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California Trial Practice: Civil Procedure During Trial

Everything you need to know about preparing for all aspects of a civil trial.

Everything you need to know about preparing for all aspects of a civil trial.

  • Concise, helpful advice from judges and experienced practitioners on handling trial efficiently
  • Checklists to help you in all phases of pretrial preparation and during trial
  • Planning, preparing, and delivering opening statements and closing arguments
  • CACI jury instructions, jury misconduct, and verdicts
  • Attorney fees and costs
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Everything you need to know about preparing for all aspects of a civil trial.

  • Concise, helpful advice from judges and experienced practitioners on handling trial efficiently
  • Checklists to help you in all phases of pretrial preparation and during trial
  • Planning, preparing, and delivering opening statements and closing arguments
  • CACI jury instructions, jury misconduct, and verdicts
  • Attorney fees and costs

1

Handling Trials Efficiently

Hon. Jacqueline A. Connor

Hon. Patricia M. Lucas

James N. Penrod

Hon. Andrew J. Wistrich

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 1.1
  • II. GENERAL ISSUES
    • A. Judicial case management 1.2
    • B. Efficiency and other trial goals 1.2A
      • 1. Evaluate effect of efficiency technique 1.3
      • 2. Assess costs of efficiency technique 1.4
    • C. Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) models 1.5
      • 1. Arbitration 1.6
      • 2. Mediation 1.6A
      • 3. Private judging 1.7
  • III. STRUCTURING THE TRIAL
    • A. Jury trial versus bench trial 1.8
    • B. Severance or separate trial 1.9
    • C. Consolidation 1.10
    • D. Changing order of proof 1.11
      • 1. Bifurcation: Trying dispositive issue first 1.12
      • 2. Organizing trial around issues instead of parties 1.13
    • E. Using special masters or referees 1.14
    • F. Using an expedited jury trial 1.14A
  • IV. IMPROVING JURY PROCEDURES
    • A. Selecting the jury
      • 1. Conducting voir dire 1.15
      • 2. Using jury questionnaires 1.16
      • 3. Reducing number of jurors 1.17
      • 4. Methods of jury selection 1.18
      • 5. Mini-opening statements 1.18A
    • B. Techniques for assisting fact-finding process
      • 1. Juror note-taking 1.19
      • 2. Juror notebooks 1.19A
      • 3. Juror questions 1.20
      • 4. Jury's access to instructions
        • a. Preinstructions 1.21
        • b. Final instructions 1.21A
      • 5. Verdict forms 1.22
    • C. Specially selected juries 1.23
  • V. CONDUCTING THE TRIAL
    • A. Streamlining evidence 1.24
      • 1. Narrowing the issues 1.25
      • 2. Summarizing depositions 1.25A
      • 3. In limine motions and chambers conferences 1.26
      • 4. Court's exclusions 1.27
      • 5. Stipulations 1.28
      • 6. Judicial notice 1.29
      • 7. Presenting trial exhibits
        • a. Premarking exhibits 1.30
        • b. Copies of exhibits 1.31
        • c. Creating visual aids 1.32
    • B. Disclosing order of witnesses 1.33
    • C. Interim summaries 1.34
      • 1. Witness introductions 1.34A
      • 2. Summaries of testimony 1.35
    • D. Court-imposed time limits 1.36
      • 1. Limiting parties' total trial time 1.37
      • 2. Abbreviating trial segments 1.38
      • 3. Mandatory resting when evidence not ready 1.39
    • E. Courtroom hours and activities
      • 1. Scheduling half days 1.40
      • 2. Avoiding recesses 1.41
      • 3. Starting on time 1.42
      • 4. Eliminating unnecessary bench and chambers conferences 1.43
      • 5. Eliminating argumentative behavior of counsel 1.44
    • F. Court-appointed experts 1.45
  • VI. MULTIPLE PARTY CASES
    • A. Relationship among counsel
      • 1. Similarly aligned parties 1.46
      • 2. Problems of control 1.47
    • B. Special designation of counsel 1.48
  • VII. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.49

2

Completing Pretrial Procedures

Marlene I. Camacho

Stephen H. Marcus

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 2.1
  • II. COMPLETE FINAL DISCOVERY
    • A. Deadlines for completing discovery before arbitration or trial
      • 1. If case sent to arbitration
        • a. Usually no discovery after hearing except by court order 2.2
        • b. Exception: Expert witness discovery permitted 2.3
      • 2. If case not sent to arbitration 2.4
        • a. Effect of local rules 2.5
        • b. If court allows later discovery 2.6
        • c. Expert witness discovery 2.7
        • d. Unlawful detainer and eminent domain discovery 2.8
      • 3. Determine when to initiate final discovery requests 2.9
    • B. Making discovery motions before trial
      • 1. Deadline for court to hear motions 2.10
      • 2. Moving for additional discovery after deadline dates 2.11
    • C. Object to discovery that falls within 30 days before trial 2.12
      • 1. Deposition of client 2.13
      • 2. Deposition of nonparty witness 2.14
      • 3. Interrogatories; request for admission; request for production and inspection, copying, testing or sampling of documents or things or entry on land or other property 2.15
      • 4. Physical, mental, or blood examination 2.16
      • 5. Expert witness discovery 2.17
    • D. If trial date continued or new trial ordered 2.18
  • III. EFFECT OF JUDICIAL ARBITRATION ON PRETRIAL PROCEDURES
    • A. Requesting trial de novo after arbitration 2.19
    • B. Effect of judicial arbitration
      • 1. On CCP §583.310 dismissal period 2.20
      • 2. On trial-setting procedures when trial de novo requested 2.21
      • 3. On conduct of trial 2.22
      • 4. On discovery
        • a. Complete most discovery before arbitration hearing 2.23
        • b. Conduct permissible discovery after arbitration award 2.24
  • IV. OBTAIN TRIAL BY JURY
    • A. Demand for jury trial
      • 1. Timing 2.25
      • 2. How to make demand
        • a. Case management statement 2.26
        • b. Check local rules 2.27
        • c. Announcement on the record 2.28
        • d. Motion for jury trial 2.29
      • 3. Requesting jury after waiver 2.30
    • B. Pay jury fees
      • 1. Who pays and how to pay 2.31
      • 2. Time limit for payment of jury fees 2.32
      • 3. Amount of nonrefundable fee 2.33
      • 4. Effect of failing to pay fees: Jury trial waived 2.34
      • 5. Jury fees refunded if case is settled or continued 2.35
    • C. Expedited jury trials
      • 1. Mandatory expedited jury trial 2.35A
      • 2. Expedited trial 2.35B
      • 3. Opt-Out Procedure 2.35C
      • 4. Voluntary expedited jury trial 2.35D
  • V. PUBLICITY, PREJUDICE, AND FAIR TRIAL
    • A. Client's right to fair trial may conflict with other rights
      • 1. Constitutional and statutory provisions on how trials are conducted 2.36
      • 2. Who can assert right to public trial 2.37
      • 3. Limitations on public rights
        • a. Controlling courtroom 2.38
        • b. Allowing party to present case 2.39
        • c. Protecting juror's privacy 2.40
      • 4. Who can waive right to public trial 2.41
    • B. Protective orders to prevent publicity and prejudice
      • 1. Court has authority to issue protective orders 2.42
      • 2. Requirements to justify gag order 2.43
    • C. Remedies to dissipate effect of publicity and prejudice 2.44
      • 1. Motions for continuance and change of venue 2.45
        • a. Motion for continuance 2.46
        • b. Motion for change of venue 2.47
        • c. Supporting affidavits or declarations; Oral argument 2.48
        • d. Counteraffidavits or declarations 2.49
      • 2. Bench trial 2.50
      • 3. Voir dire examination 2.51
        • a. The dilemma: Asking questions about pretrial publicity may increase prejudice 2.52
        • b. The solution
          • (1) Have judge conduct questioning 2.53
          • (2) Conduct individual voir dire 2.54
          • (3) Juror questionnaires 2.55
          • (4) Challenge for cause 2.56
          • (5) Peremptory challenge 2.57
      • 4. Instructions to disregard publicity 2.58
      • 5. Sequestration of jurors 2.59
      • 6. Juror misconduct 2.60
  • VI. OBTAIN TRIAL ASSIGNMENT
    • A. Ascertain procedures under court's case management rules 2.61
    • B. Difference between master calendar and one-judge system 2.62
      • 1. Procedures under one-judge system 2.63
      • 2. Procedures under master calendar 2.64
    • C. Consider pretrial motions 2.65
    • D. Make arrangements for court reporter 2.65A
  • VII. CHECKLIST: TRIAL PREPARATION 2.66
  • VIII. FORMS
    • A. Form: Request to Opt Out of Mandatory Expedited Jury Trial Procedures (Judicial Council Form EJT-003) 2.67
    • B. Form: Objection to Request to Opt Out of Mandatory Expedited Jury Trial Procedures (Judicial Council Form EJT-004) 2.68

3

Organizing Trial Materials

Cynthia A. Coe

Christopher B. Hockett

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 3.1
    • A. Key to conducting effective trial: Organization 3.2
    • B. Choosing appropriate organizational system 3.3
  • II. ORGANIZING FILES AND TRIAL MATERIALS 3.4
    • A. Basic client and case information sheet 3.5
    • B. File categories
      • 1. File index 3.6
      • 2. Examples of file categories 3.7
    • C. Using computers and other technology 3.8
      • 1. File management and indexing 3.9
      • 2. Calendaring dates and deadlines 3.10
      • 3. Document databases and issue coding 3.11
        • a. Coding 3.12
        • b. Optical character readers 3.13
        • c. Imaging 3.14
      • 4. Deposition databases 3.15
    • D. Reorganizing files to eliminate nontrial materials 3.16
  • III. PREPARING MATERIALS FOR USE AT TRIAL
    • A. Trial and issue outline
      • 1. Why to prepare 3.17
      • 2. How to prepare 3.18
      • 3. When to prepare 3.19
      • 4. What to include 3.20
    • B. Preparing trial notebook; format and contents 3.21
      • 1. Issue outline 3.22
      • 2. Trial brief 3.23
      • 3. Motions in limine 3.24
      • 4. Materials for voir dire 3.25
      • 5. Opening statement 3.26
      • 6. Witness list or information sheets 3.27
      • 7. Witness examination plan 3.28
        • a. Anticipated objections to admissibility of documents 3.29
        • b. Impeachment evidence 3.30
      • 8. Table of exhibits 3.31
      • 9. Legal issues and research 3.32
      • 10. Stipulations, requests for judicial notice, and key discovery responses 3.33
      • 11. Local rules and standing orders 3.34
      • 12. Jury instructions 3.35
      • 13. Closing argument 3.36
      • 14. Verdict forms 3.37
    • C. Other trial files 3.38
      • 1. Pleadings and court orders 3.39
      • 2. Witness files or binders 3.40
        • a. Documentary and demonstrative evidence 3.41
        • b. Anticipated objections to admissibility of documents 3.42
        • c. Deposition transcripts, videotapes, and recordings 3.43
      • 3. Legal research 3.44
      • 4. Optional documentary and demonstrative evidence 3.45
    • D. Copies of documents
      • 1. Court may require copies of documents 3.46
      • 2. Facilitate witness examination by providing copies 3.47
      • 3. Keep track of costs 3.48
  • IV. PREPARING TRIAL-RELATED DOCUMENTS TO FILE WITH COURT
    • A. Trial brief
      • 1. Why to prepare
        • a. Educate judge about the case 3.49
        • b. Briefly develop theory of case 3.50
      • 2. How to prepare 3.51
      • 3. Submit as early as possible 3.52
      • 4. What to include 3.53
    • B. Supplemental memorandums 3.54
    • C. Trial subpoenas 3.55
    • D. Lists of exhibits 3.56
    • E. Pretrial and trial motions 3.57
    • F. Voir dire and jury questionnaires 3.58
    • G. Jury instructions
      • 1. When to submit 3.59
      • 2. Required format 3.60
    • H. Verdict, special interrogatories, and statement of decision 3.61
  • V. FINAL PREPARATION
    • A. Documents and demonstrative evidence 3.62
    • B. Computers and audio-visual equipment 3.63
    • C. Prepare witnesses and schedule confirmation 3.64
    • D. Codes, texts, and authorities to bring to court 3.65
    • E. Ask clerk to mark and number documents 3.66
  • VI. SAMPLE FORMS
    • A. Issue outline 3.67
    • B. Document index 3.68
    • C. Exhibit log 3.69
  • VII. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 3.70

4

Compelling Attendance and Production of Evidence

Holly J. Fujie

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 4.1
  • II. SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES
    • A. Subpoena of nonparty witnesses 4.2
      • 1. Advantages of subpoenaing friendly witnesses 4.3
      • 2. When to use subpoena for parties: time periods for notice expired 4.4
    • B. Notice to parties, persons "benefiting" from action, or other "related" witnesses 4.5
  • III. SUBPOENA PROCEDURES
    • A. Issuing subpoena or subpoena duces tecum 4.6
    • B. Preparing affidavit or declaration in support of subpoena duces tecum 4.7
      • 1. Legal requirements 4.8
        • a. Show good cause 4.9
        • b. Specify exact matters to be produced 4.10
        • c. Describe materiality of requested items to case issues 4.11
        • d. State that witness has possession or control of requested items 4.12
        • e. Admissible evidence standard: State personally known facts 4.13
      • 2. Retain original affidavit or declaration until final judgment 4.14
    • C. Serving subpoena or subpoena duces tecum
      • 1. Personal service required 4.15
      • 2. Who may serve subpoena 4.16
      • 3. Time requirements 4.17
      • 4. Subpoena power limited to California "residents" 4.18
    • D. Proof of service; filing optional 4.19
    • E. Agreement to appear after subpoena served 4.20
  • IV. SUBPOENAING PARTICULAR WITNESSES OR DOCUMENTS
    • A. Personal records of consumer 4.21
      • 1. Timing and service; consumer notice 4.22
      • 2. Consumer's objections 4.23
    • B. Employment records 4.23A
    • C. Custodian of records
      • 1. Generally 4.24
      • 2. When custodian's attendance not required 4.25
      • 3. Alternative procedure when custodian's attendance not required [Deleted] 4.26
      • 4. Requesting custodian's personal attendance 4.27
      • 5. Payment of reasonable costs 4.28
    • D. Public employees 4.29
    • E. Minors 4.30
    • F. Concealed witness 4.31
    • G. Jailed witness 4.32
    • H. Testimony from person present in courtroom 4.33
    • I. Production of evidence from witness on stand 4.34
    • J. Information to be disclosed by private trusts 4.35
  • V. NOTICE PROCEDURES FOR PARTIES AND RELATED WITNESSES
    • A. Notice to attend or notice to attend and produce
      • 1. Who may be served; fees and mileage 4.36
      • 2. Time requirements; service 4.37
      • 3. Contents; no affidavit required to accompany notice to produce 4.38
    • B. Tactical considerations 4.39
  • VI. COSTS AND WITNESS FEES
    • A. Cost of serving subpoena 4.40
    • B. Ordinary witness fees and mileage 4.41
    • C. Public employees 4.42
    • D. Expert witness fees 4.43
    • E. Witness costs recoverable by successful party 4.44
  • VII. PROCEDURES FOR OBJECTING TO SUBPOENA OR NOTICE
    • A. Motion to quash or modify subpoena 4.45
      • 1. Grounds 4.46
      • 2. Procedures; timing 4.47
      • 3. Mandamus when motion denied 4.48
    • B. Refusal to produce subpoenaed items at trial; objections to admissibility 4.49
    • C. Written objections to notice to attend and produce; requesting party's motion to compel production
      • 1. Procedures for producing party; timing 4.50
      • 2. Requesting party's procedures; noticed motion 4.51
  • VIII. COUNSEL'S OPTIONS WHEN WITNESS DISOBEYS SUBPOENA OR NOTICE
    • A. Contempt proceedings to enforce subpoena 4.52
    • B. Civil action for damages 4.53
    • C. Sanctions for failure to comply with notice to attend and produce 4.54
  • IX. FORMS
    • A. Subpoena or subpoena duces tecum of witness
      • 1. Form: Civil subpoena for personal appearance at trial or hearing (Judicial Council form SUBP-001) 4.55
      • 2. Form: Civil subpoena (duces tecum) for personal appearance and production of documents and things at trial or hearing and declaration (Judicial Council form SUBP-002) 4.55A
      • 3. Form: Declaration supporting subpoena duces tecum (CCP §1985) 4.56
      • 4. Form: Sample letter accompanying subpoena or subpoena duces tecum 4.57
      • 5. Form: Acknowledgment of service of subpoena and agreement of witness to appear on call (CCP §1985.1) 4.58
    • B. Subpoena of consumer or employment records
      • 1. Form: Notice to consumer or employee and objection (Judicial Council form SUBP-025) 4.59
      • 2. Form: Proof of service of notice to consumer of privacy rights (CCP §1985.3) [Deleted] 4.60
    • C. Custodian of records
      • 1. Form: Declaration of custodian of records (Evid C §1561(a)) 4.61
      • 2. Form: Declaration of person copying records (Evid C §1561(c)) 4.62
    • D. Subpoena of concealed witness
      • 1. Form: Ex parte application for order to serve concealed witness (CCP §1988) 4.63
      • 2. Form: Supporting declaration of attorney (CCP §1988) 4.64
      • 3. Form: Supporting declaration of process server (CCP §1988) 4.65
      • 4. Form: Order for sheriff to serve concealed witness (CCP §1988) 4.66
    • E. Subpoena of witness confined in jail
      • 1. Form: Notice of motion and motion for removal and production of prisoner at trial (CCP §§1995–1997) 4.67
      • 2. Form: Declaration supporting motion for removal and production of prisoner at trial (CCP §§1995–1997) 4.68
    • F. Notice to party or party-related witness
      • 1. Form: Notice to attend trial (CCP §1987(b)) 4.69
      • 2. Form: Notice to attend and produce evidence at trial (CCP §1987(b)–(c)) 4.70
    • G. Objecting to subpoena or notice
      • 1. Form: Notice of motion to quash service of subpoena duces tecum (trial) (CCP §§1987.1–1987.2) 4.71
      • 2. Form: Declaration supporting motion to quash subpoena duces tecum (trial) (CCP §§1987.1–1987.2) 4.72
      • 3. Form: Written objections to notice to attend and produce evidence at trial (CCP §1987(c)) 4.73

5

Preparing Witnesses for Trial

William J. Elfving

Marta A. Elliott

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER; DEFINITIONS 5.1
  • II. ATTORNEY PREPARATION
    • A. Review case
      • 1. Testimonial, documentary, and demonstrative evidence 5.2
      • 2. Depositions; answers to interrogatories 5.3
      • 3. Complete legal research and pretrial organization 5.4
      • 4. Consider what writings to use to refresh recollection 5.5
        • a. Attorney-client privilege 5.6
        • b. Work-product protection 5.7
    • B. Select witnesses 5.8
      • 1. Competency of witness
        • a. Ability of witness 5.9
        • b. When witness is judge or juror, or other trier of fact 5.10
        • c. Show competence if challenged 5.11
      • 2. Personal knowledge of witness 5.12
    • C. Decide whether to use expert 5.13
      • 1. When useful to assist trier of fact 5.14
      • 2. When expert opinion is necessary 5.15
      • 3. When expert opinion is unnecessary 5.16
    • D. Consider attorney as witness 5.17
    • E. Prepare witness trial materials
      • 1. Witness files and information sheets 5.18
      • 2. Witness examination plans 5.19
    • F. Decide on order of witnesses and timing 5.20
    • G. Assure attendance of witnesses at trial 5.21
  • III. PREPARING LAY WITNESSES FOR TRIAL
    • A. Witness conference with attorney
      • 1. Timing and location 5.22
      • 2. Single versus group conference; waiver of privileges 5.23
    • B. Conducting the conference
      • 1. Witness gives initial narrative 5.24
      • 2. Attorney directs remainder of conference 5.25
    • C. Preliminary matters 5.26
      • 1. Goal: put witness at ease 5.27
      • 2. Courtroom basics 5.28
      • 3. Advise witness what to wear 5.29
      • 4. Witness demeanor 5.30
      • 5. Bringing family and friends to court 5.31
    • D. General rules for testifying 5.32
      • 1. Tell the truth 5.33
      • 2. Listen carefully to question and think before answering 5.34
      • 3. Give complete, responsive answers but do not volunteer information 5.35
      • 4. Admit mistakes 5.36
      • 5. Speak loudly 5.37
      • 6. Look at trier of fact, if possible 5.38
      • 7. Answer from personal knowledge; do not guess 5.39
      • 8. Testify "on the record" 5.40
      • 9. Do not answer over objection 5.41
      • 10. Do not become hostile, especially during cross-examination 5.42
      • 11. Comply with court orders or rules 5.43
    • E. Assess witness's personality 5.44
    • F. Preparing young children as witnesses
      • 1. Putting child at ease 5.45
      • 2. Types of questions 5.46
      • 3. Attorney-client privilege 5.47
  • IV. PREPARING PARTIES AND PARTY-RELATED WITNESSES
    • A. Witness preparation before attorney conference
      • 1. Have witness review materials 5.48
      • 2. When witness should review material 5.49
    • B. Witness conference with attorney
      • 1. Timing and location 5.50
      • 2. Individual versus group conference 5.51
        • a. Advantages of separate conference 5.52
        • b. Group conference: Waiver of privileges 5.53
    • C. General preparation 5.54
    • D. Prepare party or party-related witness for direct examination
      • 1. Review witness examination plan
        • a. Choice of witness 5.55
        • b. Review questions 5.56
      • 2. Review law with witness 5.57
      • 3. Review facts with witness 5.58
      • 4. Review discovery with witness: Depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions 5.59
      • 5. Review documentary and demonstrative evidence with witness 5.60
      • 6. Decide whether witness should use notes 5.61
      • 7. Practice direct examination 5.62
    • E. Prepare party or party-related witness for cross-examination
      • 1. Attorney preparation 5.63
      • 2. Witness preparation 5.64
  • V. PREPARING NONPARTY LAY WITNESSES
    • A. General preparation; no attorney-client privilege 5.65
    • B. Witness preparation before attorney conference 5.66
    • C. Individual versus group conference 5.67
    • D. Witness compensation 5.68
    • E. Direct and cross-examination 5.69
  • VI. PREPARING EXPERT WITNESSES
    • A. Expert witness defined 5.70
    • B. Attorney preparation
      • 1. Ascertain matters on which opinion is based 5.71
      • 2. Understand terminology and subject matter 5.72
      • 3. Consider discoverability of expert's file
        • a. Attorney work-product protection terminated when expert becomes a witness 5.73
        • b. Expert who serves as both adviser and witness 5.74
        • c. Waiver of attorney work-product protection based on refreshing recollection 5.75
      • 4. Review expert's file 5.76
      • 5. Review experiments, models, and demonstrations 5.77
    • C. Prepare expert for direct and cross-examination
      • 1. Review with expert: Qualifications, publications, and other testimony 5.78
      • 2. Explain applicable law 5.79
      • 3. Review opinion
        • a. Phrasing opinion 5.80
        • b. Expert opinion on ultimate issue or legal conclusions 5.81
      • 4. Demeanor 5.82
      • 5. Compensation 5.83
      • 6. Review facts and bases for expert's testimony 5.84
      • 7. Using hypothetical questions to elicit opinion 5.85
        • a. What facts to use 5.86
        • b. Prepare in advance 5.87
        • c. Anticipate questions about expert's prior review of hypothetical question 5.88
        • d. Anticipate cross-examination on hypothetical question 5.89
      • 8. Practice direct and cross-examination 5.90
  • VII. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • A. Potential perjury by client
      • 1. Understand professional rules 5.91
      • 2. What to do if perjury threatened
        • a. Explain ramifications of perjury 5.92
        • b. Withdraw from representation 5.93
        • c. Refuse to call client as witness 5.94
    • B. Potential perjury by party-related or other witness 5.95
    • C. Avoid improper coaching 5.96
  • VIII. CHECKLISTS
    • A. Checklist: Preparing witnesses for trial 5.97
    • B. Checklist: Instructions to the witness 5.98
    • C. Checklist: Preparing expert witnesses 5.99

