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California Criminal Defense of Immigrants 2018

Be confident that you are providing effective counsel when advising your client on immigration consequences as required by the US Supreme Court in Padilla. Norton Tooby and Katherine Brady, nationally known experts in crimes and immigration, take you through the critical stages of a criminal case, identifying the immigration concerns and delivering the strategies and advice you need for effective resolution.

"You won’t find a better, easier, guide through the maze of conflicting laws and goals presented in the case of every non-citizen accused of a California state crime."
Garrick Byers, Office of the Public Defender, Contra Costa County

Be confident that you are providing effective counsel when advising your client on immigration consequences as required by the US Supreme Court in Padilla. Norton Tooby and Katherine Brady, nationally known experts in crimes and immigration, take you through the critical stages of a criminal case, identifying the immigration concerns and delivering the strategies and advice you need for effective resolution.

  • Use the only California-specific book on this topic
  • Protect your client’s immigration interests in both misdemeanor and felony cases
  • Understand evolving law of immigration detention
  • Fashion safer plea agreements
  • Preserve avenues to post-conviction relief
  • Includes charts, checklists, diagnostic questionnaires, scripts, and additional resources
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approx. 530 pages, softbound, 2018

 

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"You won’t find a better, easier, guide through the maze of conflicting laws and goals presented in the case of every non-citizen accused of a California state crime."
Garrick Byers, Office of the Public Defender, Contra Costa County

Be confident that you are providing effective counsel when advising your client on immigration consequences as required by the US Supreme Court in Padilla. Norton Tooby and Katherine Brady, nationally known experts in crimes and immigration, take you through the critical stages of a criminal case, identifying the immigration concerns and delivering the strategies and advice you need for effective resolution.

  • Use the only California-specific book on this topic
  • Protect your client’s immigration interests in both misdemeanor and felony cases
  • Understand evolving law of immigration detention
  • Fashion safer plea agreements
  • Preserve avenues to post-conviction relief
  • Includes charts, checklists, diagnostic questionnaires, scripts, and additional resources

1

Concepts, Terms, and Definitions

  • I.  THE MISSION OF THIS BOOK  1.1
    • A.  For Criminal Counsel  1.2
    • B.  For Immigration Counsel  1.3
    • C.  For Both Specialties  1.4
  • II.  THE PROBLEM PADILLA INTENDS TO ADDRESS  1.5
  • III.  BASIC PROCEDURE TO PROTECT NONCITIZEN DEFENDANTS  1.6
  • IV.  SIGNIFICANCE OF STATE LAW  1.7
  • V.  DEFINITIONS  1.8
    • A.  Immigration Status  1.9
    • B.  Coming to the United States  1.10
    • C.  Criminal Immigration Concepts  1.11
    • D.  Procedural Terminology  1.12
  • VI.  RESOURCES  1.13

2

Investigating Immigration Consequences

  • I.  IMMIGRATION STATUS  2.1
    • A.  Identifying U.S. Citizens and Nationals  2.2
      • 1.  Birth in United States or Certain Territories  2.3
      • 2.  Derivative or Acquired Citizenship  2.4
      • 3.  Naturalization  2.5
      • 4.  U.S. Nationals  2.6
      • 5.  Nondeportable Persons  2.7
    • B.  Investigating Noncitizens
      • 1.  Status  2.8
      • 2.  Equities  2.9
      • 3.  Criminal History  2.10
      • 4.  English Proficiency  2.11
      • 5.  Cultural Background  2.12
      • 6.  Criminal Versus Immigration Goals  2.13
      • 7.  Responses to Questioning  2.14
    • C.  Sources of Information
      • 1.  Client Interview  2.15
        • a.  Considerations Before Interview  2.16
        • b.  Interview Goals  2.17
      • 2.  Interpreter  2.18
      • 3.  Family and Friends  2.19
      • 4.  Immigration Records  2.20
      • 5.  Criminal History Reports  2.21
      • 6.  Criminal Court Records  2.22
      • 7.  Former Criminal Counsel  2.23
      • 8.  Cultural Expert  2.24
      • 9.  Consular Officials  2.25
      • 10.  Foreign Investigation  2.26
    • D.  Categories  2.27
      • 1.  Lawful Permanent Residents (LPRs)  2.28
      • 2.  Non-Immigrant Visa Holders  2.29
      • 3.  Refugees and Persons Granted Political Asylum  2.30
      • 4.  Undocumented or Deportable Persons Hoping to Obtain Lawful Status  2.31
      • 5.  Noncitizens Who Will Be Removed  2.32
    • E.  Form: Defendant Immigration Questionnaire—Basic Information  2.33
  • II.  LANGUAGE AND CULTURE  2.34
    • A.  Duties to Non-English-Speaking Client  2.35
      • 1.  Selecting an Interpreter  2.36
      • 2.  Paying the Interpreter  2.37
      • 3.  Questioning the Interpreter  2.38
      • 4.  Qualifying the Interpreter  2.39
      • 5.  Supervising the Interpreter  2.40
      • 6.  Maximizing Effectiveness of the Interpreter  2.41
      • 7.  Making a Record  2.42
    • B.  Reference Material for Specific Cultures  2.43
  • III.  PRIOR CRIMINAL HISTORY  2.44
    • A.  Plea Records  2.45
    • B.  Court Trial Records  2.46
    • C.  Jury Trial Records  2.47
    • D.  Post-Conviction Records  2.48
    • E.  Federal Convictions  2.49
    • F.  Other Documents  2.50
  • IV.  CURRENT CRIMINAL CASE  2.51
  • V.  DEFENSE STRATEGY  2.52
    • A.  Preparation  2.53
    • B.  Significant Criminal Events  2.54
    • C.  Significant Immigration Events  2.55
    • D.  Chart: Sample Chronology  2.56
    • E.  Analysis and Use of Chronology  2.57

