPECIFIED BY STATUTE  27.19
    • A.  Trespass actions  27.20
    • B.  Eminent domain proceedings  27.21
    • C.  Inverse condemnation proceedings  27.22
    • D.  Actions to recover wages for labor performed  27.23
    • E.  Eviction costs in unlawful detainer proceedings  27.24
    • F.  Defense costs in actions against public entities  27.25
    • G.  Under judicial (court-ordered) arbitration  27.26
    • H.  When judgment in trial de novo not more favorable to requesting party  27.27
    • I.  Partition actions  27.28
    • J.  Unsuccessful actions to enjoin public improvement of utility  27.29
    • K.  Actions to review removal proceedings against permanent school employees [Deleted]  27.30
    • L.  Actions brought by personal representatives, trustees, or agents  27.31
    • M.  Drug house abatement actions  27.31A
    • N.  Public Records Act proceedings  27.31B
  • V.  WHEN COST RECOVERY IS DISCRETIONARY
    • A.  Court determines prevailing party  27.32
    • B.  Court may apportion costs  27.33
    • C.  Parties may stipulate to payment of costs  27.34
    • D.  Plaintiff may not recover costs if no net monetary recovery  27.35
    • E.  When judgment could have been rendered in limited civil case or within jurisdictional limits of small claims court
      • 1.  Judgment in unlimited civil cases  27.36
      • 2.  Judgment in limited civil cases  27.37
    • F.  Applicant may be required to pay costs of trial postponement  27.38
    • G.  Costs may be awarded in bad faith actions  27.39
    • H.  Cost awards in equitable indemnity actions  27.40
    • I.  Costs may be awarded in interpleader actions  27.41
    • J.  Costs may be awarded for judgment notwithstanding the verdict  27.42
    • K.  Costs may be awarded for injunctive relief  27.43
    • L.  State or county may recover costs  27.44
    • M.  Costs may be awarded to small business or licensee  27.45
    • N.  Defendant recovers costs when tender and deposit made in action to recover money  27.46
  • VI.  STATUTES REQUIRING SHARING OR PROHIBITING COST RECOVERY
    • A.  Costs not allowed in disclaimer of title actions  27.47
    • B.  Costs not allowed in submission of controversy without action: Agreed case  27.48
    • C.  Costs shared in contractual arbitration  27.49
    • D.  Costs shared by primary and excess insurers when personal automobile liability policies involved  27.50
  • VII.  WHEN COST AWARD MUST BE REDUCED OR AUGMENTED BASED ON CCP §998 OFFER TO COMPROMISE
    • A.  General effect and requirements  27.51
    • B.  When defendant’s offer not accepted and plaintiff fails to obtain more favorable judgment or award  27.52
      • 1.  No distinction between tort and other causes of action  27.53
      • 2.  Scope of costs recoverable  27.54
      • 3.  Costs recoverable when multiple plaintiffs  27.55
      • 4.  Costs recoverable when multiple defendants  27.56
    • C.  When plaintiff’s offer not accepted and defendant fails to obtain more favorable judgment or award  27.57
    • D.  When both parties obtain more favorable judgments  27.58
    • E.  Costs recoverable for expert witnesses
      • 1.  Costs must be in accord with Govt C §68092.5  27.59
      • 2.  Fees collectible even if appeal pending  27.60
      • 3.  Award is discretionary  27.61
    • F.  Costs recoverable only for offers made in good faith  27.62
    • G.  Attorney fees may be recoverable  27.63
    • H.  Exception for contractual arbitrations  27.64
    • I.  Applicability in structured settlement  27.65
    • J.  Special provision for Riverside and San Bernardino counties [deleted]  27.66
  • VIII.  COST ITEMS ALLOWED
    • A.  General rules  27.67
    • B.  Costs allowed  27.68
      • 1.  Costs for filing, motion, and jury fees  27.69
      • 2.  Costs for jurors’ food and lodging  27.70
      • 3.  Costs for videotaping and transcribing depositions  27.71
