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California Civil Discovery Practice

This comprehensive resource keeps you on top by fully incorporating new law, providing in-depth treatment of electronic discovery and its special problems, and clarifying motion practice. Includes sample forms and a laminated Checklist of Objections that you can carry to depositions and court with you for easy reference.

 

Check out CEB's free How to Guide: How to Conduct Discovery in a Limited Civil Case.

This comprehensive resource keeps you on top by fully incorporating new law, providing in-depth treatment of electronic discovery and its special problems, and clarifying motion practice. Includes sample forms and a laminated Checklist of Objections that you can carry to depositions and court with you for easy reference.

  • Creating a discovery plan
  • Privileges and work product protections
  • Electronic data and e-discovery
  • Depositions
  • Interrogatories
  • Demands for inspection or production
  • Requests for admission
  • Physical and mental examinations
  • Exchange of expert information
  • Discovery motion practice and sanctions
  • Writs and appeals

Check out CEB's free How to Guide: How to Conduct Discovery in a Limited Civil Case.

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This comprehensive resource keeps you on top by fully incorporating new law, providing in-depth treatment of electronic discovery and its special problems, and clarifying motion practice. Includes sample forms and a laminated Checklist of Objections that you can carry to depositions and court with you for easy reference.

  • Creating a discovery plan
  • Privileges and work product protections
  • Electronic data and e-discovery
  • Depositions
  • Interrogatories
  • Demands for inspection or production
  • Requests for admission
  • Physical and mental examinations
  • Exchange of expert information
  • Discovery motion practice and sanctions
  • Writs and appeals

Check out CEB's free How to Guide: How to Conduct Discovery in a Limited Civil Case.

1

The Right to Discovery and Its Scope

Robert C. Wright

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Book  1.1
    • B.  Scope of Chapter  1.2
    • C.  Brief History of Civil Discovery Act  1.3
  • II.  RIGHT TO DISCOVERY UNDER CIVIL DISCOVERY ACT
    • A.  Matters to Which Civil Discovery Act Applies  1.4
      • 1.  Civil Actions  1.5
      • 2.  Special Proceedings of Civil Nature  1.6
        • a.  Eminent Domain  1.7
        • b.  State Bar Disciplinary Proceedings  1.8
        • c.  Probate Proceedings  1.9
        • d.  Commitment Proceedings Under Sexually Violent Predator Act  1.10
        • e.  Child Dependency Proceedings  1.11
        • f.  Other  1.12
    • B.  Matters to Which Civil Discovery Act Does Not Apply
      • 1.  Criminal Proceedings  1.13
      • 2.  Arbitration Agreements  1.14
        • a.  Court’s Authority When Case Submitted to Arbitration  1.15
        • b.  Nature of Arbitration Discovery Under CCP §§1280–1294.2  1.16
        • c.  Uninsured Motorist Arbitration  1.17
      • 3.  Judicial Arbitration  1.18
        • a.  Discovery in Judicial Arbitration  1.19
        • b.  Discovery After Judicial Arbitration  1.20
      • 4.  Juvenile Court Delinquency Proceedings  1.21
      • 5.  Administrative Proceedings  1.22
        • a.  Specific Administrative Discovery Provisions  1.23
        • b.  Administrative Mandamus  1.24
      • 6.  Small Claims Court Proceedings  1.25
      • 7.  Postjudgment Execution Proceedings  1.26
    • C.  Broad Right to Discovery Under Civil Discovery Act
      • 1.  Purposes of Civil Discovery Act  1.27
      • 2.  Construed Liberally  1.28
      • 3.  Subject to Exercise of Court’s Discretion
        • a.  Greyhound Corp. v Superior Court  1.29
        • b.  Other Principles Guiding Court’s Exercise of Discretion  1.30
    • D.  Persons Who May Request Discovery  1.31
    • E.  Persons From Whom Discovery Is Obtainable
      • 1.  Parties: Full Discovery Available  1.32
      • 2.  Nonparties: Deposition Subpoenas Only  1.33
  • III.  SCOPE OF DISCOVERY
    • A.  Relevance to Subject Matter  1.34
      • 1.  Relevance Versus Burden, Expense, or Intrusiveness of Discovery  1.35
      • 2.  Nature of Relevance
        • a.  Statutory Definition  1.36
        • b.  Judicial Guidelines  1.37
    • B.  Categories of Relevant Information
      • 1.  Pleadings
        • a.  Facts Relating to Claim or Defense  1.38
        • b.  Information to Cure Defective Pleading  1.39
        • c.  Financial Information  1.40
        • d.  Defendant’s Assets When Punitive Damages Claimed  1.41
        • e.  Defendant’s Assets When Good Faith of Settlement Challenged  1.42
        • f.  Plaintiff’s Compensation and Damages  1.43
      • 2.  Insurance
        • a.  Insurance Agreements  1.44
        • b.  Prior Settlements in Insurance Coverage Litigation  1.45
        • c.  Insurance Reserves  1.46
      • 3.  Medical Information  1.47
      • 4.  Legal and Factual Contention Interrogatories Proper  1.48
      • 5.  Information About Witnesses
        • a.  Experts  1.49
        • b.  Percipient and Nonpercipient Witnesses  1.50
      • 6.  Affirmative Action Plans  1.51
      • 7.  Facts Arising After Suit Filed  1.52
      • 8.  Similar Incidents and Complaints  1.53
      • 9.  Jurisdictional Facts  1.54
    • C.  Irrelevant or Marginally Relevant Matter  1.55
      • 1.  Legislators’ Thought Processes  1.56
      • 2.  Right of Privacy  1.57
      • 3.  Attorney’s Hourly Rate  1.58
      • 4.  Identity of Unknown Parties  1.59
      • 5.  Reasons for Special Litigation Committee’s Actions in Derivative Suit Litigation  1.60
    • D.  Limitations on Discovery of Relevant Matter
      • 1.  Privilege and Other Protections  1.61
        • a.  Constitutional Rights of Association and Privacy  1.62
        • b.  Work Product Protection for Identity of Nonexpert Trial Witnesses  1.63
      • 2.  Burden, Expense, or Intrusiveness  1.64
      • 3.  Prohibition of “Hybrid” Discovery Devices  1.65
    • E.  Time Limitations on Scope of Discovery
      • 1.  How Far Back Can Discovery Go?  1.66
        • a.  Federal Authorities  1.67
        • b.  California Case Examples  1.68
      • 2.  When Discovery Closes
        • a.  Generally on or Before 30 Days Before Initial Trial Date  1.69
        • b.  Expert Witness Discovery  1.70
        • c.  Unlawful Detainer Actions  1.71
        • d.  Certain Other Actions  1.72
      • 3.  When Discovery Reopens  1.73
      • 4.  Court’s Role in Timing
        • a.  Establishing Sequence and Timing of Discovery  1.74
        • b.  Managing Case Under Trial Court Delay Reduction Act  1.75
      • 5.  When Discovery May Begin
        • a.  Plaintiff
          • (1)  After Service  1.76
          • (2)  After Defendant Appears  1.77
        • b.  Defendant  1.78
        • c.  Unlawful Detainer Actions  1.79
    • F.  Discovery in Particular Circumstances
      • 1.  Summary Judgment Motions  1.80
      • 2.  Anti-SLAPP Motions  1.81
  • IV.  FEDERAL DISCOVERY LAW
    • A.  Effect of Federal Cases on California Discovery Disputes  1.82
    • B.  Federal Right to and Scope of Discovery  1.83

