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California Judges Benchbook: Domestic Violence Cases in Criminal Court 2017

This compact guide will put you in command of the full range of considerations in domestic violence cases in criminal court. Published in conjunction with the California Center for Judicial Education and Research.

This compact guide will put you in command of the full range of considerations in domestic violence cases in criminal court. Published in conjunction with the California Center for Judicial Education and Research.

  • Pretrial release considerations
  • Sentencing requirements
  • Stalking and terrorist threats
  • Family law and juvenile court statutes and cases
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This compact guide will put you in command of the full range of considerations in domestic violence cases in criminal court. Published in conjunction with the California Center for Judicial Education and Research.

  • Pretrial release considerations
  • Sentencing requirements
  • Stalking and terrorist threats
  • Family law and juvenile court statutes and cases

1

Introduction

  • I. [§1.1] SCOPE AND PURPOSE OF BENCHBOOK
  • II. [§1.2] DOMESTIC VIOLENCE DEFINED
  • III. [§1.3] DOMESTIC VIOLENCE COURTS
  • IV. [§1.4] ATTORNEY GENERAL AND JUDICIAL COUNCILDOMESTIC VIOLENCE TASK FORCES

2

Domestic Violence Offenses

  • I. [§2.1] PENAL CODE §273.5: INFLICTING CORPORAL INJURYON SPOUSE, COHABITANT, OR CO-PARENT
    • A. [§2.2] Traumatic Condition
    • B. [§2.3] Cohabitants
    • C. [§2.4] Co-Parents
    • D. [§2.5] Continuous Course of Conduct
    • E. [§2.6] Attempt
  • II. [§2.7] PENAL CODE §243(e): SIMPLE BATTERY AGAINSTSPOUSE, COHABITANT, CO-PARENT
  • III. [§2.8] PENAL CODE §646.9: STALKING
    • A. [§2.9] Intent
    • B. [§2.10] Continuous Course of Conduct
  • IV. [§2.11] PENAL CODE §422: CRIMINAL THREATS
    • A. [§2.12] Sustained Fear
    • B. [§2.13] Nature of Threat
    • C. [§2.14] Not a Continuous Course of Conduct
    • D. [§2.15] Attempt
  • V. [§2.16] OTHER CRIMINAL VIOLATIONS

3

Pretrial Release

  • I.[§3.1] OVERVIEW OF PRETRIAL RELEASE IN DOMESTIC VIOLENCE CASES
  • II. SETTING BAIL
    • A. Applicable Constitutional and Statutory Provisions
      • 1. [§3.2] When Bail Is Available
      • 2. [§3.3] Bail Hearing
      • 3. [§3.4] Prosecutorial Investigation Requirement
      • 4. [§3.5] Bail in Stalking Cases
    • B. [§3.6] Checklist: Bail for Domestic Violence Offenders
  • III. RELEASE ON OWN RECOGNIZANCE
    • A. Applicable Constitutional and Statutory Provisions
      • 1. [§3.7] Availability of Own Recognizance Release
      • 2. [§3.8] Investigation and Report
      • 3. [§3.9] Own Recognizance Hearing
      • 4. [§3.10] Conditions on Bail or Own Recognizance Release
      • 5. [§3.11] Issuing Criminal Protective Orders in OwnRecognizance Cases
    • B. [§3.12] Checklist: Own-Recognizance Release for DomesticViolence Offenders