6

Court Conferences and Selected Pretrial Motions

Marlene I. Camacho

Stephen H. Marcus

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 6.1
  • II. CONFERENCES WITH TRIAL JUDGE
    • A. Types of trial-related conferences 6.2
      • 1. Final case management conference 6.3
      • 2. Chambers conference: taking care of details for trial 6.4
      • 3. Pretrial conference for expedited jury trial 6.4A
    • B. Checklist: Questions considered in final conferences 6.5
  • III. MOTION TO CONTINUE THE TRIAL
    • A. Authority: Cal Rules of Ct 3.1332 6.6
    • B. Court has discretion to grant or deny motion 6.7
    • C. Moving party must establish good cause for a continuance 6.8
      • 1. Unavailability 6.9
      • 2. Other grounds for continuance 6.10
    • D. Factors court must consider 6.10A
    • E. Statutory grounds for continuance 6.10B
    • F. Consider alternatives to motion 6.11
      • 1. Stipulation to continue 6.12
      • 2. Suggested alternatives to motion 6.13
    • G. Seek continuance by filing a noticed motion or ex parte application 6.14
      • 1. Where to make motion or ex parte application 6.15
      • 2. When to make motion or ex parte application 6.16
    • H. What to include in motion or application seeking continuance 6.17
      • 1. Show good cause 6.18
      • 2. Show due diligence 6.19
      • 3. Refute prejudice to opposing party 6.20
    • I. What to include when opposing motion 6.21
      • 1. Lack of diligence or good cause 6.22
      • 2. Prejudice if trial continued 6.23
      • 3. Suggest alternatives or conditions 6.24
      • 4. Request expenses if motion granted 6.25
  • IV. DISQUALIFYING THE JUDGE
    • A. Authority: CCP §§170.1–170.8 6.26
    • B. Seek to disqualify at earliest opportunity 6.27
    • C. Obtain information about judges before the actual assignment 6.28
    • D. Considerations when deciding whether to challenge judge
      • 1. Disadvantages of challenge 6.29
      • 2. Effect of disqualification 6.30
      • 3. Relationship between CCP §§170.3 and 170.6 6.31
    • E. Disqualification for cause (CCP §170.3)
      • 1. Grounds: CCP §170.1 6.32
        • a. Has personal knowledge of disputed facts 6.33
        • b. Acted as attorney in matter related to proceeding 6.34
        • c. Has financial interest in matter related to proceeding 6.35
        • d. Is a party or is related to a party 6.36
        • e. Is related to an attorney in proceeding 6.37
        • f. Appears to lack impartiality 6.38
        • g. Has physical impairment that prevents proper conduct of proceeding 6.39
        • h. Has arranged for, or participated in discussions concerning, prospective employment as a dispute resolution neutral 6.39A
        • i. Has received a contribution in excess of $1500 from a party or lawyer in the proceeding 6.39B
      • 2. Judge may disqualify self 6.40
      • 3. Parties may waive disqualification
        • a. Judge may ask for an express waiver 6.41
        • b. Delay in asserting grounds results in waiver 6.42
      • 4. Challenge by filing a verified written statement 6.43
        • a. What to include in statement 6.44
        • b. Verify statement 6.45
        • c. When to file 6.46
        • d. Whom to serve 6.47
        • e. Only one request unless additional facts discovered 6.48
      • 5. Judge's authority after statement filed 6.49
        • a. Strike statement for no legal grounds 6.50
        • b. Strike statement as untimely 6.51
        • c. Proceed if statement was filed after trial or hearing begins 6.52
        • d. Proceed if statement filed after trial or hearing begins in single-assignment cases 6.53
        • e. Judge's additional specific powers 6.54
      • 6. Judge's response 6.55
      • 7. Determining judge's disqualification 6.56
    • F. Peremptory challenge under CCP §170.6
      • 1. Grounds: Prejudice against party or attorney 6.57
      • 2. Challenge judge by written or oral motion 6.58
        • a. Where to file 6.59
        • b. Limitations: One-challenge rule 6.60
        • c. Withdrawing or waiving challenge 6.61
        • d. Challenging in a second case 6.62
        • e. Challenge does not require continuance 6.63
      • 3. When to make motion 6.64
        • a. General rule: Before trial or hearing 6.65
        • b. If only one judge 6.66
        • c. If judge known 10 days before hearing: 10-day/5-day rule 6.67
        • d. If judge assigned by master calendar 6.68
        • e. If judge assigned for all purposes 6.69
        • f. Law and motion judge 6.70
        • g. If already appeared before judge in case 6.71
        • h. After appeal 6.72
        • i. New trial after writ 6.73
        • j. In coordinated proceeding 6.74
      • 4. What to include in motion: Affidavit or declaration to establish prejudice 6.75
      • 5. Opposing the motion 6.76
      • 6. Judge disqualified and case transferred 6.77
    • G. Availability of extraordinary relief 6.78
  • V. DISMISSING CASE
    • A. Voluntary dismissal
      • 1. Authority: CCP §581(c) 6.79
      • 2. Right to voluntary dismissal not absolute 6.79A
      • 3. Using dismissal as a trial tactic 6.80
      • 4. Filing request to voluntarily dismiss 6.81
      • 5. When to request dismissal: Before trial 6.82
      • 6. Effect of dismissal
        • a. If dismissed without prejudice 6.83
        • b. If dismissed with prejudice 6.84
        • c. Defendant can recover costs 6.85
    • B. Involuntary dismissal 6.86
  • VI. AMENDING PLEADINGS
    • A. Authority (Cal Rules of Ct 3.1324); grounds (CCP §§473, 576) 6.87
    • B. When to move to amend 6.88
    • C. Making noticed motion to amend
      • 1. Using written motion 6.89
      • 2. Using amended pleadings that supersede original pleadings 6.90
    • D. What to include in supporting papers
      • 1. Notice of motion 6.91
      • 2. Declaration; supporting memorandum and copy of proposed pleading 6.92
    • E. What to include in papers opposing motion 6.93
  • VII. JUDGMENT ON THE PLEADINGS
    • A. Authority (CCP §438); grounds for motion 6.94
    • B. When to make motion 6.95
    • C. Using written noticed motion or oral motion 6.96
    • D. If opposing motion 6.97
    • E. Court may allow a curative amendment and continue trial 6.98
  • VIII. MOTIONS TO BIFURCATE, SEVER, AND CHANGE THE ORDER OF TRIAL 6.99
    • A. Motion to separately try certain defenses first
      • 1. Special defenses not involving merits 6.100
      • 2. Statute of limitations defense 6.101
    • B. Motion to try certain issues first 6.102
    • C. Motion for separate trial 6.103
    • D. Motion to change order of proof 6.104
  • IX. EXCLUDING WITNESSES AT TRIAL
    • A. Authority: Evid C §777 6.105
    • B. Purpose: prevent witnesses from hearing, and being influenced by, other witnesses 6.106
      • 1. Advantages 6.107
      • 2. Disadvantages 6.108
  • X. MOVING TO DISQUALIFY ATTORNEY 6.109
  • XI. FORMS
    • A. Form: Notice of motion to continue trial 6.110
    • B. Form: Written statement challenging judge for cause (CCP §170.3(c)(1)) 6.111
    • C. Form: Peremptory challenge and declaration in support of challenge (CCP §170.6) 6.112
    • D. Form: Consent of client to continued representation by attorney who will testify at trial (Cal Rules of Prof Cond 5–210) 6.113

7

Motions in Limine

Steven E. Schon

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 7.1
  • II. WHY TO MAKE A MOTION IN LIMINE
    • A. Purpose of motion 7.2
      • 1. To exclude particular evidence 7.3
      • 2. To require proponent to establish foundational facts 7.4
      • 3. To exclude all evidence and thereby eliminate a cause of action or entire case 7.5
      • 4. To admit evidence 7.6
    • B. Strategies regarding use 7.7
      • 1. Advantages 7.8
        • a. When moving to exclude evidence 7.9
        • b. When moving to admit evidence 7.10
      • 2. Disadvantages 7.11
    • C. Checklist: Grounds for motion and examples 7.12
  • III. MAKING A MOTION IN LIMINE
    • A. When to make motion 7.13
      • 1. To avoid prejudice 7.14
      • 2. As required by local rule 7.15
      • 3. As soon as need for motion is discovered 7.16
    • B. How to make motion: Oral or written
      • 1. Written motions preferred 7.17
      • 2. Oral motions allowed 7.18
    • C. What to include in motion
      • 1. State purpose of motion 7.19
      • 2. Identify evidence 7.20
      • 3. Discuss legal authority 7.21
      • 4. Explain why court should rule pretrial 7.22
    • D. Format and service of written motion 7.23
    • E. Opposition to motion 7.24
  • IV. PRELIMINARY FACT-FINDING PROCESS DURING MOTION IN LIMINE 7.25
    • A. When preliminary fact finding is required 7.26
      • 1. Evidence Code §403 7.27
      • 2. Evidence Code §404 7.28
      • 3. Evidence Code §405 7.29
    • B. Court conducts hearing when preliminary fact is disputed 7.30
    • C. Burden of proving preliminary fact 7.31
      • 1. Who has burden in Evid C §403 hearing 7.32
      • 2. Who has burden in Evid C §405 hearing 7.33
    • D. Challenging existence of preliminary fact 7.34
    • E. Effect of court's finding preliminary fact
      • 1. Evidence Code §403 7.35
      • 2. Evidence Code §405 7.36
  • V. ACTIONS AFTER COURT RULES ON MOTION 7.37
    • A. Court grants motion
      • 1. To exclude evidence 7.38
        • a. Preserving right to appeal if opposing the motion 7.39
        • b. Effect of violating order to exclude 7.40
      • 2. To admit evidence 7.41
    • B. Court takes motion under submission or makes conditional ruling 7.42
    • C. Court denies motion to exclude evidence 7.43
      • 1. Renewing objection 7.44
        • a. Ask court for different ruling by objecting to evidence at trial 7.45
        • b. Object to preserve record for appeal 7.46
      • 2. Stipulation or statement to preserve record 7.47
    • D. Court denies motion to admit evidence 7.48
  • VI. FORMS AND EXAMPLES
    • A. Form: Sample motion in limine 7.49
    • B. Example: Oral argument on motion in limine 7.50

8

Jury Selection

Gary Christopherson

Ron A. Northup

Thomas O. Perry

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 8.1
  • II. RIGHT TO JURY TRIAL AND WAIVER
    • A. "Trial jury" defined; number of jurors 8.2
    • B. Determining right to jury trial; gist of action test 8.3
      • 1. Actions at law entitled to jury trial 8.4
      • 2. Actions in equity not entitled to jury trial 8.5
      • 3. Legal and equitable issues in same case 8.6
        • a. Order of proof 8.7
        • b. Concurrent jurisdiction at law and in equity 8.8
      • 4. Jury trial right in specific types of actions
        • a. Declaratory relief 8.9
        • b. Probate proceedings 8.10
        • c. Eminent domain 8.11
        • d. Inverse condemnation 8.12
        • e. Equitable Indemnity 8.12A
      • 5. Advisory jury in equitable actions 8.13
    • C. Making demand for jury trial; jury fee deposit 8.14
    • D. Waiver of jury trial
      • 1. Manner of waiver 8.15
      • 2. Relief from waiver within court's discretion 8.16
      • 3. Effect of waiver after reversal of judgment 8.17
    • E. Denial of right to jury trial reviewable by writ or appeal 8.18
    • F. Agreeing to an expedited jury trial 8.18A
  • III. SELECTING PROSPECTIVE JURORS
    • A. Jury service is obligation for all persons; statutory authority 8.19
    • B. Random selection required 8.20
    • C. Jury pool must be composed of representative cross-section of community 8.21
    • D. Juror qualifications 8.22
    • E. Exemption from jury service 8.23
    • F. Excuses from jury service
      • 1. "Undue hardship" defined 8.24
      • 2. Jury commissioner hears and rules on excuses 8.25
  • IV. ISSUING JURY SUMMONS
    • A. Service and content of summons 8.26
    • B. Issuance of immediate summons in emergency situations 8.27
    • C. Failure to respond to summons 8.28
    • D. Fees for jury service 8.29
  • V. VOIR DIRE EXAMINATION
    • A. Pre-voir dire conference 8.30
    • B. Seating prospective jurors; mini-opening statements 8.31
    • C. Methods of jury selection
      • 1. Traditional method 8.32
      • 2. "Six-pack" method 8.33
    • D. Purpose and importance of examination 8.34
    • E. Questioning by judge and counsel 8.35
      • 1. Order of questioning 8.36
      • 2. Examination by trial judge 8.37
      • 3. Examination by counsel 8.38
      • 4. Scope of voir dire questions
        • a. Permissible questions 8.39
        • b. Improper questioning 8.40
      • 5. Objecting to improper examination
        • a. Objection to examination by judge 8.41
        • b. Objection to examination by counsel 8.42
    • F. Juror questionnaires
      • 1. Deciding whether to use juror questionnaire 8.43
      • 2. Preparing juror questionnaire 8.44
      • 3. Jury questionnaires used for voir dire are matters of public record 8.45
    • G. Practice tips: how to conduct effective voir dire 8.46
    • H. Using jury box chart to organize information 8.47
    • I. Particular areas of inquiry
      • 1. Insurance 8.48
      • 2. Racial or religious background 8.49
      • 3. Type of injury 8.50
      • 4. Damages 8.51
      • 5. Law 8.52
    • J. Using advice of jury consultant 8.53
  • VI. CHALLENGES
    • A. Challenges for cause
      • 1. Exercised by both counsel and court 8.54
      • 2. Number of challenges 8.55
      • 3. Challenging entire panel for cause 8.56
      • 4. Grounds 8.57
        • a. General disqualification 8.58
        • b. Implied bias 8.59
        • c. Actual bias 8.60
      • 5. Waiver of challenge 8.61
      • 6. Concealed bias: effect on motion for new trial 8.62
      • 7. Right to appeal ruling on challenge for cause 8.63
    • B. Peremptory challenges
      • 1. When and how exercised 8.64
      • 2. Number of challenges depends on number of sides 8.65
      • 3. Court may not reopen jury selection and permit further peremptory challenges 8.66
      • 4. Discriminatory use of peremptory challenges prohibited
        • a. Excluding members of cognizable group 8.67
        • b. Establishing a prima facie case of discriminatory purpose 8.67A
        • c. Cognizable versus noncognizable groups 8.68
        • d. Making a Wheeler/Batson objection 8.69
        • e. Review on appeal 8.70
      • 5. Effect of passing 8.71
      • 6. Practice tips: How to exercise peremptory challenges 8.72
  • VII. ADMINISTERING OATH TO JURORS 8.73
  • VIII. ALTERNATE JURORS
    • A. Grounds for having alternate jurors 8.74
    • B. Voir dire examination 8.75
    • C. Challenges 8.76
    • D. Oath 8.77
  • IX. JURY ISSUES ARISING DURING TRIAL
    • A. Illness or disqualification of juror 8.78
    • B. Admonition to jury 8.79
    • C. Substitution of juror during deliberations 8.80
  • X. SAMPLE FORMS
    • A. Juror questionnaires
      • 1. Form: Juror questionnaire for civil cases (Judicial Council form MC-001) 8.81
      • 2. Sample juror questions 8.82
    • B. Sample jury box chart 8.83
  • XI. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 8.84

9

Opening Statement

Weyman I. Lundquist

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 9.1
  • II. DESCRIPTION OF OPENING STATEMENT
    • A. Purpose and limitations 9.2
    • B. Importance to trial 9.3
  • III. ORDER OF PRESENTATION
    • A. Standard procedures 9.4
      • 1. Multiple party litigation 9.5
      • 2. Special situations 9.6
    • B. Defendant should not reserve opening statement 9.7
  • IV. PLANNING OPENING STATEMENT
    • A. Preparation generally 9.8
      • 1. Rehearsal techniques 9.9
      • 2. Time limitations 9.10
    • B. Developing visual aids
      • 1. Demonstrative or documentary evidence 9.11
      • 2. Whiteboard or pad 9.12
    • C. Moving to exclude witnesses 9.13
    • D. Using motions in limine 9.14
    • E. Recording opening statement 9.15
  • V. DELIVERING OPENING STATEMENT TO JURY
    • A. Introductory remarks
      • 1. Explaining role of opening statement 9.16
      • 2. Outlining order of trial 9.17
    • B. Form of presentation 9.18
      • 1. Demeanor and style 9.19
      • 2. Personalizing attorney and client 9.20
    • C. What to avoid 9.21
      • 1. Improper mention of evidence 9.22
      • 2. Argument 9.23
      • 3. Overstatement 9.24
      • 4. References to law 9.25
    • D. Establishing case theme 9.26
    • E. Stating facts and issues
      • 1. Plaintiff's perspective 9.27
      • 2. Defendant's perspective 9.28
    • F. Handling particular problems
      • 1. Evidence of uncertain admissibility 9.29
      • 2. Disclosing weaknesses; avoid admissions 9.30
      • 3. Reading from pleadings 9.31
      • 4. Explaining special situations 9.32
    • G. Discussing damages 9.33
    • H. Concluding opening statement 9.34
  • VI. OPENING STATEMENT IN BENCH TRIAL 9.35
  • VII. PROCEDURES FOR OPPOSING PARTY
    • A. Making objections
      • 1. Right to object during opposing party's opening statement 9.36
      • 2. State specific grounds for objection 9.37
      • 3. Handle objections carefully: When not to object 9.38
    • B. Reserving comments for closing argument 9.39
    • C. Moving for nonsuit or directed verdict after opening statement
      • 1. Nonsuit 9.40
      • 2. Directed verdict 9.41
  • VIII. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 9.42