      • 4.  Costs for service of process by public officer or registered process server  27.72
      • 5.  Costs for attachment, including keeper’s fees  27.73
      • 6.  Costs for premiums on surety bonds  27.74
      • 7.  Costs for ordinary witness fees  27.75
      • 8.  Costs for fees of expert witness ordered by court  27.76
      • 9.  Costs for transcripts of court-ordered proceedings  27.77
      • 10.  Costs for attorney fees  27.78
      • 11.  Costs for court reporter fees  27.79
      • 12.  Costs for interpreter  27.79A
      • 13.  Costs for models, enlargements, and photocopies of exhibits  27.80
      • 14.  Costs for electronic service and filing of documents and for hosting of electronic documents  27.80A
      • 15.  Costs for other items required to be awarded to prevailing party  27.81
  • IX.  COST ITEMS NOT ALLOWED
    • A.  Items not allowed by CCP §1033.5(b)
      • 1.  Fees for expert witnesses not ordered by court  27.82
      • 2.  Investigation expenses  27.83
      • 3.  Postage, telephone, and photocopying charges, except for exhibits  27.84
      • 4.  Costs for investigating jurors or preparing for voir dire  27.85
      • 5.  Costs for transcripts of court proceedings not ordered by court  27.86
    • B.  Other cost items not allowed  27.87
  • X.  PROCEDURE FOR CLAIMING COSTS
    • A.  When to file and serve  27.88
    • B.  Verification required  27.89
    • C.  Verified memorandum is prima facie evidence of necessary expenses  27.90
    • D.  Time to file may be extended
      • 1.  By agreement of parties  27.91
      • 2.  By court  27.92
    • E.  Motion under CCP §473 for relief from failure to request costs  27.93
    • F.  Cost bill may be amended  27.94
    • G.  When party seeking default requests costs  27.95
    • H.  When attorney fees recoverable as costs
      • 1.  Costs allowable under statute or contract must be fixed  27.96
      • 2.  Burden of proof requirements  27.97
      • 3.  Deadline for claiming trial court attorney fees  27.98
      • 4.  Deadline for claiming attorney fees on appeal  27.99
      • 5.  When attorney fees fixed by formula  27.100
    • I.  Court’s discretion to include costs later if judgment fails to award costs  27.101
    • J.  Appealability of award  27.102
  • XI.  MOVING TO STRIKE TAX BILL OR TO TAX COSTS
    • A.  When to file and serve  27.103
    • B.  Time to file may be extended
      • 1.  By agreement of parties  27.104
      • 2.  By court  27.105
    • C.  Objections must be specified  27.106
    • D.  Burden of proof requirements  27.107
    • E.  Court may disallow costs  27.108
    • F.  Judgment must include costs  27.109
    • G.  Postjudgment hearing after timely motion to strike or to tax costs  27.110
    • H.  Appealability of order denying motion  27.111
  • XII.  OBTAINING INTEREST
    • A.  Interest on Judgment
      • 1.  Authority for Award of Interest  27.112
      • 2.  Interest attaches to money judgment  27.113
      • 3.  Interest rate  27.114
      • 4.  When interest begins to accrue  27.115
      • 5.  When interest stops accruing  27.116
      • 6.  Interest not applied retroactively  27.117
      • 7.  Interest not cumulatively awarded  27.118
      • 8.  Compounding of interest  27.119
      • 9.  Right to postjudgment interest  27.120
      • 10.  Special rules for interest on condemnation awards  27.121
    • B.  Interest on awarded damages  27.122
    • C.  Interest as damages  27.123
    • D.  Interest on obligation after breach  27.124
    • E.  Interest rate under retail installment contracts  27.125
    • F.  Waiver of interest  27.126
    • G.  Award of prejudgment interest  27.127
  • XIII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Memorandum of Costs (Worksheet) (Judicial Council Form MC-011)  27.128
    • B.  Form: Memorandum of Costs (Summary) (Judicial Council Form MC-010)  27.129