4

Criminal Protective Orders

  • I.[§4.1] ISSUANCE OF CRIMINAL PROTECTIVE ORDERS
  • A. [§4.2] Statutory Authority
  • B. [§4.3] Evidence of Good Cause
    • C. [§4.4] Duration of Order
    • D. [§4.5] Modification of Order
    • E. [§4.6] Firearm Restrictions
    • F. [§4.7] Peaceful Contact Orders
    • G. [§4.8] Coordination of Domestic Violence and Other Orders
    • H. [§4.9] Issuance of Orders Protecting Children
      • 1. [§4.10] When a Civil Order Regarding Children Exists
      • 2. [§4.11] Conflicts Between Civil Order and CriminalProtective Order
    • I. [§4.12] Mutual Protective Orders
    • J. [§4.13] Enforcement Considerations
      • 1. [§4.14] Notice
      • 2. [§4.15] Enforcement When Victim Contacts Defendant
  • II. VIOLATION OF PROTECTIVE ORDERS
    • A. [§4.16] Punishment for Violation of Criminal ProtectiveOrder: Pen C §136.1
    • B. [§4.17] Violation of Criminal Protective Order Punishableas Contempt: Pen C §166
    • C. [§4.18] Violation of Civil Protective Orders: Pen C §273.6
      • 1. [§4.19] Punishment When Physical Injury Inflicted
      • 2. [§4.20] Other Court Orders
    • D. [§4.21] Violation of Juvenile Court Protective Order: PenC §273.65
    • E. Double Jeopardy and Pen C §654 Issues
      • 1. [§4.22] Which Statute Should Be Used
      • 2. [§4.23] When Only Criminal Protective Order Is in Effect
      • 3. [§4.24] When Only Civil Court Protective Order Is inEffect
      • 4. [§4.25] When Only Juvenile Court Protective Order Is inEffect
      • 5. [§4.26] When Two or More Restraining Orders Are in Effect
      • 6. [§4.27] When Multiple Punishment May Be Imposed

5

Case Dispositions Before Trial

  • I.[§5.1] OVERVIEW OF CASE DISPOSITIONS IN DOMESTIC VIOLENCE CASES
  • II. [§5.2] VICTIM NOTIFICATION
  • III. [§5.3] DEFERRED ENTRY OF JUDGMENT FOR DRUGOFFENDERS
  • IV. [§5.4] CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT COUNSELING
  • V. DISMISSALS
    • A. [§5.5] Judicial Authority Under Pen C §1385
      • 1. [§5.6] Proper Use of Pen C §1385
      • 2. [§5.7] Improper Use of Pen C §1385
      • 3. [§5.8] Recommended Procedures When Victim RequestsDismissal
    • B. [§5.9] No Civil Compromise of Domestic Violence Offenses