10

Evidence Overview

Donald F. Miles

Marla J. Miller

Professor Leo J. O'Brien

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 10.1
  • II. PREPARE TO USE EVIDENCE AT TRIAL
    • A. Identify evidence to use at trial 10.2
    • B. Checklist: steps to prepare for evidentiary issues 10.3
    • C. Review evidence in light of evidentiary rules 10.4
  • III. BURDENS AND PRESUMPTIONS
    • A. Consider burdens and presumptions when preparing to present evidence at trial 10.5
    • B. Burden of proof 10.6
    • C. Burden of producing evidence 10.7
    • D. Presumptions 10.8
      • 1. Conclusive presumptions 10.9
      • 2. Rebuttable presumptions 10.10
        • a. Presumptions concerning burden of producing evidence 10.11
        • b. Presumptions concerning burden of proof 10.12
  • IV. RELEVANCE
    • A. Generally admissible 10.13
    • B. Credibility and understanding the witness 10.14
    • C. Material fact or issue 10.15
    • D. Court's discretion to exclude relevant evidence 10.16
  • V. HEARSAY
    • A. Hearsay generally not admissible 10.17
      • 1. Statement defined 10.18
      • 2. For truth of matter asserted or stated 10.19
    • B. Nonhearsay statements 10.20
    • C. Exceptions to hearsay rule 10.21
      • 1. Admissions or statements attributed to a party 10.22
      • 2. Prior statements 10.23
      • 3. Exceptions when declarant unavailable 10.24
      • 4. Business records 10.25
      • 5. Official and public records 10.26
      • 6. List of other hearsay exceptions 10.27
  • VI. PRIVILEGES
    • A. Based on statutory or constitutional authority 10.28
    • B. Objecting based on a privilege 10.29
    • C. Privilege against self-incrimination 10.30
    • D. Lawyer-client privilege 10.31
    • E. Privilege not to testify against spouse 10.32
    • F. Privilege not to be called as witness against spouse 10.33
    • G. Confidential marital communications privilege 10.34
    • H. Physician-patient privilege 10.35
    • I. Psychotherapist-patient privilege 10.36
    • J. Penitent or clergyman privilege 10.37
    • K. Sexual assault victim-counselor privilege 10.38
    • L. Domestic violence victim-counselor privilege 10.39
    • M. Privilege for official information 10.40
    • N. Privilege for identity of informer 10.41
    • O. Voter's privilege 10.42
    • P. Trade secrets privilege 10.43
    • Q. Journalist's immunity from contempt 10.44
  • VII. EVIDENCE EXCLUDED FOR POLICY REASONS
    • A. Generally 10.45
    • B. Subsequent remedial conduct 10.46
      • 1. Public policy to encourage repairs 10.47
      • 2. When admissible 10.48
    • C. Settlement negotiations 10.49
      • 1. Public policy to encourage settlement 10.50
      • 2. When admissible 10.51
    • D. Evidence of liability insurance 10.52
      • 1. Public policy favoring insurance and irrelevance of evidence 10.53
      • 2. When admissible 10.54
    • E. Character evidence 10.55
      • 1. Types of character evidence admissible 10.56
      • 2. When admissible 10.57
      • 3. Using character evidence to impeach 10.58
  • VIII. SUBSTITUTES FOR TESTIMONY
    • A. Judicial notice 10.59
    • B. Stipulations 10.60
    • C. Judicial admission 10.61
  • IX. WITNESSES
    • A. Competence 10.62
      • 1. Incapacity to communicate or understand oath 10.63
      • 2. Prior disqualifying status 10.64
      • 3. Lack of personal knowledge 10.65
    • B. Lay opinion 10.66
    • C. Scope of direct and cross-examination 10.67
      • 1. Direct examination 10.68
      • 2. Cross-examination 10.69
      • 3. Redirect and recross-examinations
        • a. Redirect examination 10.70
        • b. Recross-examination 10.71
    • D. Form of the question
      • 1. Judge has control over types of questions 10.72
      • 2. Checklist: Objections to form of question 10.73
    • E. Impeachment
      • 1. Consider credibility of witness 10.74
      • 2. Prior inconsistent statements—powerful impeachment 10.75
    • F. Expert witnesses 10.76
      • 1. Qualifications 10.77
      • 2. Eliciting expert witness's testimony 10.78
      • 3. Ultimate issue 10.79
      • 4. Cross-examination of expert witness 10.80
  • X. EXHIBITS
    • A. Substantive and procedural requirements 10.81
    • B. Relevance 10.82
    • C. Authenticity 10.83
    • D. Proof of content of writing evidence 10.84
    • E. Hearsay evidence 10.85
    • F. Evidence Code §352 10.86
  • XI. ELECTRONIC AND SOCIAL MEDIA EVIDENCE
    • A. General Principles Governing Admission 10.86A
    • B. Authentication Issues 10.86B
      • 1. Website postings and webpage printouts 10.86C
      • 2. Social media postings 10.86D
      • 3. Text messages 10.86E
  • XII. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 10.87

11

Examining Witnesses

Geoffrey L. Thomas

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 11.1
  • II. PREPARING FOR EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES
    • A. Balancing planned examination with flexibility 11.2
    • B. Techniques for communicating with trier of fact 11.3
      • 1. Educating judge or jury 11.4
      • 2. Reinforcing key points
        • a. Defining events 11.5
        • b. Themes 11.6
        • c. Visual aids 11.7
      • 3. Exploring human interest elements 11.8
      • 4. Using examples familiar to jurors 11.9
    • C. Different types of witnesses 11.10
      • 1. Friendly witnesses 11.11
      • 2. Hostile witnesses 11.12
      • 3. Neutral third parties 11.13
      • 4. Expert witnesses 11.14
    • D. Examiner's questioning style 11.15
    • E. Examining witness: Basic rules
      • 1. Remember instructions to witness 11.16
      • 2. Courtroom decorum 11.17
      • 3. What not to do during examinations 11.18
  • III. PREEXAMINATION CONSIDERATIONS
    • A. Competency of witness 11.19
      • 1. Objecting party has burden of showing incompetency 11.20
      • 2. Court decides competency as preliminary fact (Evid C §405) 11.21
      • 3. Guidelines for deciding competency 11.22
    • B. Personal knowledge of witnesses 11.23
      • 1. Party offering testimony has burden of showing personal knowledge 11.24
      • 2. Court decides personal knowledge as preliminary fact (Evid C §403) 11.25
    • C. Preparation of witnesses generally 11.26
    • D. Excluding witnesses at trial 11.27
  • IV. INTERPRETERS AND TRANSLATORS
    • A. Deciding when to use interpreters and translators
      • 1. When required 11.28
        • a. Court-provided interpreter 11.29
        • b. Using interpreter for more than one purpose 11.30
      • 2. When permitted 11.31
    • B. Choosing an interpreter
      • 1. Certified interpreter preferred 11.32
      • 2. Finding the right interpreter 11.33
    • C. Procedure for appointment
      • 1. Check local rules and lists 11.34
      • 2. Ask court to appoint interpreter 11.35
      • 3. Objecting to appointment 11.36
    • D. Examination with interpreter or translator 11.37
      • 1. Interpreter must take oath 11.38
      • 2. Ask questions of witness, not interpreter 11.39
      • 3. Accuracy of translation 11.40
      • 4. Objecting to interpreter 11.41
    • E. Compensation and costs
      • 1. Party employs interpreter or translator 11.42
      • 2. Court appoints interpreter or translator 11.43
  • V. SEQUENCE OF PRESENTING EVIDENCE
    • A. Order of proof and phases of examination 11.44
    • B. Sequence of witnesses; practical considerations 11.45
    • C. Order of evidence with multiple parties 11.46
  • VI. DIRECT EXAMINATION
    • A. Planning direct examination to elicit facts 11.47
    • B. Benefits of planning direct examination 11.48
    • C. Attorney's demeanor during examination 11.49
    • D. Avoid problems when framing questions 11.50
      • 1. Compound questions 11.51
      • 2. Questions having double negatives 11.52
      • 3. Questions having long words or technical phrases 11.53
      • 4. Leading questions about material matters 11.54
        • a. Not usually allowed on direct examination 11.55
        • b. Exceptions: When allowed 11.56
      • 5. Questions calling for narrative answer 11.57
      • 6. Questions assuming facts not in evidence 11.58
      • 7. Cumulative or repetitive questions
        • a. Questions asked of same witness 11.59
        • b. Questions asked of different witnesses 11.60
      • 8. Argumentative questions 11.61
      • 9. Questions calling for speculative answer 11.62
    • E. Refreshing witness's recollection
      • 1. Ask more specific question 11.63
      • 2. Show witness a writing 11.64
      • 3. Types of writings to use to refresh recollection 11.65
      • 4. When recollection not refreshed 11.66
      • 5. Production and admissibility of writings used 11.67
      • 6. Previously hypnotized witness 11.68
    • F. Past recollection recorded 11.69
      • 1. Establish foundation 11.70
      • 2. Types of writings to use as past recollection recorded 11.71
    • G. Examining custodian of records 11.72
    • H. Examining adverse party or adverse witness
      • 1. Who is adverse party or witness 11.73
      • 2. Why to call adverse party or witness 11.74
      • 3. How to conduct examination 11.75
    • I. Anticipating cross-examination 11.76
    • J. Preparing for and handling objections
      • 1. Memorandum of law 11.77
      • 2. Preliminary facts 11.78
      • 3. Offer of proof 11.79
      • 4. Prepare alternative theories of admissibility 11.80
      • 5. Move forward 11.81
  • VII. CROSS-EXAMINATION
    • A. Planning cross-examination to elicit facts and discredit adverse witnesses 11.82
    • B. Scope of cross-examination 11.83
      • 1. Making adverse witnesses your own 11.84
      • 2. Determining scope of direct examination 11.85
    • C. Prepare for cross-examination
      • 1. Review file to anticipate direct testimony 11.86
      • 2. Prepare outline 11.87
    • D. Deciding whether to cross-examine 11.88
      • 1. Disadvantages of cross-examination
        • a. Allows witness to expand testimony 11.89
        • b. Creates sympathy for witness 11.90
        • c. Reinforces "expertise" of witness 11.91
        • d. Risks losing jury's attention 11.92
      • 2. If you decide to skip cross-examination
        • a. Forces opposing counsel to rely on direct testimony 11.93
        • b. Risks making witness look stronger 11.94
      • 3. Consider limiting extent of cross-examination 11.95
    • E. Conducting examination
      • 1. Complete in one session 11.96
      • 2. Do not restate that witness is under oath 11.97
      • 3. Know when to stop 11.98
    • F. Tone of questioning 11.99
      • 1. When to use aggressive tone 11.100
      • 2. Avoid sarcasm or rudeness 11.101
      • 3. Do not argue 11.102
      • 4. When cross-examining family members 11.103
    • G. Framing questions and controlling witness 11.104
      • 1. Use short, easy-to-understand questions 11.105
      • 2. Identify subject before asking question 11.106
      • 3. Control pace and sequence of examination 11.107
      • 4. Avoid questions that permit narrative answers 11.108
      • 5. Know the answer 11.109
      • 6. Choose words that may influence answer 11.110
      • 7. Ask leading questions 11.111
      • 8. Summarize to obtain more specific answers 11.112
      • 9. Avoid repeating questions from direct 11.113
    • H. Grounds for attacking credibility
      • 1. Witness's perception, memory, or ability to narrate 11.114
      • 2. Witness's bias, interest, or other motive 11.115
      • 3. Witness's prior felony conviction 11.116
      • 4. Witness's character 11.117
      • 5. Prior inconsistent statements 11.118
        • a. Types of statements to use 11.119
        • b. Extrinsic evidence 11.120
        • c. Confirm direct testimony first 11.121
        • d. Read inconsistent statement 11.122
        • e. Include inconsistency in question 11.123
        • f. Follow-up 11.124
    • I. Protecting your witness during cross-examination 11.125
  • VIII. REDIRECT AND RECROSS-EXAMINATION; REBUTTAL AND SURREBUTTAL
    • A. Redirect
      • 1. Deciding whether to conduct redirect examination 11.126
      • 2. Follow same rules as for direct examination 11.127
    • B. Recross-examination 11.128
    • C. Rebuttal and surrebuttal 11.129
  • IX. EXPERT OPINION TESTIMONY
    • A. Qualifying expert 11.130
      • 1. What to ask 11.131
      • 2. Waiving testimony about qualifications 11.132
      • 3. If expert testifies to facts 11.133
    • B. Establish bases for opinion 11.134
      • 1. Proper bases for opinion 11.135
      • 2. Improper bases for opinion 11.136
      • 3. If basis is another's opinion 11.137
      • 4. Inadmissible basis subject to cross-examination 11.138
      • 5. If opinion based on new scientific technique 11.139
    • C. Eliciting opinion
      • 1. Ask expert to state opinion 11.140
      • 2. Hypothetical questions 11.141
        • a. What facts to use in hypothetical question 11.142
        • b. How to ask a hypothetical question 11.143
        • c. When not to use hypothetical questions 11.144
    • D. Testimony about compensation and experience as witness 11.145
    • E. Cross-examination of expert
      • 1. General rules 11.146
        • a. Hypothetical questions 11.147
        • b. Compensation and experience as witness 11.148
        • c. Calling rebuttal or other experts 11.149
      • 2. Expert cross-examination subjects
        • a. Checklist: Expert's qualifications and opinion 11.150
        • b. Questions about publications 11.151
  • X. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: PERJURED TESTIMONY DURING TRIAL
    • A. Know professional rules
      • 1. Duty not to knowingly allow perjury 11.152
      • 2. Duty to keep client's confidences and secrets 11.153
    • B. Determine whether perjury was committed 11.154
    • C. What to do if perjury committed
      • 1. Request a recess 11.155
      • 2. Confer privately with client or witness 11.156
      • 3. Explain ramifications of correcting testimony 11.157
      • 4. Try to remove testimony from record 11.158
      • 5. Move to withdraw 11.159
        • a. California rule: Do not disclose reason for withdrawal 11.160
        • b. ABA rules: Disclose perjury 11.161
      • 6. When perjury is of nonparty witness
        • a. Disclose nonparty perjury 11.162
        • b. Do not disclose perjury if confidentiality would be violated 11.163
        • c. Under ABA rules 11.164
        • d. May need to withdraw 11.165
        • e. Move to strike or for mistrial 11.166
      • 7. If witness is party related 11.167
      • 8. Do not rely on perjured testimony in argument 11.168
  • XI. APPENDIX: LEADING QUESTIONS 11.169

12

Effective Use of Discovery

Donald W. Carlson

John B. Hook

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 12.1
  • II. REQUIREMENTS FOR STENOGRAPHICALLY RECORDED DEPOSITIONS
    • A. General requirements 12.2
    • B. Effect of stipulations 12.3
    • C. Notice and certification requirements by deposition officer 12.4
    • D. Obtaining and using copies of transcripts
      • 1. When to request copies 12.5
      • 2. Obtaining copy of transcript before correction 12.6
      • 3. Obtaining certified copy 12.7
    • E. Making corrections and changes to transcript
      • 1. When deponent may change record 12.8
      • 2. Deponent's action must be noted on record 12.9
      • 3. When correction advisable 12.10
      • 4. When correction not advisable 12.11
      • 5. If typographical or transcription errors 12.12
      • 6. When moving to suppress deposition 12.13
    • F. Custody of transcript and when to file 12.14
    • G. Using enlargements 12.15
  • III. REQUIREMENTS FOR AUDIO OR VIDEO RECORDED DEPOSITIONS
    • A. Notice or agreement for recording deposition
      • 1. General requirements 12.16
      • 2. When other parties may record 12.17
    • B. Stenographic transcript is official record 12.18
    • C. Requirements for operator 12.19
    • D. Setup of equipment 12.20
    • E. Be prepared for the deposition 12.21
    • F. Prepare witnesses 12.22
    • G. Procedural requirements
      • 1. Identification 12.23
      • 2. Stipulations 12.24
      • 3. Objections 12.25
      • 4. Authentication or foundation 12.26
      • 5. Statement of conclusion 12.27
      • 6. If more than one unit of electronic storage necessary 12.28
    • H. Corrections and changes 12.29
    • I. Custody of recording 12.30
    • J. May review recording 12.31
  • IV. USING DEPOSITIONS AT TRIAL
    • A. Use at trial in general 12.32
    • B. Procedures that affect use at trial
      • 1. Improper notice 12.33
      • 2. Effect of stipulations 12.34
      • 3. Effect of objections 12.35
    • C. Effect of adding or substituting parties after deposition taken 12.36
    • D. General considerations when using at trial 12.37
      • 1. Obtaining stipulation as to admissibility 12.38
      • 2. Use of depositions by any party
        • a. To contradict or impeach deponent 12.39
        • b. On findings of court 12.40
        • c. If treating or consulting physician or other expert witness 12.41
        • d. May use part or all of deposition 12.42
        • e. Effect of substitution of parties 12.43
        • f. Using depositions in subsequent actions 12.44
    • E. Determining appropriateness of offering deposition testimony into evidence
      • 1. For own party 12.45
      • 2. For adverse party 12.46
    • F. Offering deposition testimony into evidence
      • 1. Necessity for offer 12.47
      • 2. Reading deposition into evidence
        • a. Consider timing 12.48
        • b. Manner of reading 12.49
        • c. If lengthy passages involved 12.50
      • 3. Consider exchanging lists of testimony to be offered 12.51
      • 4. Request hearing outside jurors' presence 12.52
      • 5. Request that judge explain depositions 12.53
    • G. Offering deposition testimony of adverse party 12.54
      • 1. Determining who is adverse party 12.55
      • 2. Using deposition testimony during cross-examination 12.56
      • 3. Using deposition testimony during presentation of client's case 12.57
    • H. Using deposition as substitute for trial testimony 12.58
      • 1. If witness lives more than 150 miles from place of trial 12.59
      • 2. If witness unavailable 12.60
      • 3. If exceptional circumstances 12.61
    • I. Using deposition to refresh memory 12.62
    • J. Using deposition to impeach by showing prior inconsistent statement 12.63
      • 1. Pinning down trial testimony 12.64
      • 2. Using foundational questions 12.65
      • 3. Confronting witness with inconsistency 12.66
    • K. Using deposition testimony to rehabilitate
      • 1. By showing prior consistent statement 12.67
      • 2. By additional deposition testimony 12.68
    • L. Using client's deposition 12.69
    • M. Preserving the record
      • 1. Using objections 12.70
        • a. How to object 12.71
        • b. Objecting to own deposition question 12.72
      • 2. When use of deposition denied 12.73
    • N. Using depositions taken in another action
      • 1. Using against party (or successor in interest) to former action
        • a. When they may be used 12.74
        • b. Admission under Evidence Code 12.75
        • c. Limitations and objections 12.76
      • 2. Using against party who was not party to former action 12.77
    • O. Using audio or video recorded depositions
      • 1. When appropriate 12.78
      • 2. Written notice of intention to offer recorded deposition into evidence required 12.79
      • 3. Objections must be in writing 12.80
      • 4. Admissibility objections 12.81
      • 5. Stenographic record necessary 12.82
      • 6. Check local requirements 12.83
      • 7. Deposition of treating physician or other expert
        • a. Using deposition in lieu of live testimony 12.84
        • b. Conducting discovery deposition before use of expert's deposition 12.85
      • 8. Requirements for video operator if video used at trial 12.86
      • 9. Rules for setting up equipment and handling video recording 12.87
      • 10. Using computer software programs 12.88
    • P. Marking deposition for use at trial 12.89
    • Q. Determine advisability of summary or index
      • 1. Purpose of summary 12.90
      • 2. Form of summary or index 12.91
      • 3. Who prepares summary 12.92
      • 4. When to prepare summary 12.93
      • 5. Index key pages 12.94
      • 6. Prepare chronology index 12.95
      • 7. When to prepare both summary and index 12.96
    • R. Requesting electronic copy 12.97
  • V. USING INTERROGATORIES AT TRIAL
    • A. General requirements
      • 1. Answers must be signed and verified 12.98
      • 2. Moving to compel responses 12.99
      • 3. Amending or supplementing answers to interrogatories before trial 12.100
      • 4. Moving for order to make first response binding 12.101
      • 5. Preparing summaries or enlargements
        • a. When appropriate 12.102
        • b. If used to impeach or as admissions 12.103
      • 6. Prepare copies for court and opposing counsel 12.104
      • 7. Request production of originals 12.105
      • 8. Evaluate filing requirements 12.106
    • B. Using interrogatories at trial
      • 1. Use against responding party only 12.107
      • 2. Check local rules for filing requirements 12.108
      • 3. Offering interrogatory responses into evidence 12.109
      • 4. Using answers to restrict presentation of evidence
        • a. To exclude witness not named in answers 12.110
        • b. To exclude evidence not in answer 12.111
        • c. To exclude evidence inconsistent with prior answer to interrogatory 12.112
      • 5. Using answers during presentation of party's case 12.113
      • 6. Using answers given in another action 12.114
      • 7. Using answers to impeach
        • a. Consider benefits 12.115
        • b. Review procedures 12.116
      • 8. Using party witness who did not sign verification 12.117
      • 9. Using client's answers 12.118
      • 10. Preserving the record
        • a. Handling objections 12.119
        • b. When nonresponding party requests limiting instruction 12.120
        • c. Protecting record when response erroneously excluded 12.121
  • VI. USING REQUESTS FOR ADMISSION AT TRIAL
    • A. General requirements 12.122
      • 1. When response not timely served 12.123
      • 2. Withdrawal or amendment of admissions 12.124
      • 3. Requests not filed with court 12.125
    • B. Using requests for admission at trial
      • 1. How used 12.126
      • 2. Admission conclusively establishes admitted matter 12.127
      • 3. Admission may preclude introduction of contrary evidence 12.128
      • 4. Admission may not be used in other actions 12.129
      • 5. Court may limit scope of use 12.130
    • C. Recovering expenses for requests 12.131
      • 1. When court may not award expenses 12.132
      • 2. Timing of motion 12.133
      • 3. Procedure for making motion 12.134
  • VII. CHECKLISTS AND SAMPLE FORMS
    • A. Checklist: Using deposition testimony 12.135
    • B. Checklist: Special considerations if deposition is audio or video recorded 12.136
    • C. Sample questions and answers: Impeaching with deposition testimony 12.137
    • D. Checklist: Introducing answers to interrogatories or requests for admission 12.138
    • E. Sample form: Designation of deposition 12.139