 

CALIFORNIA TRIAL PRACTICE: CIVIL PROCEDURE DURING TRIAL

(3d Edition)

April 2018

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

File Name

Book Section

Title

CH02

Chapter 2

Completing Pretrial Procedures

02-066

§2.66

Checklist: Trial Preparation

CH04

Chapter 4

Compelling Attendance And Production Of Evidence

04-056

§4.56

Declaration Supporting Subpoena Duces Tecum (CCP §1985)

04-057

§4.57

Sample Letter Accompanying Subpoena Or Subpoena Duces Tecum

04-058

§4.58

Acknowledgment Of Service Of Subpoena And Agreement Of Witness To Appear On Call (CCP §1985.1)

04-061

§4.61

Declaration Of Custodian Of Records (Evid C §1561(A))

04-062

§4.62

Declaration Of Person Copying Records (Evid C §1561(C))

04-063

§4.63

Ex Parte Application For Order To Serve Concealed Witness (CCP §1988)

04-064

§4.64

Supporting Declaration Of Attorney (CCP §1988)

04-065

§4.65

Supporting Declaration Of Process Server (CCP §1988)

04-066

§4.66

Order For Sheriff To Serve Concealed Witness (CCP §1988)

04-067

§4.67

Notice Of Motion And Motion For Removal And Production Of Prisoner At Trial (CCP §§1995–1997)

04-068

§4.68

Declaration Supporting Motion For Removal And Production Of Prisoner At Trial (CCP §§1995–1997)

04-069

§4.69

Notice To Attend Trial (CCP §1987(B))

04-070

§4.70

Notice To Attend And Produce Evidence At Trial (CCP §1987(B)–(C))

04-071

§4.71

Notice Of Motion To Quash Service Of Subpoena Duces Tecum (Trial) (CCP §§1987.1–1987.2)

04-072

§4.72

Declaration Supporting Motion To Quash Subpoena Duces Tecum (Trial) (CCP §§1987.1–1987.2)

04-073

§4.73

Written Objections To Notice To Attend And Produce Evidence At Trial (CCP §1987(C))

CH05

Chapter 5

Preparing Witnesses For Trial

05-097

§5.97

Checklist: Preparing Witnesses For Trial

05-098

§5.98

Checklist: Instructions To The Witness

05-099

§5.99

Checklist: Preparing Expert Witnesses

CH06

Chapter 6

Court Conferences And Selected Pretrial Motions

06-005

§6.5

Checklist: Questions Considered In Final Conferences

06-110

§6.110

Notice Of Motion To Continue Trial

06-111

§6.111

Written Statement Challenging Judge For Cause (CCP §170.3(C)(1))

06-112

§6.112

Peremptory Challenge And Declaration In Support Of Challenge (CCP §170.6)

06-113

§6.113

Consent Of Client To Continued Representation By Attorney Who Will Testify At Trial (Cal Rules Of Prof Cond 5–210)

CH07

Chapter 7

Motions In Limine

07-012

§7.12

Checklist: Grounds For Motion And Examples

07-049

§7.49

Sample Motion In Limine

CH08

Chapter 8

Jury Selection

08-082

§8.82

Sample Juror Questions

CH10

Chapter 10

Evidence Overview

10-003

§10.3

Checklist: Steps To Prepare For Evidentiary Issues

10-073

§10.73

Checklist: Objections To Form Of Question

CH11

Chapter 11

Examining Witnesses

11-150

§11.150

Checklist: Expert’s Qualifications And Opinion

CH12

Chapter 12

Effective Use Of Discovery

12-135

§12.135

Checklist: Using Deposition Testimony

12-136

§12.136

Checklist: Special Considerations If Deposition Is Audio Or Video Recorded

12-138

§12.138

Checklist: Introducing Answers To Interrogatories Or Requests For Admission

12-139

§12.139

Sample Form: Designation Of Deposition

CH13

Chapter 13

Trial Exhibits

13-014

§13.14

Checklist: Pretrial Preparation

13-019

§13.19

Checklist: Need For Custom-Made Exhibit

13-054

§13.54

Checklist: Procedural Steps For Establishing Foundational Facts

13-140

§13.140

Sample Exhibit Log

13-141

§13.141

Sample Stipulation Regarding Use Of Documents At Trial

CH14

Chapter 14

Judicial Notice, Admissions, And Stipulations

14-054

§14.54

Request For Judicial Notice At Trial (Evid C §§452–453)