6

Considerations at Preliminary Hearing or Trial

  • I.DOMESTIC VIOLENCE VICTIM-COUNSELOR PRIVILEGE
    • A. [§6.1] Scope of Privilege; Confidential CommunicationDefined
    • B. Domestic Violence Counselor Defined
      • 1. [§6.2] Domestic Violence Victim Service Organization Staffand Volunteers
      • 2. [§6.3] Victim-Witness Assistance Staff and Volunteers
    • C. [§6.4] Persons Included in Domestic Violence Definition
    • D. [§6.5] Holder(s) of Privilege; Who May or Must ClaimPrivilege
    • E. [§6.6] Burden of Proof as to Privilege
    • F. [§6.7] Waiver of Privilege
    • G. Disclosure
      • 1. [§6.8] To Third Persons
      • 2. [§6.9] Disclosure That Is Itself Privileged
      • 3. Compelled Disclosure
        • a. [§6.10] Effect of Proposition 9
        • b. [§6.11] When Court May Order Disclosure
        • c. [§6.12] In Camera Hearing
        • d. [§6.13] Disclosure Ordered
        • e. [§6.14] Disclosure Denied
  • II. DISCOVERY
    • A. [§6.15] Effect of Proposition 9
    • B. [§6.16] Defendant's Statements to Probation Officer
    • C. [§6.17] Prior Acts of Violence by Victim
    • D. [§6.18] Exculpatory Evidence Related to Victim
    • E. [§6.19] Medical Records Relating to Victims and Defendants
    • F. Psychotherapeutic Examinations
      • 1. [§6.20] Involving Defendant
      • 2. [§6.21] Involving Victim or Witness
  • III. PROTECTION OF VICTIM'S WHEREABOUTS
    • A. [§6.22] Protection Under Proposition 9
    • B. [§6.23] Limits on Disclosure
    • C. [§6.24] Safe at Home Program
  • IV. [§6.25] CONTINUANCES
  • V. [§6.26] JURY SELECTION ISSUES
  • VI. PRESENCE OF VICTIM SUPPORT PERSONS IN COURT
    • A. Support Persons for Adult Victim
      • 1. [§6.27] In Criminal Proceedings
      • 2. [§6.28] In Preliminary Hearing and Trial
      • 3. [§6.29] In Interviews or Examinations
    • B. [§6.30] Support Persons and Representatives for Children
  • VII.[§6.31] VICTIM TESTIMONY
    • A. [§6.32] Checklist: Sample Questions When Victim IsReluctant or Refuses To Testify
    • B. [§6.33] Victim's Reluctance or Refusal To Testify:Recommended Practices
      • 1. [§6.34] In Camera Inquiry
      • 2. [§6.35] Evidentiary Considerations
      • 3. Procedures for Compelling Witness To Attend and Testify
        • a. [§6.36] Subpoena
        • b. [§6.37] Bench Warrant and Undertaking To Appear
        • c. [§6.38] Avoiding Incarceration of Victim-Witness
      • 4. [§6.39] Use of Contempt Power
      • C. [§6.40] Children's Testimony in Domestic Violence Cases:Overview
      • 1. [§6.41] Competency
      • 2. [§6.42] Assessing the Credibility of Children's Testimony
      • 3. [§6.43] Alternative Methods of Taking Evidence
      • 4. [§6.44] Other Methods for Protecting Child Witnesses
      • 5. [§6.45] Court Orders To Protect Child From Influence
    • D. [§6.46] Assessing the Credibility of Victim's Testimony
  • VIII. EXPERTTESTIMONY IN DOMESTIC VIOLENCE CASES
    • A. [§6.47] Expert Testimony Offered by Prosecution
      • 1. [§6.48] Evidence Code §1107
      • 2. [§6.49] Evidence Code §801
      • 3. [§6.50] Kelly Considerations
      • 4. [§6.51] Qualifications of Expert
      • 5. [§6.52] Testimony on Effects of Battering To ExplainWitness's Reluctance To Testify
      • 6. [§6.53] Time for Offering Expert Testimony
      • 7. [§6.54] Expert Testimony on Domestic Violence Offenders
      • 8. [§6.55] Testimony of Pathologists and Medical Personnel
    • B. [§6.56] Expert Testimony Offered by Defense
      • 1. [§6.57] Testimony on Battering and Its Effects
      • 2. [§6.58] Testimony of Pathologists and Medical Personnel
      • 3. [§6.59] Psychiatric Testimony
  • IX. EVIDENCE OF UNCHARGED MISCONDUCT
    • A. [§6.60] Admissibility of Other Bad Acts by Defendant
      • 1. [§6.61] Weighing Probative Value Versus Danger of UnduePrejudice
      • 2. [§6.62] Bad Acts Toward Same Victim
      • 3. Application of Evidence of Bad Acts
        • a. [§6.63] Mental Element: Intent
        • b. [§6.64] Motive To Rebut Accident or Heat-of-Passion
        • c. [§6.65] Lewd Disposition
        • d. [§6.66] Act Element: Behavior Pattern To Show Identity
        • e. [§6.67] Supporting or Attacking Credibility of Witness
    • B. [§6.68] Introduction of Evidence of Defendant's Bad Acts:Time for Offering
    • C. [§6.69] Prior Conduct by Victim
      • 1. [§6.70] When Self-Defense Is in Issue
      • 2. [§6.71] When Credibility of Victim Is in Issue
    • D. [§6.72] Evidence of Prior Abuse of Victim by PreviousPartners
  • X. APPLICABLE EXCEPTIONS TO THE HEARSAY RULE
    • A. [§6.73] Admissibility of Hearsay in Domestic ViolenceCases
    • B. [§6.74] Crawford v Washington and Its Impact
    • C. [§6.75] Forfeiture by Wrongdoing
    • D. [§6.76] Confrontation Clause and State-of-Mind Exception
      • 1. [§6.77] When Victim's State of Mind Is in Issue
      • 2. [§6.78] When Victim's State of Mind Is Not in Issue
      • 3. [§6.79] Rebuttal of Self-Defense Claim
      • 4. Establishing Defendant's State of Mind
        • a. [§6.80] Introduced by Defense
        • b. [§6.81] Introduced by Prosecution
    • E. [§6.82] Victim's Excited Utterances, SpontaneousStatements
      • 1. [§6.83] General Grounds for Admissibility
      • 2. [§6.84] Declarant's Physical Pain
      • 3. [§6.85] Time Between Event and Statement
      • 4. [§6.86] Statements Made in Response to Questioning
      • 5. [§6.87] Tape Recordings of Telephone Calls to Police
      • 6. [§6.88] Spontaneous Statements Admissible Even WhenWitness Available
    • F. [§6.89] Extrajudicial Complaint Evidence
    • G. [§6.90] Prior Inconsistent Statements
    • H. Exceptions When Witness Unavailable
      • 1. [§6.91] Right of Confrontation
      • 2. [§6.92] Statements Concerning Physical Abuse
      • 3. [§6.93] Former Testimony
      • 4. [§6.94] When Declarant Is Unavailable
        • a. [§6.95] Declarant Deceased
        • b. [§6.96] Existing Illness or Infirmity
        • c. [§6.97] Physical Inability To Testify or SubstantialTrauma From Alleged Crime
        • d. [§6.98] Refusal To Testify
  • XI. JURY INSTRUCTIONS IN DOMESTIC VIOLENCE CASES
    • A. [§6.99] CALCRIM and CALJIC Instructions
    • B. Case Law Regarding Jury Instructions on Domestic Violence Crimes
      • 1. [§6.100] Intimidation of Witness: Pen C §136.1
      • 2. [§6.101] Corporal Injury: Pen C §273.5
      • 3. [§6.102] Criminal Threats: Pen C §422
      • 4. [§6.103] Stalking: Pen C §646.9
    • C. [§6.104] Limiting Instructions on Testimony of IntimatePartner Battering
    • D. [§6.105] Instructions Regarding Evidence of UnchargedDomestic Violence
    • E. [§6.106] Instructions Regarding Seriousness of Injury,Lesser Included Offenses, and Relevant Defenses
    • F. [§6.107] Instructions Regarding Cohabitation