3

Consulting Experts and Resources

  • I.  LEGAL RESEARCH  3.1
    • A.  Where to Begin  3.2
    • B.  Immigration Counsel  3.3
      • 1.  Weighing Expert Immigration Experience  3.4
      • 2.  Screening  3.5
    • C.  Other Resources  3.6
      • 1.  Websites  3.7
      • 2.  Professional Associations  3.8
      • 3.  Publications  3.9
    • D.  Post-Conviction Counsel  3.10
  • II.  COLLABORATION BETWEEN IMMIGRATION AND DEFENSE COUNSEL  3.11
    • A.  Determining Immigration Status and Consequences of Current Case
      • 1.  Basic Immigration Status Questionnaire  3.12
      • 2.  Immigration Effect of Criminal Offenses: DIRS  3.13
    • B.  Developing Strategy for Current Case
      • 1.  Identify Adverse Consequences of Individual Offenses  3.14
      • 2.  Assess the Collective Effect of Multiple Offenses  3.15
      • 3.  Set Realistic Goals  3.16
        • a.  Avoiding Immigration Detention  3.17
        • b.  Maintaining Lawful Immigration Status  3.18
        • c.  Retaining Freedom to Travel  3.19
        • d.  Preserving Eligibility for New Immigration Status  3.20
      • 4.  Consider a Post-Conviction Strategy  3.21
  • III.  WEIGHING CRIMINAL DEFENSE AND IMMIGRATION GOALS  3.22
  • IV.  PRIORITIZING CONFLICTING GOALS  3.23
  • V.  IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES OF CRIMINAL OFFENSES  3.24
    • A.  Conviction  3.25
      • 1.  Immigration Definition  3.26
      • 2.  Categorical Analysis to Determine Nature of Conviction  3.27
        • a.  Single Offense Statute: Categorical Approach  3.28
        • b.  Multiple Offense (Divisible) Statute: Modified Categorical Analysis  3.29
          • (1)  Record of Conviction  3.30
          • (2)  Factual Basis of Plea  3.31
      • 3.  Looking at Facts to Determine Nature of Conviction  3.32
    • B.  Conduct and Admissions  3.33
      • 1.  Crimes Involving Moral Turpitude  3.34
      • 2.  Controlled Substance Offenses  3.35
      • 3.  Substance Abuse or Addiction  3.36
      • 4.  Alcohol-Related Offenses  3.37
      • 5.  Illicit Drug Trafficking  3.38
      • 6.  Prostitution and Commercialized Vice  3.39
      • 7.  False Claims of U.S. Citizenship  3.40
      • 8.  Admissions During Pleas or Sentencing  3.41
  • VI.  MINIMIZING IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES  3.42
    • A.  Avoid a Conviction  3.43
    • B.  Minimize the Maximum Sentence  3.44
    • C.  Avoid Sentence Enhancement  3.45
    • D.  Minimize Length of Actual Sentence Ordered  3.46
    • E.  Minimize Level of Conviction  3.47
    • F.  Minimize the Restitution Ordered  3.48
    • G.  Minimize Fine Imposed for Conviction  3.49
    • H.  Minimize Other Direct and Indirect Criminal Consequences of Conviction  3.50
  • VII.  CRIMINAL CONSEQUENCES OF IMMIGRATION STATUS  3.51

4

Immigration Detention

  • I.  IMMIGRATION AND CRIMINAL DETENTION  4.1
  • II.  IMMIGRATION DETAINERS AND WARRANTS
    • A.  Immigration Holds or Detainers  4.2
      • 1.   Legal Basis for Issuing Detainers  4.2A
      • 2.   Authority of Detainers   4.2B
    • B.  Immigration or “ICE” Warrants  4.3
      • 1.  ICE Warrants and Local Law Enforcement  4.4
      • 2.  ICE Warrants Issued With ICE Detainers  4.5
    • C.  The TRUTH Act and Detainers  4.6
    • D.  Lawful Duration of Detainer [Deleted]  4.7
    • E.  Remedies for Detention Under a Detainer  4.8
    • F.  Resources on Detainers  4.9
  • III.  IMMIGRATION DETENTION  4.10
  • IV.  MANDATORY DETENTION  4.11
    • A.  Noncitizens Subject to Mandatory Detention  4.12
      • 1.  Effective Date  4.13
      • 2.  Grounds  4.14
    • B.  Constitutionality  4.15
    • C.  Requirement That ICE Arrest Noncitizen at Time of Release From Criminal Custody  4.16
  • V.  IMMIGRATION BOND PROCEDURES
    • A.  Setting Bond  4.17
    • B.  Bond Hearing  4.18
  • VI.  CRIMINAL DETENTION OF NONCITIZENS
    • A.  Bail Determinations  4.19
    • B.  Jail Security Classification  4.20
  • VII.  STRATEGIES FOR AVOIDING AN ICE HOLD AND DETENTION IN JAIL  4.21
    • A.  Avoiding or Removing an ICE Hold
      • 1.  Advise Defendant to Remain Silent  4.22
      • 2.  Keep Defendant Out of Custody  4.23
      • 3.  Limit Information Available to ICE  4.24
      • 4.  Ask ICE to Cancel Hold  4.25
        • a.  Cancel Hold Imposed on U.S. Citizen  4.26
        • b.  Cancel Hold Imposed on Noncitizens Who Are Not Yet Removable  4.27
        • c.  Cancel Hold as a Matter of Discretion  4.28
    • B.  Avoiding Detention Once an ICE Hold Issues
      • 1.  Research Whether TRUST Act Prohibits Detention Under ICE Hold  4.29
        • a.  When a Jailer May Cooperate With Certain ICE Requests  4.30
          • (1)   Offenses That Permit Cooperation with ICE Notification or Transfer Requests  4.31
          • (2)  Offenses That Do Not Permit ICE Detention Under an ICE Hold  4.32
          • (3)  Juveniles and the TRUST Act  4.33
          • (4)  Local Policies May Provide Greater Protection Than California Values Act  4.34
          • (5)  Jailer May Exercise Discretion Despite ICE Hold  4.35
        • b.  Remedies for Wrongful Detention in Jail Under ICE Hold  4.36
      • 2.  Seek Immigration Bond and Defendant’s Release From Criminal Custody  4.37
        • a.  Release From Criminal Custody  4.38
        • b.  Immigration Bond Hearing  4.39
      • 3.  Obtain Defendant’s Release When ICE Fails to Pick Up Defendant  4.40
      • 4.  Advise Defendant About Voluntary Departure  4.41
      • 5.  Obtain a Disposition That Will Not Trigger Mandatory Immigration Detention  4.42
      • 6.  Challenge the Detainer  4.43
    • C.  Avoiding a Detainer After Sentencing  4.44
      • 1.  Obtain Post-Conviction Relief From the Conviction  4.45
      • 2.  Obtain Post-Conviction Relief From the Sentence  4.46
      • 3.  Bond Defendant Out of Both Criminal and Immigration Custody  4.47
      • 4.  Obtain Release If Law Enforcement Prolongs Detention  4.48
  • VIII.  AVOIDING MANDATORY DETENTION  4.49
    • A.  Screen Defendant for Prior Criminal or Immigration History That Triggers Mandatory Detention  4.50
    • B.  Obtain a Disposition That Does Not Trigger Inadmissibility or Deportability  4.51
    • C.  Argue Defendant Was Not Taken Directly From Criminal to Immigration Custody  4.52
    • D.  Seek Post-Conviction Relief  4.53
    • E.  Point Out Ground of Removal Does Not Trigger Mandatory Detention  4.54
  • IX.  BRINGING DEFENDANT FROM IMMIGRATION CUSTODY TO CRIMINAL CUSTODY  4.55
    • A.  Before Trial  4.56
      • 1.  Transportation Orders  4.57
      • 2.  Departure Control Order  4.58
    • B.  After Deportation  4.59
    • C.  After Illegal Reentry  4.60
  • X.  ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES TO ATTEND CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS  4.61
  • XI.  IMMIGRATION DETENTION OF JUVENILES  4.62