14-055

§14.55

Proposed Jury Instruction Regarding Judicially Noticed Matter

CH15

Chapter 15

Making Trial Objections And Protecting The Record

15-069

§15.69

Form: Evidentiary Objections

CH18

Chapter 18

Motions During Trial

18-007

§18.7

Checklist: Procedures For Making Or Opposing Motion

18-035

§18.35

Checklist: Procedures For Making Or Opposing Motion

18-057

§18.57

Checklist: Procedures For Making Or Opposing Motion

18-065

§18.65

Checklist: Procedures For Making Or Opposing Motion

18-082

§18.82

Checklist: Procedures For Making Or Opposing Motion

18-103

§18.103

Checklist: Procedures For Making Or Opposing Motion

18-124

§18.124

Motion For Judgment Of Nonsuit (CCP §581c)

18-125

§18.125

Judgment Of Nonsuit (After Opening Statement) (CCP §581c)

18-126

§18.126

Judgment Of Nonsuit (After Close Of Evidence) (CCP §581c)

18-127

§18.127

Notice Of Motion For Judgment (CCP §630(F))

18-128

§18.128

Order For Entry Of Judgment (CCP §630(F))

18-129

§18.129

Motion For Directed Verdict (CCP §630)

18-130

§18.130

Judgment On Directed Verdict (CCP §630)

18-131

§18.131

Notice Of Motion To Reopen Case (CCP §607(6))

18-132

§18.132

Motion For Leave To Amend Pleadings To Conform To Proof

18-133

§18.133

Order Granting Leave To Amend

18-134

§18.134

Amendment To Pleading

CH19

Chapter 19

Closing Argument

19-056

§19.56

Checklist: Spotting Impermissible Arguments

19-057

§19.57

Checklist: Grounds For Objections During Closing Argument

CH20

Chapter 20

Jury Instructions

20-002

§20.2

Checklist: How To Draft Effective Instructions

20-081

§20.81

Sample Request For Jury Instructions And Index

20-082

§20.82

Sample CACI Instruction

20-083

§20.83

Sample Special Instruction

CH21

Chapter 21

Jury Deliberations

21-044

§21.44

Checklist: Remedies For Misconduct During Deliberations

CH22

Chapter 22

Verdicts

22-008

§22.8

Checklist

22-035

§22.35

Jury Instruction

22-036

§22.36

General Verdict Form (CACI VF-5000—Two-Party Lawsuit, Single Cause Of Action)

22-037

§22.37

General Verdict (One Plaintiff, Two Defendants, Cross-Complaint)

22-038

§22.38

Jury Instruction

22-039

§22.39

Special Findings On General Verdict

22-040

§22.40

Sample Form: Jury Instruction (CACI 5012)

22-041

§22.41

Special Verdict

CH23

Chapter 23

Judgments

23-037

§23.37

Judgment On Verdict In Jury Trial

23-038

§23.38

Judgment After Bench Trial

23-039

§23.39

Alternative Judgment For Plaintiff In Bench Trial

CH24

Chapter 24

Bench Trials

24-014

§24.14

Checklist: Procedures For Making Or Opposing Motion For Judgment

24-053

§24.53

Motion For Judgment Under CCP §631.8

24-054

§24.54

Judgment On Motion Under CCP §631.8

CH25

Chapter 25

Motions After Trial

25-057

§25.57

Checklist: Motion For New Trial

25-090

§25.90

Notice Of Motion For JNOV (CCP §629)

25-091

§25.91

Order Granting Or Denying JNOV (CCP §629)

25-092

§25.92

Notice Of Intention To Move For New Trial (Jury Trial) (CCP §§657–661)

25-093

§25.93

Notice Of Intention To Move For New Trial (Bench Trial) (CCP §§657–662)

25-094

§25.94

Order Granting Motion For New Trial

25-095

§25.95

Order Denying Motion For New Trial

25-096

§25.96

Notice Of Motion To Vacate Judgment And Enter Different Judgment (CCP §663)

25-097

§25.97

Order Granting Motion To Vacate Judgment And Enter Different Judgment (Jury’s Special Verdict) (CCP §663)

25-098

§25.98

Order Granting Motion To Vacate Judgment And Enter Different Judgment (Court’s Statement Of Decision) (CCP §663)

25-099

§25.99

Notice Of Motion To Correct Clerical Error (CCP §473)

25-100

§25.100

Order Granting Motion To Correct Clerical Error (CCP §473)

CH26

Chapter 26

Recovering Attorney Fees

26-154

§26.154

Checklist: Motion Procedure

 

Selected Developments

April 2018 Update

Jury Trials. In Shaw v Superior Court (2017) 2 C5th 983, the California Supreme Court overruled an earlier line of cases to confirm that denial of a request for a jury trial is reviewable before trial by writ of prohibition or mandate. See §8.18.