13

Trial Exhibits

Peter J. Busch

Donald F. Miles

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 13.1
  • II. DEFINITIONS
    • A. Documentary evidence 13.2
    • B. Demonstrative evidence 13.3
    • C. Real evidence 13.4
    • D. Exhibits 13.5
    • E. Evidence 13.6
    • F. Proffered evidence 13.7
  • III. WAYS TO USE DOCUMENTARY, DEMONSTRATIVE, AND REAL EVIDENCE DURING TRIAL
    • A. As substantive evidence 13.8
    • B. To refresh recollection 13.9
    • C. As past recollection recorded 13.10
    • D. To impeach 13.11
    • E. To rehabilitate 13.12
    • F. As aid for judicial notice 13.13
  • IV. PRETRIAL PREPARATION OF EXHIBITS
    • A. Checklist: Pretrial preparation 13.14
    • B. Determining need for exhibits 13.15
    • C. Identifying sources of exhibits 13.16
      • 1. Formal discovery 13.17
      • 2. Informal discovery and investigation 13.18
      • 3. Custom-made exhibits
        • a. Checklist: Need for custom-made exhibit 13.19
        • b. Common examples 13.20
    • D. Determining how evidence can be admitted 13.21
      • 1. Relevance 13.22
      • 2. Authenticity 13.23
      • 3. "Substantial similarity" 13.24
      • 4. Chain of custody 13.25
        • a. Burden of proof 13.26
        • b. Procedure to establish chain of custody 13.27
    • E. Organizing exhibits 13.28
    • F. Determining when to use exhibit; tactical considerations 13.29
      • 1. During opening statement 13.30
      • 2. During trial 13.31
      • 3. During closing argument 13.32
    • G. Preparing witnesses to use exhibits
      • 1. Review exhibit with witness 13.33
      • 2. Exhibit used to refresh recollection must be produced 13.34
    • H. Complying with local mandatory pretrial procedures
      • 1. Exchange of exhibit lists 13.35
      • 2. Exchange of exhibits 13.36
      • 3. Stipulations on admissibility 13.37
      • 4. Premarking exhibits 13.38
    • I. Preparing for demonstrations and experiments; using photographs and video recordings
      • 1. Demonstrations and experiments
        • a. Planning required before trial 13.39
        • b. Prior notice of demonstration or experiment recommended 13.40
        • c. Preparations on day of demonstration or experiment 13.41
      • 2. Photographs and video recordings 13.42
        • a. Considerations in taking photographs and making video recordings 13.43
        • b. Uses for photographs and video recordings at trial 13.44
  • V. HANDLING EXHIBITS DURING TRIAL
    • A. Procedural guidelines for offering exhibits into evidence 13.45
      • 1. Mark for identification 13.46
        • a. When to mark 13.47
        • b. Manner of marking 13.48
        • c. Content of mark 13.49
      • 2. Disclose to opposing counsel
        • a. Disclosure before trial 13.50
        • b. Disclosure during trial 13.51
      • 3. Disclose to judge 13.52
      • 4. Demonstrate admissibility of exhibit
        • a. Establish foundational facts 13.53
        • b. Checklist: Procedural steps for establishing foundational facts 13.54
      • 5. Offer exhibit into evidence 13.55
      • 6. Obtain court's ruling on admissibility
        • a. Court's failure to make immediate ruling 13.56
        • b. Provisional admission of evidence 13.57
      • 7. Disclose substance of exhibit to jury 13.58
        • a. Read exhibit to jury 13.59
        • b. Show exhibit to jury 13.60
      • 8. Reoffer exhibits into evidence 13.61
    • B. Admission of deposition testimony and former testimony
      • 1. Deposition testimony 13.62
      • 2. Former testimony 13.63
  • VI. DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: ADMISSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS 13.64
    • A. Authentication defined 13.65
    • B. Methods for authenticating writings 13.66
      • 1. Stipulations 13.67
      • 2. Testimony of witnesses 13.68
        • a. Maker of writing; sample foundation 13.69
        • b. Witness who saw writing made or executed; sample foundation 13.70
        • c. Witness familiar with writer's handwriting; sample foundation 13.71
        • d. Witness familiar with printout or download of social media post 13.71A
        • e. Expert authentication 13.72
      • 3. Admitting business records by affidavit 13.73
      • 4. Authentication by trier of fact 13.74
      • 5. Writing authenticated by response to communication 13.75
      • 6. Authentication by contents of writing 13.76
      • 7. Authentication by adverse party's admission 13.77
    • C. Self-authenticating writings 13.78
      • 1. Acknowledged writings 13.79
      • 2. Uniform Commercial Code documents 13.80
      • 3. Official seals or signatures on official writings 13.81
      • 4. Ancient documents 13.82
    • D. Authenticating altered writings 13.83
    • E. Exceptions to authentication 13.84
  • VII. DEMONSTRATIVE EVIDENCE: FOUNDATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
    • A. Foundation varies depending on type of demonstrative evidence 13.85
    • B. Methods for laying foundation
      • 1. Stipulations 13.86
      • 2. Testimony of witnesses 13.87
      • 3. Admissions by adverse party 13.88
      • 4. Judicial notice 13.89
    • C. Substantial similarity 13.90
    • D. Specific types of demonstrative evidence; foundation required
      • 1. Photographs 13.91
        • a. Sample foundation 13.92
        • b. Photograph must be substantially similar to disputed event 13.93
      • 2. Video recordings
        • a. Foundational requirements 13.94
        • b. Day-in-the-life films 13.95
        • c. Surveillance video 13.96
        • d. Photographic re-creation of events 13.97
        • e. Sample foundation for video recording 13.98
      • 3. X-rays 13.99
      • 4. Drawings, diagrams, charts, graphs, maps, and models
        • a. Foundational requirements 13.100
        • b. Medical drawings 13.101
        • c. Models 13.102
        • d. Skeletons 13.103
        • e. Drawing pad or whiteboard 13.104
      • 5. Audio recordings 13.105
      • 6. Exhibitions of persons or prosthetic devices 13.106
      • 7. Electronic evidence
        • a. Electronically stored information 13.107
          • (1) Business record exception 13.107A
          • (2) Self-authenticating public record exception 13.107B
        • b. Animations and simulations 13.108
      • 8. Scientific evidence 13.109
      • 9. Jury view
        • a. Foundational requirements 13.110
        • b. Attendance at and testimony during jury view 13.111
  • VIII. REAL EVIDENCE
    • A. Admissibility requirements 13.112
    • B. Examples of real evidence: wreckage and other objects 13.113
  • IX. MAKING AND MEETING OBJECTIONS
    • A. Making objections; waiver 13.114
    • B. Particular objections
      • 1. Irrelevant 13.115
      • 2. Lack of foundation 13.116
      • 3. Unduly prejudicial, misleading, or time-consuming (Evid C §352) 13.117
      • 4. Exhibit not produced in response to discovery request 13.118
      • 5. Hearsay 13.119
      • 6. Privileged 13.120
      • 7. Opinions in writings 13.121
      • 8. Secondary evidence rule
        • a. General rule 13.122
        • b. Particular applications and limitations 13.123
      • 9. Writing used to refresh recollection not produced at hearing 13.124
      • 10. Writing not shown to other counsel 13.125
      • 11. Prohibited documentary evidence 13.126
        • a. Vehicle accident reports 13.127
        • b. Coroner's inquest verdicts 13.128
        • c. Records and proceedings of medical staffs and committees; exceptions 13.129
    • C. Tactical considerations in making objections
      • 1. Motions in limine to exclude evidence 13.130
      • 2. Sidebar conferences 13.131
      • 3. Preserving the record; opposing proof of preliminary facts 13.132
    • D. Meeting objections
      • 1. Anticipating objections; preparation 13.133
      • 2. Motions in limine to admit evidence 13.134
      • 3. Offering exhibit for limited purpose 13.135
      • 4. Offering exhibit conditioned on subsequent testimony 13.136
      • 5. Excising objectionable entries in exhibit 13.137
      • 6. Offers of proof 13.138
  • X. EXHIBITS PERMITTED IN JURY ROOM 13.139
  • XI. SAMPLE FORMS
    • A. Sample exhibit log 13.140
    • B. Form: Sample stipulation regarding use of documents at trial 13.141
    • C. Sample Evidence Memorandum 13.142
  • XII. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 13.143

14

Judicial Notice, Admissions, and Stipulations

Pamela Phillips

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 14.1
    • A. Means of establishing undisputed facts 14.2
    • B. Relevancy requirement 14.3
    • C. Tactical considerations
      • 1. Advantages 14.4
      • 2. Disadvantages 14.5
  • II. JUDICIAL NOTICE 14.6
    • A. Mandatory judicial notice (Evid C §451) 14.7
      • 1. California and United States law 14.8
      • 2. California city and county charters 14.9
      • 3. Regulations of state and federal agencies 14.10
      • 4. California rules of professional conduct and rules of court 14.11
      • 5. Federal rules of pleading, practice, and procedure 14.12
      • 6. English words, phrases, and legal expressions 14.13
      • 7. Universally known matters 14.14
    • B. Discretionary judicial notice (Evid C §452) 14.15
      • 1. Law of sister states 14.16
      • 2. Resolutions and private acts of United States and California legislatures 14.17
      • 3. Regulations and legislative enactments of public entities 14.18
      • 4. Official acts of legislative, executive, and judicial departments of United States or any state 14.19
      • 5. Court records 14.20
      • 6. Local, sister state, and federal rules of court 14.21
      • 7. Foreign law 14.22
      • 8. Matters of common knowledge 14.23
      • 9. Verifiable matters 14.24
  • III. JUDICIAL NOTICE PROCEDURES
    • A. Party requesting judicial notice
      • 1. No formal request of mandatory matters under Evid C §451 necessary 14.25
      • 2. Discretionary matters under Evid C §452 may become mandatory on request 14.26
        • a. Request for judicial notice 14.27
        • b. Sufficient notice to other parties; timing 14.28
        • c. Sufficient information to court 14.29
      • 3. Burden on requesting party 14.30
      • 4. Using exhibit to support request for judicial notice 14.31
      • 5. Protecting the record 14.32
      • 6. Asking for jury instruction 14.33
    • B. Grounds for objecting to judicial notice 14.34
    • C. Judicial notice on court's own motion 14.35
    • D. Trial court's ruling
      • 1. Sources of information court may rely on 14.36
        • a. Consideration of extrinsic aids 14.37
        • b. Appointment of expert 14.38
        • c. When foreign law is subject of judicial notice 14.39
      • 2. Judicial notice of matters of "substantial consequence" to the case 14.40
      • 3. Court's refusal to take judicial notice 14.41
      • 4. Judicial notice by trial court in subsequent proceedings 14.42
  • IV. JUDICIAL ADMISSIONS
    • A. Admissions made in pleadings or on trial record
      • 1. Judicial admissions conclusively establish facts 14.43
      • 2. Procedures 14.44
      • 3. Requesting jury instruction 14.45
    • B. Admissions in prior actions 14.46
  • V. STIPULATIONS
    • A. Stipulated facts 14.47
      • 1. Authority to bind client 14.48
      • 2. Procedures
        • a. Timing 14.49
        • b. Form of stipulation 14.50
      • 3. Requesting jury instruction 14.51
    • B. Stipulated testimony 14.52
  • VI. CASE EXAMPLES: MATTERS THAT HAVE BEEN GIVEN JUDICIAL NOTICE IN CALIFORNIA COURTS 14.53
  • VII. FORMS
    • A. Form: Request for judicial notice at trial (Evid C §§452–453) 14.54
    • B. Form: Proposed jury instruction regarding judicially noticed matter 14.55

15

Making Trial Objections and Protecting the Record

Joseph W. Cotchett

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 15.1
  • II. UNDERSTANDING THE RECORD AND ITS IMPORTANCE
    • A. Record defined 15.2
    • B. Importance of record 15.3
  • III. PRETRIAL AND SPECIAL PROCEDURES FOR PRESERVING THE RECORD 15.4
    • A. Conferences with trial judge 15.5
      • 1. Request court reporter 15.6
      • 2. Preserve issues for appeal 15.7
    • B. Motion in limine 15.8
      • 1. Make sure motion is on the record 15.9
      • 2. Preserve issues for appeal 15.10
    • C. Preliminary fact hearing; requiring proper foundation before admission of evidence 15.11
  • IV. MAKING A CLEAR RECORD DURING TRIAL
    • A. Conferences, stipulations, and court rulings on the record 15.12
    • B. Transcript of testimony 15.13
      • 1. Audible and clear 15.14
      • 2. Items to clarify for the record 15.15
    • C. Documents and other exhibits
      • 1. Clearly mark exhibits for identification 15.16
      • 2. Offer exhibit into evidence 15.17
      • 3. Using exhibits during trial 15.18
  • V. MAKING OBJECTIONS DURING TRIAL TO PRESERVE RECORD
    • A. Purpose of objections
      • 1. To exclude inadmissible evidence 15.19
      • 2. To prevent other errors at trial
        • a. During opening statement 15.20
        • b. Unqualified witness 15.21
        • c. During closing argument 15.22
      • 3. To preserve objection on the record for appeal 15.23
    • B. When objection waived 15.24
      • 1. Failure to get objection on the record 15.25
      • 2. Untimely objection waives error 15.26
      • 3. Invited error: Waiver by offering inadmissible evidence 15.27
      • 4. Court fails to rule 15.28
      • 5. When no waiver
        • a. Admitting evidence would result in unfair trial 15.29
        • b. Change in law 15.30
        • c. Stipulation as to form 15.31
    • C. Deciding whether to object 15.32
      • 1. Reasons not to object 15.33
      • 2. Alternatives to objecting 15.34
    • D. Preparing for objections 15.35
    • E. How to object
      • 1. Objection must be timely 15.36
      • 2. Briefly and specifically state grounds for objection 15.37
        • a. State correct grounds for objection 15.38
        • b. General objections not usually sufficient 15.39
          • (1) Use general objection to gain time 15.40
          • (2) When general objection may be sufficient 15.41
    • F. Continuing objection
      • 1. If court allows 15.42
      • 2. May be better to repeat objection 15.43
    • G. Move to strike if answer given before court sustains objection 15.44
  • VI. RESPONDING TO OBJECTION 15.45
    • A. Discussing or arguing objection 15.46
      • 1. Sidebar or chambers conferences 15.47
      • 2. When to use sidebar conference 15.48
      • 3. How to request sidebar conference 15.49
    • B. Offer of proof 15.50
      • 1. When to consider offer of proof 15.51
      • 2. Usually required if objection sustained to preserve record 15.52
      • 3. Circumstances when not required 15.53
      • 4. Make offer on the record, outside jury's presence 15.54
      • 5. What to include in offer of proof 15.55
        • a. Substance of evidence 15.56
        • b. Purpose of evidence 15.57
        • c. Relevancy of evidence 15.58
        • d. Availability of evidence 15.59
      • 6. When to renew 15.60
    • C. Limited admissibility of evidence 15.61
      • 1. After objection, offering party should state limited purpose 15.62
      • 2. Objecting party: Ask for exclusion of evidence or limiting instruction 15.63
      • 3. Waiver if failure to request limiting instruction 15.64
  • VII. COURT'S RULING 15.65
    • A. Reserved ruling 15.66
    • B. If no ruling, considered overruled 15.67
    • C. After ruling, be careful to preserve objection 15.68
  • VIII. FORM: EVIDENTIARY OBJECTIONS 15.69

16

Misconduct of Counsel and Court

Hon. James J. Marchiano

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 16.1
  • II. REGULATION OF LEGAL PROFESSION
    • A. Regulation of attorneys
      • 1. Under Business and Professions Code 16.2
      • 2. Under Rules of Professional Conduct 16.3
      • 3. Regulation by judiciary 16.4
      • 4. Under local rules 16.5
      • 5. Influence of ABA guidelines 16.6
    • B. Regulation of judges 16.7
  • III. COURTROOM ETIQUETTE AND APPEARANCE
    • A. Suggestions for courtroom conduct 16.8
      • 1. Courtroom demeanor 16.9
      • 2. Positions in the courtroom 16.10
      • 3. Addressing the court 16.11
      • 4. Addressing the jury 16.12
      • 5. Opening address 16.13
      • 6. Examining witnesses 16.14
      • 7. Making objections 16.15
    • B. Review local court rules 16.16
    • C. Guidelines for appropriate attire 16.17
  • IV. GUIDELINES FOR ETHICAL CONDUCT BY ATTORNEYS
    • A. Consequences of a breach of ethics
      • 1. Business and Professions Code Provisions 16.18
      • 2. State bar proceedings 16.19
    • B. Ethical conduct in court
      • 1. Maintain respect for court 16.20
        • a. Arguing with judge in front of jury 16.21
        • b. General scope of advocacy 16.22
        • c. Attorney's right to argue against, or test validity of, a ruling 16.23
        • d. Judge's duty to protect court's integrity 16.24
      • 2. Affirmative duty to inform court of misrepresentation 16.25
      • 3. Must argue fairly 16.26
      • 4. Handling news media releases 16.27
      • 5. Avoid private communications with court 16.28
      • 6. Avoid gifts to judge or court officials 16.29
      • 7. Be punctual 16.30
    • C. Ethical conduct toward opposing counsel 16.31
    • D. Ethical conduct toward clients
      • 1. Control of litigation
        • a. Procedural matters 16.32
        • b. Client's substantive rights 16.33
        • c. Effect of stipulations by counsel 16.34
        • d. Counsel's ethical obligations versus unethical actions authorized by client 16.35
      • 2. Duty to represent client competently 16.36
      • 3. Duty to represent client within bounds of law 16.37
      • 4. When attorney is witness for client 16.38
        • a. When written consent required 16.39
        • b. When written consent not required 16.40
      • 5. Representing multiple parties 16.41
      • 6. Representing client with interests adverse to former client's interests 16.42
      • 7. Avoid emotional involvement 16.43
    • E. Ethical conduct toward jury
      • 1. Communication with or investigation of jurors prohibited
        • a. Before trial 16.44
        • b. After trial 16.45
      • 2. Avoid undue solicitude for jurors 16.46
      • 3. Report juror misconduct 16.47
    • F. Ethical conduct toward witnesses
      • 1. Compensation of lay and expert witnesses
        • a. Compensation must not depend on outcome of trial 16.48
        • b. Reasonable fees and expenses allowed 16.49
      • 2. Suppression of evidence or hiding of witnesses prohibited 16.50
      • 3. Prepare witnesses to testify at trial 16.51
      • 4. Treatment of opposing witnesses 16.52
  • V. GUIDELINES FOR ETHICAL JUDICIAL CONDUCT
    • A. Code of Judicial Conduct 16.53
    • B. General guidelines in Code of Judicial Conduct 16.54
    • C. Judge may obtain expert's advice on the law [Deleted] 16.55
    • D. Conduct regarding public comments 16.56
    • E. If judge becomes aware of unprofessional conduct 16.57
    • F. Judge's control over course of trial 16.58
    • G. When judge is trier of fact 16.59
    • H. Admonishing counsel allowed 16.60
    • I. Commenting on omissions and defects 16.61
    • J. Calling or examining witnesses 16.62
    • K. Attempting to settle case 16.63
    • L. Commenting on evidence 16.64
    • M. Commenting on a privilege 16.65
  • VI. ATTORNEY MISCONDUCT
    • A. What constitutes misconduct 16.66
    • B. Effect of misconduct 16.67
    • C. Court must report misconduct 16.68
    • D. Examples of misconduct
      • 1. Disparaging remarks 16.69
      • 2. Accusations of willful suppression of evidence 16.70
      • 3. Other improper comments 16.71
      • 4. Insinuating and improper questions and objections 16.72
      • 5. Appeals to jurors' prejudice or sympathy 16.73
        • a. Wealth or poverty 16.74
        • b. Corporate status or wealth 16.75
        • c. Jurors' self-interest 16.76
        • d. Military service 16.77
        • e. Race, nationality, or religion 16.78
        • f. "Golden rule" argument 16.79
      • 6. Reference to insurance 16.80
      • 7. Reading law to jury 16.81
      • 8. Motions made in jury's presence 16.82
      • 9. Calling jurors by name 16.83
      • 10. Conversations with jurors 16.84
      • 11. Reference to inadmissible evidence 16.85
      • 12. Exhibiting prejudicial matter or objects not in evidence 16.86
      • 13. News media releases 16.87
      • 14. Reading jurors' notes 16.88
      • 15. Arguing matters not in evidence 16.89
    • E. Anticipating and preventing misconduct 16.90
  • VII. REMEDIES FOR ATTORNEY MISCONDUCT
    • A. Action by counsel
      • 1. Timely objection; waiver 16.91
      • 2. Object and assign improper matter as misconduct 16.92
      • 3. Request admonition to cure misconduct 16.93
    • B. Remedies for attorney misconduct
      • 1. Consider requesting sanctions for bad faith or frivolous action 16.94
      • 2. Consider moving for mistrial 16.95
      • 3. Evaluate moving for new trial 16.96
      • 4. Determine whether appeal appropriate
        • a. Objection and request for admonition usually necessary 16.97
        • b. Standard for setting aside verdict 16.98
      • 5. Contempt citation for misconduct
        • a. Contempt defined 16.99
        • b. Purpose of contempt 16.100
        • c. Limitations on use of contempt power 16.101
        • d. Aggressive advocacy distinguished 16.102
        • e. Civil and criminal contempt
          • (1) General distinction 16.103
          • (2) When civil characterized as criminal 16.104
          • (3) Civil contempt distinguished from misdemeanor criminal contempt 16.105
          • (4) When double jeopardy an issue 16.106
        • f. Forms of contempt
          • (1) Direct contempt 16.107
          • (2) Indirect contempt 16.108
          • (3) Hybrid form of contempt 16.109
        • g. Procedures for direct or hybrid contempt
          • (1) Court has summary power to punish 16.110
          • (2) Hearing may not be required 16.111
          • (3) Judge may warn first or request an explanation 16.112
          • (4) Written judgment of contempt required 16.113
        • h. Procedures for indirect contempt
          • (1) Must have notice and opportunity to be heard 16.114
          • (2) Proceeding initiated with declaration or affidavit 16.115
          • (3) Court issues warrant of attachment or order to show cause 16.116
          • (4) Accused should serve and file counterdeclaration 16.117
          • (5) Affidavits constitute pleadings 16.118
          • (6) Hearing procedure 16.119
          • (7) Rights of accused 16.120
          • (8) Right to disqualify judge 16.121
          • (9) Judge may defer adjudication of contempt 16.122
        • i. Penalty for civil contempt
          • (1) In general 16.123
          • (2) Separate contemptuous acts 16.124
          • (3) Failure to perform an act 16.125
          • (4) Recalcitrant witness 16.126
        • j. Stay of sentence
          • (1) When stay required 16.127
          • (2) When stay not required 16.128
        • k. Appealability of judgment of contempt 16.129
  • VIII. JUDICIAL MISCONDUCT
    • A. When judge fails to meet standards of conduct 16.130
    • B. Examples of judicial misconduct
      • 1. Judicial intemperance 16.131
      • 2. Prejudging case 16.132
      • 3. Showing partiality 16.133
      • 4. Interfering with witnesses 16.134
      • 5. Improper examination of witnesses 16.135
      • 6. Coercing waiver of substantive or procedural right 16.136
      • 7. Compelling settlement 16.137
      • 8. Receiving evidence when court not in session 16.138
      • 9. Coercing jury verdict
        • a. Telling jury they must agree 16.139
        • b. Distinguish proper advice 16.140
      • 10. Communicating with jurors during deliberations 16.141
    • C. No formula for determining misconduct 16.142
  • IX. REMEDIES FOR JUDICIAL MISCONDUCT
    • A. Action by counsel
      • 1. Object to misconduct or assign misconduct as error 16.143
      • 2. Request curative admonition 16.144
    • B. Review remedies available
      • 1. Consider moving for mistrial 16.145
      • 2. Evaluate moving for new trial 16.146
      • 3. Determine whether appeal appropriate 16.147
  • X. EXAMPLES OF ACTS OR OMISSIONS THAT ARE CONTEMPTS OF COURT'S AUTHORITY 16.148
  • XI. EXAMPLES OF REMEDIES FOR MISCONDUCT OF COUNSEL 16.149