5

Safe Havens for Criminal Pleas and Sentences

  • I.  SAFE HAVENS  5.1
    • A.  Definition of Safe Haven  5.2
      • 1.  Conviction-Based Grounds of Removal  5.3
      • 2.  Conduct-Based Grounds of Removal  5.4
    • B.  Types of Safe Haven  5.5
      • 1.  Defendants Who Cannot Be Removed  5.6
      • 2.  Dispositions That Are Not Convictions  5.7
      • 3.  Convictions That Do Not Trigger Removal  5.8
      • 4.  Convictions That Do Not Trigger Mandatory Detention  5.9
      • 5.  Dispositions That Preserve Eligibility for Relief  5.10
  • II.  FINDING SAFE HAVENS  5.11
    • A.  Identifying Potential Safe Havens  5.12
      • 1.  Types of Offenses  5.13
      • 2.  Nexus Between Conduct and Offense of Conviction  5.14
    • B.  Analyzing Elements and Minimum Conduct of Conviction  5.15
    • C.  Confirming Conviction Is Safe  5.16
      • 1.  ILRC Chart & Notes  5.17
      • 2.  Chapters 6–13  5.18
      • 3.  Immigration Counsel  5.19
    • D.  Memorializing Exact Target Disposition  5.20
  • III.  CONSTRUCTING SAFER DISPOSITIONS  5.21
    • A.  Immigration Status Identifies Priorities  5.22
    • B.  Burdens of Proof in Immigration Proceedings  5.23
    • C.  Length of Criminal Sentence Can Affect Immigration Consequences  5.24
    • D.  Aggravated Felonies Result in Most Severe Consequences  5.25
      • 1.  Sentence-Based Aggravated Felonies  5.26
      • 2.  Other Aggravated Felonies  5.27
    • E.  Crimes Involving Moral Turpitude (CIMT) May Result in Adverse Immigration Consequences  5.28
      • 1.  Deportability  5.29
      • 2.  Inadmissibility  5.30

6

Assault and Battery Offenses

  • I.  ASSAULT AND BATTERY OFFENSES  6.1
  • II.  IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES  6.2
    • A.  Deportability  6.3
      • 1.  Crime of Violence Aggravated Felony
        • a.  “Crime of Violence”  6.4
        • b.  Aggravated Felony  6.5
      • 2.  Crime Involving Moral Turpitude (CIMT)  6.6
    • B.  Inadmissibility  6.7
      • 1.  Aggravated Felony  6.8
      • 2.  Moral Turpitude  6.9
        • a.  Single Moral Turpitude Conviction  6.10
        • b.  Multiple Convictions With Aggregate Sentence of 5 Years  6.11
    • C.  ICE Enforcement  6.12
    • D.  Immigration Relief  6.13
      • 1.  Permanent Residents  6.14
      • 2.  Undocumented Immigrants  6.15
  • III.  SAFER PLEA STRATEGIES  6.16
    • A.  Defending Permanent Residents  6.17
      • 1.  Plead to Nonviolent Conduct  6.18
      • 2.  Plead to Statute Involving Mere Negligence or Recklessness  6.19
      • 3.  Obtain Sentence Under 365 Days  6.20
    • B.  Defending Undocumented Immigrants  6.21

7

Burglary Offenses

  • I.  BURGLARY OFFENSES  7.1
  • II.  IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES  7.2
    • A.  Aggravated Felonies  7.3
      • 1.  Crime of Violence Aggravated Felony  7.4
      • 2.  Burglary Aggravated Felony  7.5
      • 3.  Attempted Theft Aggravated Felony  7.6
    • B.  Crime Involving Moral Turpitude (CIMT)  7.7
    • C.  Immigration Enforcement  7.8
      • 1.  Permanent Residents  7.9
      • 2.  Undocumented Immigrants  7.10
    • D.  Immigration Relief  7.11
  • III.  SAFER PLEA STRATEGIES  7.12
    • A.  Defending Permanent Residents  7.13
      • 1.  Avoid Sentence of 365 Days  7.14
      • 2.  Plead to Burglary (Pen C §459)  7.15
      • 3.  Avoid Plea to Unlawful Entry  7.16
      • 4.  Plead to “Intent to Commit Larceny or Any Felony”  7.17
    • B.  Defending Undocumented Immigrants  7.18
      • 1.  Avoid an Aggravated Felony Conviction  7.19
      • 2.  Avoid Conviction of a Crime of Moral Turpitude  7.20

8

Controlled Substance Offenses

  • I.  CONTROLLED SUBSTANCE OFFENSES  8.1
  • II.  IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES  8.2
    • A.  Deportable Offenses  8.3
      • 1.  Controlled Substance Offense  8.4
      • 2.  Aggravated Felony Drug Trafficking  8.5
      • 3.  Drug Abusers and Addicts  8.6
      • 4.  Crimes Involving Moral Turpitude  8.7
    • B.  Offenses Causing Inadmissibility  8.8
      • 1.  Controlled Substance Offense  8.9
      • 2.  Crime Involving Moral Turpitude  8.10
      • 3.  “Reason to Believe” Illicit Drug Trafficking  8.11
      • 4.  Current Drug Addict or Abuser  8.12
    • C.  Immigration Enforcement  8.13
      • 1.  Legal Permanent Residents  8.14
      • 2.  Undocumented Immigrants  8.15
    • D.  Immigration Relief  8.16
  • III.  SAFER PLEA STRATEGIES  8.17
    • A.  Defending Permanent Residents  8.18
      • 1.  Avoid a Conviction  8.19
      • 2.  Plead to a Non-Drug Offense  8.20
      • 3.  Plead to an Unlisted or Unidentified Drug  8.21
      • 4.  Plead to a Single Offense of Possessing 30 Grams or Less of Marijuana  8.22
      • 5.  Avoid an Aggravated Felony; Obtain Relief  8.23
      • 6.  Avoid Providing Evidence of Drug Abuse or Addiction  8.24
    • B.  Defending Undocumented Immigrants  8.25
      • 1.  Avoid a Conviction  8.26
      • 2.  Plead to a Non-Drug Offense  8.27
      • 3.  Plead to an Offense Involving a Specific Controlled Substance Not on Federal Schedules  8.28
      • 4.  Avoid an “Admission” of a Controlled Substance Offense  8.29
      • 5.  Avoid “Reason to Believe” Drug Trafficking; Obtaining Relief  8.30
      • 6.  Avoid Providing Evidence of Current Drug Addiction or Abuse  8.31

9

Domestic Violence Offenses

  • I.  DOMESTIC VIOLENCE OFFENSES  9.1
  • II.  IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES  9.2
    • A.  Deportable Offenses  9.3
      • 1.  “Crime of Domestic Violence”  9.4
      • 2.  Stalking Offenses  9.5
      • 3.  Child Abuse Offenses  9.6
      • 4.  Violation of a Domestic Violence Temporary Restraining Order  9.7
    • B.  Aggravated Felony Crime of Violence  9.8
    • C.  Crimes Involving Moral Turpitude (CIMT)  9.9
    • D.  Immigration Enforcement  9.10
    • E.  Immigration Relief  9.11
  • III.  SAFER PLEA STRATEGIES  9.12
    • A.  Defending Permanent Residents  9.13
      • 1.  Avoid a Crime of Violence  9.14
      • 2.  Obtain a Sentence of Less Than 365 Days  9.15
      • 3.  Avoid Evidence of Protected Relationship or Age of Minor Victim  9.16
      • 4.  Avoid a Stalking Conviction  9.17
      • 5.  Avoid Conviction for Violating a Temporary Restraining Order (TRO)  9.18
      • 6.  Avoid Moral Turpitude Intent to Inflict Significant Bodily Harm  9.19
    • B.  Defending Undocumented Immigrants and Deportable Permanent Residents  9.20