In Rincon EV Realty LLC v CP III Rincon Towers, Inc. (2017) 8 CA5th 1, the court of appeal invalidated a predispute jury waiver despite a contract’s New York choice-of-law provision, reasoning that California has an interest in enforcing its policy that only the legislature can determine permissible methods for waiving the right to a jury trial. See §8.15.

In the absence of any United States Supreme Court or California appellate court case on the issue, the court in People v Douglas (2017) 10 CA5th 834 held that when a party has offered both permissible and impermissible reasons for a peremptory strike, the trial court should engage in a mixed-motive analysis: if the impermissible reason was “a motivating but not determinative factor in the decision to strike,” then the challenge should stand. See §8.67A.

In David v Hernandez (2017) 13 CA5th 692, the defendant in a personal injury action forfeited any Sanchez hearsay argument by not objecting to case-specific hearsay at trial. See §11.134.

Trial Exhibits. In People v Vasquez (2017) 14 CA5th 1019, the trial court erred in permitting the prosecution to display a timeline documenting victim’s abuse on the ground it was a writing used to refresh recollection. See §13.34.

Managing Jury. In Shanks v Department of Transp. (2017) 9 CA5th 543, the court of appeal held that the trial court had a duty to conduct further inquiry before discharging a juror, after 90 minutes of deliberation, based on two jurors’ complaints that she failed to deliberate. See §17.25.

Bench trials. The California Supreme Court held in F.P. v Monier (2017) 3 C5th 1099 that a trial court’s failure to issue a timely requested statement of decision constituted reversible error, as long as prejudice was shown; the reversal, however, was not automatic. See §24.34.

Postrial Motions. The California Supreme Court in Ryan v Rosenfeld (2017) 3 C5th 124 clarified that an order denying a CCP §663 motion to vacate a judgment is appealable, regardless of whether the issues raised in the appeal overlap with issues that were or could have been raised in an appeal of the judgment. See §25.77.

In Simers v Los Angeles Times Communications, Inc. (2018) 18 CA5th 1248, the trial court properly granted a partial new trial, limited to plaintiff’s noneconomic damages, when the damages issue was independent of defendant’s liability and no prejudice or injustice was shown. See §25.24.

Attorney Fees. Effective August 7, 2017, the legislature amended CCP §128.5 to further clarify the standards and procedures for bringing a sanctions motion for bad faith litigation tactics. Nutrition Distribution, LLC v Southern Sarms, Inc. (2018) 20 CA5th 117, 126. See §§26.11–26.13.

The California Supreme Court in DisputeSuite.com, LLC v Scoreinc.com (2017) 2 C5th 968 held that dismissal of an action under a contract’s forum selection clause did not entitle defendant to fees as the prevailing party when the claim was already refiled in the proper forum and remained unresolved. See §26.94.

In Mountain Air Enters., LLC v Sundowner Towers, LLC (2017) 3 C5th 744, 758, the trial court ruled that a sales contract containing a fee-shifting clause was superseded by an option and became unenforceable. The California Supreme Court held that the contract was properly construed together with the option to support an award of attorney fees, reasoning that the lawsuit necessarily implicated the validity of both documents and the trial court was required to construe them both.

Costs. An unallocated joint CCP §998 offer from multiple plaintiffs will not be deemed invalid if the plaintiffs obtain a verdict that is clearly in excess of the rejected offer. See Gonzalez v Lew (2018) 20 CA5th 155, 164.

In Arave v Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith (2018) 19 CA5th 525, 552, the court of appeal held that, in an action brought under the Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA) (Govt C §§12900–12996), a prevailing defendant cannot recover expert witness fees under CCP §998 without showing that the plaintiff’s claim was frivolous. See §27.61.

In Flethez v San Bernardino County Employees Retirement Ass’n (2017) 2 C5th 630, the California Supreme Court held that an employee’s entitlement to prejudgment interest under CC §3287(a) commenced on the date disability retirement benefits were wrongfully denied, not from the date of disability. See §27.122.