17

Jury Management

Hon. James J. Marchiano

Stephen A. McFeely

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 17.1
  • II. JURY MANAGEMENT DURING VOIR DIRE
    • A. Managing prospective jurors 17.2
    • B. Jurors given introductory information about voir dire process 17.3
    • C. Juror misconduct during voir dire: Concealment of bias 17.4
  • III. JURY MANAGEMENT DURING TRIAL
    • A. Jurors assemble in jury room or outside courtroom 17.5
    • B. Jury permitted breaks during trial 17.6
    • C. Jurors may take notes during trial 17.7
    • D. When jury may see physical evidence or exhibits 17.8
    • E. Jury may view the scene on motion of party or court 17.9
  • IV. JURY MISCONDUCT DURING TRIAL
    • A. Receiving or communicating facts from sources outside evidence 17.10
      • 1. Facts based on personal knowledge or observations may be improper 17.11
      • 2. Considering facts not in evidence creates presumption of prejudice 17.12
      • 3. Unauthorized viewing outside courtroom is improper 17.13
      • 4. Reading or listening to news media accounts of trial is improper 17.14
    • B. Improper communications among jurors or with others
      • 1. When jurors discuss case among themselves before submission 17.15
      • 2. When jurors communicate with others about trial 17.16
      • 3. Improper communications create presumption of prejudice 17.17
      • 4. When communications improper but not prejudicial 17.18
      • 5. Juror may be held in contempt for improper communications 17.19
    • C. Inattentiveness during trial
      • 1. Jurors have duty to listen carefully 17.20
      • 2. Inattentiveness may or may not be held prejudicial 17.21
      • 3. Court must be notified of any juror inattentiveness 17.22
  • V. REMEDIES FOR JUROR MISCONDUCT
    • A. Object to any misconduct or irregularity 17.23
    • B. Request admonition 17.24
    • C. Request replacement with alternate if necessary 17.25
    • D. Consider moving for mistrial 17.26
    • E. Consider moving for new trial
      • 1. When misconduct discovered after verdict 17.27
      • 2. Three-step inquiry by court 17.28
      • 3. Preparing support for motion 17.29
      • 4. If conduct improper but not prejudicial 17.30
      • 5. Impeaching jury's verdict 17.31
      • 6. If motion denied 17.32

18

Motions During Trial

Randall B. Christison

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER
    • A. Motions covered 18.1
    • B. Chart: Trial motions 18.2
  • II. PROCEDURES FOR MAKING TRIAL MOTIONS
    • A. Form of motion
      • 1. Usually oral; when written papers advisable 18.3
      • 2. Making a Record 18.4
    • B. Timing 18.5
    • C. Opposing party's options 18.6
  • III. MOTION FOR NONSUIT
    • A. Checklist: Procedures for making or opposing motion 18.7
    • B. Nature of Motion
      • 1. Nonsuit is equivalent to involuntary dismissal 18.8
      • 2. Purpose: to eliminate nonmeritorious actions or remedy correctable defects 18.9
      • 3. Court decides whether nonsuit judgment is adjudication on merits 18.10
    • C. Partial nonsuit
      • 1. Dismisses action on some issues 18.11
      • 2. Preparing written order after judgment of partial nonsuit 18.12
      • 3. Allows appellate review only after final judgment 18.13
    • D. Test for granting motion: "Sufficient substantiality"
      • 1. No evidence of "sufficient substantiality" to support judgment 18.14
      • 2. Make motion when opening statement either does not state cause of action or establishes affirmative defense 18.15
      • 3. Make motion when variation between pleading and proof 18.16
      • 4. Make motion after presentation of evidence when evidence insufficient 18.17
      • 5. Court may not weigh evidence when ruling on motion 18.18
      • 6. Opposing party must ensure that evidence is adequate to support verdict 18.19
      • 7. Consider appellate consequences; courts reluctant to affirm nonsuit motions 18.20
      • 8. Failing to grant judgment may be reversible error 18.21
    • E. Timing
      • 1. Jury trial: Motion can be made after either opening statement or presentation of evidence 18.22
      • 2. Bench trial: Motion can be made only after plaintiff's opening statement 18.23
    • F. Procedures for moving party
      • 1. Make motion outside jury's presence 18.24
      • 2. Oral motion: Specify grounds 18.25
      • 3. Draft written supporting papers when issues complicated 18.26
    • G. Procedures for opposing party
      • 1. Supplement opening statement; waiver 18.27
      • 2. Move to reopen after presentation of evidence; waiver 18.28
      • 3. If motion granted, request court order: Remaining parties cannot shift blame to dismissed party 18.29
    • H. Effect of granting motion; costs; appeal
      • 1. Operates as adjudication on merits 18.30
      • 2. Prevailing party entitled to costs 18.31
      • 3. Appeal from judgment after motion granted 18.32
      • 4. Upholding judgment correctly decided on merits 18.33
      • 5. Reversal if sufficient evidence supports judgment for plaintiff 18.34
  • IV. MOTION FOR DIRECTED VERDICT
    • A. Checklist: Procedures for making or opposing motion 18.35
    • B. Nature of Motion
      • 1. Make motion when evidence insufficient to support other party's case 18.36
      • 2. Compared with motion for nonsuit 18.37
      • 3. Jury's obligation to return verdict 18.38
    • C. Motion for partial directed verdict 18.39
    • D. Motion for judgment under CCP §630(f) after discharge of jury
      • 1. Judgment based on directed verdict test 18.40
      • 2. Time requirements: Notice within 10 days of jury's discharge 18.41
    • E. Test for granting motion
      • 1. Other party's evidence not "sufficiently substantial" 18.42
      • 2. Motion inappropriate when evidence substantially conflicts 18.43
      • 3. Make motion when nonexistence of essential fact established as matter of law 18.44
      • 4. Evidence viewed in light favorable to nonmoving party 18.45
      • 5. Evidence unfavorable to nonmoving party cannot be considered 18.46
    • F. Timing
      • 1. Making motion at close of presentation of evidence 18.47
      • 2. Making motion at other times 18.48
    • G. Procedures for moving party
      • 1. Make motion outside jury's presence 18.49
      • 2. Oral motion: Specify grounds 18.50
      • 3. Written supporting memorandum desirable when issues complicated 18.51
    • H. Procedures for opposing party
      • 1. Argue that moving party failed to adequately specify grounds 18.52
      • 2. Ask to reopen case; waiver 18.53
    • I. Effect of granting motion; costs; judgment
      • 1. Operates as adjudication on merits 18.54
      • 2. Prevailing party entitled to costs 18.55
      • 3. Order of judgment 18.56
  • V. MOTION FOR CONTINUANCE
    • A. Checklist: Procedures for making or opposing motion 18.57
    • B. Nature of motion
      • 1. Disfavored 18.58
      • 2. Consider alternatives 18.59
    • C. Satisfying grounds for continuance 18.60
    • D. Procedures for moving party
      • 1. Written noticed motion or ex parte application; supporting declarations 18.61
      • 2. Making oral motion 18.62
    • E. Procedures for opposing party
      • 1. Suggest alternatives or conditions to continuance 18.63
      • 2. Ask for payment of costs 18.64
  • VI. MOTION TO REOPEN CASE
    • A. Checklist: Procedures for making or opposing motion 18.65
    • B. Nature of motion
      • 1. Motion asks for opportunity to offer new evidence 18.66
      • 2. Within court's discretion 18.67
      • 3. Bench trial: Reopening alternative to new trial 18.68
      • 4. Reopening on court's own motion 18.69
    • C. Requirements
      • 1. Grounds: Good cause required 18.70
      • 2. Showing of due diligence 18.71
    • D. Timing
      • 1. Asking to reopen case after motion for nonsuit or directed verdict 18.72
      • 2. Making motion immediately after oversight or surprise; waiver 18.73
      • 3. Making motion after argument 18.74
      • 4. Making motion after submission in bench trial 18.75
      • 5. Reopening case after judgment in bench trial 18.76
    • E. Procedures for moving party
      • 1. Oral motion during trial 18.77
      • 2. Written motion after submission in bench trial 18.78
    • F. Procedures for opponent
      • 1. Motion for nonsuit or directed verdict pending 18.79
      • 2. Motion to reopen after submission 18.80
    • G. Appeal after judgment only 18.81
  • VII. MOTION FOR MISTRIAL
    • A. Checklist: Procedures for making or opposing motion 18.82
    • B. Nature of motion
      • 1. Asks to terminate trial 18.83
      • 2. Consider alternatives 18.84
    • C. Grounds: Preventing fair trial 18.85
      • 1. Statutory grounds 18.86
      • 2. Judge unable to complete trial 18.87
    • D. Timing
      • 1. Prejudicial effect from cumulative errors or irregularities 18.88
      • 2. Single act of misconduct or serious irregularity 18.89
    • E. Procedures for moving party
      • 1. Objection on record and request for admonition; waiver of right to mistrial 18.90
      • 2. Motion for mistrial and argument outside jury's presence 18.91
      • 3. Oral motion: Specify grounds 18.92
      • 4. Admonishment of jury after motion denied; protecting the record 18.93
      • 5. Proceeding with trial after motion taken under submission 18.94
      • 6. Moving for mistrial in bench trial 18.95
    • F. Procedures for opposing party
      • 1. Suggest alternative means to cure prejudice 18.96
      • 2. Argue when appropriate that motion was not made immediately following misconduct 18.97
    • G. Effect of court's ruling: Motion granted
      • 1. Deciding when case will be retried 18.98
      • 2. Reinstate case to trial calendar 18.99
      • 3. Order not appealable 18.100
    • H. When motion denied
      • 1. Appellate review from judgment 18.101
      • 2. Waiver on appeal 18.102
  • VIII. MOTION TO AMEND PLEADINGS TO CONFORM TO PROOF
    • A. Checklist: Procedures for making or opposing motion 18.103
    • B. Nature of motion
      • 1. Amendments liberally granted during trial 18.104
      • 2. Denial of amendments that raise new issues after close of evidence 18.105
    • C. Curing immaterial variances
      • 1. Showing no prejudice to other party 18.106
      • 2. General rule: Amendments limited to causes of action in complaint 18.107
      • 3. Exception: New causes of action permitted when based on same set of facts 18.108
    • D. Curing material variances
      • 1. Variance has misled other party 18.109
      • 2. Ordering continuance (recess) or vacating submission of court case; waiver 18.110
    • E. Failure of proof 18.111
    • F. Timing
      • 1. Motion may be granted at any time 18.112
      • 2. Making timely motion; tactics 18.113
      • 3. Conforming pleadings to proof after judgment 18.114
    • G. Procedures for moving party
      • 1. Methods of amending pleadings 18.115
      • 2. Oral motion: Submit written amendment 18.116
      • 3. Arguing motion 18.117
    • H. Procedures for opposing party
      • 1. Before motion made: Object on grounds of relevancy or move for nonsuit 18.118
      • 2. Failure to challenge variance; waiver 18.119
      • 3. Arguing against motion when made; grounds 18.120
    • I. Effect of granting motion
      • 1. Opposing party's request to produce evidence 18.121
      • 2. Granting opposing party continuance and costs 18.122
      • 3. Abuse of discretion test on appeal 18.123
  • IX. FORMS
    • A. Motion for nonsuit
      • 1. Form: Motion for judgment of nonsuit (CCP §581c) 18.124
      • 2. Form: Judgment of nonsuit (after opening statement) (CCP §581c) 18.125
      • 3. Form: Judgment of nonsuit (after close of evidence) (CCP §581c) 18.126
    • B. Motion for judgment after discharge of jury
      • 1. Form: Notice of motion for judgment (CCP §630(f)) 18.127
      • 2. Form: Order for entry of judgment (CCP §630(f)) 18.128
    • C. Motion for directed verdict
      • 1. Form: Motion for directed verdict (CCP §630) 18.129
      • 2. Form: Judgment on directed verdict (CCP §630) 18.130
    • D. Form: Notice of motion to reopen case (CCP §607(6)) 18.131
    • E. Amending pleadings to conform to proof
      • 1. Form: Motion for leave to amend pleadings to conform to proof 18.132
      • 2. Form: Order granting leave to amend 18.133
      • 3. Form: Amendment to pleading 18.134

19

Closing Argument

Mary E. Alexander

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 19.1
  • II. GENERAL ISSUES
    • A. Right to argue in jury trial; waiver 19.2
    • B. Argument and rebuttal argument
      • 1. Plaintiff's counsel 19.3
      • 2. Defense Counsel 19.4
    • C. Order of argument 19.5
      • 1. Multiple plaintiffs or defendants 19.6
      • 2. When more than one attorney represents a party 19.7
    • D. Argument in bench trials 19.8
  • III. PLANNING AND PREPARING ARGUMENT
    • A. Importance of closing argument 19.9
    • B. Structuring argument 19.10
    • C. Deciding objectives 19.11
    • D. Using visual aids 19.12
    • E. Managing time limits 19.13
  • IV. CONTENT OF CLOSING ARGUMENT
    • A. Statement of case 19.14
    • B. Summary of facts and issues 19.15
    • C. Burden of proof; preponderance of evidence 19.16
    • D. The law
      • 1. Parties' rights and duties 19.17
      • 2. Jury instructions 19.18
    • E. Witness testimony and key evidence
      • 1. Problem witnesses 19.19
      • 2. Damages 19.20
    • F. Verdict form 19.21
    • G. Conclusion: Final five minutes 19.22
  • V. LATITUDE PERMITTED DURING ARGUMENT
    • A. Comment on evidence; inferences 19.23
      • 1. Credibility of witnesses 19.24
      • 2. Opposing party's failure to produce witnesses or other evidence
        • a. When comments are allowed 19.25
        • b. When comments are prohibited
          • (1) Witnesses available to both sides 19.26
          • (2) Exercise of privilege 19.27
      • 3. Evidence admitted for limited purpose 19.28
      • 4. Reading evidence taken at former trial or hearing 19.29
    • B. Discussing the law and jury instructions 19.30
    • C. Referring to matters of common knowledge 19.31
    • D. Reading from books and newspapers 19.32
    • E. Referring to pleadings 19.33
  • VI. TECHNIQUES FOR DELIVERING ARGUMENT
    • A. Demeanor and language 19.34
    • B. Dealing with inattentive jurors 19.35
    • C. Appealing to jury "leaders" 19.36
    • D. Relying on visual aids 19.37
    • E. Using trial transcript 19.38
  • VII. ARGUING DAMAGES IN PERSONAL INJURY TRIALS
    • A. Plaintiff's counsel 19.39
      • 1. Medical expenses 19.40
      • 2. Wage loss
        • a. Past wage loss 19.41
        • b. Impairment of earnings capacity; future wage loss 19.42
      • 3. Physical injuries 19.43
      • 4. Pain and suffering 19.44
        • a. Golden rule argument prohibited 19.45
        • b. Per diem argument permissible 19.46
      • 5. Final remarks on damages 19.47
    • B. Defense counsel 19.48
      • 1. Admitted liability 19.49
      • 2. Doubtful liability 19.50
  • VIII. PROCEDURES FOR OPPOSING PARTY
    • A. Making objections during argument
      • 1. Tactical considerations 19.51
      • 2. Timely objection and request for curative admonition; waiver 19.52
      • 3. How to make objections 19.53
    • B. Moving for mistrial 19.54
    • C. Protecting the record when improper visual aids permitted during closing argument 19.55
  • IX. CHECKLISTS
    • A. Checklist: spotting impermissible arguments 19.56
    • B. Checklist: Grounds for objections during closing argument 19.57

20

Jury Instructions

James A. Richman

  • I. OVERVIEW
    • A. Scope of chapter 20.1
    • B. Checklist: How to draft effective instructions 20.2
    • C. Jury instructions are statements of law 20.3
      • 1. Jury must follow court's proper instructions 20.4
      • 2. Counsel's duty to submit proposed instructions 20.5
      • 3. Waiver for party's failure to submit instructions; exception 20.6
    • D. Parties' right to jury instructions
      • 1. Instructions permitted on all theories of case 20.7
      • 2. Instructions on alternative theories or defenses allowed 20.8
    • E. Tactical considerations
      • 1. Instructions help plan case 20.9
      • 2. Opening statement; prepare jury for key instructions 20.10
      • 3. Final argument: Use exact language of key jury instructions 20.11
  • II. PREPARING FORM INSTRUCTIONS
    • A. What are CACI instructions? 20.12
    • B. Approved form instructions preferred in state court
      • 1. Judicial Council recommends use of CACI 20.13
      • 2. Counsel must complete form instructions properly 20.14
      • 3. Form instructions generally upheld on appeal 20.15
      • 4. Restrictions on certain jury instructions must be observed 20.16
    • C. Procedure for requesting jury instructions
      • 1. Format of request 20.17
      • 2. Number of copies required 20.18
    • D. Modification of form instructions; notification to court required 20.19
  • III. DRAFTING ORIGINAL INSTRUCTIONS
    • A. Format requirements 20.20
    • B. Language of instructions
      • 1. Simple language preferred 20.21
      • 2. Avoid technical language 20.22
      • 3. Gender-neutral language required 20.23
      • 4. Proposed instruction must state law properly 20.24
    • C. Sources of law for jury instructions 20.25
      • 1. Statutes: Verbatim quotations preferred to paraphrasing 20.26
      • 2. Court opinions: Verbatim excerpts not recommended 20.27
      • 3. Miscellaneous: form books, program materials, hornbooks, dictionaries 20.28
    • D. Effect of parties' failure to comply with format and content requirements 20.29
  • IV. ORGANIZING JURY INSTRUCTIONS
    • A. Sequence of instructions
      • 1. Organize instructions in logical order 20.30
      • 2. Judge has discretion to give instructions in particular order 20.31
    • B. Using instructions in the alternative
      • 1. Prepare alternative instructions on important legal issues 20.32
      • 2. Doctrine of invited error may bar alternative instruction 20.33
  • V. TIME REQUIREMENTS
    • A. Time for submission depends on subject matter of instruction 20.34
    • B. Late submission of jury instructions within court's discretion 20.35
    • C. Serving proposed instructions 20.36
  • VI. COURT'S RESPONSIBILITY ON JURY INSTRUCTIONS
    • A. When sua sponte instructions are required
      • 1. Sua sponte defined 20.37
      • 2. Court has discretion to instruct 20.38
      • 3. Form of sua sponte instructions 20.39
    • B. Correcting or modifying erroneous instructions
      • 1. Generally no duty to modify or correct 20.40
      • 2. Exception 20.41
    • C. Hearing and ruling on instructions
      • 1. Court's duties at chambers conference before final argument 20.42
      • 2. Court reporter should be present at chambers conference 20.43
      • 3. Court's refusal of instruction 20.44
        • a. Court need not endorse reason for refusal on instruction 20.45
        • b. Consequences of court's failure to endorse 20.46
    • D. Instructing jury during trial
      • 1. Timing within court's discretion 20.47
      • 2. Before deliberations 20.48
      • 3. During trial 20.49
      • 4. Immediately before final argument 20.50
      • 5. Case examples of reversible error by court relating to jury instructions 20.51
  • VII. REINSTRUCTION OF JURY DURING DELIBERATIONS
    • A. Permitted only if requested by jury 20.52
      • 1. Meet with judge before reinstruction 20.53
      • 2. Court can give omitted instructions sua sponte 20.54
    • B. Court can assist in jury deliberations 20.55
    • C. Counsel's preparation of jury instructions to go to jury room: "Clean" copy preferred 20.56
  • VIII. PREPARING OBJECTIONS TO OPPONENT'S JURY INSTRUCTIONS AND THOSE PREPARED BY THE COURT
    • A. When and how to object 20.57
    • B. Protecting the record 20.58
    • C. Proper documentation of error 20.59
    • D. Objectionable instructions
      • 1. Inaccurate statements of law 20.60
      • 2. Argumentative instructions
        • a. Defined 20.61
        • b. Instruction should state rules of law, not argue evidence 20.62
      • 3. Repetitive instructions
        • a. Defined 20.63
        • b. Reversible error results only if instruction caused prejudice 20.64
      • 4. Formula instructions
        • a. Defined 20.65
        • b. Formula instructions criticized 20.66
        • c. Exception: Formula instruction permitted if certain criteria satisfied 20.67
      • 5. Conflicting or contradictory instructions 20.68
      • 6. Irrelevant instructions 20.69
      • 7. Fact-assuming instructions 20.70
  • IX. CORRECTING INSTRUCTIONAL ERRORS DURING TRIAL
    • A. Erroneous instruction can be corrected by subsequently given correct instruction 20.71
    • B. Incomplete or incorrect instruction can be cured by another instruction 20.72
  • X. INSTRUCTIONAL ERROR ON APPEAL
    • A. Automatic exceptions and objections
      • 1. Defined 20.73
      • 2. Limitations on CCP §647 20.74
    • B. Doctrine of invited error
      • 1. Defined 20.75
      • 2. If proper alternative instructions are requested, doctrine of invited error not a bar 20.76
      • 3. Party may object to own instruction when no instruction should be given 20.77
      • 4. Unidentified instruction constitutes invited error 20.78
    • C. Prejudicial error must be shown
      • 1. Defined 20.79
      • 2. Examples of reversible error based on erroneous instructions 20.80
  • XI. JURY INSTRUCTION FORMS
    • A. Form: Sample request for jury instructions and index 20.81
    • B. Form: Sample CACI instruction 20.82
    • C. Form: Sample special instruction 20.83