2

Creating a Discovery Plan

Martin L. Fineman

Joshua S. Goodman

Farley J. Neuman

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  2.1
  • II.  PREPARING TO CREATE DISCOVERY PLAN
    • A.  Determining Issues of Case  2.2
      • 1.  Legal Issues: Reviewing Pleadings and Anticipated Jury Instructions  2.3
      • 2.  Factual Issues  2.4
      • 3.  Possible Sources of Evidence to Prove Facts and Resolve Legal Issues  2.5
      • 4.  Drafting Chronology  2.6
    • B.  Identifying Discovery Goals  2.7
      • 1.  Identifying Uncontested Facts and Issues; Committing Opponent to Specific Version of Facts  2.8
      • 2.  Preparing for Pretrial Motions  2.9
      • 3.  Minimizing Discovery Disputes  2.10
      • 4.  Preserving Evidence for Trial  2.11
      • 5.  Obtaining Information for Settlement  2.12
    • C.  Obtaining Client’s Participation in Discovery Decisions
      • 1.  Interviewing Client About Key Events  2.13
      • 2.  Informing Client of Duty to Preserve Evidence  2.14
      • 3.  Setting Priorities Within Litigation Budget  2.15
      • 4.  Analyzing Risks and Benefits  2.16
    • D.  Determining Type of Case  2.17
      • 1.  Complex Case  2.18
      • 2.  Limited Civil Case  2.19
    • E.  Taking Timing Into Account  2.20
      • 1.  When Discovery Closes  2.21
      • 2.  Extensions of Time to Respond to Discovery  2.22
      • 3.  Motion Timing  2.23
      • 4.  Local Rules  2.24
      • 5.  Case Disposition Time Goals (TCDRA)  2.25
        • a.  Exempting Case From Disposition Time Goals  2.26
        • b.  Expedited Disposition  2.27
      • 6.  Judicial Arbitration Deadlines  2.28
    • F.  Determining Which Discovery Methods to Use  2.29
  • III.  CREATING DISCOVERY PLAN
    • A.  Deciding When to Develop Plan  2.30
    • B.  Format of Discovery Plan  2.30A
    • C.  Conferring With Other Counsel  2.31
    • D.  Planning Informal Discovery  2.32
      • 1.  Witness Interviews  2.33
        • a.  Party Represented by Counsel  2.34
        • b.  Written or Recorded Statements  2.35
        • c.  Unrecorded Interviews  2.36
      • 2.  Investigations and Informal Procedures
        • a.  Internet Searches  2.37
        • b.  Inspection of Property Open to Public  2.38
        • c.  Parties’ Exchange of Information  2.39
        • d.  Early Exchange of Expert Witness Opinions  2.40
        • e.  Public Records Search  2.41
    • E.  Other Statutory Procedures for Discovery  2.42
      • 1.  Request for Statement of Damages  2.43
      • 2.  Demand for Bill of Particulars  2.44
      • 3.  Gathering Information to Introduce by Judicial Notice  2.45
      • 4.  Using Injunction to Prevent Destruction of Evidence  2.46
      • 5.  Using Subpoenaed Records at Trial Without Witness  2.47
      • 6.  Request Under California Public Records Act  2.48
      • 7.  Request Under Freedom of Information Act  2.49
      • 8.  Request Under Public Safety Officers Procedural Bill of Rights Act  2.50
      • 9.  Right to Information Under Other Provisions  2.50A
    • F.  Coordinating Formal Discovery Methods  2.51
      • 1.  Interrogatories and Demands for Inspection  2.52
      • 2.  Interrogatories With Requests for Admission  2.53
      • 3.  Documents Before or At Depositions  2.54
      • 4.  Documents Before Medical Examination  2.55
    • G.  Determining Sequence of Discovery
      • 1.  Sequence of Discovery Methods in General  2.56
      • 2.  Sequence of Depositions  2.57
        • a.  Locking Plaintiff Into His or Her Story  2.58
        • b.  When Plaintiff’s Injuries Are Unresolved  2.59
        • c.  When One Party Is Corporation  2.60
        • d.  Defendants’ Identity and Liability  2.61
        • e.  Identity of Percipient Witnesses  2.62
        • f.  Medical Records  2.63
        • g.  Medical Examinations  2.64
    • H.  Revising Discovery Plan  2.65
  • IV.  STRATEGIC CONSIDERATIONS
    • A.  Larger Consequences of Decisions  2.66
    • B.  Hiring and Consulting Experts Early  2.67
    • C.  Using Discovery Referee
      • 1.  When Discovery Referee May Be Helpful  2.68
      • 2.  Obtaining Discovery Referee  2.69
      • 3.  Payment of Referee’s Fees  2.70
      • 4.  Scope of Referee’s Authority  2.71
      • 5.  Peremptory Challenge of Referee  2.72
    • D.  Handling Complex Litigation
      • 1.  Complex Litigation Defined  2.73
      • 2.  Designating Case as Complex  2.74
    • E.  Stipulated Discovery Plan When Multiple Parties  2.75
      • 1.  Sample Provisions of Stipulated Plan  2.76
      • 2.  Using Database in Large Document Cases  2.77
    • F.  Using Electronically Stored Information  2.78
    • G.  Preserving Electronic Evidence  2.79
  • V.  PLANNING DISCOVERY IN FEDERAL COURT  2.80