10

DUI Offenses

  • I.  DRIVING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OFFENSES  10.1
  • II.  IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES  10.2
    • A.  Crime of Violence Aggravated Felony  10.3
    • B.  Crime Involving Moral Turpitude (CIMT)  10.4
    • C.  Crime Involving Controlled Substances  10.5
    • D.  Inadmissibility  10.6
      • 1.  Physical or Mental Disorder  10.7
      • 2.  “Habitual Drunkard”  10.8
    • E.  Possible Bar to Asylum or Withholding of Removal  10.9
    • F.  Bar to Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals  10.10
    • G.  Immigration Enforcement  10.11
  • III.  SAFER PLEA STRATEGIES  10.12
    • A.  Permanent Residents Who Are Not Deportable
      • 1.  Plead to Veh C §23152(a), (b), or (d), or if Possible, §23103.5  10.13
      • 2.  Avoid Possible Moral Turpitude Conviction  10.14
    • B.  Undocumented Immigrants; Deportable Permanent Residents  10.15

11

Firearms Offenses

  • I.  FIREARMS OFFENSES  11.1
  • II.  IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES  11.2
    • A.  Deportability  11.3
      • 1.  Aggravated Felonies
        • a.  Illicit Trafficking in Firearms  11.4
        • b.  Listed Firearms Offenses  11.5
        • c.  “Crime of Violence”  11.6
      • 2.  Firearms Deportation Ground  11.7
      • 3.  Crime of Domestic Violence or Child Abuse  11.8
      • 4.  Crime Involving Moral Turpitude (CIMT)  11.9
    • B.  Inadmissibility  11.10
    • C.  Immigration Enforcement  11.11
    • D.  Immigration Relief  11.12
  • III.  SAFER PLEA STRATEGIES
    • A.  Defending Permanent Residents  11.13
      • 1.  Plead to Nontrafficking Conduct  11.14
      • 2.  Plead to Statute That Has No Federal Analogue  11.15
      • 3.  Plead to Undesignated Weapon  11.16
      • 4.  Plead to Offense Involving Non-Deportable Firearms  11.17
      • 5.  Obtain a Sentence Less Than 365 Days for a Crime of Violence  11.18
      • 6.  Plead to Owning or Possessing a Firearm  11.19
      • 7.  Plead to a Statute With a Mental State of Negligence or Recklessness  11.20
      • 8.  Avoid Evidence of Protected Relationship or Victim Under Age of 18  11.21
    • B.  Defending Undocumented Immigrants  11.22

12

Sex Offenses

  • I.  SEX OFFENSES  12.1
  • II.  IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES  12.2
    • A.  Deportability  12.3
      • 1.  Aggravated Felony  12.4
        • a.  Sexual Abuse of a Minor  12.5
        • b.  Rape  12.6
        • c.  Crime of Violence  12.7
        • d.  Prostitution Business  12.8
        • e.  Child Pornography  12.9
      • 2.  Child Abuse  12.10
      • 3.  Domestic Violence  12.11
      • 4.  Importing Persons for Prostitution  12.12
      • 5.  Crimes Involving Moral Turpitude (CIMT)  12.13
    • B.  Inadmissibility  12.14
      • 1.  Prostitution  12.15
      • 2.  Crimes Involving Moral Turpitude (CIMT)  12.16
    • C.  Immigration Enforcement  12.17
    • D.  Immigration Relief  12.18
  • III.  SAFER PLEA STRATEGIES  12.19
    • A.  Defending Permanent Legal Residents  12.20
      • 1.  Avoid Aggravated Felony
        • a.  Sexual Abuse of a Minor
          • (1)  Plead to an Age-Neutral Statute  12.21
          • (2)  Plead to Nonharmful Conduct  12.22
        • b.  Rape  12.23
        • c.  Crime of Violence
          • (1)  Obtain Sentence Less Than 365 Days  12.24
          • (2)  Plead to Insufficient Violence or Intent  12.25
      • 2.  Avoid Deportable Offense
        • a.  Crimes of Child Abuse   12.26
        • b.  Crimes of Domestic Violence  12.27
      • 3.  Avoid Crime Involving Moral Turpitude (CIMT)  12.28
    • B.  Defending Undocumented Immigrants  12.29
      • 1.  Avoid Inadmissibility
        • a.  Pattern and Practice of Prostitution  12.30
        • b.  Moral Turpitude Crimes Related to Prostitution  12.31
      • 2.  Avoid Aggravated Felony  12.32

13

Theft Offenses

  • I.  THEFT, RECEIPT OF STOLEN PROPERTY, AND FRAUD OFFENSES  13.1
  • II.  IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES  13.2
    • A.  Deportability  13.3
      • 1.  Aggravated Felonies  13.4
        • a.  Theft  13.5
        • b.  Receiving Stolen Property  13.6
        • c.  Fraud or Deceit  13.7
      • 2.  Crimes Involving Moral Turpitude (CIMT)  13.8
    • B.  Inadmissibility  13.9
    • C.  Immigration Enforcement  13.10
    • D.  Immigration Relief  13.11
  • III.  SAFER PLEA STRATEGIES  13.12
    • A.  Defending Lawful Permanent Residents  13.13
      • 1.  Avoid a Theft Aggravated Felony
        • a.  Obtain Sentence Under 365 Days  13.14
        • b.  Plead to Non-“Theft” Offense  13.15
        • c.  Plead to Fraud With Loss of $10,000 or Less  13.16
      • 2.  Avoid a Fraud Aggravated Felony  13.17
      • 3.  Avoid Moral Turpitude Conviction  13.18
    • B.  Defending Undocumented Immigrants  13.19

14

Negotiation and Entry of Plea

  • I.  GOAL OF PLEA BARGAINING  14.1
  • II.  FACTORS AFFECTING PLEA BARGAINING IN NONCITIZEN CASES  14.2
  • III.  PREPARING FOR PLEA NEGOTIATIONS  14.3
    • A.  Prosecutor’s Role  14.4
    • B.  Defense Counsel’s Duties  14.5
    • C.  Defendant’s Decision  14.6
    • D.  Court’s Role  14.7
  • IV.  IDENTIFYING TARGET DISPOSITION
    • A.  Whether to Alert Prosecution or Court to Immigration Issues  14.8
    • B.  Neutralizing Bias Against Noncitizens  14.9
    • C.  Construct a Safe Haven  14.10
      • 1.  Criteria of Agreeable Safe Haven Dispositions  14.11
      • 2.  Secure the Safe Haven  14.12
        • a.  Date of Conviction  14.13
        • b.  Date of Offense  14.14
  • V.  THE PLEA AGREEMENT
    • A.  Binding Effect of Plea  14.15
    • B.  Sentence Considerations  14.16
    • C.  Restitution Issues  14.17
  • VI.  THE PLEA HEARING
    • A.  Advise Defendant of Consequences of Conviction and Disposition  14.18
    • B.  Prepare Defendant to Speak  14.19
      • 1.  Record of Conviction  14.20
      • 2.  Oral Statements and Factual Admissions of Defendant  14.21
    • C.  Entry of Plea  14.22
      • 1.  Guilty Plea  14.23
      • 2.  No-Contest Plea  14.24
      • 3.  Plea Without Admission of Guilt  14.25
      • 4.  Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity  14.26
      • 5.  Slow Plea of Guilty  14.27
      • 6.  Dispositions Without Plea  14.28
    • D.  Checklist: Safe Plea  14.29
    • E.  Court’s Advice on Possible Immigration Consequences
      • 1.  Statutory Warning  14.30
      • 2.  Modified Warning  14.31