About the Third Edition Authors

MARY E. ALEXANDER received her B.A. degree in 1969 from the University of Iowa, her M.P.H. degree in 1975 from the University of California, Berkeley, and her J.D. degree in 1982 from the University of Santa Clara. Ms. Alexander, of Cartwright, Bokelman, Borowsky, Moore, Harris, Alexander & Gruen, Inc., in San Francisco, specializes in medical malpractice, product liability, and toxic chemical litigation. She is the author of chapter 19.

STEPHANIE L. BERMAN received her B.A. degree in 1987 from the University of Michigan and her J.D. degree in 1991 from George Washington University. Ms. Berman, of Crosby, Heafey, Roach & May in Oakland, specializes in commercial litigation and product liability, and is an author of chapter 21.

PETER J. BUSCH received his B.A. degree in 1974 from Yale University and his J.D. degree in 1977 from the University of Virginia. Mr. Busch, of Howard, Rice, Nemerovski, Canady, Falk & Rabkin in San Francisco, specializes in civil litigation, and is an author of chapter 13.

MARLENE I. CAMACHO received her B.S. degree in 1986 from California State University, Los Angeles, and her J.D. degree in 1991 from the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law. Ms. Camacho, of Frandzel & Share in Los Angeles, specializes in commercial litigation, and is an author of chapters 2 and 6.

DONALD W. CARLSON received his B.A. degree in 1974 from the University of California, Santa Barbara, and his J.D. degree in 1977 from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Mr. Carlson, of Long & Levit in San Francisco, specializes in professional liability, insurance fraud, and bad faith litigation. He is an author of chapter 12.

RANDALL B. CHRISTISON received his B.A. degree in 1965 from the University of Southern California and his J.D. degree in 1973 from Santa Clara University. Mr. Christison, Supervising Deputy Attorney General at the Office of the Attorney General in San Francisco, specializes in civil litigation and natural resources law. He is the author of chapter 18.

GARY CHRISTOPHERSON received his B.A. degree in 1966 from Stanford University and his J.D. degree in 1969 from the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law. Mr. Christopherson, of Kroloff, Belcher, Smart, Perry & Christopherson in Stockton, specializes in civil litigation, real estate, and business law. He is an author of chapter 8.

CYNTHIA A. COE received her B.S. degree in 1983 from Arizona State University and her J.D. degree in 1986 from Yale University. Ms. Coe, of McCutchen, Doyle, Brown & Enersen in Washington, D.C., specializes in commercial litigation and appellate law, and is an author of chapter 3.

HON. JACQUELINE A. CONNOR received her B.A. degree in 1973 and her J.D. degree in 1976 from the University of Southern California. Judge Connor was formerly a litigator with the office of the Los Angeles County District Attorney. Judge Connor serves as a judge of the Los Angeles County Superior Court, and is an author of chapter 1.

JOSEPH W. COTCHETT received his B.S. degree in 1960 from California Polytechnic College and his LL.B. degree in 1964 from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Mr. Cotchett, of Cotchett, Illston & Pitre in Burlingame, specializes in civil litigation, and is the author of chapter 15.

WILLIAM J. ELFVING received his B.A. degree in 1962 from Stanford University and his J.D. degree in 1965 from the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law. Mr. Elfving, of Hoge, Fenton, Jones & Appel, Inc., in San Jose, specializes in civil litigation and malpractice defense, and is an author of chapter 5.

MARTA A. ELLIOTT received her B.A. degree in 1974, and her M.A. degree in 1975, from Stanford University, and her J.D. degree in 1978 from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Ms. Elliott, when working on this book, was a partner of Hoge, Fenton, Jones & Appel, Inc., in San Jose, specializing in civil litigation. She is an author of chapter 5.

RICHARD A. FOND received his B.A. degree in 1969 from the University of Southern California and his J.D. degree in 1972 from the University of Southern California. Mr. Fond, of Simke Chodos in Los Angeles, specializes in civil litigation, and is an author of chapter 23.