7

Sentencing Domestic Violence Offenders

  • I.SENTENCING OVERVIEW
    • A. [§7.1] Sentencing Objectives in Domestic Violence Cases
    • B. [§7.2] Checklist: Sentencing Considerations in DomesticViolence Cases
  • II. VICTIM CONSIDERATIONS
    • A. [§7.3] Victim Impact Statements
    • B. [§7.4] Restitution
      • 1. [§7.5] Losses Subject to Restitution; Amount
      • 2. [§7.6] Amount Initially Uncertain
      • 3. [§7.7] No Waiver of Full Restitution
      • 4. [§7.8] Relation of Restitution Order to Probation
      • 5. [§7.9] Defendant's Financial Disclosure Statement
      • 6. [§7.10] Income Deduction Orders
    • C. [§7.11] Restitution Fines
    • D. Victim Safety
      • 1. [§7.12] Issuance of Protective Order
      • 2. [§7.13] Notification of Offender's Release
    • E. [§7.14] Family's Economic Support
    • F. [§7.15] Impact on Children
    • G. [§7.16] Victim's Desires Regarding the Relationship
  • III. PUNISHMENT FOR DOMESTIC VIOLENCE OFFENSES
    • A. [§7.17] Corporal Injury to Spouse, Cohabitant, orCo-Parent: Pen C §273.5
    • B. [§7.18] Simple Battery Against Spouse, Cohabitant, orCo-Parent: Pen C §243(e)
    • C. [§7.19] Stalking: Pen C §646.9
    • D. [§7.20] Criminal Threats: Pen C §422
    • E. [§7.21] Spousal Rape: Pen C §262
    • F. [§7.22] Threat Because of Prosecution Assistance: Pen C§140
  • IV. GRANTING PROBATION
    • A. [§7.23] Setting Probationary Terms
      • 1. [§7.24] Mandatory Probation Conditions
      • 2. [§7.25] Discretionary Probation Conditions
      • 3. Procedures Under Pen C §1203.097
        • a. [§7.26] Enrollment; Unsuitability of Defendant
        • b. [§7.27] Progress Reports and Hearings
        • c. [§7.28] Payment of Program Fee
        • d. [§7.29] Further Counseling Beyond One Year
        • e. [§7.30] Re-Offenses; Unsatisfactory Performance inProgram; Termination
      • 4. [§7.31] Notice to Victim
      • 5. [§7.32] Batterer's Program Standards
      • 6. [§7.33] No-Weapons Orders and Warrantless SearchConditions
      • 7. [§7.34] Other Special Orders
      • 8. [§7.35] Probation With County Jail Time
    • B. [§7.36] Checklist: Probation Conditions in DomesticViolence Cases
    • C. [§7.37] Limiting or Terminating a Protective Order
    • D. [§7.38] Probation Revocation
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PRODUCT GROUP Publication
PRACTICE AREA Criminal Law
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PRODUCT GROUP Publication
PRACTICE AREA Criminal Law