15

Litigation

  • I.  GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS  15.1
  • II.  MOTIONS  15.2
    • A.  Fourth Amendment Motion to Suppress Evidence  15.3
    • B.  Fifth Amendment Motion to Suppress Statements  15.4
    • C.  Selective or Discriminatory Prosecution Motion  15.5
    • D.  Motion to Dismiss for Deportation of Exculpatory Witnesses  15.6
    • E.  Motion to Withdraw Plea or Set Aside Prior Conviction  15.7
    • F.  Motion to Reduce “Wobbler” Offense to Misdemeanor  15.8
    • G.  Motion to Strike Enhancement  15.9
  • III.  JURY TRIAL  15.10
    • A.  Jury Waiver  15.11
    • B.  Jury Selection  15.12
    • C.  Language Interpreter  15.13
    • D.  Admissible Evidence  15.14
    • E.  Jury Instructions  15.15
  • IV.  CULTURAL DEFENSE  15.16
  • V.  CULTURAL EXPERT  15.17

16

Sentencing

  • I.  IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES OF SENTENCING
    • A.  Four Main Areas of Concern  16.1
    • B.  Definition of Sentence “Imposed”  16.2
    • C.  Length of Sentence Imposed  16.3
    • D.  Actual Length of Confinement  16.4
    • E.  Probation or Parole Bar to Naturalization  16.5
    • F.  Other Consequences of Sentencing  16.6
  • II.  CONSIDERING IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES AT SENTENCING
    • A.  The Court  16.7
    • B.  The Prosecution  16.8
    • C.  Defense Counsel  16.9
  • III.  MINIMIZING IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES  16.10
    • A.  Avoid a Conviction  16.11
    • B.  Avoid Expanding Nature of Conviction  16.12
    • C.  Avoid Damaging Sentencing Order  16.13
    • D.  Avoid Actual Service of Sentence  16.14
    • E.  Minimize Maximum Sentence  16.15
    • F.  Minimize Restitution Ordered  16.16
    • G.  Minimize Level of Offense  16.17
    • H.  Qualify for Post-Conviction Relief  16.18
    • I.  Avoid Probation  16.19
    • J.  Avoid Immigration Detention  16.20
    • K.  Avoid Bars to Relief  16.21
  • IV.  EFFECTS OF IMMIGRATION STATUS ON SENTENCE  16.22
  • V.  MITIGATING SENTENCE  16.23
  • VI.  SPECIAL IMMIGRATION-RELATED PROCEEDINGS  16.24
    • A.  Early Release to Removal  16.25
    • B.  Prisoner Transfer Treaties  16.26

17

Violations of Probation and Supervised Release

  • I.  IMMIGRATION EFFECTS OF PROBATION VIOLATIONS  17.1
  • II.  DEPORTATION FOR VIOLATION OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PROTECTIVE ORDER  17.2
  • III.  INADVERTENT CREATION OF AGGRAVATED FELONY CONVICTION WITH NEW PROBATION VIOLATION SENTENCE  17.3
    • A.  With 1-Year Sentence or More Imposed  17.4
    • B.  Regardless of Sentence  17.5
  • IV.  PLEA BARGAINING TO MITIGATE ADVERSE CONSEQUENCES  17.6
    • A.  Accept Custody Time on a New Offense  17.7
    • B.  Accept Custody Time for Probation Violation  17.8
    • C.  Waive Credits; Vacate Original Sentence  17.9
  • V.  FINAL SENTENCE GOVERNS  17.10

18

Juvenile Proceedings

  • I.  JUVENILE ADJUDICATIONS  18.1
  • II.  DEFENSE STRATEGY
    • A.  Investigate Case and Advise Client  18.2
    • B.  Screen for Possible Immigration Relief  18.3
  • III.  JUVENILE IMMIGRATION DETENTION  18.4
  • IV.  PREVENTING ADVERSE IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES
    • A.  Naturalize Minor Before Eighteenth Birthday  18.5
    • B.  Do Not Admit Noncitizen Status  18.6
    • C.  Avoid Damaging Facts and Admissions  18.7
  • V.  JUVENILES IN ADULT COURT  18.8

19

Concluding the Criminal Case

  • I.  DOCUMENT THE FINAL DISPOSITION  19.1
    • A.  Correct the Criminal History Reports  19.2
    • B.  Give Defendant Summary of Immigration Consequences  19.3
    • C.  Keep the Case File  19.4
  • II.  PROVIDE ADVICE CONCERNING TRAVEL  19.5
    • A.  International Travel  19.6
    • B.  Domestic Travel  19.7
  • III.  PROVIDE ADVICE CONCERNING ILLEGAL REENTRY  19.8