HOLLY J. FUJIE received her B.A. degree in 1975 from the University of California, Berkeley, and her J.D. degree in 1978 from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Ms. Fujie, of Buchalter, Nemer, Fields & Younger in Los Angeles, specializes in business and insurance coverage litigation. She is the author of chapter 4.

JOHN S. GILMORE received his B.A. degree in 1958 from the University of California, Berkeley, and his LL.B. degree in 1961 from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Mr. Gilmore, of Diepenbrock, Wulff, Plant & Hannegan in Sacramento, specializes in civil trials, and is the author of chapter 25.

CHRISTOPHER B. HOCKETT received his B.S. degree in 1981 from the College of William and Mary and his J.D. degree in 1985 from the University of Virginia. Mr. Hockett, of McCutcheon, Doyle, Brown & Enersen in San Francisco, specializes in commercial litigation and antitrust law. He is an author of chapter 3.

JOHN B. HOOK received his B.A. degree in 1952 from Harvard University and his J.D. degree in 1955 from Harvard Law School. Mr. Hook, of Long & Levit in San Francisco, specializes in trial practice, insurance coverage, property damages, and subrogation. He is an author of chapter 12.

STEVEN EVANS KIRBY received his B.S. degree in 1967 from the University of Oregon and his J.D. degree in 1971 from the University of San Francisco. Mr. Kirby, of Hollister & Brace in Santa Barbara, specializes in natural resources law and civil litigation. He is an author of chapters 26 and 27.

SUSAN T. KUMAGAI received her B.S. degree in 1974 from the University of California, Berkeley, and her J.D. degree in 1986 from the University of California, Davis, School of Law. Ms. Kumagai, of Lafayette, Kumagai & Clarke in San Francisco, specializes in civil litigation, and is an author of chapter 24.

GARY T. LAFAYETTE received his B.S. degree in 1975 from Dartmouth College and his J.D. degree in 1979 from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Mr. Lafayette, of Lafayette, Kumagai & Clarke in San Francisco, specializes in complex civil litigation, insurance bad faith, and business torts. He is an author of chapter 24.

HON. PATRICIA M. LUCAS received her B.A. degree in 1976 from Rice University and her J.D. degree in 1979 from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Judge Lucas formerly practiced law with Fenwick & West in Mountain View, where she chaired the litigation group. Judge Lucas serves on the Santa Clara Superior Court, and is an author of chapter 1.

WEYMAN I. LUNDQUIST received his B.A. degree in 1952 from Dartmouth College and his LL.B. degree in 1955 from Harvard Law School. Mr. Lundquist, Senior Fellow at Dartmouth College, John Sloan Dickey Center for International Understanding, is participating in a collaborative study of the Russian legal system. Mr. Lundquist is a partner of Heller, Ehrman, White & McAuliffe in San Francisco, and is the author of chapter 9.

HON. JAMES J. MARCHIANO received his A.B. degree in 1965 from St. Patrick’s College and his J.D. degree in 1969 from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Judge Marchiano, formerly Superior Court Judge of Contra Costa County from 1988–1998, serves as the Presiding Justice on the First District Court of Appeal, Division One. He is the author of chapter 16 and an author of chapter 17.

STEPHEN H. MARCUS received his B.S. degree in 1967 from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and his J.D. degree in 1970 from Harvard Law School. Mr. Marcus, of Gittler & Bradford in Los Angeles, specializes in commercial and business litigation. He is an author of chapters 2 and 6.

STEPHEN A. McFEELY received his B.S. degree in 1969 from St. Mary’s College and his J.D. degree in 1972 from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Mr. McFeely is the managing partner of Crosby, Heafey, Roach & May in Oakland, specializing in commercial litigation. He is an author of chapters 17 and 21.

DONALD F. MILES received his B.A. degree in 1971 from Stanford University and his J.D. degree in 1974 from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Mr. Miles, of Howard, Rice, Nemerovski, Canady, Falk & Rabkin in San Francisco, specializes in insurance coverage, employment, and product liability litigation. He is an author of chapters 10 and 13.

MARLA J. MILLER received her A.B. degree in 1976 from Harvard University and her J.D. degree in 1980 from Harvard Law School. Judge Miller formerly practiced law with Howard, Rice, Nemerovski, Canady, Falk & Rabkin in San Francisco, where she served as the chair of the litigation department and specialized in civil litigation and white collar criminal defense. She currently serves as a judge of the San Francisco Superior Court. Judge Miller is an author of chapter 10.