3

Evaluating Privileges, Work Product, and Other Protections

Mitchell E. Abbott

Ginetta L. Giovinco

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  3.1
  • II.  SOURCES OF PRIVILEGE
    • A.  Legislatively Created Privileges and Limitations on Disclosure  3.2
    • B.  Judicially Created Privileges and Protective Orders  3.3
  • III.  ATTORNEY-CLIENT PRIVILEGE
    • A.  Statement of Rule  3.4
    • B.  Policy Underlying Privilege  3.5
    • C.  Strict or Liberal Construction  3.6
    • D.  Elements of Confidential Communication  3.7
      • 1.  Was There Communication?  3.8
      • 2.  Unprotected Communications  3.9
      • 3.  Confidentiality
        • a.  Communication Must Be Made to Attorney  3.10
        • b.  Communication Must Be Made in the Course of Attorney-Client Relationship  3.11
        • c.  Client Must Intend to Maintain Confidentiality  3.12
        • d.  Privilege Waived in Presence of Unnecessary Third Parties  3.13
        • e.  Privilege Not Lost in Presence of Third Persons When Presence Necessary to Further Client’s Interest  3.14
          • (1)  Examples of Third Persons Necessary to Further Client’s Interest  3.15
          • (2)  Nontestifying Expert Consultants  3.16
          • (3)  Designated Expert Witnesses  3.17
          • (4)  Insurance Adjusters and Investigators  3.18
        • f.  Joint Defense or Common Interest Doctrine  3.19
          • (1)  Waiver of Joint Defense Protection  3.20
          • (2)  Advisability of Written Agreement  3.21
    • E.  Definition of Client  3.22
      • 1.  Corporations
        • a.  Chadbourne Test  3.23
        • b.  Chadbourne Progeny  3.24
        • c.  Ex Parte Communication With Corporate Employees  3.25
          • (1)  Present Employees  3.26
          • (2)  Former Employees  3.27
        • d.  Shareholder Actions  3.28
      • 2.  Partnerships  3.29
      • 3.  Unincorporated Associations  3.30
      • 4.  Public Entities  3.31
      • 5.  Joint Clients  3.32
      • 6.  Fiduciary or Beneficiary  3.33
      • 7.  When Identity of Client Is Within Privilege  3.34
      • 8.  Limited Liability Companies  3.34A
    • F.  Attorney  3.35
      • 1.  “Dominant Purpose” of Communication  3.36
      • 2.  Corporate Counsel  3.37
      • 3.  Attorney as Tax Preparer  3.38
      • 4.  Attorney as Lobbyist  3.39
      • 5.  Attorney as Witness  3.40
      • 6.  Attorney as Patent Agent or Advisor  3.41
      • 7.  Attorney as Friend or Relative  3.42
      • 8.  Attorney as Investigator  3.43
    • G.  Who May Claim Privilege  3.44
      • 1.  Attorney Required to Claim Privilege  3.45
      • 2.  Burden of Proof  3.46
    • H.  Exceptions to Attorney-Client Privilege
      • 1.  Exceptions in General  3.47
      • 2.  Crime-Fraud Exception  3.48
        • a.  Party Must Make Prima Facie Showing to Invoke Crime-Fraud Exception  3.49
        • b.  Requirements of Prima Facie Showing of Fraud  3.50
        • c.  Cases Divided on Whether Showing Must Be Made Without Reference to Documents Sought to Be Discovered  3.51
  • IV.  WORK PRODUCT DOCTRINE
    • A.  Statement of Rule  3.52
      • 1.  Absolute Protection  3.53
      • 2.  Qualified Protection  3.54
    • B.  Exceptions to Work Product Protection  3.55
    • C.  Scope of Work Product Protection  3.56
      • 1.  Materials Protected by Work Product Doctrine
        • a.  Absolute Work Product Protection  3.57
        • b.  Qualified Work Product Protection  3.57A
        • c.  Work Product Protection for Recorded Witness Statements and Witness Lists  3.57B
      • 2.  Materials Not Protected by Work Product Doctrine  3.58
    • D.  Expert Witnesses and Consultants  3.59
      • 1.  Communications to Potential Expert  3.60
      • 2.  When Expert Witness Is Withdrawn  3.61
    • E.  Comparison to Federal Work Product Doctrine  3.62
    • F.  Attorney Controls Work Product Doctrine  3.63
    • G.  Asserting, Enforcing, and Testing Work Product Doctrine  3.64
    • H.  Waiver of Work Product Doctrine  3.65
    • I.  Work Product on Termination of Attorney-Client Relationship  3.66
    • J.  Work Product in Criminal Proceedings  3.67
    • K.  Crime-Fraud Exception and Work Product Doctrine  3.68
  • V.  MARITAL OR SPOUSAL PRIVILEGE  3.69
    • A.  Privilege Not to Testify Against One’s Spouse  3.70
      • 1.  Scope of Privilege  3.71
      • 2.  Waiver of Privilege  3.72
      • 3.  Limitation on Privilege  3.73
    • B.  Privilege for Confidential Marital Communications  3.74
      • 1.  Privilege Applies Only to Valid Marriage  3.75
      • 2.  Privilege Survives Termination of Marriage  3.76
      • 3.  Privilege Applies Only to Communications  3.77
      • 4.  Communication Must Be Made in Confidence  3.78
      • 5.  Burden of Proving Privilege  3.79
      • 6.  Exceptions to Marital Privilege
        • a.  Miscellaneous Statutory Exceptions  3.80
        • b.  Crime or Fraud Exception  3.81
        • c.  Threats Against Third Persons When Spouse Is Abused  3.82
      • 7.  Waiver of Marital Privilege  3.83
  • VI.  PHYSICIAN-PATIENT AND PSYCHOTHERAPIST-PATIENT PRIVILEGES
    • A.  Statement of Rule  3.84
      • 1.  Patient Defined  3.85
      • 2.  Physician and Psychotherapist Defined  3.86
      • 3.  Privilege in Civil Cases  3.87
      • 4.  Burden of Proof  3.88
    • B.  Confidential Communication  3.89
      • 1.  Presumption of Confidentiality  3.90
      • 2.  Communication by Family Members  3.91
      • 3.  Nature of Condition or Ailment Is Generally Privileged  3.92
    • C.  Holder of Privilege  3.93
      • 1.  Claim by Physician or Psychotherapist  3.94
      • 2.  Claim by Attorney or Necessary Third Parties  3.95
      • 3.  Claim by Parent on Behalf of Minor  3.96
      • 4.  Claim by Court  3.97
      • 5.  Privilege Survives Patient’s Death  3.98
    • D.  Exceptions to Physician-Patient or Psychotherapist-Patient Privilege
      • 1.  Tender of Physical or Emotional Condition as Issue  3.99
      • 2.  Crime or Tort Exception to Physician-Patient or Psychotherapist-Patient Privilege  3.100
      • 3.  Miscellaneous Statutory Exceptions Applicable to Both Physician-Patient and Psychotherapist-Patient Privileges  3.101
      • 4.  Exceptions Applicable to Physician-Patient Privilege Only
        • a.  Good Cause for Disclosure  3.102
        • b.  Proceeding on Right, License, or Authority  3.103
      • 5.  Exceptions Applicable to Psychotherapist-Patient Privilege Only
        • a.  Patient Is Dangerous to Self or Others  3.104
        • b.  Other Exceptions to Psychotherapist-Patient Privilege  3.105
    • E.  Waiver of Physician-Patient or Psychotherapist-Patient Privilege  3.106
  • VII.  GOVERNMENTAL, LEGISLATIVE, AND JUDICIAL PRIVILEGES
    • A.  Mental Processes of Judicial, Quasi-Judicial, and Administrative Officers  3.107
    • B.  Mental Processes of Legislators  3.108
    • C.  Official Information  3.109
      • 1.  Public Records Act  3.110
      • 2.  Federal Freedom of Information Act  3.111
      • 3.  Ralph M. Brown Act  3.112
    • D.  Compulsory Vehicle Accident Reports  3.113
    • E.  Department of Motor Vehicle Records  3.114
    • F.  Information Practices Act of 1977  3.115
  • VIII.  MISCELLANEOUS PRIVILEGES
    • A.  Tax Returns and Related Information
      • 1.  General Rule  3.116
      • 2.  Exceptions to Tax Return Privilege  3.117
      • 3.  Tax Returns Not Privileged Under Federal Law  3.118
      • 4.  Tax Advice  3.119
    • B.  Trade Secrets
      • 1.  Statement of Rule  3.120
      • 2.  Trade Secret Defined  3.121
      • 3.  Procedure for Asserting and Testing Trade Secret Privilege  3.122
    • C.  Privilege Against Self-Incrimination in Civil Proceedings
      • 1.  Statement of Rule  3.123
      • 2.  Self-Incrimination Privilege Applies Only to Defendants  3.124
      • 3.  Self-Incrimination Privilege Applies Only to Individuals  3.125
      • 4.  Self-Incrimination Privilege Applies Only to Communications or Testimony  3.126
      • 5.  Procedure for Claiming Self-Incrimination Privilege  3.127
      • 6.  Methods of Compelling Testimony Despite Self-Incrimination  3.128
      • 7.  Waiver of Self-Incrimination Privilege  3.129
    • D.  Newsperson’s “Shield Law”
      • 1.  General Statement of Rule  3.130
      • 2.  New York Times Co. v Superior Court  3.131
      • 3.  When Court Seeks Disclosure  3.132
      • 4.  Editorial Process Privilege  3.133
    • E.  Proceedings and Records of Health Care Professional Review Committees
      • 1.  General Rule  3.134
      • 2.  Entities Subject to Statutory Protection  3.135
      • 3.  What Constitutes a “Committee”  3.136
      • 4.  Scope of Protection  3.137
      • 5.  Exceptions to Protection for Health Care Review Committees
        • a.  When No Protection for Health Care Review Committees Under Evid C §1157  3.138
        • b.  When No Protection for Health Care Review Committees Under Evid C §1157.5  3.139
        • c.  When No Protection for Health Care Review Committees Under Evid C §1157.6  3.140
      • 6.  Waiver  3.141
    • F.  Self-Critical Analysis  3.142
    • G.  Confidential Informants  3.143
    • H.  Whistleblowers  3.144
    • I.  Subsequent Remedial Conduct  3.145
    • J.  Settlement Negotiations  3.146
    • K.  Mediation Proceedings  3.147
    • L.  Clergyperson-Penitent Privilege  3.148
    • M.  Sexual Assault Counselor–Victim Privilege  3.149
    • N.  Domestic Violence Counselor–Victim Privilege  3.150
    • O.  Human Trafficking Caseworker–Victim Privilege  3.150A
    • P.  Voter Privilege  3.151
    • Q.  Private Investigators  3.152
    • R.  Department of State Hospitals  3.153
    • S.  Welfare Proceedings  3.154
    • T.  Union Representatives  3.155
    • U.  State Secrets Privilege  3.155A
  • IX.  RIGHT OF PRIVACY
    • A.  Source of Right of Privacy  3.156
    • B.  Types of Privacy  3.157
    • C.  Discoverability of Private Information  3.157A
    • D.  Informational Privacy in General  3.158
    • E.  Autonomy Privacy in General  3.159
    • F.  Privacy in Medical Records  3.160
    • G.  Privacy in Financial Records  3.161
    • H.  Sexual Privacy  3.162
    • I.  Privacy Rights of Corporations  3.163
    • J.  Data Stored Electronically  3.164
  • X.  WAIVER OF PRIVILEGE GENERALLY  3.165
    • A.  Advance Waiver by Contract and Selective Waiver  3.166
    • B.  Waiver by Voluntary Disclosure  3.167
      • 1.  There Must Be Significant Disclosure  3.168
      • 2.  There Must Be Actual Disclosure  3.169
      • 3.  Holder of Privilege Must Consent  3.170
      • 4.  Disclosure to Third Persons When Necessary to Further Purpose of Confidential Consultation  3.171
      • 5.  Effect of Voluntary Waiver  3.172
      • 6.  Examples of Waiver  3.173
    • C.  Waiver by Failure to Assert Privilege  3.174
      • 1.  Holder Must Have Legal Standing and Opportunity to Object  3.175
      • 2.  To Avoid Waiver, Privilege Must Be Properly Asserted  3.176
      • 3.  Relief From Failure to Properly Assert Privilege  3.177
    • D.  Waiver Through Use of Privileged Materials to Refresh Witness’s Recollection  3.178
    • E.  Waiver of Privilege by Tender of Issues  3.179
      • 1.  Attorney’s Conduct or State of Mind Put in Issue  3.180
      • 2.  Reliance on Advice of Counsel  3.181
    • F.  Implied Waiver of Work Product Protection  3.182
    • G.  Waiver by Inadvertent or Mistaken Disclosure  3.183
      • 1.  Inadvertent Disclosure During Document Production
        • a.  California Cases  3.184
        • b.  Federal Cases  3.185
        • c.  Requesting Return of Inadvertently Produced Privileged Documents, and Responding to Requests  3.186
      • 2.  Misappropriation of Privileged Documents  3.187
      • 3.  Eavesdroppers and Trash Scavengers  3.188
      • 4.  Privileges and Electronic Communications  3.189
      • 5.  Unauthorized Newspaper Disclosure  3.190
    • H.  Attempt to Waive Privilege at Trial  3.190A
  • XI.  PROCEDURES FOR ASSERTING AND CHALLENGING PRIVILEGES
    • A.  Written Forms of Discovery
      • 1.  Interrogatories and Requests for Admission  3.191
      • 2.  Privilege Logs for Documents  3.192
      • 3.  Privilege Log for E-Mail Communications  3.193
    • B.  Depositions
      • 1.  Objections by Parties  3.194
      • 2.  Objections by Nonparties  3.195
    • C.  Asserting and Challenging Privileges at Trial  3.196
    • D.  Court’s Ruling on Privileges  3.197
    • E.  Third Party’s Assertion of Attorney-Client Privilege and Work Product Protection  3.198
  • XII.  TABLE: MISCELLANEOUS STATUTORY PRIVILEGES  3.199
  • XIII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Written Agreement to Preserve Confidentiality of Information Exchanged in Course of Joint Defense  3.200
    • B.  Form: Sample Document Privilege Log  3.201

4

Conducting Discovery in a Digital World: Managing Electronically Stored Information