20

Post-Conviction Proceedings

  • I.  POST-CONVICTION RELIEF  20.1
  • II.  AVENUES TO POST-CONVICTION RELIEF
    • A.  Vacating the Conviction  20.2
      • 1.  Legal Invalidity  20.3
      • 2.  Rehabilitation  20.4
      • 3.  Judicial Recommendation Against Deportation (JRAD)  20.5
      • 4.  Executive Pardon  20.6
    • B.  Vacating or Modifying the Sentence  20.7
    • C.  Reducing the Level of Offense  20.8
    • D.  State Rehabilitative Relief
      • 1.  General Rule  20.9
      • 2.  Exception for Expungements in the Interests of Justice  20.10
      • 3.  Ninth Circuit Exception for Federal First Offender Act (FFOA) Qualified Convictions  20.11
        • a.  Eligibility  20.12
        • b.  Qualifying Offenses  20.13
        • c.  Non-Qualifying Offenses  20.14
        • d.  Multiple Simultaneously Obtained Convictions  20.15
        • e.  Probation Violations  20.16
        • f.  Foreign Convictions  20.17
      • 4.  Risk of Removal  20.18
  • III.  STRATEGY FOR OBTAINING POST-CONVICTION RELIEF
    • A.  Elements  20.19
      • 1.  Procedural Vehicle  20.20
      • 2.  Ground of Legal Invalidity  20.21
      • 3.  Safe Haven  20.22
      • 4.  Equities  20.23
    • B.  Timing  20.24
    • C.  Checklist: Post-Conviction Case Evaluation  20.25
  • IV.  ATTACKING CONVICTIONS  20.26
    • A.  Procedural Vehicles
      • 1.  Motion to Withdraw Plea Under Pen C §1018  20.27
      • 2.  Direct Appeal  20.28
      • 3.  Habeas Corpus  20.29
      • 4.  Nonstatutory Motion to Vacate  20.30
      • 5.  Motion to Vacate Under Pen C §1473.7  20.30A
      • 6.  Motion to Vacate Under Pen C §1016.5  20.31
      • 7.  Coram Nobis  20.32
      • 8.  Dismissal Under Pen C §1385
        • a.  Grounds for Dismissal  20.33
        • b.  Who May Make the Motion  20.34
        • c.  Timing of Dismissal  20.35
        • d.  Immigration Effect of Dismissal  20.36
      • 9.  Dismissal Under Expungement Statutes  20.37
      • 10.  Relief From Deferred Entry of Judgment Convictions  20.37A
    • B.  Grounds for Relief
      • 1.  Scope of Discussion  20.38
      • 2.  Ineffective Assistance of Counsel  20.39
        • a.  Failure to Advise of Actual Immigration Consequences  20.40
          • (1)  Scope of Advice  20.41
          • (2)  Retroactivity of Padilla  20.42
        • b.  Affirmative Misadvice of Immigration Consequences  20.43
        • c.  Failure to Defend Against Immigration Consequences  20.44
        • d.  Failure to Mitigate Level of Offense or Sentence  20.45
      • 3.  Invalid Waiver of Counsel  20.46
      • 4.  Court’s Failure to Warn of Potential Immigration Consequences  20.47
        • a.  Sufficiency of Proof  20.48
        • b.  Burden of Proof  20.49
        • c.  Prejudice  20.50
        • d.  Appellate Review  20.51
  • V.  ALTERING THE SENTENCE AND LEVEL OF OFFENSE  20.52
    • A.  Procedural Vehicles
      • 1.  Same Vehicles Used to Attack Convictions  20.53
      • 2.  Motion to Correct Void Sentence  20.54
      • 3.  Correction of Sentence Under Pen C §1170  20.55
      • 4.  Motion to Shorten or Modify Probation  20.56
    • B.  Grounds for Relief
      • 1.  Particular to Noncitizens  20.57
      • 2.  Ineffective Assistance at Sentencing  20.58
        • a.  Failure to Seek Sentence of 6 Months or Less, Forfeiting Eligibility for Petty Offense Exception  20.59
        • b.  Failure to Seek Aggregate Sentences of Less Than 5 Years, Rendering Client Inadmissible  20.60
        • c.  Failure to Seek Actual Custody of 180 Days or Less, Barring Establishment of Good Moral Character  20.61
        • d.  Failure to Seek Sentence of 364 Days or Less, Resulting in Aggravated Felony  20.62
      • 3.  Failure to Seek Judicial Recommendation Against Deportation  20.63
    • C.  Reducing Felony to Misdemeanor  20.64
      • 1.   Pen C §17 Motions to Reduce  20.64A
      • 2.   Pen C §1170.18 Motions to Reduce and Resentence  20.64B
      • 3.   Proposition 64 Applications to Reduce and Resentence Marijuana Convictions  20.64C
  • VI.  REHABILITATIVE RELIEF
    • A.  Effectiveness  20.65
    • B.  Procedural Vehicles
      • 1.  Pretrial Drug Diversion Before January 1, 1997  20.66
      • 2.  Rehabilitative Relief When Plea Was Entered  20.67
        • a.  Deferred Entry of Judgment and Pretrial Diversion  20.68
        • b.  Proposition 36 (2000) Drug Treatment  20.69
        • c.  Expungement Under Pen C §§1203.4, 1203.4a  20.70
        • d.  Expungement Under Pen C §1203.41 After Realignment Sentence  20.71
    • C.  Travel Warning  20.72

21

Immigration Proceedings

  • I.  SUBSTANTIVE IMMIGRATION LAW  21.1
    • A.  Deportation  21.2
      • 1.  Who Is Subject to Deportation  21.3
      • 2.  Grounds of Deportation  21.4
        • a.  Aggravated Felony Convictions  21.5
        • b.  Controlled Substances Convictions  21.6
        • c.  Convictions of Crimes Involving Moral Turpitude  21.7
        • d.  Firearms Convictions  21.8
        • e.  Domestic Violence Convictions and TRO Violations  21.9
        • f.  Other Grounds of Deportation  21.10
        • g.  Alphabetical List of Aggravated Felonies  21.11
      • 3.  Burden of Proof  21.12
    • B.  Inadmissibility  21.13
      • 1.  Who May Be Inadmissible  21.14
      • 2.  Grounds of Inadmissibility  21.15
    • C.  Relief in Immigration Court  21.16
      • 1.  General Principles  21.17
      • 2.  Uncharged Convictions  21.18
      • 3.  Discretionary Decisions  21.19
  • II.  REMOVAL PROCEDURE  21.20
    • A.  Detention  21.21
      • 1.  General Principles  21.22
      • 2.  Mandatory Detention  21.23
    • B.  Hearings in Immigration Court  21.24
      • 1.  Bond Hearing  21.25
      • 2.  Master Calendar Hearing  21.26
      • 3.  Individual (Merits) Hearing  21.27
      • 4.  Rulings in Absentia  21.28
      • 5.  Representation by Counsel  21.29
      • 6.  Burdens of Proof  21.30
        • a.  Deportability  21.31
        • b.  Inadmissibility  21.32
        • c.  Relief  21.33
      • 7.  Conviction-Based Grounds of Removal  21.34
        • a.  Conviction Under a Multi-Offense Statute  21.35
        • b.  Minimum-Conduct Analysis  21.36
        • c.  Conduct-Based Grounds of Removal  21.37
      • 8.  Evidence  21.38
    • C.  Appeal  21.39
    • D.  Review in Circuit Court  21.40
    • E.  Motions to Reopen Removal Proceedings  21.41
      • 1.  Motions to Reopen  21.42
      • 2.  Motions to Reconsider  21.43