PAUL J. NEIBERGS received his B.A. degree in 1984 from Harvard University and his J.D. degree in 1988 from Harvard Law School. Mr. Neibergs practices environmental law in the San Francisco Bay Area, and is an author of chapters 26 and 27.

RON A. NORTHUP received his A.B. degree in 1988 from the University of California, Berkeley, and his J.D. degree in 1991 from the University of San Diego. Mr. Northup, of Kroloff, Belcher, Smart, Perry & Christopherson in Stockton, specializes in civil litigation, and is an author of chapter 8.

LEO J. O’BRIEN received his A.B. degree in 1950, and his J.D. degree in 1953, from the University of San Francisco, and his LL.M. degree in 1955 from Georgetown University. Professor O’Brien is Professor Emeritus, teaching evidence at the University of California, Hastings College of the Law, and is an author of chapter 10.

JAMES N. PENROD received his B.S. degree in 1963 from the United States Naval Academy and his J.D. degree in 1967 from George Washington University. Mr. Penrod, of Morgan, Lewis & Brockius LLP in San Francisco, specializes in civil litigation, and is an author of chapter 1.

THOMAS O. PERRY received his B.A. degree in 1967 from the University of Southern California and his J.D. degree in 1971 from Loyola University, Los Angeles. Mr. Perry, of Kroloff, Belcher, Smart, Perry & Christopherson in Stockton, specializes in civil litigation, and is an author of chapter 8.

PAMELA PHILLIPS received her B.A. degree in 1973 from Clark University and her J.D. degree in 1976 from Villanova University. Ms. Phillips, of Rogers, Joseph, O’Donnell & Quinn in San Francisco, specializes in complex civil litigation and legal malpractice, and is the author of chapter 14.

JAMES A. RICHMAN received his J.D. degree in 1965 from the University of San Francisco. Mr. Richman, of Cooley Godward Castro Huddleson & Tatu in San Francisco, specializes in civil litigation, and is the author of chapter 20.

ELLEN R. ROSEN received her B.A. degree in 1982 from La Salle University and her J.D. degree in 1985 from Villanova University. Ms. Rosen, of Simke Chodos in Los Angeles, specializes in civil litigation, and is an author of chapter 23.

STEVEN E. SCHON received his B.A. degree in 1972, and his J.D. degree in 1976, from the University of Michigan. Mr. Schon, of Howard, Rice, Nemerovski, Canady, Falk & Rabkin in San Francisco, specializes in civil litigation and representation of professionals. He is the author of chapter 7.

ARTHUR L. SHERWOOD received his B.A. degree in 1964 from the University of California, Berkeley, his M.S. degree in 1965 from the University of Chicago, and his J.D. degree in 1968 from Harvard Law School. Mr. Sherwood, of Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher in Los Angeles, specializes in business litigation, and is the author of chapter 22.

GEOFFREY L. THOMAS received his B.A. degree in 1967 from Harvard University and his J.D. degree in 1971 from Stanford University. Mr. Thomas, of Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker in Los Angeles, specializes in civil litigation, and is the author of chapter 11.

HON. ANDREW J. WISTRICH received his B.A. degrees in 1972 and 1973 from the University of California, Berkeley, and his J.D. degree in 1976 from the University of Chicago. Judge Wistrich was formerly a partner of Brown & Bain in Palo Alto, where he specialized in complex civil litigation. Judge Wistrich is a Magistrate Judge of the United States District Court, Central District of California in Los Angeles, and is an author of chapter 1.

OnLAW System Requirements:
Desktop: Windows XP, 7 or 8, Mac OS 10.8
Mobile: iOS6, iOS7, Android 4.2
Firefox, Chrome, IE and Safari browsers

Note: OnLAW may work with some devices running older versions of these Operating Systems or Windows RT; however, functionality is not guaranteed.

Please see FAQs for more details.
Products specifications
PRACTICE AREA Civil Litigation & Torts
PRODUCT GROUP Publication
Products specifications
PRACTICE AREA Civil Litigation & Torts
PRODUCT GROUP Publication