21

Jury Deliberations

Stephanie L. Berman

Stephen A. McFeely

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 21.1
  • II. LOGISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • A. Custody of jury during deliberations 21.2
    • B. Location and schedule for deliberations 21.3
    • C. Service providers appointed for jurors with disabilities 21.4
    • D. Payment for jury's meals; recovery of costs for meals 21.5
    • E. Smoking prohibited 21.6
    • F. Outside communications discouraged
      • 1. Using cellular telephones 21.7
      • 2. Using beepers 21.8
  • III. JURY'S DELIBERATIVE PROCESS
    • A. Jury chooses foreperson 21.9
    • B. Disposition of alternates 21.10
    • C. Judge admonishes jury at separations 21.11
    • D. Counsel may stipulate to streamline deliberations 21.12
    • E. Jurors must deliberate with open minds 21.13
    • F. Length of deliberations varies; jury deadlock 21.14
  • IV. WHEN JUROR ABSENT OR ILL, OR GOOD CAUSE FOR DISCHARGE
    • A. All jurors must be present to deliberate 21.15
    • B. When court may discharge juror 21.16
    • C. Hearing to determine good cause to discharge 21.17
    • D. Review factors affecting court's willingness to discharge
      • 1. When juror ill 21.18
      • 2. Discharge for other reasons 21.19
  • V. WHEN ALTERNATE JUROR MUST BE USED
    • A. How chosen 21.20
    • B. Deliberations must begin anew 21.21
    • C. Possible actions if alternate juror unavailable 21.22
    • D. Continuing with less than full jury 21.23
  • VI. WHEN JURORS REQUEST INFORMATION DURING DELIBERATIONS
    • A. Jury requests information through bailiff or designated court officer 21.24
    • B. When jurors request that testimony be reread 21.25
    • C. When instructions may be reread and further instructions added 21.26
    • D. Requests to view the scene will be rejected 21.27
    • E. Requests for collateral aids will be rejected 21.28
  • VII. WHEN JURORS REQUEST MATERIALS IN JURY ROOM DURING DELIBERATIONS
    • A. Materials Allowed
      • 1. Documents or exhibits admitted into evidence 21.29
      • 2. Juror's notes and juror-drawn diagrams 21.30
      • 3. Jury instructions allowed if sanitized 21.31
    • B. Materials not allowed
      • 1. Deposition transcripts or videotapes 21.32
      • 2. Pleadings not received into evidence 21.33
      • 3. Other items not permitted in jury room 21.34
  • VIII. JURY MISCONDUCT DURING DELIBERATIONS
    • A. Conducting improper experiments 21.35
    • B. Improper communications during deliberations 21.36
    • C. Resorting to chance or using quotient to arrive at verdict 21.37
    • D. Improper calculations to include attorney fees 21.38
    • E. Consumption of alcohol may be misconduct 21.39
    • F. Discussion of improper topics 21.40
    • G. Mistakes in law by jurors 21.41
    • H. Misconduct to show bias 21.42
    • I. When smoking by jurors a problem 21.43
  • IX. CHECKLIST: REMEDIES FOR MISCONDUCT DURING DELIBERATIONS 21.44

22

Verdicts

Arthur L. Sherwood

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 22.1
  • II. GENERAL AND SPECIAL VERDICTS
    • A. Authority; definitions 22.2
    • B. Compared with judgment 22.3
    • C. General verdicts
      • 1. Without special findings 22.4
      • 2. With special findings 22.5
    • D. Special verdicts; required for punitive damages 22.6
    • E. Written verdicts required 22.7
  • III. PREPARING VERDICT FORMS
    • A. Checklist 22.8
    • B. Procedures 22.9
      • 1. Submission and Service 22.10
      • 2. Timing 22.11
    • C. Drafting considerations
      • 1. General verdicts
        • a. Without special findings 22.12
        • b. With special findings 22.13
      • 2. Special verdicts 22.14
    • D. Tactical issues; when to use
      • 1. General verdicts
        • a. Without special findings 22.15
        • b. With special findings 22.16
      • 2. Special verdicts 22.17
  • IV. OBJECTING TO FORM OF VERDICT
    • A. When to object: Chambers conference 22.18
    • B. How to preserve record; waiver 22.19
  • V. RETURN OF VERDICT
    • A. Delivery of verdict 22.20
      • 1. Number of jurors needed for verdict 22.21
      • 2. Polling jury; waiver 22.22
    • B. Entry of verdict in minutes 22.23
  • VI. DEFECTIVE VERDICTS
    • A. Internal inconsistencies in verdict 22.24
    • B. Special findings inconsistent with general verdict
      • 1. Judgment must be in accord with special findings 22.25
      • 2. Procedures for entering judgment on findings 22.26
    • C. Partial verdict 22.27
    • D. Irregularities and ambiguities 22.28
    • E. Curing defective verdict
      • 1. Judge's clarification of verdict 22.29
      • 2. Jury's reconsideration of verdict 22.30
      • 3. Procedures; waiver 22.31
    • F. Impeaching improper verdict 22.32
    • G. Judicial interest in upholding verdicts 22.33
  • VII. FORMS: VERDICTS AND JURY INSTRUCTIONS ON VERDICTS 22.34
    • A. General verdicts without special findings
      • 1. Form: Jury instruction 22.35
      • 2. Form: General verdict form (CACI VF-5000—two-party lawsuit, single cause of action) 22.36
      • 3. Form: General verdict (one plaintiff, two defendants, cross-complaint) 22.37
    • B. General verdicts with special findings
      • 1. Form: Jury instruction 22.38
      • 2. Form: Special findings on general verdict 22.39
    • C. Special verdicts
      • 1. Sample Form: Jury instruction (CACI 5012) 22.40
      • 2. Form: Special verdict 22.41

23

Judgments

Richard A. Fond

Ellen R. Rosen

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER
    • A. Judgment after trial 23.1
    • B. Ways to obtain judgment with or without trial 23.2
  • II. DISTINGUISHING TYPES OF JUDGMENTS FROM OTHER SIMILAR RULINGS
    • A. Final and interlocutory judgments, appealable 23.3
    • B. Conditional, alternative, and deficiency judgments 23.4
    • C. Separate judgments and "single judgment" rule 23.5
  • III. SUBSTANTIVE FACTORS AFFECTING VALIDITY AND ENFORCEABILITY OF JUDGMENTS
    • A. Lack of jurisdiction 23.6
    • B. Death or dissolution of party
      • 1. Before action 23.7
      • 2. During action, before judgment 23.8
      • 3. After judgment 23.9
    • C. Bankruptcy proceedings 23.10
    • D. Death or disability of judge 23.11
    • E. Disqualification of judge 23.12
  • IV. FORMAL REQUIREMENTS AFFECTING VALIDITY AND ENFORCEABILITY OF JUDGMENTS
    • A. Basic requirement of certainty 23.13
    • B. Avoid incorporation of documents by reference 23.14
    • C. Additional requirements for special types of judgments
      • 1. Injunctions 23.15
      • 2. Recovery of property 23.16
      • 3. Installment judgments 23.17
    • D. Judgments rendered by temporary judges or commissioners 23.18
  • V. ENTRY OF JUDGMENT
    • A. Entry as clerical act 23.19
    • B. Procedures in jury trial 23.20
      • 1. Time requirements for entry 23.21
      • 2. Judgment on special verdict 23.22
    • C. Procedures after bench trial 23.23
      • 1. When statement of decision requested 23.24
      • 2. When statement of decision not requested or waived 23.25
      • 3. Drafting proposed judgment 23.26
    • D. Judge's signature required 23.27
    • E. Notice of entry of judgment 23.28
  • VI. CORRECTING AND MODIFYING JUDGMENTS
    • A. Power to correct clerical mistakes but not judicial error 23.29
    • B. Correction of errors nunc pro tunc 23.30
    • C. Modification to bind alter ego of judgment debtor 23.31
  • VII. EFFECT OF ENTRY OF JUDGMENT ON SUBSEQUENT PROCEEDINGS
    • A. Effect on enforcing judgment against defendants: Joint and several judgments 23.32
    • B. Effect on motion for new trial 23.33
    • C. Effect on filing of appeal 23.34
    • D. Res judicata and collateral estoppel effect 23.35
    • E. Duration and renewal measured from entry 23.36
  • VIII. REGISTRATION OF SISTER STATE JUDGMENT 23.36A
  • IX. FORMS
    • A. Form: Judgment on verdict in jury trial 23.37
    • B. Form: Judgment after bench trial 23.38
    • C. Form: Alternative judgment for plaintiff in bench trial 23.39
    • D. Form: Notice of entry of judgment or order (Judicial Council Form CIV-130) 23.40
    • E. Form: Application for entry of judgment on sister-state judgment (Judicial Council Form EJ-105) 23.41
    • F. Form: Notice of entry of judgment on sister-state judgment (Judicial Council Form EJ-110) 23.42

24

Bench Trials

Susan T. Kumagai

Gary T. Lafayette

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 24.1
  • II. GENERAL ISSUES
    • A. When bench trial required 24.2
    • B. Tactical considerations 24.3
    • C. Judge's role
      • 1. Fact-finding function 24.4
      • 2. Taking judicial notice 24.5
      • 3. Viewing evidence outside courtroom 24.6
  • III. TRIAL PROCEDURES
    • A. Order of proof 24.7
    • B. Submitting trial briefs 24.8
    • C. Chambers conference 24.9
    • D. Objecting to evidence 24.10
    • E. Making trial motions 24.11
    • F. Closing argument at court's discretion 24.12
    • G. Reopening case 24.13
  • IV. MOTION FOR JUDGMENT
    • A. Checklist: Procedures for making or opposing motion for judgment 24.14
    • B. Nature of motion
      • 1. Any party can move for judgment 24.15
      • 2. Purpose: to eliminate need to present own evidence 24.16
      • 3. Compared with nonsuit or new trial motions 24.17
    • C. Judge's ruling
      • 1. Duty to weigh evidence 24.18
      • 2. Judge can consider any party's evidence 24.19
      • 3. Granting partial judgment 24.20
      • 4. Deferring the ruling 24.21
    • D. Timing 24.22
    • E. Procedures for moving party
      • 1. Oral motion 24.23
      • 2. Written motion with supporting memorandum 24.24
    • F. Procedures for opposing party 24.25
    • G. Effect of granting motion
      • 1. Adjudication on merits 24.26
      • 2. Statement of decision required 24.27
      • 3. Entry of judgment; Costs 24.28
      • 4. Substantial evidence test on appeal 24.29
  • V. TENTATIVE DECISION
    • A. Required after bench trial 24.30
    • B. Function of tentative decision 24.31
    • C. Tentative decision may be oral or written 24.32
    • D. Tentative decision in municipal courts [Deleted] 24.33
  • VI. STATEMENT OF DECISION
    • A. Requesting statement of decision 24.34
      • 1. Time limit 24.35
      • 2. Written request advisable 24.36
    • B. Trials concluded in 1 day: Statement of decision may be oral 24.37
    • C. Trials longer than 1 day
      • 1. Who prepares statement 24.38
      • 2. Parties' proposals on content 24.39
      • 3. Time limit for preparing statement 24.40
      • 4. Proposed judgment also required 24.41
      • 5. Failure to timely submit statement 24.42
      • 6. Written statement advisable 24.43
    • D. Contents 24.44
    • E. Objections 24.45
    • F. Hearing 24.46
    • G. Court's signing and filing 24.47
    • H. Effect in bifurcated trial 24.48
    • I. Modifying or vacating statement of decision 24.49
    • J. Appellate review: Statement that does not resolve principal issues 24.50
  • VII. NO STATEMENT OF DECISION
    • A. Procedures when statement of decision not requested or waived 24.51
    • B. When party is not entitled to statement of decision 24.52
  • VIII. FORMS
    • A. Form: Motion for judgment under CCP §631.8 24.53
    • B. Form: Judgment on motion under CCP §631.8 24.54

25

Motions After Trial

John S. Gilmore

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 25.1
  • II. MOTION FOR JUDGMENT NOTWITHSTANDING THE VERDICT (JNOV)
    • A. Description and use
      • 1. Motion for JNOV tests sufficiency of evidence presented during trial 25.2
      • 2. Motion for directed verdict not required beforehand 25.3
      • 3. Who can move for JNOV 25.4
    • B. Grounds for motion
      • 1. Jury verdict not supported by substantial evidence 25.5
      • 2. No other reasonable conclusion may be drawn from evidence; judge cannot weigh evidence 25.6
      • 3. Genuine verdict required 25.7
        • a. When verdict defective 25.8
        • b. Motion for judgment under CCP §630(f) 25.9
    • C. Procedures
      • 1. Move for JNOV and new trial at same time 25.10
      • 2. All issues must be determined before motion may be made in bifurcated trial 25.11
      • 3. Written motion required 25.12
      • 4. Time requirements 25.13
      • 5. Motion made by court subject to different filing and notice requirements 25.14
    • D. Trial judge's ruling on motion
      • 1. After deadline for filing and serving new trial motion 25.15
      • 2. Before time to rule on new trial motion expires 25.16
      • 3. Process judgment form without delay 25.17
      • 4. Order granting JNOV may be limited to certain issues 25.18
    • E. Review on appeal
      • 1. Merits of ruling on motion can be reached on appeal from judgment 25.19
      • 2. Judgments notwithstanding the verdict are frequently reversed 25.20
      • 3. Denial of motion will be upheld on appeal if substantial evidence supports verdict 25.21
  • III. MOTION FOR NEW TRIAL
    • A. Description and use
      • 1. Motion appropriate only if injustice occurred 25.22
      • 2. Compared with motion for JNOV 25.23
      • 3. Partial new trial 25.24
      • 4. Motion in bifurcated trial 25.25
    • B. Grounds for motion 25.26
      • 1. Irregularity in proceedings or abuse of discretion (CCP §657(1)) 25.27
        • a. Prompt objection to impropriety may cure prejudicial effect and avoid waiver 25.28
        • b. New trial proper after flagrant misconduct even when party failed to object 25.29
      • 2. Jury misconduct (CCP §657(2))
        • a. Jury misconduct raises rebuttable presumption of prejudice 25.30
        • b. Appellate review of entire record may rebut presumption of prejudice 25.31
        • c. Waiver for failure to advise court of jury impropriety 25.32
      • 3. Accident or surprise (CCP §657(3))
        • a. Unexpected condition, diligence, and prejudice required 25.33
        • b. Disfavored ground 25.34
        • c. Case examples 25.35
      • 4. Newly discovered evidence (CCP §657(4))
        • a. Evidence must be likely to produce different result 25.36
        • b. Ground disfavored 25.37
      • 5. Excessive or inadequate damages (CCP §657(5))
        • a. Conditional order for new trial may be granted 25.38
        • b. Court has duty to weigh evidence 25.39
        • c. Motion may be granted on issue of damages when liability correctly determined 25.40
        • d. Use of remittitur to reduce excessive damages limited 25.41
        • e. Appellate court may review conditional order under CCP §662.5 25.42
        • f. Denial of motion difficult to overturn 25.43
      • 6. Insufficiency of evidence (CCP §657(6))
        • a. Court must reweigh evidence 25.44
        • b. Order granting motion on this ground usually affirmed on appeal 25.45
      • 7. Verdict or decision against law (CCP §657(6))
        • a. Same test as for directed verdict and motion for JNOV 25.46
        • b. Court may not reweigh evidence 25.47
      • 8. Error in law (CCP §657(7))
        • a. Motion granted only when court's rulings in error 25.48
        • b. Waiver for failure to assert error of law 25.49
      • 9. Inability to obtain transcript (CCP §§657.1, 914) 25.50
    • C. Tactical considerations 25.51
    • D. Time requirements
      • 1. When notice of intention to move for new trial must be filed 25.52
      • 2. When court must rule on motion 25.53
      • 3. Prematurely filed notice has no effect 25.54
      • 4. Court's specification of reasons to be filed after ruling 25.55
      • 5. Time limits are jurisdictional 25.56
    • E. Procedures
      • 1. Checklist: Motion for new trial 25.57
      • 2. Preparing the motion
        • a. Notice of intention to move for new trial must state grounds 25.58
        • b. Brief and accompanying documents must be filed within 10 days after notice is filed 25.59
      • 3. Supporting affidavits or declarations
        • a. When required 25.60
        • b. Must be filed within 10 days after notice is filed 25.61
        • c. Jury irregularity or misconduct declarations may not reflect subjective reasoning 25.62
        • d. When jury declarations necessary 25.63
    • F. Hearing (CCP §661) 25.64
    • G. Trial judge's ruling on motion 25.65
      • 1. Statement of grounds 25.66
      • 2. Specification of reasons 25.67
    • H. Review on appeal
      • 1. Order granting motion 25.68
      • 2. Order denying motion 25.69
      • 3. Party prevailing on motion should file cross-appeal 25.70
      • 4. When moving party should appeal original judgment 25.71
  • IV. MOTION TO SET ASIDE AND VACATE JUDGMENT
    • A. Description and use; grounds
      • 1. Appropriate when original judgment is contrary to facts found by court or jury 25.72
      • 2. Party's substantial rights must be materially affected 25.73
      • 3. Moving party need not be original party to action 25.74
    • B. Procedures
      • 1. Noticed motion required 25.75
      • 2. Timing 25.76
    • C. Trial judge's ruling; appeal 25.77
  • V. MOTION TO CORRECT CLERICAL ERROR
    • A. Description and use; grounds
      • 1. Motion appropriate to conform record to actual judgment or order 25.78
      • 2. Motion may not be granted to remedy judicial error 25.79
    • B. Procedures
      • 1. Timing: Clerical error may be corrected at any time 25.80
      • 2. Notice 25.81
      • 3. Nunc pro tunc orders 25.82
    • C. Trial judge's ruling; appeal 25.83
  • VI. SPECIAL POSTJUDGMENT MOTIONS
    • A. Postjudgment procedures involving public entities
      • 1. Settlement conference may be held after judgment 25.84
      • 2. Posttrial order may regulate payment of awards 25.85
    • B. Posttrial motions in medical malpractice actions
      • 1. Medical malpractice damages subject to periodic payments 25.86
      • 2. Postverdict motion may reduce damages 25.87
    • C. Writ of error coram vobis 25.88
    • D. Writ of error coram nobis 25.89
  • VII. FORMS
    • A. Motion for JNOV
      • 1. Form: Notice of Motion for JNOV (CCP §629) 25.90
      • 2. Form: Order Granting or Denying JNOV (CCP §629) 25.91
    • B. Motion for new trial
      • 1. Form: Notice of intention to move for new trial (jury trial) (CCP §§657–661) 25.92
      • 2. Form: Notice of intention to move for new trial (bench trial) (CCP §§657–662) 25.93
      • 3. Form: Order granting motion for new trial 25.94
      • 4. Form: Order denying motion for new trial 25.95
    • C. Motion to vacate judgment and enter different judgment
      • 1. Form: Notice of motion to vacate judgment and enter different judgment (CCP §663) 25.96
      • 2. Form: Order granting motion to vacate judgment and enter different judgment (jury's special verdict) (CCP §663) 25.97
      • 3. Form: Order granting motion to vacate judgment and enter different judgment (court's statement of decision) (CCP §663) 25.98
    • D. Motion to correct clerical error
      • 1. Form: Notice of motion to correct clerical error (CCP §473) 25.99
      • 2. Form: Order granting motion to correct clerical error (CCP §473) 25.100