22

Immigration Relief

  • I.  ASSESSING ELIGIBILITY FOR RELIEF  22.1
  • II.  DEFENDANT RELIEF QUESTIONNAIRE  22.2
  • III.  FORMS OF RELIEF
    • A.  Acquired or Derived Citizenship  22.3
      • 1.  Quick Eligibility Test  22.4
      • 2.  Additional Information  22.5
    • B.  Naturalized U.S. Citizenship  22.6
      • 1.  Quick Eligibility Test  22.7
      • 2.  Additional Information  22.8
    • C.  Cancellation of Removal for Permanent Residents  22.9
      • 1.  Quick Eligibility Test  22.10
      • 2.  Additional Information  22.11
    • D.  Section 212(c) Relief  22.12
      • 1.  Quick Eligibility Test  22.13
      • 2.  Additional Information  22.14
    • E.  Family Immigration and Adjustment of Status  22.15
      • 1.  Quick Eligibility Test  22.16
      • 2.  Additional Information  22.17
    • F.  Relief Under Violence Against Women Act (VAWA)  22.18
      • 1.  Quick Eligibility Test  22.19
      • 2.  Additional Information  22.20
    • G.  Section 212(h) Waiver of Inadmissibility  22.21
      • 1.  Quick Eligibility Test  22.22
      • 2.  Additional Information  22.23
    • H.  Domestic Violence and Stalking Waiver  22.24
      • 1.  Quick Eligibility Test  22.25
      • 2.  Additional Information  22.26
    • I.  Special Immigrant Juvenile Status (SIJS)  22.27
      • 1.  Quick Eligibility Test  22.28
      • 2.  Additional Information  22.29
    • J.  Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA)  22.30
      • 1.  Quick Eligibility Test
        • a.  DACA  22.31
        • b.  Deferred Action for Parental Accountability [Deleted]  22.31A
      • 2.  Additional Information
        • a.  DACA  22.32
        • b.  Deferred Action for Parental Accountability [Deleted]  22.32A
    • K.  “Ten-Year” Cancellation for Nonpermanent Residents  22.33
      • 1.  Quick Eligibility Test  22.34
      • 2.  Additional Information  22.35
    • L.  Suspension of Deportation for Undocumented Defendants  22.36
      • 1.  Quick Eligibility Test  22.37
      • 2.  Additional Information  22.38
    • M.  Asylum and Withholding of Removal  22.39
      • 1.  Quick Eligibility Test  22.40
      • 2.  Additional Information  22.41
    • N.  Convention Against Torture (CAT)
      • 1.  Quick Eligibility Test  22.42
      • 2.  Additional Information  22.43
    • O.  Defending Asylees and Refugees  22.44
      • 1.  Quick Eligibility Test  22.45
      • 2.  Additional Information  22.46
    • P.  Temporary Protected Status (TPS)  22.47
      • 1.  Quick Eligibility Test  22.48
      • 2.  Additional Information  22.49
    • Q.  NACARA Relief for Nationals of El Salvador, Guatemala, and the Former Soviet Bloc  22.50
    • R.  Relief for HRIFA Haitians and Dependents  22.51
    • S.  Victims of Alien Traffickers: The “T” Visa  22.52
      • 1.  Quick Eligibility Test  22.53
      • 2.  Additional Information  22.54
    • T.  Victims of Crime: The “U” Visa  22.55
      • 1.  Quick Eligibility Test  22.56
      • 2.  Additional Information  22.57
    • U.  Key Informants: The “S” Visa  22.58
      • 1.  Quick Eligibility Test  22.59
      • 2.  Additional Information  22.60
    • V.  Amnesty Programs of the 1980s and Family Unity  22.61
      • 1.  Quick Eligibility Test
        • a.  Pending Amnesty Applications  22.62
        • b.  Family Unity Status  22.63
      • 2.  Additional Information  22.64
    • W.  Registry  22.65
    • X.  Non-Immigrant Visa Waiver of Inadmissibility  22.66
    • Y.  Voluntary Departure  22.67
      • 1.  Quick Eligibility Test  22.68
      • 2.  Additional Information  22.69
  • IV.  GOOD MORAL CHARACTER (GMC)  22.70
    • A.  Quick Eligibility Test  22.71
    • B.  Additional Information  22.72

Selected Developments

2018 Update

The current update includes changes that reflect recent developments in case law, legislation, court rules, and jury instructions. Summarized below are some of the more important developments included in this update since publication of the 2017 update.

Title 18 of the United States Code §16(b) residual clause declared void. In Sessions v Dimaya (2018) ___ US ___, 138 S Ct 1204, the Supreme Court held that the residual clause of 18 USC §16(b) was void for vagueness, rejecting the “ordinary case” test that had been in use to define a crime of violence. Following Dimaya, a California felony residential burglary (Pen C §§459 and 460(a)) is not an aggravated felony for immigration purposes. See chap 7.

Categorical analysis and domestic violence protective orders. In Garcia-Hernandez v Boente (7th Cir 2017) 847 F3d 869, the Seventh Circuit determined that a conviction and the strict categorical analysis may not be required for the “violators of protection orders” ground of deportation under 8 USC §1227(a)(2)(E)(ii). This is contrary to the law in the Ninth Circuit, as expressed in Szalai v Holder (9th Cir 2009) 572 F3d 975. The Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA) has decided to follow the Seventh Circuit and reject the categorical approach in cases involving Immigration and Naturalization Act (INA) §237(a)(2)(E)(ii). Matter of Obshatko (BIA 2017) 27 I&N Dec 173. See §3.32.

California Values Act. The California Values Act (Govt C §§7284–7284.12) prohibits law enforcement from holding an individual for any amount of time beyond their criminal custody to facilitate an immigration arrest. The Act further prohibits the sharing of information with Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) regarding a person’s release date unless that information is available to the public or complies with the exceptions listed in the TRUST Act (Govt C §7282.5). See Govt C §7284.6(a). It also prohibits giving ICE personal information, participation in arrests, allowing ICE exclusive desk space, using ICE interpreters, and other forms of cooperation. See chap 4.

Individualized bond hearings in mandatory detention proceedings. The Supreme Court has decided in Jennings v Rodriguez (2018) ___US___, 138 S Ct 830, that the Ninth Circuit’s interpretation of the Immigration and Naturalization Act (INA) statutory authority relating to detention of aliens does not implicitly limit detention to 6 months nor does it require periodic bond hearings. However, the issue of what constitutional due process requires has been remanded and is still pending. See §4.18.

Pretrial diversion. Effective January 1, 2018, defendants may participate in rehabilitation programs without risking a conviction for immigration purposes. Penal Code §1000 (formerly Deferred Entry of Judgment (DEJ)) has been amended to no longer require a guilty plea to participate in diversion. See §20.68.

Retroactivity of Pen C §1473.7. The post-conviction relief available under Pen C §1473.7 may be applied to guilty pleas entered before its effective date. People v Perez (2018) 19 CA5th 818, 828. See §20.30A.

Sexual abuse of a minor clarified. In Quintero-Cisneros v Sessions (9th Cir 2018) 891 F3d 1197, 1200, the Ninth Circuit held that Esquivel-Quintana v Sessions (2017) ___ US ___, 137 S Ct 1562, applies “mainly to statutory rape offenses,” and that the definition of sexual abuse of a minor set forth in U.S. v Medina-Villa (9th Cir 2009) 567 F3d 507, applies to “all other offenses.” The Medina-Villa definition requires proof of three elements: (1) sexual conduct, (2) with a minor, (3) that constitutes abuse. See §12.5.

Confidentiality of immigration status. Evidence of a person’s immigration status may not be disclosed in open court by a party or his or her attorney, unless the judge first determines admissibility in camera, although this does not prohibit a person or his or her attorney from voluntarily revealing his or her immigration status. Evid C §351.4(a). See §4.19.

Asylum and withholding of removal. New limitations have been placed on asylum claims based on domestic abuse and gang violence. See Matter of A-B- (AG 2018) 27 I&N Dec 316. See §22.40.