Alexander H. Lubarsky

Browning E. Marean III

Mary Pat Poteet

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  4.1
  • II.  UNDERSTANDING THE NATURE OF ELECTRONICALLY STORED INFORMATION  4.2
    • A.  Attorney’s Duty With Respect to Electronically Stored Information
      • 1.  Attorney’s Duty of Confidentiality  4.3
      • 2.  Attorney’s Duty of Competence  4.4
    • B.  Electronically Stored Information Is Not Easily Discarded  4.5
    • C.  Electronically Stored Information Proliferates  4.6
    • D.  Electronically Stored Information Is Three-Dimensional  4.7
  • III.  PRESERVING ELECTRONICALLY STORED INFORMATION
    • A.  Duty to Preserve  4.8
      • 1.  Scope of Duty to Preserve
        • a.  Potential Litigation Can Trigger Duty to Preserve  4.9
        • b.  Safe Harbor Provisions  4.10
      • 2.  Examples: How Duty to Preserve May Be Triggered  4.11
      • 3.  Manner of Preservation  4.12
      • 4.  Consequences of Failure to Preserve  4.13
    • B.  Communicating Duty to Preserve Data  4.14
      • 1.  Identifying Data Retention or Destruction Policies  4.15
      • 2.  Placing “Legal Hold” on Data Destruction  4.16
      • 3.  Following Up  4.17
    • C.  Forming Discovery Team  4.18
  • IV.  IDENTIFYING ELECTRONICALLY STORED INFORMATION
    • A.  Understanding Client’s Data  4.19
    • B.  Interviewing Data Custodians  4.20
      • 1.  General Questions for Data Custodians  4.21
      • 2.  Operating Systems  4.22
      • 3.  Standard User Configurations  4.23
      • 4.  Supported Applications  4.24
      • 5.  Offsite Document Retrieval  4.25
      • 6.  E-mail  4.26
      • 7.  Checklist  4.27
  • V.  COLLECTING ELECTRONICALLY STORED INFORMATION  4.28
    • A.  Dangers When Collecting Electronically Stored Information  4.29
    • B.  Role of E-Data Team  4.30
    • C.  Forensic Images  4.31
  • VI.  PROCESSING ELECTRONICALLY STORED INFORMATION  4.32
    • A.  De-Duplication and De-NISTing  4.33
    • B.  Keyword Filtering and Other Automated Search Methods  4.34
    • C.  Date Range Restriction  4.35
  • VII.  REVIEWING AND ANALYZING ELECTRONICALLY STORED INFORMATION  4.36
    • A.  Hosting E-Data  4.37
    • B.  Selecting Review Tools
      • 1.  Litigation Support Tool  4.38
      • 2.  Scalability  4.39
      • 3.  Data Integrity  4.40
      • 4.  Customization  4.41
    • C.  Speeding Up E-Data Review
      • 1.  Meet and Confer With Opposing Counsel  4.42
      • 2.  Using Artificial Intelligence for Document Review  4.43
      • 3.  Dividing Up E-Data  4.44
      • 4.  Tags and Issue Codes  4.45
  • VIII.  PRODUCING ELECTRONICALLY STORED INFORMATION  4.46
    • A.  Inadvertent Production of Privileged or Protected Materials  4.47
      • 1.  Claw-Back Agreements  4.48
      • 2.  Minimum Amount of Data to Determine Inadvertent Production  4.49
    • B.  Format for Production of Electronically Stored Information  4.50
      • 1.  Producing Images  4.51
      • 2.  Producing Native Format  4.52
  • IX.  STORAGE AND REUSE AFTER COMPLETION OF CASE  4.53
  • X.  FORMS
    • A.  Electronic Data to Page Estimation  4.54
    • B.  Form: Legal Hold Letter  4.55
    • C.  Form: Document Creation Reminders  4.56
    • D.  Checklist: Identifying Data  4.57
    • E.  Form: Preservation Letter  4.58
    • F.  Form: Chain-of-Custody Log  4.59