26

Recovering Attorney Fees

Steven Evans Kirby

Paul J. Neibergs

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 26.1
  • II. REVIEW GENERAL GROUNDS FOR RECOVERY
    • A. General provisions 26.2
    • B. In federal court or under federal law 26.3
  • III. WHEN RECOVERY PROVIDED BY STATUTE 26.4
    • A. Court usually awards fees to prevailing party 26.5
    • B. General retroactive effect 26.6
    • C. Same rule governing cost awards generally applies 26.7
    • D. Recovery statute applies to trial court proceedings and appellate court proceedings 26.8
    • E. Apportionment and liability among losing parties 26.9
    • F. When constitutional issue of equal protection of law raised 26.10
  • IV. RECOVERY OF ATTORNEY FEES BASED ON BAD FAITH ACTIONS OR TACTICS UNDER CCP §128.5
    • A. Effective dates; applicability 26.11
    • B. Application of CCP §128.5
      • 1. Actions or tactics 26.12
      • 2. Frivolous 26.13
    • C. When sanctions may be awarded
      • 1. In judicial arbitration and other judicial proceedings 26.14
      • 2. Against public entities [Deleted] 26.15
      • 3. After plaintiff dismisses case [Deleted] 26.16
      • 4. Assessed as punitive damages [Deleted] 26.17
    • D. Court will review subjective bad faith [Deleted] 26.18
      • 1. If entire action or defense in bad faith [Deleted] 26.19
      • 2. If action filed or maintained in bad faith [Deleted] 26.20
    • E. Who can be sanctioned [Deleted] 26.21
    • F. Notice and opportunity to be heard are required [Deleted] 26.22
    • G. Standing to bring motion [Deleted] 26.23
    • H. Requirements for the order
      • 1. Must be specific 26.24
      • 2. Written order required [Deleted] 26.25
    • I. Amount of fees awardable [Deleted] 26.26
    • J. Period for which fees awarded [Deleted] 26.27
    • K. Appealability of award [Deleted] 26.28
    • L. Examples of proper sanction awards under CCP §128.5 [Deleted] 26.29
    • M. Examples of improper sanction awards under CCP §128.5 [Deleted] 26.30
    • N. Guidelines for amount of award [Deleted] 26.31
  • V. RECOVERY OF ATTORNEY FEES BASED ON BAD FAITH ACTIONS OR TACTICS UNDER CCP §128.7
    • A. Purpose of statute 26.32
    • B. Effective for complaints or proceedings filed on or after January 1, 1995 26.33
    • C. Look to federal decisions for interpretation 26.34
    • D. Requirements for signing 26.35
    • E. Certification requirements 26.36
    • F. Reasonable inquiry required 26.37
    • G. Sanctions are discretionary 26.38
    • H. Frivolous motion for sanctions is also subject to sanction 26.39
    • I. Discovery not covered 26.40
    • J. Procedure for bringing motion for sanctions
      • 1. Separate motion required 26.41
      • 2. No time period specified 26.42
      • 3. Motion must be specific 26.43
      • 4. General serving and filing requirements 26.44
    • K. Court may initiate order to show cause 26.45
    • L. Court must describe violation 26.46
    • M. Scope of sanctions allowed 26.47
    • N. Expenses and fees for motion may be awarded 26.48
    • O. Limitations on sanctions 26.49
    • P. Who may be sanctioned 26.50
    • Q. Court may assess punitive damages 26.51
    • R. Appeal of sanction 26.52
    • S. Order denying sanctions 26.53
  • VI. RECOVERY OF ATTORNEY FEES UNDER THE CIVIL RIGHTS ATTORNEY'S FEES AWARDS ACT OF 1976 (42 USC §1988) 26.54
    • A. Award need not be proportionate to amount of damages 26.55
    • B. Adjustment for delay in payment 26.56
    • C. If contingent fee agreement 26.57
    • D. Using time records 26.58
    • E. When settlement agreement 26.59
    • F. Applies in state court 26.60
  • VII. AWARD OF ATTORNEY FEES UNDER PRIVATE ATTORNEY GENERAL RULE (CCP §1021.5)
    • A. What it is 26.61
    • B. When it applies 26.62
    • C. Pre-litigation attempt to enforce important right 26.63
    • D. Prevailing party 26.64
    • E. Causation 26.65
    • F. Vindication of important right 26.66
    • G. Significant public benefit
      • 1. Several factors considered 26.67
      • 2. Examples 26.68
    • H. Private benefit and burden 26.69
    • I. Whether private action necessary 26.70
    • J. Applicability beyond injunction or damage actions 26.71
      • 1. Criminal proceedings 26.72
      • 2. Administrative proceedings 26.73
    • K. Appellate court can determine or remand on applicability of CCP §1021.5 26.74
    • L. Appealability 26.75
    • M. Procedure 26.76
  • VIII. WHEN RECOVERY PROVIDED BY CONTRACT
    • A. General interpretation of provisions 26.77
    • B. No waiver of attorney fees 26.78
    • C. Fee award provision applies to entire contract 26.79
    • D. Retroactivity of amendments 26.80
    • E. Both sides benefit from provisions 26.81
    • F. Purpose of CC §1717 26.82
    • G. Applies to reciprocal fee clauses 26.83
    • H. Applicability of CC §1717 to contracts with comprehensive or limited fee clauses 26.84
    • I. Examples of typical actions under CC §1717
      • 1. Express or implied warranties 26.85
      • 2. When case includes cause of action for which award of fees not proper 26.86
      • 3. If contract illegal 26.87
      • 4. Eviction or unlawful detainer 26.88
      • 5. Promissory note 26.89
      • 6. When contract found unenforceable as to a party 26.90
      • 7. In case of arbitration 26.91
      • 8. If attorney chooses to litigate in propria persona 26.92
      • 9. If prevailing party's fees paid by insurance carrier 26.93
    • J. Fees awarded to party prevailing on contract
      • 1. Court determines 26.94
      • 2. If damages awarded on causes of action not on contract 26.95
      • 3. When cross-complaint 26.96
      • 4. When no prevailing party 26.97
      • 5. Award on appeal 26.98
      • 6. When multiple agreements 26.99
    • K. Only a party under CC §1717 awarded fees
      • 1. Guidelines ambiguous 26.100
      • 2. If noncontracting party involved 26.101
        • a. Real estate broker 26.102
        • b. Competing lienholders to property 26.103
        • c. Action to remove cloud on title to trust property 26.104
        • d. Property conveyed to third person 26.105
        • e. Recovery of fees when lender does not sign subcontract 26.106
      • 3. Expanded concept of prevailing parties
        • a. Nonsignatory defendant may be entitled to attorney fees 26.107
        • b. Fees may be awarded to litigant benefiting from result of judgment between other contracting litigants 26.108
      • 4. Actions on book accounts 26.109
        • a. Exempt parties 26.110
        • b. Fee limits 26.111
    • L. Fees incurred to enforce judgment 26.112
  • IX. RECOVERY OF ATTORNEY FEES UNDER EQUITABLE THEORIES
    • A. Common fund doctrine
      • 1. What it is 26.113
      • 2. When it applies 26.114
      • 3. Examples of actions in which common fund doctrine applies 26.115
      • 4. Grounds for denying application of doctrine 26.116
    • B. Substantial benefit theory
      • 1. What it is
        • a. Characterized as outgrowth of common fund doctrine 26.117
        • b. Purpose is to prevent unjust enrichment 26.118
      • 2. When it applies 26.119
      • 3. Examples of actions applying substantial benefit theory 26.120
  • X. RECOVERY OF ATTORNEY FEES AS DAMAGES
    • A. When recoverable as damages 26.121
    • B. When not recoverable as damages 26.122
    • C. Recovery for breach of insurer's duty of good faith and fair dealing 26.123
    • D. Recovery for tort of another or third party tort
      • 1. What it is and when it applies 26.124
      • 2. When damages may not be appropriate or the doctrine does not apply 26.125
    • E. Recovery in other actions 26.126
  • XI. FEE AWARDS BASED ON EXPRESS OR IMPLIED INDEMNITY CLAIMS
    • A. Fee award when contractual indemnity 26.127
    • B. Fee award when implied indemnity 26.128
    • C. Fee award when good faith settlement agreement involved 26.129
    • D. Recoverability of fees for obtaining indemnification 26.130
  • XII. DETERMINING AMOUNT OF AWARD
    • A. Fees must be reasonable 26.131
      • 1. Factors court considers in determining reasonableness 26.132
      • 2. Preserving issue of reasonableness 26.133
      • 3. If contingency fee agreement 26.134
    • B. Determining fees under federal law 26.135
    • C. When no actual expenses incurred 26.136
    • D. If attorney fees exceed amount in controversy 26.137
    • E. Fees need not be apportioned 26.138
    • F. Jurisdictional limitation in limited civil cases 26.139
    • G. Special rules for determining awards based on particular theories 26.140
    • H. If award based on cost bill or motion 26.141
    • I. Appealability of award 26.142
  • XIII. REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR RECOVERING ATTORNEY FEES
    • A. Pleading considerations 26.143
    • B. Settling fee claims 26.144
    • C. Relationship to judgment 26.145
    • D. General procedures for claiming attorney fees
      • 1. Under California Rules of Court 26.146
      • 2. Awards based on statute 26.147
      • 3. Awards based on contract 26.148
      • 4. Awards based on equitable theories 26.149
      • 5. Awards based on indemnification 26.150
    • E. Fee motion procedure 26.151
    • F. Fees for appellate services 26.152
    • G. Fees for pressing fee claims 26.153
  • XIV. CHECKLIST: MOTION PROCEDURE 26.154
  • XV. FORMS AND DOCUMENTS USED IN FEE MOTIONS 26.155

27

Recovering Costs and Obtaining Interest

Steven Evans Kirby

Paul J. Neibergs

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER
    • A. Recovering costs 27.1
    • B. Obtaining interest 27.2
  • II. RIGHT TO RECOVER COSTS IS STATUTORY 27.3
    • A. Primary governing statutes 27.4
    • B. Recovery governed by statute in effect at time right accrues 27.5
    • C. Judgment must be final to recover 27.6
    • D. Court may award costs when settlement agreement silent 27.7
  • III. PREVAILING PARTY ENTITLED TO COSTS
    • A. Cost recovery matter of right for prevailing party 27.8
      • 1. Costs recoverable for action or proceeding 27.9
      • 2. Parties and pleadings defined 27.10
      • 3. Prevailing party defined 27.11
      • 4. When court will determine prevailing party 27.12
    • B. Examples of prevailing parties
      • 1. Party with net monetary recovery
        • a. Based on final judgment 27.13
        • b. When damages offset 27.14
      • 2. Party in whose favor dismissal is entered
        • a. When voluntary dismissal 27.15
        • b. When dismissal result of parties' settlement 27.15A
        • c. When intervention involved 27.16
      • 3. In cross-complaint when neither plaintiff nor defendant prevails 27.17
      • 4. Defendant may be prevailing party if plaintiffs do not recover 27.18
  • IV. EXAMPLES OF RECOVERABLE COSTS SPECIFIED BY STATUTE 27.19
    • A. Trespass actions 27.20
    • B. Eminent domain proceedings 27.21
    • C. Inverse condemnation proceedings 27.22
    • D. Actions to recover wages for labor performed 27.23
    • E. Eviction costs in unlawful detainer proceedings 27.24
    • F. Defense costs in actions against public entities 27.25
    • G. Under judicial (court-ordered) arbitration 27.26
    • H. When judgment in trial de novo not more favorable to requesting party 27.27
    • I. Partition actions 27.28
    • J. Unsuccessful actions to enjoin public improvement of utility 27.29
    • K. Actions to review removal proceedings against permanent school employees [Deleted] 27.30
    • L. Actions brought by personal representatives, trustees, or agents 27.31
    • M. Drug house abatement actions 27.31A
    • N. Public Records Act proceedings 27.31B
  • V. WHEN COST RECOVERY IS DISCRETIONARY
    • A. Court determines prevailing party 27.32
    • B. Court may apportion costs 27.33
    • C. Parties may stipulate to payment of costs 27.34
    • D. Plaintiff may not recover costs if no net monetary recovery 27.35
    • E. When judgment could have been rendered in limited civil case or within jurisdictional limits of small claims court
      • 1. Judgment in unlimited civil cases 27.36
      • 2. Judgment in limited civil cases 27.37
    • F. Applicant may be required to pay costs of trial postponement 27.38
    • G. Costs may be awarded in bad faith actions 27.39
    • H. Cost awards in equitable indemnity actions 27.40
    • I. Costs may be awarded in interpleader actions 27.41
    • J. Costs may be awarded for judgment notwithstanding the verdict 27.42
    • K. Costs may be awarded for injunctive relief 27.43
    • L. State or county may recover costs 27.44
    • M. Costs may be awarded to small business or licensee 27.45
    • N. Defendant recovers costs when tender and deposit made in action to recover money 27.46
  • VI. STATUTES REQUIRING SHARING OR PROHIBITING COST RECOVERY
    • A. Costs not allowed in disclaimer of title actions 27.47
    • B. Costs not allowed in submission of controversy without action: Agreed case 27.48
    • C. Costs shared in contractual arbitration 27.49
    • D. Costs shared by primary and excess insurers when personal automobile liability policies involved 27.50
  • VII. WHEN COST AWARD MUST BE REDUCED OR AUGMENTED BASED ON CCP §998 OFFER TO COMPROMISE
    • A. General effect and requirements 27.51
    • B. When defendant's offer not accepted and plaintiff fails to obtain more favorable judgment or award 27.52
      • 1. No distinction between tort and other causes of action 27.53
      • 2. Scope of costs recoverable 27.54
      • 3. Costs recoverable when multiple plaintiffs 27.55
      • 4. Costs recoverable when multiple defendants 27.56
    • C. When plaintiff's offer not accepted and defendant fails to obtain more favorable judgment or award 27.57
    • D. When both parties obtain more favorable judgments 27.58
    • E. Costs recoverable for expert witnesses
      • 1. Costs must be in accord with Govt C §68092.5 27.59
      • 2. Fees collectible even if appeal pending 27.60
      • 3. Award is discretionary 27.61
    • F. Costs recoverable only for offers made in good faith 27.62
    • G. Attorney fees may be recoverable 27.63
    • H. Exception for contractual arbitrations 27.64
    • I. Applicability in structured settlement 27.65
    • J. Special provision for Riverside and San Bernardino counties [deleted] 27.66
  • VIII. COST ITEMS ALLOWED
    • A. General rules 27.67
    • B. Costs allowed 27.68
      • 1. Costs for filing, motion, and jury fees 27.69
      • 2. Costs for jurors' food and lodging 27.70
      • 3. Costs for videotaping and transcribing depositions 27.71
      • 4. Costs for service of process by public officer or registered process server 27.72
      • 5. Costs for attachment, including keeper's fees 27.73
      • 6. Costs for premiums on surety bonds 27.74
      • 7. Costs for ordinary witness fees 27.75
      • 8. Costs for fees of expert witness ordered by court 27.76
      • 9. Costs for transcripts of court-ordered proceedings 27.77
      • 10. Costs for attorney fees 27.78
      • 11. Costs for court reporter fees 27.79
      • 12. Costs for interpreter 27.79A
      • 13. Costs for models, enlargements, and photocopies of exhibits 27.80
      • 14. Costs for electronic service and filing of documents and for hosting of electronic documents 27.80A
      • 15. Costs for other items required to be awarded to prevailing party 27.81
  • IX. COST ITEMS NOT ALLOWED
    • A. Items not allowed by CCP §1033.5(b)
      • 1. Fees for expert witnesses not ordered by court 27.82
      • 2. Investigation expenses 27.83
      • 3. Postage, telephone, and photocopying charges, except for exhibits 27.84
      • 4. Costs for investigating jurors or preparing for voir dire 27.85
      • 5. Costs for transcripts of court proceedings not ordered by court 27.86
    • B. Other cost items not allowed 27.87
  • X. PROCEDURE FOR CLAIMING COSTS
    • A. When to file and serve 27.88
    • B. Verification required 27.89
    • C. Verified memorandum is prima facie evidence of necessary expenses 27.90
    • D. Time to file may be extended
      • 1. By agreement of parties 27.91
      • 2. By court 27.92
    • E. Motion under CCP §473 for relief from failure to request costs 27.93
    • F. Cost bill may be amended 27.94
    • G. When party seeking default requests costs 27.95
    • H. When attorney fees recoverable as costs
      • 1. Costs allowable under statute or contract must be fixed 27.96
      • 2. Burden of proof requirements 27.97
      • 3. Deadline for claiming trial court attorney fees 27.98
      • 4. Deadline for claiming attorney fees on appeal 27.99
      • 5. When attorney fees fixed by formula 27.100
    • I. Court's discretion to include costs later if judgment fails to award costs 27.101
    • J. Appealability of award 27.102
  • XI. MOVING TO STRIKE TAX BILL OR TO TAX COSTS
    • A. When to file and serve 27.103
    • B. Time to file may be extended
      • 1. By agreement of parties 27.104
      • 2. By court 27.105
    • C. Objections must be specified 27.106
    • D. Burden of proof requirements 27.107
    • E. Court may disallow costs 27.108
    • F. Judgment must include costs 27.109
    • G. Postjudgment hearing after timely motion to strike or to tax costs 27.110
    • H. Appealability of order denying motion 27.111
  • XII. OBTAINING INTEREST
    • A. Interest on Judgment
      • 1. Authority for Award of Interest 27.112
      • 2. Interest attaches to money judgment 27.113
      • 3. Interest rate 27.114
      • 4. When interest begins to accrue 27.115
      • 5. When interest stops accruing 27.116
      • 6. Interest not applied retroactively 27.117
      • 7. Interest not cumulatively awarded 27.118
      • 8. Compounding of interest 27.119
      • 9. Right to postjudgment interest 27.120
      • 10. Special rules for interest on condemnation awards 27.121
    • B. Interest on awarded damages 27.122
    • C. Interest as damages 27.123
    • D. Interest on obligation after breach 27.124
    • E. Interest rate under retail installment contracts 27.125
    • F. Waiver of interest 27.126
    • G. Award of prejudgment interest 27.127
  • XIII. FORMS
    • A. Form: Memorandum of Costs (Worksheet) (Judicial Council Form MC-011) 27.128
    • B. Form: Memorandum of Costs (Summary) (Judicial Council Form MC-010) 27.129

CALIFORNIA TRIAL PRACTICE: CIVIL PROCEDURE DURING TRIAL

(3d Edition)

April 2017

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

File Name

Book Section

Title

CH02

Chapter 2

Completing Pretrial Procedures

02-066

§2.66

Checklist: Trial Preparation

CH04

Chapter 4

Compelling Attendance and Production of Evidence

04-056

§4.56

Declaration supporting subpoena duces tecum (CCP §1985)

04-057

§4.57

Sample letter accompanying subpoena or subpoena duces tecum

04-058

§4.58

Acknowledgment of service of subpoena and agreement of witness to appear on call (CCP §1985.1)

04-061

§4.61

Declaration of custodian of records (Evid C §1561(a))

04-062

§4.62

Declaration of person copying records (Evid C §1561(c))

04-063

§4.63

Ex parte application for order to serve concealed witness (CCP §1988)

04-064

§4.64

Supporting declaration of attorney (CCP §1988)

04-065

§4.65

Supporting declaration of process server (CCP §1988)

04-066

§4.66

Order for sheriff to serve concealed witness (CCP §1988)

04-067

§4.67

Notice of motion and motion for removal and production of prisoner at trial (CCP §§1995–1997)

04-068

§4.68

Declaration supporting motion for removal and production of prisoner at trial (CCP §§1995–1997)

04-069

§4.69

Notice to attend trial (CCP §1987(b))

04-070

§4.70

Notice to attend and produce evidence at trial (CCP §1987(b)–(c))

04-071

§4.71

Notice of motion to quash service of subpoena duces tecum (trial) (CCP §§1987.1–1987.2)

04-072

§4.72

Declaration supporting motion to quash subpoena duces tecum (trial) (CCP §§1987.1–1987.2)

04-073

§4.73

Written objections to notice to attend and produce evidence at trial (CCP §1987(c))

CH05

Chapter 5

Preparing Witnesses for Trial

05-097

§5.97

Checklist: Preparing witnesses for trial

05-098

§5.98

Checklist: Instructions to the witness

05-099

§5.99

Checklist: Preparing expert witnesses

CH06

Chapter 6

Court Conferences and Selected Pretrial Motions

06-005

§6.5

Checklist: Questions considered in final conferences

06-110

§6.110

Notice of motion to continue trial

06-111

§6.111

Written statement challenging judge for cause (CCP §170.3(c)(1))

06-112

§6.112

Peremptory challenge and declaration in support of challenge (CCP §170.6)

06-113

§6.113

Consent of client to continued representation by attorney who will testify at trial (Cal Rules of Prof Cond 5–210)

CH07

Chapter 7

Motions in Limine

07-012

§7.12

Checklist: Grounds for motion and examples

07-049

§7.49

Sample motion in limine

CH08

Chapter 8

Jury Selection

08-082

§8.82

Sample juror questions

CH10

Chapter 10

Evidence Overview

10-003

§10.3

Checklist: steps to prepare for evidentiary issues

10-073

§10.73

Checklist: Objections to form of question

CH11

Chapter 11

Examining Witnesses

11-150

§11.150

Checklist: Expert’s qualifications and opinion

CH12

Chapter 12

Effective Use of Discovery

12-135

§12.135

Checklist: Using deposition testimony

12-136

§12.136

Checklist: Special considerations if deposition is audio or video recorded

12-138

§12.138

Checklist: Introducing answers to interrogatories or requests for admission

12-139

§12.139

Sample form: Designation of deposition

CH13

Chapter 13

Trial Exhibits

13-014

§13.14

Checklist: Pretrial preparation

13-019

§13.19

Checklist: Need for custom-made exhibit

13-054

§13.54

Checklist: Procedural steps for establishing foundational facts

13-140

§13.140

Sample exhibit log

13-141

§13.141

Sample stipulation regarding use of documents at trial

CH14

Chapter 14

Judicial Notice, Admissions, and Stipulations

14-054

§14.54

Request for judicial notice at trial (Evid C §§452–453)

14-055

§14.55

Proposed jury instruction regarding judicially noticed matter

CH15

Chapter 15

Making Trial Objections and Protecting the Record

15-069

§15.69

Form: Evidentiary Objections

CH18

Chapter 18

Motions During Trial

18-007

§18.7

Checklist: Procedures for making or opposing motion

18-035

§18.35

Checklist: Procedures for making or opposing motion

18-057

§18.57

Checklist: Procedures for making or opposing motion

18-065

§18.65

Checklist: Procedures for making or opposing motion

18-082

§18.82

Checklist: Procedures for making or opposing motion

18-103

§18.103

Checklist: Procedures for making or opposing motion

18-124

§18.124

Motion for judgment of nonsuit (CCP §581c)