About the Authors

NORTON TOOBY, B.A., 1967, Harvard University; J.D., 1970, Stanford Law School. Mr. Tooby is a criminal defense attorney practicing in Oakland, California. He is listed in Best Lawyers in America, and in 2011 he was awarded the American Immigration Lawyers Association’s Jack Wasserman Award for excellence in litigation as a member of the team that won Padilla v Kentucky (2010) 559 US 356, 130 S Ct 1473. In Padilla, Justice Stevens recognized and relied on Mr. Tooby’s practice manual, Criminal Defense of Immigrants (2012), as one of the “authoritative treatises” that form the basis of counsel’s duty to protect noncitizen defendants against adverse immigration consequences of a plea. 130 S Ct at 1482. In June 2010, the National Immigration Project of the National Lawyers Guild honored Mr. Tooby “for outstanding work in defense of immigrant rights” and, in 2000, the Immigrant Legal Resource Center (ILRC) of San Francisco awarded him the Philip Burton Immigration & Civil Rights Award for Immigration Lawyering. Mr. Tooby’s published post-conviction victories for immigrants include People v Totari (2002) 28 C4th 876 (denial of motion to vacate conviction under Pen C §1016.5 is appealable) and People v Totari (2003) 111 CA4th 1202 (reversing trial court’s order denying motion to vacate conviction under Pen C §1016.5). He was lead counsel in People v Kim (2009) 45 C4th 1078 (holding petitioner ineligible for a writ of error coram nobis on the facts of the case) and he represented amici curiae on the briefs and at oral argument in In re Resendiz (2001) 25 C4th 230 (defense counsel’s misadvice concerning actual immigration consequences of plea constitutes ineffective assistance of counsel resulting in reversal if prejudice is shown, even if the defendant was given advice on possible immigration consequences as required by Pen C §1016.5). Mr. Tooby also won a death penalty reversal of all convictions, eventually freeing his client, in People v Marks (1988) 45 C3d 1335. Since 1986, Mr. Tooby has written extensively in the fields of the criminal defense of noncitizens, ineffective assistance of counsel, post-conviction relief, and the immigration consequences of criminal cases and how to attenuate them. Since 1995, he has written 10 practice manuals in the field of criminal immigration law, including Criminal Defense of Immigrants (2012). For nearly 20 years, he has organized day-long CLE seminars on criminal and immigration law, and maintains http://www.NortonTooby.com, a criminal immigration legal research site. From 1998 through 2002, he served as Update Editor for Kesselbrenner & Rosenberg, Immigration Law and Crimes (2014).

KATHERINE BRADY, ESQ., B.A., 1975, Stanford University; J.D., 1983, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Ms. Brady is a Senior Staff Attorney at the Immigrant Legal Resource Center (ILRC), a national center located in San Francisco, where she has worked since 1987. In 2007, Ms. Brady received the Carol King award for advocacy from the National Immigration Project of the National Lawyers Guild, and she served as a commissioner to the American Bar Association’s Commission on Immigration from 2009 through 2012. Ms. Brady is the primary author of the ILRC’s Defending Immigrants in the Ninth Circuit (formerly California Criminal Law and Immigration). She is also a coauthor of the ILRC’s Special Immigrant Juvenile Status and Other Immigration Options for Children and Youth, Immigration Benchbook for Juvenile and Family Courts, and other manuals on immigration law. Ms. Brady coauthored Chapter 52, Representing the Noncitizen Criminal Defendant, in California Criminal Law Procedure and Practice (Cal CEB). She is a co-founder of the national Defending Immigrants Partnership and the Immigrant Justice Network. Ms. Brady has authored briefs in key Ninth Circuit cases on immigration and crime. Prior to working at the ILRC, Ms. Brady was in private practice with the immigration firm of Park and Associates.

About the 2018 Update Authors

NORTON TOOBY reviewed the updates to chapters 1, 9, 10, 11, 17, 18, and 19 and consulted with the update authors on the remaining chapters; see biography in the About the Authors section of this book.

KATHERINE BRADY, ESQ., updated chapter 22; see biography in the About the Authors section of this book.

GARRICK BYERS, ESQ., B.A.L.S., 1976, Sonoma State College; J.D., 1979, Antioch School of Law. Mr. Byers, a Board-certified specialist in criminal law since 1990, is currently in private practice doing criminal appeals and writs. He is a former president of the California Public Defenders Association and an update author for three chapters in California Criminal Law Procedure and Practice (Cal CEB). Mr. Byers has presented in-person as well as web-based seminars for CEB and other national and statewide legal organizations. He updated chapter 15.

ALBERT CAMACHO, ESQ., B.S., 1991, California State University, Northridge; J.D., 1994, University of Southern California School of Law. Mr. Camacho is a Deputy Public Defender with the Los Angeles County Office of the Public Defender. Since 2010, he has primarily been assigned to the Appellate Branch and has argued before both the Appellate Division of the Superior Court of Los Angeles County and the California Court of Appeal. He is a member of the Executive Committee of the Criminal Law Section of the State Bar of California and has been a speaker on issues related to felony sentencing at both the Public Defender and Alternate Defender Offices of Los Angeles County, the State Bar, and numerous agencies and organizations involved in the California criminal justice system. Currently, Mr. Camacho’s primary focus is on the immigration consequences of criminal court proceedings. Along with Graciela Martinez and Evan Franzel, he updated chapters 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7.

KATIE DWIGHT, ESQ., B.A., 1991, Yale University; J.D., 2006, University of California, Davis, School of Law. After graduation from law school, Ms. Dwight worked for 10 years with a San Francisco nonprofit assisting disabled veterans. During that time, she also practiced immigration law on a part-time basis. In 2017, she founded the Law Office of K. P. Dwight in Berkeley to provide full-time assistance to immigrants. She updated chapter 20.

EVAN F. FRANZEL, ESQ., J.D., 2017, University of California, Southern California. Mr. Franzel was a UC Regents Law Fellow, and he now works as a Deputy Public Defender at the Los Angeles County Office of the Public Defender. Together with Graciela Martinez and Albert Camacho, he updated chapters 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7.

GRACIELA MARTINEZ, ESQ., A.B., 1989, Stanford University; J.D., 1992, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Ms. Martinez is a Deputy Public Defender assigned to the Appellate Branch of the Los Angeles County Office of the Public Defender. She consults with and advises attorneys both in her office and throughout California on issues relating to criminal convictions and the resultant immigration penalties. Ms. Martinez is an update author of Representing the Noncitizen Criminal Defendant (chapter 52) in California Criminal Law Procedure and Practice (Cal CEB) with Michael Mehr. Along with Albert Camacho and Evan Franzel, she updated chapters 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7.

MICHAEL K. MEHR, ESQ., B.A., 1973, University of California, Santa Cruz (with honors); J.D., 1976, University of San Francisco School of Law. Mr. Mehr is a private attorney in Santa Cruz County who has practiced immigration and criminal law since 1979, including deportation defense and post-conviction relief. He is a coauthor of Defending Immigrants in the Ninth Circuit: Impact of Crimes Under California and Other State Laws (9th ed 2007 ILRC) by Katherine A. Brady, Norton Tooby and Angie Junck. He is a frequent lecturer at CLE programs and was the expert witness in People v Bautista (2004) 115 CA4th 229, which held that failure to defend against immigration consequences may be ineffective assistance of counsel. Mr. Mehr is an update author of Representing the Noncitizen Criminal Defendant (chapter 52) in California Criminal Law Procedure and Practice (Cal CEB) with Graciela Martinez. He updated chapter 12.

GRISEL RUIZ, ESQ., B.A., 2005, University of Notre Dame; J.D., 2009, University of Chicago. Ms. Ruiz is a Staff Attorney with the Immigrant Legal Resource Center in San Francisco, where she focuses on the intersection between immigration law and criminal law. This includes advising attorneys and advocates on the immigration consequences of criminal offenses, training on removal defense, and supporting local and statewide campaigns to push back on immigration enforcement. Ms. Ruiz is currently the detention advocacy coordinator for the Northern California Chapter of the American Immigration Lawyers Association (AILA) and is the board chair for CIVIC, a nonprofit that advocates for detained immigrants. She is the primary update author of chapter 4.

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