5

Deposition Procedures

Marjorie E. Manning

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  5.1
  • II.  TYPES OF DEPOSITIONS
    • A.  Oral Deposition  5.2
    • B.  Deposition With Document Production  5.3
    • C.  Custodian of Records Deposition  5.4
    • D.  Deposition on Written Questions  5.5
  • III.  WHO MAY BE DEPOSED
    • A.  Parties  5.6
    • B.  Nonparties  5.7
    • C.  Organizations  5.8
    • D.  Limits on Right to Depose Some Individuals
      • 1.  Witness Invoking Fifth Amendment Privilege  5.9
      • 2.  Debtor in Bankruptcy  5.10
      • 3.  Attorneys Possessing Privileged Information  5.11
      • 4.  Judges and Administrative Hearing Officers  5.12
      • 5.  Prisoners  5.13
      • 6.  Unnamed Members of Class Actions  5.14
      • 7.  Individuals Previously Deposed in Pending Action  5.15
  • IV.  WHEN DEPOSITIONS MAY BE TAKEN
    • A.  Commencing Discovery by Statute
      • 1.  Defendant’s Earliest Time to Serve Notice of Deposition Without Leave of Court  5.16
      • 2.  Plaintiff’s Earliest Time to Serve Notice of Deposition Without Leave of Court  5.17
      • 3.  Ex Parte Application to Shorten Time for Serving Notice of Deposition  5.18
    • B.  Completion of Discovery by Statute
      • 1.  General Discovery Cutoff  5.19
      • 2.  Cutoff for Taking Depositions  5.20
      • 3.  Exceptions to General Deadlines for Completing Discovery  5.21
      • 4.  Modifying Statutory Deadlines by Agreement of Counsel  5.22
      • 5.  Modifying Statutory Deadlines by Court Order  5.23
  • V.  WHERE DEPOSITIONS MAY BE TAKEN
    • A.  Convenient Location Preferred  5.24
    • B.  Statutory Distance Requirements Within California
      • 1.  Natural Persons  5.25
      • 2.  Organizations
        • a.  Party Organizations  5.26
        • b.  Nonparty Organizations  5.27
        • c.  Organizations Without Designated Offices  5.28
    • C.  Depositions Outside California; Depositions Inside California for Lawsuits Pending Elsewhere  5.29
    • D.  Oral Deposition by Telephone, Video Conference, or Other Remote Electronic Means  5.30
  • VI.  STRATEGIC CONSIDERATIONS IN PLANNING ORAL DEPOSITIONS
    • A.  Considering Primary Goals of Depositions
      • 1.  Discovering What Witness Knows  5.31
      • 2.  Preserving Testimony for Future Use
        • a.  “Locking In” Party’s Testimony  5.32
        • b.  Deposing Witness Unavailable for Trial  5.33
      • 3.  Obtaining Testimony to Facilitate Settlement  5.34
      • 4.  Assessing Witnesses and Opposing Counsel  5.35
    • B.  Evaluating Expense of Deposition in Light of Potential Benefits  5.36
    • C.  Considering Whom to Depose
      • 1.  Adverse Party  5.37
      • 2.  Adverse Nonparty Witness  5.38
      • 3.  Friendly Nonparty Witnesses  5.39
      • 4.  Entities
        • a.  Person Most Knowledgeable  5.40
        • b.  Distinguishing Individual Depositions of Organization Representatives  5.41
      • 5.  Experts
        • a.  Treating Health Care Providers  5.42
        • b.  Other Expert Witnesses  5.43
    • D.  Considering Timing
      • 1.  Impact of Accelerated Trial Rules  5.44
      • 2.  Whom to Depose Early  5.45
        • a.  Deposing Parties Before Other Witnesses  5.46
        • b.  Deposing Key Witnesses Early  5.47
        • c.  Deposing Witnesses Who May Be Unavailable at Trial  5.48
      • 3.  No Priority in Sequence of Depositions Under Civil Discovery Act  5.49
  • VII.  SETTING UP ORAL DEPOSITION
    • A.  Cooperation Among Counsel
      • 1.  Stipulating to Taking of Deposition  5.50
      • 2.  Finding Mutually Convenient Date  5.51
    • B.  Method of Compelling Appearance of Witness
      • 1.  Deposition Notice Sufficient for Party Appearance and Testimony  5.52
      • 2.  Comparing Notice of Expert Deposition  5.53
      • 3.  Deposition Notice Sufficient for Party Attendance and Production of Documents  5.54
      • 4.  Deposition Subpoena Required to Compel Nonparty Personal Attendance, Testimony, and Production of Documents  5.55
      • 5.  When Documents to Be Produced Are Located Outside California  5.56
    • C.  Drafting Notices and Subpoenas for Oral Depositions
      • 1.  Required Content of Notice of Oral Deposition  5.57
      • 2.  Required Content of Notice of Oral Deposition With Production of Documents  5.58
      • 3.  Optional Content of Deposition Notice  5.59
      • 4.  Required Content of Deposition Subpoena for Personal Appearance  5.60
      • 5.  Required Content of Deposition Subpoena for Personal Appearance and Production of Documents and Things  5.61
      • 6.  Special Considerations When Deponent Is Not a Natural Person  5.62
    • D.  Complying With Timing Requirements
      • 1.  Amount of Notice Required for Oral Deposition Only  5.63
      • 2.  Amount of Notice Required for Oral Deposition With Documents
        • a.  Notice to Party Deponent  5.64
        • b.  Notice to Nonparty Deponent When Documents to Be Produced Are Not Business, Employment, or Personal Records  5.65
        • c.  Notice to Nonparty Deponent When Employment Records to Be Produced  5.66
        • d.  Notice to Nonparty Deponent When Consumer Records to Be Produced  5.67
    • E.  Serving Notices and Subpoenas for Oral Depositions
      • 1.  Service of Deposition Notice on All Parties  5.68
      • 2.  Service of Subpoena on Nonparty for Appearance or Appearance and Production of Documents  5.69
    • F.  Payment of Witness Fees and Mileage
      • 1.  Procedures for Nonparty Deponents in General  5.70
      • 2.  Special Procedures for Government Employees  5.71
    • G.  Selecting Deposition Officer and Method of Recording
      • 1.  Officer-Reporter’s Qualifications  5.72
      • 2.  Stenographic Recording Required
        • a.  Meeting Statutory Requirements  5.73
        • b.  Instant Visual Display (Real Time)  5.74
      • 3.  Option of Audio or Video Recording in Addition to Stenographic Recording
        • a.  Statutory Requirements  5.75
        • b.  Considering Benefits of Audio or Video Recorded Deposition  5.76
          • (1)  Portraying Demeanor of Unavailable Witness  5.77
          • (2)  Curtailing Attorney or Witness Misconduct  5.78
          • (3)  Recording Physical Reenactment Planned During Examination  5.79
          • (4)  Discouraging Change of Venue Motion  5.80
          • (5)  Making Better Use of Experts  5.81
          • (6)  Surprising Deponent With Facts; Impeachment  5.82
        • c.  Video or Audio Operator’s Qualifications  5.83
        • d.  Checklist: Video Recording Procedures  5.84
    • H.  Limits on Duration of Deposition  5.84A
  • VIII.  SETTING DEPOSITION FOR PRODUCTION OF NONPARTY’S BUSINESS RECORDS
    • A.  Deposition for Production of Business Records Defined  5.85
    • B.  Strategic Considerations  5.86
    • C.  Selecting Deposition Officer  5.87
    • D.  Preparing and Serving Business-Records-Only Subpoena  5.88
      • 1.  Describing Each Item  5.89
      • 2.  Stating Where and to Whom Custodian Is to Produce Records  5.90
      • 3.  Preparing Necessary Declarations  5.91
      • 4.  Serving and Completing Proof of Service  5.92
      • 5.  Mailing Copies  5.93
    • E.  Responding to Subpoena for Production of Business Records
      • 1.  Objecting to Qualifications of Deposition Officer  5.94
      • 2.  Objecting to Production  5.94A
      • 3.  Delivering Records When Subpoena Demands Delivery at Deposition Officer’s Address  5.95
        • a.  Accompanying Declaration  5.96
        • b.  Manner of Delivery  5.97
      • 4.  Delivering Records When Subpoena Demands Delivery at Custodian’s Office
        • a.  Manner of Delivery  5.98
        • b.  Declarations Required  5.99
      • 5.  Delivering to Attorney or Representative; Declarations  5.100
      • 6.  Records Delivered at Custodian’s Place of Business Need Not Be Sealed  5.101
      • 7.  Other Parties’ Copies  5.102
    • F.  Costs of Production
      • 1.  Payment of Reasonable Costs Incurred  5.103
      • 2.  Itemized Statement of Costs  5.104
      • 3.  Payment of Witness Fee  5.105
      • 4.  When Costs in Dispute
        • a.  Subpoenaing Party’s Motion to Reduce Excessive Costs  5.106
        • b.  Custodian’s Motion for Reimbursement  5.107
  • IX.  DEPOSITIONS REQUIRING PRODUCTION OF PERSONAL RECORDS
    • A.  Consumer Records
      • 1.  Purpose of Statute  5.108
      • 2.  Definitions  5.109
        • a.  Witness  5.110
        • b.  Personal Records  5.111
        • c.  Consumer  5.112
        • d.  Subpoenaing Party  5.113
      • 3.  When Consumer Statute Not Applicable  5.114
      • 4.  Subpoenaing Party’s Procedures
        • a.  Preparing Subpoena  5.115
        • b.  Scheduling Date of Production  5.116
        • c.  Preparing Notice to Consumer  5.117
        • d.  What to Serve on Consumer  5.118
        • e.  What to Serve on Witness  5.119
        • f.  When Seeking Order to Shorten Time  5.120
      • 5.  Service on Consumer
        • a.  Timing  5.121
        • b.  Manner of Service  5.122
      • 6.  Service on Witness
        • a.  Timing  5.123
        • b.  Manner of Service  5.124
      • 7.  Consumer’s Opposition
        • a.  Party Consumer’s Motion to Quash  5.125
        • b.  Nonparty Consumer’s Written Objection  5.126
      • 8.  Subpoenaing Party’s Motion to Enforce Subpoena  5.127
        • a.  Subpoenaing Party’s Noncompliance With Statutory Requirements  5.128
        • b.  Consumer’s Failure to Pay for Witness’s Services Does Not Affect Duty to Produce  5.129
    • B.  Employment Records  5.130
    • C.  Private Records Held by Government Agencies  5.131
    • D.  Personal Identifying Information Sought in Connection With Action Involving Free Speech Rights  5.131A
  • X.  RESPONDING TO DEPOSITION NOTICE OR SUBPOENA
    • A.  Analyzing Documents Served  5.132
    • B.  Notifying Party Deponent  5.133
    • C.  Whether to Contact Nonparty Witness  5.134
    • D.  Objecting to Deposition Notice  5.135
    • E.  Objecting to Production  5.136
  • XI.  MOTIONS PERTAINING TO DEPOSITIONS
    • A.  Motion to Quash
      • 1.  Deposition Notice  5.137
      • 2.  Deposition Subpoena  5.138
    • B.  Motion for Protective Order  5.139
      • 1.  Grounds  5.140
      • 2.  Procedures  5.141
    • C.  Motion to Compel Deposition at More Distant Location  5.142
      • 1.  Grounds  5.143
      • 2.  Procedures  5.144
    • D.  Motion to Quash Deposition of Attorney  5.145
    • E.  Motion to Compel or Prohibit Subsequent Deposition of an Individual  5.146
  • XII.  DEPOSITION TO PERPETUATE TESTIMONY
    • A.  Purpose  5.147
    • B.  Grounds  5.148
    • C.  Procedures
      • 1.  Notice of Petition  5.149
      • 2.  Contents of Petition  5.150
      • 3.  Where to File  5.151
      • 4.  Service
        • a.  Timing  5.152
        • b.  By Publication; Appointment of Attorney  5.153
    • D.  Order Authorizing Discovery  5.154
    • E.  Scheduling and Conducting Deposition  5.155
  • XIII.  DEPOSITION PENDING APPEAL
    • A.  Purpose  5.156
    • B.  Procedures
      • 1.  Noticed Motion  5.157
      • 2.  Where to File; Service  5.158
    • C.  Order Authorizing Discovery  5.159
  • XIV.  DEPOSITIONS ON WRITTEN QUESTIONS  5.160
    • A.  Timing  5.161
    • B.  Reasons for Using  5.162
      • 1.  When Written Depositions Suitable  5.163
      • 2.  When Written Depositions Not Suitable  5.164
    • C.  Comparison to Oral Depositions  5.165
    • D.  Combining Oral and Written Depositions
      • 1.  In Same Examination  5.166
      • 2.  In Succession  5.167
    • E.  Procedures for Initiating Party
      • 1.  Drafting Direct Questions  5.168
      • 2.  Selecting Deposition Officer  5.169
      • 3.  Drafting Notice  5.170
      • 4.  Serving Papers  5.171
      • 5.  When to Serve on Deponent and Parties  5.172
      • 6.  Production of Documents  5.173
    • F.  Procedures for Responding Party
      • 1.  Preparing Cross-Questions
        • a.  Preliminary Considerations  5.174
        • b.  Time Requirements; Service  5.175
      • 2.  Objecting to Questions  5.176
      • 3.  Motion to Sustain or Overrule Objections
        • a.  Objection to Form  5.177
        • b.  Objection Based on Privilege or Work Product Protection  5.178
    • G.  Obtaining Protective Order
      • 1.  Procedures  5.179
      • 2.  Motion for Oral Examination  5.180
        • a.  Conditioned on Payment of Costs  5.181
        • b.  Conditioned on Results of Written Deposition  5.182
    • H.  Noticing Party’s Response to Cross-Questions
      • 1.  Serving Redirect Questions  5.183
      • 2.  Objecting to Cross-Questions  5.184
      • 3.  Other Options
        • a.  Moving for Protective Order  5.185
        • b.  Dispensing With Further Questions or Objections  5.186
    • I.  Procedures for Taking Written Deposition
      • 1.  Responsibilities of Noticing Party
        • a.  Serving Notice and Questions on Deposition Officer  5.187
        • b.  Serving Direct Questions on Deponent  5.188
      • 2.  Role of Parties at Deposition  5.189
      • 3.  Rights of Deponent  5.190
      • 4.  Duties of Deposition Officer  5.191
      • 5.  Recording Observations  5.192
      • 6.  Video Recording Depositions  5.193
      • 7.  Handling the Transcript  5.194
    • J.  Postdeposition Procedures
      • 1.  Compelling Deponent to Answer or Produce  5.195
      • 2.  Sanctions Against Attorney for Permitting Deponent to Preview Questions  5.196
      • 3.  Motion to Suppress Deposition  5.197
    • K.  Using Deposition at Trial  5.198
    • L.  Checklist: Procedures for Preparing Written Depositions  5.199
  • XV.  DEPOSITIONS IN FEDERAL COURT CASES
    • A.  Relationship of Fed R Civ P 30 to CCP §§2025.010–2025.620  5.200
      • 1.  Rule 26 Discovery Conference  5.201
      • 2.  Number of Depositions  5.202
      • 3.  Duration of Deposition  5.203
      • 4.  Subsequent Depositions  5.204
      • 5.  Method of Recording Depositions  5.205
      • 6.  Telephonic Depositions  5.206
      • 7.  Protective Orders and Motions to Compel  5.207
      • 8.  Depositions Outside California  5.208
    • B.  Procedures for Depositions in Federal Court  5.209
      • 1.  Notice of Deposition (Fed R Civ P 30)  5.210
      • 2.  When Leave of Court Required  5.211
      • 3.  Deposition Location  5.212
      • 4.  Production of Documents at Depositions (Fed R Civ P 34)  5.213
      • 5.  Subpoena and Subpoena Duces Tecum Procedures (Fed R Civ P 45)  5.214
      • 6.  Taking Depositions on Written Questions  5.215
  • XVI.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Notice of Deposition  5.216
    • B.  Form: Deposition Subpoena for Personal Appearance (Judicial Council Form SUBP-015)  5.217
    • C.  Form: Deposition Subpoena for Personal Appearance and Production of Documents and Things (Judicial Council Form SUBP-020)  5.218
    • D.  Form: Ex Parte Application for Order Shortening Time for Serving Notice of Deposition  5.219
    • E.  Form: Other Party’s Notice of Intention to Audio or Video Record Deposition  5.220
    • F.  Form: Other Party’s Notice of Intention to Appear at Deposition by Telephone, Video Conference, or Other Electronic Means  5.221
    • G.  Form: Stipulation for Taking Deposition  5.222
    • H.  Production of Business Records
      • 1.  Form: Deposition Subpoena for Production of Business Records (Judicial Council Form SUBP-010)  5.223
      • 2.  Form: Declaration Accompanying Production of Business Records (Custodian or Other Qualified Witness)  5.224
      • 3.  Form: Declaration Accompanying Production of Business Records (Deposition Officer)  5.225
      • 4.  Form: Declaration Accompanying Production of Business Records (Attorney’s Representative)  5.226
    • I.  Form: Notice to Consumer or Employee and Objection (Judicial Council Form SUBP-025)  5.227
    • J.  Motion to Quash
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion and Motion to Quash Deposition Notice and for Sanctions  5.228
      • 2.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion to Quash Deposition Notice and for Sanctions  5.229
    • K.  Deposition to Perpetuate Testimony
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion for Order Authorizing Deposition to Perpetuate Testimony  5.230
      • 2.  Form: Petition for Order Authorizing Deposition to Perpetuate Testimony  5.231
      • 3.  Form: Order Authorizing Deposition to Perpetuate Testimony  5.232