18-125

§18.125

Judgment of nonsuit (after opening statement) (CCP §581c)

18-126

§18.126

Judgment of nonsuit (after close of evidence) (CCP §581c)

18-127

§18.127

Notice of motion for judgment (CCP §630(f))

18-128

§18.128

Order for entry of judgment (CCP §630(f))

18-129

§18.129

Motion for directed verdict (CCP §630)

18-130

§18.130

Judgment on directed verdict (CCP §630)

18-131

§18.131

Notice of motion to reopen case (CCP §607(6))

18-132

§18.132

Motion for leave to amend pleadings to conform to proof

18-133

§18.133

Order granting leave to amend

18-134

§18.134

Amendment to pleading

CH19

Chapter 19

Closing Argument

19-056

§19.56

Checklist: spotting impermissible arguments

19-057

§19.57

Checklist: Grounds for objections during closing argument

CH20

Chapter 20

Jury Instructions

20-002

§20.2

Checklist: How to draft effective instructions

20-081

§20.81

Sample request for jury instructions and index

20-082

§20.82

Sample CACI instruction

20-083

§20.83

Sample special instruction

CH21

Chapter 21

Jury Deliberations

21-044

§21.44

Checklist: Remedies for Misconduct During Deliberations

CH22

Chapter 22

Verdicts

22-008

§22.8

Checklist

22-035

§22.35

Jury instruction

22-036

§22.36

General verdict form (CACI VF-5000—two-party lawsuit, single cause of action)

22-037

§22.37

General verdict (one plaintiff, two defendants, cross-complaint)

22-038

§22.38

Jury instruction

22-039

§22.39

Special findings on general verdict

22-040

§22.40

Sample Form: Jury instruction (CACI 5012)

22-041

§22.41

Special verdict

CH23

Chapter 23

Judgments

23-037

§23.37

Judgment on verdict in jury trial

23-038

§23.38

Judgment after bench trial

23-039

§23.39

Alternative judgment for plaintiff in bench trial

CH24

Chapter 24

Bench Trials

24-014

§24.14

Checklist: Procedures for making or opposing motion for judgment

24-053

§24.53

Motion for judgment under CCP §631.8

24-054

§24.54

Judgment on motion under CCP §631.8

CH25

Chapter 25

Motions After Trial

25-057

§25.57

Checklist: Motion for new trial

25-090

§25.90

Notice of Motion for JNOV (CCP §629)

25-091

§25.91

Order Granting or Denying JNOV (CCP §629)

25-092

§25.92

Notice of intention to move for new trial (jury trial) (CCP §§657–661)

25-093

§25.93

Notice of intention to move for new trial (bench trial) (CCP §§657–662)

25-094

§25.94

Order granting motion for new trial

25-095

§25.95

Order denying motion for new trial

25-096

§25.96

Notice of motion to vacate judgment and enter different judgment (CCP §663)

25-097

§25.97

Order granting motion to vacate judgment and enter different judgment (jury’s special verdict) (CCP §663)

25-098

§25.98

Order granting motion to vacate judgment and enter different judgment (court’s statement of decision) (CCP §663)

25-099

§25.99

Notice of motion to correct clerical error (CCP §473)

25-100

§25.100

Order granting motion to correct clerical error (CCP §473)

CH26

Chapter 26

Recovering Attorney Fees

26-154

§26.154

Checklist: Motion Procedure

 

Selected Developments

April 2017 Update

Jury Trials. As of July 1, 2016, expedited jury trial procedures have generally become mandatory in limited civil cases. Either party may opt out when certain criteria are met, such as when the action includes a claim for punitive damages, or good cause can be shown why more time is needed. See CCP §630.20. The update covers the new expedited trial procedures and forms to request or object to a request to opt out. See §§2.35A–2.35C.

Motions in Limine. Plaintiff's Evid C §352 objection to introduction of evidence was not preserved on appeal when the trial judge made a tentative, not final, ruling on her motion in limine and she failed to renew the objection at trial. Christ v Schwartz (2016) 2 CA5th 440. See §7.42.

Jury Selection. Code of Civil Procedure §231.5, which prohibits the use of peremptory challenges to remove prospective jurors based on certain protected characteristics, was amended to include age, mental or physical disability, medical condition, genetic information, and marital status. See §7.42.

Expert Witnesses. The California Supreme Court clarified that when the basis for an expert's opinion is a "case-specific" out-of-court statement that the expert treats as true, the statement is inadmissible unless a hearsay exception applies. When the basis is "general background" information regarding the expert's general knowledge, the expert may testify about it so long as it is reliable and of a type generally relied on by experts in the field, subject to the court's gatekeeping duty under Sargon. People v Sanchez (2016) 63 C4th 665. See §§5.70, 5.73, 11.134–11.136, 15.63.

In Davis v Honeywell Int'l, Inc. (2016) 245 CA4th 477, an asbestos exposure case, the court of appeal held that an expert witness properly relied on regulatory standards and epidemiological studies to support his opinion on causation. See §11.135.

Evidence. In an action to invalidate a will based on an attorney's fraud or undue influence, the trial court properly admitted evidence of similar behavior involving vulnerable clients as prior bad acts evidence under Evid C §1101(b) showing a common plan or scheme. Butler v LeBouef (2016) 248 CA4th 198. See §10.57.

The Ninth Circuit held that a Google Earth satellite image and digital "tack" labeled with GPS coordinates are not hearsay under the Federal Rules of Evidence. U.S. v Lizarraga-Tirado (9th Cir 2015) 789 F3d 1107. See §13.107A.

Counsel Misconduct. A trial court properly dismissed a personal injury case with prejudice after plaintiff's counsel willfully and repeatedly violated in limine orders excluding evidence. Osborne v Todd Farm Serv. (2016) 247 CA4th 43. See §§7.40, 16.66.

Motions After Trial. The California Supreme Court held in Kabran v Sharp Mem. Hosp. (2017) 2 C5th 330 that the time limit for filing affidavits or declarations in support of a motion for new trial under CCP §659a is not jurisdictional; therefore, the trial court may consider documents filed after the deadline when the nonmoving party fails to object. See §25.61.

If the clerk fails to mail the parties notice of entry of judgment and it appears that one party may move for a new trial, the nonmoving party should serve the notice to start the statutory deadlines running; the jurisdictional clock does not start running until the moving party is served with the notice. Maroney v Iacobsohn (2015) 237 CA4th 473. See §25.52.

In considering a motion for new trial on the ground of excessive damages, the trial court functions as a "thirteenth juror" and has a duty to independently evaluate the evidence. Ryan v Crown Castle NG Networks, Inc. (2016) 6 CA5th 775. See §25.39.

A request to recover prejudgment interest was in a proper format to be considered a motion to modify the decision under CCP §657 and therefore timely despite being filed less than 15 days after judgment. Watson Bowman Acme Corp. v RGW Constr., Inc. (2016) 2 CA5th 279. See §27.122.

After a default judgment was entered, the trial court erred in granting a motion to amend the judgment to add a former corporate officer as a judgment debtor. Wolf Metals, Inc. v Rand Pac. Sales Inc. (2016) 4 CA5th 698. See §23.31.

A reviewing court cannot affirm a new trial order granted on grounds of inadequate damages or insufficiency of the evidence unless the order specifically states it was granted on those grounds. CCP §657; Tun v Wells Fargo Dealer Servs., Inc. (2016) 5 CA5th 309, 329 n8. See §25.66.

Recovering Attorney Fees. The California Supreme Court held that a percentage-of-the-recovery calculation with a lodestar cross-check is permitted in common fund cases. Laffitte v Robert Half Int'l Inc. (2016) 1 C5th 480. See §§26.114–26.115.

A tenants' suit for breach of the warranty of habitability and constructive eviction was an action on the contract entitling them to an award of attorney fees under CC §1717. Hjelm v Prometheus Real Estate Group (2016) 3 CA5th 1155. See §§26.79, 26.86, 26.88, 26.131.

In an eviction action that was dismissed by the landlord, the tenant was entitled to attorney fees despite the bar of CC §1717(b)(2) because the tenant sought fees under a provision of a municipal rent ordinance. Intelligent Investments Corp. v Gonzales (2016) 1 CA5th Supp 1. See §26.88.

The California Supreme Court held that an award of Brandt fees is properly included as compensatory damages for purposes of calculating the ratio between punitive and compensatory damages. Nickerson v Stonebridge Life Ins. Co. (2016) 63 C4th 363. See §26.123.

Recovering Costs. The supreme court in DeSaulles v Community Hosp. (2016) 62 C4th 1140 held that a plaintiff who dismisses an action in exchange for a monetary settlement obtains a "net monetary recovery" within the meaning of CCP §1032(a)(4) and is entitled to costs if the settlement agreement does not address the matter of costs. See §§26.5, 27.7, 27.15.

When less than all of a group of jointly represented parties prevails, CCP §1033.5 requires that costs be apportioned and prohibits an across-the-board reduction based on the number of jointly represented parties. Charton v Harkey (2016) 247 CA4th 730. See §27.33.

An interpleading party was awarded attorney fees and costs incurred until full and final discharge from proceedings, including defense of the discharge against subsequent motions, writ petitions, and appeals. Southern Cal. Gas Co. v Flannery (2016) 5 CA5th 476. See §27.41.

An order denying costs claimed for attorney service charges and a mediation fee was reversed because the trial court failed to consider whether, although unenumerated in CCP §1033.5(c), the costs could be awarded as discretionary under CCP §1033.5(c). Sanford v Rasnick (2016) 246 CA4th 1121. See §27.81.

The trial court properly denied the defendant's motion to tax costs when the CCP §998 offer went beyond the scope of the current litigation and was overbroad. Ignacio v Caracciolo (2016) 2 CA5th 81. See §27.51.

The 2-day filing extension provided by CCP §1010.6 for electronic service applied to extend time for dismissed defendants who filed a notice of entry of judgment with a memorandum of costs. Kahn v The Dewey Group (2015) 240 CA4th 227. See §27.88.

About the Third Edition Authors

MARY E. ALEXANDER received her B.A. degree in 1969 from the University of Iowa, her M.P.H. degree in 1975 from the University of California, Berkeley, and her J.D. degree in 1982 from the University of Santa Clara. Ms. Alexander, of Cartwright, Bokelman, Borowsky, Moore, Harris, Alexander & Gruen, Inc., in San Francisco, specializes in medical malpractice, product liability, and toxic chemical litigation. She is the author of chapter 19.

STEPHANIE L. BERMAN received her B.A. degree in 1987 from the University of Michigan and her J.D. degree in 1991 from George Washington University. Ms. Berman, of Crosby, Heafey, Roach & May in Oakland, specializes in commercial litigation and product liability, and is an author of chapter 21.

PETER J. BUSCH received his B.A. degree in 1974 from Yale University and his J.D. degree in 1977 from the University of Virginia. Mr. Busch, of Howard, Rice, Nemerovski, Canady, Falk & Rabkin in San Francisco, specializes in civil litigation, and is an author of chapter 13.

MARLENE I. CAMACHO received her B.S. degree in 1986 from California State University, Los Angeles, and her J.D. degree in 1991 from the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law. Ms. Camacho, of Frandzel & Share in Los Angeles, specializes in commercial litigation, and is an author of chapters 2 and 6.

DONALD W. CARLSON received his B.A. degree in 1974 from the University of California, Santa Barbara, and his J.D. degree in 1977 from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Mr. Carlson, of Long & Levit in San Francisco, specializes in professional liability, insurance fraud, and bad faith litigation. He is an author of chapter 12.

RANDALL B. CHRISTISON received his B.A. degree in 1965 from the University of Southern California and his J.D. degree in 1973 from Santa Clara University. Mr. Christison, Supervising Deputy Attorney General at the Office of the Attorney General in San Francisco, specializes in civil litigation and natural resources law. He is the author of chapter 18.

GARY CHRISTOPHERSON received his B.A. degree in 1966 from Stanford University and his J.D. degree in 1969 from the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law. Mr. Christopherson, of Kroloff, Belcher, Smart, Perry & Christopherson in Stockton, specializes in civil litigation, real estate, and business law. He is an author of chapter 8.

CYNTHIA A. COE received her B.S. degree in 1983 from Arizona State University and her J.D. degree in 1986 from Yale University. Ms. Coe, of McCutchen, Doyle, Brown & Enersen in Washington, D.C., specializes in commercial litigation and appellate law, and is an author of chapter 3.

HON. JACQUELINE A. CONNOR received her B.A. degree in 1973 and her J.D. degree in 1976 from the University of Southern California. Judge Connor was formerly a litigator with the office of the Los Angeles County District Attorney. Judge Connor serves as a judge of the Los Angeles County Superior Court, and is an author of chapter 1.

JOSEPH W. COTCHETT received his B.S. degree in 1960 from California Polytechnic College and his LL.B. degree in 1964 from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Mr. Cotchett, of Cotchett, Illston & Pitre in Burlingame, specializes in civil litigation, and is the author of chapter 15.

WILLIAM J. ELFVING received his B.A. degree in 1962 from Stanford University and his J.D. degree in 1965 from the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law. Mr. Elfving, of Hoge, Fenton, Jones & Appel, Inc., in San Jose, specializes in civil litigation and malpractice defense, and is an author of chapter 5.

MARTA A. ELLIOTT received her B.A. degree in 1974, and her M.A. degree in 1975, from Stanford University, and her J.D. degree in 1978 from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Ms. Elliott, when working on this book, was a partner of Hoge, Fenton, Jones & Appel, Inc., in San Jose, specializing in civil litigation. She is an author of chapter 5.

RICHARD A. FOND received his B.A. degree in 1969 from the University of Southern California and his J.D. degree in 1972 from the University of Southern California. Mr. Fond, of Simke Chodos in Los Angeles, specializes in civil litigation, and is an author of chapter 23.

HOLLY J. FUJIE received her B.A. degree in 1975 from the University of California, Berkeley, and her J.D. degree in 1978 from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Ms. Fujie, of Buchalter, Nemer, Fields & Younger in Los Angeles, specializes in business and insurance coverage litigation. She is the author of chapter 4.

JOHN S. GILMORE received his B.A. degree in 1958 from the University of California, Berkeley, and his LL.B. degree in 1961 from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Mr. Gilmore, of Diepenbrock, Wulff, Plant & Hannegan in Sacramento, specializes in civil trials, and is the author of chapter 25.

CHRISTOPHER B. HOCKETT received his B.S. degree in 1981 from the College of William and Mary and his J.D. degree in 1985 from the University of Virginia. Mr. Hockett, of McCutcheon, Doyle, Brown & Enersen in San Francisco, specializes in commercial litigation and antitrust law. He is an author of chapter 3.

JOHN B. HOOK received his B.A. degree in 1952 from Harvard University and his J.D. degree in 1955 from Harvard Law School. Mr. Hook, of Long & Levit in San Francisco, specializes in trial practice, insurance coverage, property damages, and subrogation. He is an author of chapter 12.

STEVEN EVANS KIRBY received his B.S. degree in 1967 from the University of Oregon and his J.D. degree in 1971 from the University of San Francisco. Mr. Kirby, of Hollister & Brace in Santa Barbara, specializes in natural resources law and civil litigation. He is an author of chapters 26 and 27.

SUSAN T. KUMAGAI received her B.S. degree in 1974 from the University of California, Berkeley, and her J.D. degree in 1986 from the University of California, Davis, School of Law. Ms. Kumagai, of Lafayette, Kumagai & Clarke in San Francisco, specializes in civil litigation, and is an author of chapter 24.

GARY T. LAFAYETTE received his B.S. degree in 1975 from Dartmouth College and his J.D. degree in 1979 from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Mr. Lafayette, of Lafayette, Kumagai & Clarke in San Francisco, specializes in complex civil litigation, insurance bad faith, and business torts. He is an author of chapter 24.

HON. PATRICIA M. LUCAS received her B.A. degree in 1976 from Rice University and her J.D. degree in 1979 from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Judge Lucas formerly practiced law with Fenwick & West in Mountain View, where she chaired the litigation group. Judge Lucas serves on the Santa Clara Superior Court, and is an author of chapter 1.

WEYMAN I. LUNDQUIST received his B.A. degree in 1952 from Dartmouth College and his LL.B. degree in 1955 from Harvard Law School. Mr. Lundquist, Senior Fellow at Dartmouth College, John Sloan Dickey Center for International Understanding, is participating in a collaborative study of the Russian legal system. Mr. Lundquist is a partner of Heller, Ehrman, White & McAuliffe in San Francisco, and is the author of chapter 9.

HON. JAMES J. MARCHIANO received his A.B. degree in 1965 from St. Patrick's College and his J.D. degree in 1969 from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Judge Marchiano, formerly Superior Court Judge of Contra Costa County from 1988–1998, serves as the Presiding Justice on the First District Court of Appeal, Division One. He is the author of chapter 16 and an author of chapter 17.

STEPHEN H. MARCUS received his B.S. degree in 1967 from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and his J.D. degree in 1970 from Harvard Law School. Mr. Marcus, of Gittler & Bradford in Los Angeles, specializes in commercial and business litigation. He is an author of chapters 2 and 6.

STEPHEN A. McFEELY received his B.S. degree in 1969 from St. Mary's College and his J.D. degree in 1972 from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Mr. McFeely is the managing partner of Crosby, Heafey, Roach & May in Oakland, specializing in commercial litigation. He is an author of chapters 17 and 21.

DONALD F. MILES received his B.A. degree in 1971 from Stanford University and his J.D. degree in 1974 from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Mr. Miles, of Howard, Rice, Nemerovski, Canady, Falk & Rabkin in San Francisco, specializes in insurance coverage, employment, and product liability litigation. He is an author of chapters 10 and 13.

MARLA J. MILLER received her A.B. degree in 1976 from Harvard University and her J.D. degree in 1980 from Harvard Law School. Judge Miller formerly practiced law with Howard, Rice, Nemerovski, Canady, Falk & Rabkin in San Francisco, where she served as the chair of the litigation department and specialized in civil litigation and white collar criminal defense. She currently serves as a judge of the San Francisco Superior Court. Judge Miller is an author of chapter 10.

PAUL J. NEIBERGS received his B.A. degree in 1984 from Harvard University and his J.D. degree in 1988 from Harvard Law School. Mr. Neibergs practices environmental law in the San Francisco Bay Area, and is an author of chapters 26 and 27.

RON A. NORTHUP received his A.B. degree in 1988 from the University of California, Berkeley, and his J.D. degree in 1991 from the University of San Diego. Mr. Northup, of Kroloff, Belcher, Smart, Perry & Christopherson in Stockton, specializes in civil litigation, and is an author of chapter 8.

LEO J. O'BRIEN received his A.B. degree in 1950, and his J.D. degree in 1953, from the University of San Francisco, and his LL.M. degree in 1955 from Georgetown University. Professor O'Brien is Professor Emeritus, teaching evidence at the University of California, Hastings College of the Law, and is an author of chapter 10.

JAMES N. PENROD received his B.S. degree in 1963 from the United States Naval Academy and his J.D. degree in 1967 from George Washington University. Mr. Penrod, of Morgan, Lewis & Brockius LLP in San Francisco, specializes in civil litigation, and is an author of chapter 1.

THOMAS O. PERRY received his B.A. degree in 1967 from the University of Southern California and his J.D. degree in 1971 from Loyola University, Los Angeles. Mr. Perry, of Kroloff, Belcher, Smart, Perry & Christopherson in Stockton, specializes in civil litigation, and is an author of chapter 8.

PAMELA PHILLIPS received her B.A. degree in 1973 from Clark University and her J.D. degree in 1976 from Villanova University. Ms. Phillips, of Rogers, Joseph, O'Donnell & Quinn in San Francisco, specializes in complex civil litigation and legal malpractice, and is the author of chapter 14.

JAMES A. RICHMAN received his J.D. degree in 1965 from the University of San Francisco. Mr. Richman, of Cooley Godward Castro Huddleson & Tatu in San Francisco, specializes in civil litigation, and is the author of chapter 20.

ELLEN R. ROSEN received her B.A. degree in 1982 from La Salle University and her J.D. degree in 1985 from Villanova University. Ms. Rosen, of Simke Chodos in Los Angeles, specializes in civil litigation, and is an author of chapter 23.

STEVEN E. SCHON received his B.A. degree in 1972, and his J.D. degree in 1976, from the University of Michigan. Mr. Schon, of Howard, Rice, Nemerovski, Canady, Falk & Rabkin in San Francisco, specializes in civil litigation and representation of professionals. He is the author of chapter 7.

ARTHUR L. SHERWOOD received his B.A. degree in 1964 from the University of California, Berkeley, his M.S. degree in 1965 from the University of Chicago, and his J.D. degree in 1968 from Harvard Law School. Mr. Sherwood, of Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher in Los Angeles, specializes in business litigation, and is the author of chapter 22.

GEOFFREY L. THOMAS received his B.A. degree in 1967 from Harvard University and his J.D. degree in 1971 from Stanford University. Mr. Thomas, of Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker in Los Angeles, specializes in civil litigation, and is the author of chapter 11.

HON. ANDREW J. WISTRICH received his B.A. degrees in 1972 and 1973 from the University of California, Berkeley, and his J.D. degree in 1976 from the University of Chicago. Judge Wistrich was formerly a partner of Brown & Bain in Palo Alto, where he specialized in complex civil litigation. Judge Wistrich is a Magistrate Judge of the United States District Court, Central District of California in Los Angeles, and is an author of chapter 1.

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PRACTICE AREA Civil Litigation & Torts
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PRACTICE AREA Civil Litigation & Torts
PRODUCT GROUP Publication