6

Taking and Defending Oral Depositions

Mark A. Neubauer

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  6.1
  • II.  BEFORE TAKING OR DEFENDING ORAL DEPOSITION
    • A.  Before Taking Deposition
      • 1.  Setting General Strategy  6.2
      • 2.  Assembling Written Record and Exhibits  6.3
      • 3.  Organizing Key Documents to Use as Deposition Exhibits  6.4
      • 4.  Preparing Case or Issue Chronology  6.5
      • 5.  Consulting With Client  6.6
      • 6.  Considering Consultation With Expert  6.7
      • 7.  Preparing Deposition Outline and Anticipating Responses  6.8
      • 8.  Making Special Preparation When Deponent Is Opposing Party’s Expert  6.9
    • B.  Before Defending Oral Deposition
      • 1.  Setting General Strategy  6.10
      • 2.  Advising Client-Deponent
        • a.  Explaining Deposition Process  6.11
        • b.  Giving General Rules for Testifying  6.12
        • c.  Educating Client on Case Weaknesses  6.13
        • d.  Alerting Client to Protected Areas of Inquiry  6.14
        • e.  When Counsel’s Client Is Hostile  6.15
        • f.  Using Documents in Course of Preparing Client  6.16
        • g.  Staging Video Rehearsals  6.17
    • C.  Who May Attend Deposition  6.18
    • D.  Demeanor and Appearance at Deposition
      • 1.  Examiner  6.19
      • 2.  Deponent  6.20
      • 3.  Defending Counsel  6.21
      • 4.  Video and Audio Recorded Depositions  6.22
  • III.  TAKING DEPOSITION
    • A.  Examination Techniques  6.23
      • 1.  Using Deposition Outline  6.24
      • 2.  Asking Specific Questions  6.25
    • B.  Ensuring Accurate Record
      • 1.  Controlling Record  6.26
      • 2.  Understanding What Record Does Not Show  6.27
      • 3.  Conducting Deposition Using Instant Video Display (“Real Time”)  6.28
      • 4.  Preserving Objections  6.29
      • 5.  Assisting Court Reporter  6.30
    • C.  Using Interpreter  6.31
      • 1.  Sample Oath  6.32
      • 2.  Transcript Translation  6.33
    • D.  Going on Record  6.34
    • E.  Handling Stipulations  6.35
      • 1.  Numbering All Exhibits Consecutively  6.36
      • 2.  Avoiding “Usual” Stipulations  6.37
      • 3.  Stipulations at End of Deposition  6.38
      • 4.  Stipulation on Instructing Deponent Not to Answer  6.39
      • 5.  Be Wary of Reserving Objections Until Trial  6.40
      • 6.  Avoiding Multiple Objections  6.41
      • 7.  Marking Exhibits  6.42
      • 8.  Attaching Copies of Exhibits and Treating Attached Copies as Admissible Secondary Evidence  6.43
      • 9.  Excluding Exhibits  6.44
    • F.  Swearing In Deponent  6.45
    • G.  Admonishing Deponent
      • 1.  Purpose of Admonitions  6.46
      • 2.  Specific Comments  6.47
    • H.  Important Preliminary Questions
      • 1.  Deponent’s Medications and Illnesses  6.48
      • 2.  Deponent’s Familiarity With English Language  6.49
      • 3.  Previous Depositions  6.50
      • 4.  When Witness Is Organization Representative  6.51
    • I.  Substantive Questioning of Deponents
      • 1.  General Approach for All Witnesses  6.52
        • a.  Chronological Versus Other Order  6.53
        • b.  Confrontational Versus Friendly Style  6.54
        • c.  Eliciting Positive and Negative Information  6.55
        • d.  Obtaining Basic Information  6.56
        • e.  Considering Asking “Why?”  6.57
      • 2.  Parties  6.58
        • a.  Personal Background Information  6.59
        • b.  Documents Reviewed in Preparation  6.60
        • c.  Facts Underlying Causes of Action or Defenses  6.61
        • d.  Damages  6.62
        • e.  Follow-Up Questions  6.63
      • 3.  Treating Physicians  6.64
      • 4.  Expert Witnesses  6.65
    • J.  Requesting Deponent’s Reenactment  6.66
    • K.  Reexamining Deponent  6.67
  • IV.  HANDLING PROBLEMS DURING DEPOSITION
    • A.  Deponent’s Failure to Appear
      • 1.  Party Deponent  6.68
      • 2.  Nonparty Deponent  6.69
      • 3.  Examiner’s Procedures
        • a.  Confirming Proper Service of Notice or Subpoena  6.70
        • b.  Making Evidentiary Record  6.71
        • c.  Contacting Deponent Informally  6.72
        • d.  Making Motion to Compel Party Compliance With Notice and for Sanctions  6.73
      • 4.  Other Parties’ Procedures  6.74
    • B.  Deponent’s Failure to Answer or Produce  6.75
      • 1.  Making a Record  6.76
      • 2.  Adjourning Deposition  6.77
      • 3.  Oral Notice of Motion to Compel  6.78
        • a.  Procedures  6.79
        • b.  Papers to Be Filed in Court  6.80
        • c.  Service on Nonparty Deponent  6.81
        • d.  Effect of Oral Notice  6.82
    • C.  Improper Coaching  6.83
      • 1.  Making a Record  6.84
      • 2.  When Deponent Is Nonparty  6.85
    • D.  Objections of Counsel  6.86
    • E.  Dealing With Difficult Personalities
      • 1.  Witnesses  6.87
      • 2.  Opposing Counsel  6.88
    • F.  Additional Avenues of Recourse
      • 1.  Requesting Referee  6.89
      • 2.  Arranging for Telephonic Court Ruling  6.90
  • V.  DEFENDING DEPOSITION
    • A.  General Strategies  6.91
    • B.  Handling Examiner’s Failure
      • 1.  Failure to Appear at Deposition  6.92
      • 2.  Failure to Serve Deponent With Subpoena  6.93
    • C.  Objections  6.94
      • 1.  Objections to Manner of Recording  6.95
      • 2.  Objection to Deposition Officer  6.96
      • 3.  Objections to Questions Seeking Privileged Information  6.97
      • 4.  Objections to Form of Question  6.98
        • a.  Procedure  6.99
        • b.  What to Avoid  6.100
      • 5.  Objections to Answer and Motions to Strike  6.101
    • D.  Instructing Client Not to Answer  6.102
      • 1.  Grounds  6.103
      • 2.  Procedures
        • a.  Client Deponent  6.104
        • b.  Counsel Cannot Instruct Nonclient  6.105
    • E.  Suspending Deposition to Seek Protective Order  6.106
      • 1.  Nonparty as Deponent  6.107
      • 2.  Organization Representative as Deponent  6.108
    • F.  Examination of Deponent  6.109
  • VI.  HANDLING DEPOSITION DISCOVERY DISPUTES
    • A.  Seeking Informal Resolution  6.110
    • B.  Moving for Protective Order  6.111
    • C.  Moving to Compel Party or Nonparty Answers or Production
      • 1.  When to Make Motion  6.112
      • 2.  Making Motion in Proper Court  6.113
      • 3.  Preparing Moving Papers  6.114
        • a.  Separate Statement Listing Questions or Demands  6.115
        • b.  Declaration  6.116
      • 4.  Giving Notice of Motion  6.117
      • 5.  Serving Notice and Supporting Papers  6.118
      • 6.  Filing Proof of Service  6.119
      • 7.  Lodging Transcript  6.120
      • 8.  Filing Opposition and Reply Papers
        • a.  Drafting Opposing Papers  6.121
        • b.  Filing Opposition at Least 9 Court Days Before Hearing Date  6.122
        • c.  Filing Any Reply Papers  6.123
      • 9.  Burden of Proof  6.124
      • 10.  Possibility of Sanctions  6.125
  • VII.  POSTDEPOSITION MATTERS
    • A.  Handling Deposition Transcript
      • 1.  Official Stenographic Record  6.126
      • 2.  Correcting and Signing Original
        • a.  Procedures  6.127
        • b.  Deadline to Read, Correct, and Sign Transcript  6.128
        • c.  Effect of Unsigned Deposition  6.129
        • d.  If Motion to Suppress Deposition  6.130
      • 3.  Deposition Officer’s Certification  6.131
      • 4.  Retaining Notes If Not Transcribed  6.132
    • B.  Access to Deposition Transcript or Recording  6.133
    • C.  Custody of Deposition Record
      • 1.  Deposition Transcript  6.134
      • 2.  Deposition Recording  6.135
    • D.  Using Deposition Testimony at Trial and at Other Court Hearings  6.136
      • 1.  To Impeach  6.137
      • 2.  For Any Purpose  6.138
      • 3.  Video Deposition of Physician or Expert  6.139
    • E.  Rough Drafts of Deposition Transcript  6.140
  • VIII.  FORMS
    • A.  Sample Admonitions  6.141
    • B.  Motion for Protective Order
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion and Motion for Order That Deposition Be Terminated or Limited; Request for Sanctions  6.142
      • 2.  Form: Memorandum Supporting Motion for Order That Deposition Be Terminated or Limited  6.143
      • 3.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion for Protective Order  6.144
    • C.  Motion for Order to Compel Answers or Production
      • 1.  Sample Oral Notice of Motion  6.145
      • 2.  Form: Notice of Motion and Motion to Compel Answers to Questions and Production of Documents at Deposition  6.146
      • 3.  Form: Memorandum Supporting Motion to Compel Answers to Questions and Production of Documents at Deposition  6.147
      • 4.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion to Compel Answers to Questions and Production of Documents at Deposition  6.148
      • 5.  Form: Separate Statement Listing Questions to Be Answered and Documents to Be Produced  6.149
      • 6.  Form: Order to Answer Questions and Produce Documents at Deposition and to Pay Sanctions  6.150

7

Interrogatories

Shirley K. Watkins

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  7.1
  • II.  DECIDING TO USE INTERROGATORIES
    • A.  Interrogatories Defined  7.2
    • B.  How Interrogatories Are Used
      • 1.  Ascertain Contentions and Supporting Facts  7.3
      • 2.  Facilitating Settlement  7.4
      • 3.  Focusing Counsel’s Thinking  7.5
      • 4.  Using as Evidence  7.6
      • 5.  Cannot Be “Continuing”  7.7
    • C.  Numerical Limitations on Interrogatories  7.8
      • 1.  Judicial Council Form Interrogatories  7.9
      • 2.  Specially Prepared Interrogatories
        • a.  Limited to 35  7.10
        • b.  Declaration in Support of Additional Interrogatories  7.11
      • 3.  Supplemental Interrogatories  7.12
    • D.  Timing Limitations
      • 1.  First Opportunity to Serve  7.13
      • 2.  Deadline to Serve  7.14
      • 3.  Supplemental Interrogatories Timing Limitations  7.15
      • 4.  Unlawful Detainer Timing Limitations  7.16
    • E.  Special Considerations
      • 1.  Effect of Other Discovery  7.17
      • 2.  Effect of Demurrer  7.18
      • 3.  Effect of Class-Certification Hearing  7.19
      • 4.  Serving Successive Sets of Interrogatories  7.20
    • F.  Who Can Be Served With Interrogatories
      • 1.  Parties Only  7.21
      • 2.  Corporations, Partnerships, and Associations  7.22
      • 3.  Parties in Class Actions  7.23
      • 4.  Foreign Persons and Entities  7.24
    • G.  Strategic Considerations
      • 1.  Costs to Propounding Party  7.25
      • 2.  Costs to Responding Party  7.26
      • 3.  Usefulness of Answers  7.27
      • 4.  Relationship of Interrogatories to Other Discovery Procedures
        • a.  Depositions Compared  7.28
        • b.  Requests for Admission Compared  7.29
        • c.  Production of Documents Compared  7.30
  • III.  DRAFTING INTERROGATORIES
    • A.  Permissible Scope of Interrogatories  7.31
    • B.  Basic Drafting Principles  7.32
      • 1.  Prefaces, Instructions, and Definitions  7.33
      • 2.  Format  7.34
      • 3.  No Subparts  7.35
      • 4.  One Question Only  7.36
      • 5.  Full and Complete  7.37
      • 6.  Not Combined With Requests for Admission  7.38
    • C.  Contention Interrogatories  7.39
      • 1.  Consider Possible Objections While Drafting  7.40
      • 2.  Asking About Particular Contentions  7.41
      • 3.  Referring to Allegations in Pleading  7.42
      • 4.  Asking for Facts on Which Contention Is Based  7.43
    • D.  Interrogatories Relating to Documents or Other Tangibles
      • 1.  Documents
        • a.  Existence of Document  7.44
        • b.  Facts Contained in Documents  7.45
        • c.  Identification of Documents  7.46
        • d.  Relationship to Contention Interrogatories  7.47
      • 2.  Identifying Sources of Electronic Evidence  7.48
      • 3.  Photographs and Recordings  7.49
      • 4.  Identity of Lay Witnesses  7.50
      • 5.  Insurance Coverage  7.51
    • E.  Attorney-Drafted Form Interrogatories  7.52
    • F.  Service and Filing
      • 1.  Time and Manner  7.53
      • 2.  Parties to Be Served; Filing  7.54
  • IV.  RESPONDING TO INTERROGATORIES
    • A.  Duty to Respond  7.55
    • B.  Time to Respond
      • 1.  Statutory Requirements  7.56
      • 2.  Effect of Failure to Make Timely Response  7.57
    • C.  Format of Responses
      • 1.  Initial Responses  7.58
      • 2.  Supplemental Responses, Amended Answers, and Further Responses  7.59
      • 3.  Signature and Verification
        • a.  By Party  7.60
        • b.  By Party’s Attorney  7.61
        • c.  Form of Oath  7.62
        • d.  Use of Presigned Verification  7.63
    • D.  Answering Interrogatories
      • 1.  Who Prepares Answers  7.64
      • 2.  Who May Answer for Party  7.65
        • a.  When Party Is an Entity  7.66
        • b.  Person With Disability  7.67
      • 3.  Duty to Answer Truthfully, Clearly, Concisely, and Responsively  7.68
      • 4.  Duty to Investigate Before Answering  7.69
      • 5.  Duty to Investigate in Class Actions  7.70
      • 6.  Amending Answers
        • a.  No Statutory Duty to Amend Answers  7.71
        • b.  Possible Sanctions for Deliberate Concealment  7.72
        • c.  Reasons to Amend Answers  7.73
        • d.  How and When to Amend Answer  7.74
        • e.  Order That Initial Answer Be Deemed Binding  7.75
      • 7.  Response as General Appearance  7.76
      • 8.  Propriety of “I Don’t Know” Answer  7.77
      • 9.  Answer by Producing Writings  7.78
        • a.  When Answer Requires Making Compilation, Abstract, Audit, or Summary  7.79
        • b.  Granting Propounding Party Right to Inspect Documents  7.80
      • 10.  Specific Problems in Drafting Answers
        • a.  Answering Ambiguous Interrogatories  7.81
        • b.  Answering by Reference to Other Answers or Other Sources  7.82
        • c.  Reservation About Subsequently Discovered Facts  7.83
    • E.  Objecting to Interrogatories
      • 1.  If More Than 35 Specially Prepared Interrogatories  7.84
      • 2.  General Grounds for Objection
        • a.  Irrelevant to Subject Matter of Action  7.85
        • b.  Annoyance, Embarrassment, Oppression  7.86
        • c.  Unreasonably Cumulative or Undue Burden and Expense  7.87
        • d.  Information Equally Available to Both Parties  7.88
        • e.  Boilerplate and Shotgun Interrogatories  7.89
        • f.  Work Product Protection  7.90
        • g.  Privilege  7.91
        • h.  Uncertain, Ambiguous, or Confusing Interrogatories  7.92
        • i.  Continuing Interrogatories  7.93
        • j.  Invasion of Privacy of Third Party Nonlitigant  7.94
        • k.  Prejudice to Party  7.95
        • l.  Tax Return Information  7.96
        • m.  Information Too Remote From Subject Matter of Action  7.97
      • 3.  Invalid Objections  7.98
      • 4.  Drafting Objections
        • a.  Basic Principles  7.99
        • b.  Combining Answer and Objection  7.100
      • 5.  Waiver of Objections  7.101
    • F.  Producing Writings in Lieu of Answer  7.102
    • G.  Serving and Filing Responses
      • 1.  How to Serve  7.103
      • 2.  Whom to Serve  7.104
      • 3.  When to Serve  7.105
      • 4.  Retaining Original; Filing  7.106
  • V.  COMPELLING ANSWERS AND FURTHER ANSWERS TO INTERROGATORIES
    • A.  Motion to Compel Response  7.107
      • 1.  No Specific Time Limit on Motion to Compel Response  7.108
      • 2.  No Meet-and-Confer Requirement  7.109
    • B.  Motion to Compel Further Answers  7.110
      • 1.  Time Limitation on Motion to Compel Further Answers
        • a.  Forty-Five-Day Limit to Bring Motion  7.111
        • b.  Extension by Stipulation  7.112
      • 2.  When Wholly Evasive or Frivolous Answers Can Be Considered Refusals to Answer  7.113
      • 3.  Meet-and-Confer Requirement
        • a.  Good Faith Effort to Attempt to Resolve Objections  7.114
        • b.  Moving Party Must Initiate Discussion  7.115
    • C.  Format of Motion
      • 1.  When No Response Made  7.116
      • 2.  When Response Inadequate or Evasive; Separate Statement  7.117
      • 3.  Burden of Proof  7.118
      • 4.  Judicial Review of Orders  7.119
  • VI.  OBTAINING SANCTIONS
    • A.  Scope of Sanctions Available  7.120
    • B.  Mandatory Monetary Sanctions  7.121
  • VII.  PROTECTIVE ORDERS
    • A.  Methods for Obtaining Protection  7.122
    • B.  Protective Orders and Objections Compared  7.123
    • C.  Protective Orders Against Interrogatories  7.124
  • VIII.  INTERROGATORIES IN FEDERAL COURT CASES
    • A.  Federal Rules Governing Interrogatories  7.125
    • B.  Procedures for Propounding Interrogatories in Federal Court
      • 1.  Persons to Whom Interrogatories May Be Propounded  7.126
      • 2.  Time for Service of Interrogatories  7.127
      • 3.  Limit of 25 Interrogatories  7.128
      • 4.  Format of Interrogatories  7.129
      • 5.  Scope of Interrogatories  7.130
    • C.  Responding to Interrogatories
      • 1.  30 Days to Respond  7.131
      • 2.  Persons Who May Respond  7.132
      • 3.  Format of Responses  7.133
      • 4.  Answering Interrogatories  7.134
        • a.  Continuing Duty to Supplement Answers  7.135
        • b.  Option to Produce Business Records  7.136
      • 5.  Objections  7.137
    • D.  Motion to Compel  7.138
    • E.  Sanctions for Failure to Respond to Interrogatories  7.139
    • F.  Motion for Protective Order  7.140
  • IX.  CHECKLIST: PROCEDURES FOR INTERROGATORIES  7.141
  • X.  SAMPLE INTERROGATORIES AND RELATED FORMS
    • A.  Form: Form Interrogatories—General (Judicial Council DISC-001)  7.142
    • B.  Form: Declaration Supporting Request for Additional Discovery  7.143
    • C.  Form: Format of Specially Prepared Interrogatories  7.144
    • D.  Form: Letter to Client Accompanying Interrogatories  7.145
    • E.  Form: Response to Interrogatories; Verification  7.146
    • F.  Motion to Compel Answers or Further Answers to Interrogatories and for Sanctions
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion and Motion for Order Compelling Answers or Further Answers to Interrogatories and for Sanctions  7.147
      • 2.  Form: Memorandum Supporting Motion for Order Compelling Answers (or Further Answers) to Interrogatories and for Sanctions  7.148
      • 3.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion for Order Compelling Answers or Further Answers to Interrogatories and for Sanctions  7.149
      • 4.  Form: Separate Statement Listing Interrogatories to Which Further Responses Are Requested  7.150
      • 5.  Form: Order Compelling or Denying Answers or Further Answers to Interrogatories and for Sanctions  7.151
    • G.  Motion for Sanctions for Failure to Obey Court Order
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion and Motion for Order Imposing Sanctions  7.152
      • 2.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion for Order Imposing Sanctions  7.153
      • 3.  Form: Order Imposing Sanctions  7.154
    • H.  Motion for Protective Order
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion and Motion for Protective Order  7.155
      • 2.  Form: Memorandum Supporting Motion for Protective Order  7.156
      • 3.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion for Protective Order  7.157
      • 4.  Form: Order Limiting Discovery  7.158

8

Demands for Inspection or Production

Alexander H. Lubarsky

Michael R. Overly

Tami S. Smason

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  8.1
  • II.  DECIDING TO USE INSPECTION DEMANDS
    • A.  What a Demand for Inspection Is  8.2
    • B.  How Inspection Demands Are Used
      • 1.  Inspection and Copying of Documents; Entry to Land  8.3
      • 2.  Photographing, Testing, Measuring  8.4
    • C.  No Numerical Limitations on Inspection Demands  8.5
    • D.  Who Is Subject to Inspection Demand  8.6
    • E.  What Is Subject to Inspection
      • 1.  Must Be Within Party’s Possession, Custody, or Control  8.7
      • 2.  Must Be Within Scope of Discovery  8.8
      • 3.  Includes “Writings”  8.9
        • a.  Electronic “Writings”  8.10
        • b.  Insurance Policies  8.11
        • c.  Settlement Agreements  8.12
        • d.  Tax Returns  8.13
      • 4.  Includes Tangible Things, Other Property, and Objects or Operations  8.14
      • 5.  Includes Electronically Stored Information  8.14A
    • F.  Timing Limitations on Demand for Production/Inspection  8.15
    • G.  Strategic Considerations
      • 1.  Preserving Electronic Evidence
        • a.  Seeking Preservation Order (Injunction)  8.16
        • b.  Form: Letter Alternative to Formal Preservation Order  8.17
      • 2.  Deciding What to Demand  8.18
      • 3.  Deciding What Electronically Stored Information to Demand  8.19
        • a.  Stand-Alone Computer, Network System, Printer and Facsimile Memory  8.20
        • b.  Computer Logs, Audit Trails, and Access Lists  8.21
        • c.  Computer Programs  8.22
        • d.  Data Encryption  8.23
        • e.  E-mail  8.24
        • f.  Cookies and History Files  8.25
        • g.  Laptops and Home Computers  8.26
        • h.  Personal Digital Assistants and Smart Phones  8.27
      • 4.  Coordinating Inspection With Other Discovery  8.28
        • a.  When Inspection Should Follow Other Discovery  8.29
        • b.  When Inspection Should Precede Other Discovery  8.30
        • c.  Special Considerations for Electronically Stored Information  8.31
      • 5.  Considering Supplemental Demand  8.32
      • 6.  Considering Cost  8.33
    • H.  Alternatives for Obtaining Documents and Things From Other Parties
      • 1.  Notice to Produce at Deposition  8.34
        • a.  How Deposition Request Differs  8.35
        • b.  Reasons to Use Deposition Request  8.36
          • (1)  Initiate Discovery Sooner  8.37
          • (2)  Earlier Date for Production  8.38
          • (3)  Immediate Record of Items Produced  8.39
          • (4)  Immediate Follow-Up  8.40
        • c.  Reasons to Use Inspection Demand  8.41
      • 2.  Inspection by Stipulation
        • a.  When Appropriate  8.42
        • b.  Contents of Stipulation  8.43
        • c.  Considerations for Obtaining Originals or Copies  8.44
      • 3.  Voluntary Production in Answer to Written Interrogatories  8.45
      • 4.  Documents Used to Refresh Witness’s Memory  8.46
  • III.  DRAFTING DEMAND FOR INSPECTION  8.47
    • A.  Describing Categories With “Reasonable Particularity”  8.48
      • 1.  Describing Electronically Stored Information  8.49
      • 2.  Special Considerations When Requesting Inspection of Electronically Stored Information
        • a.  Authentication  8.50
        • b.  Requesting Translation of Electronic Information Into “Reasonably Usable Form”  8.51
    • B.  Specifying Reasonable Time and Place for Inspection
      • 1.  Choosing Time and Place of Inspection  8.52
      • 2.  Reasonable Time of Inspection  8.53
        • a.  Depends on Circumstances of Case  8.54
        • b.  Time Considerations When Demanding Electronically Stored Information  8.55
        • c.  Unlawful Detainer Actions  8.56
      • 3.  Reasonable Place for and Method of Production  8.57
        • a.  On-Site Production  8.58
        • b.  Place for Production of Electronically Stored Information  8.59
    • C.  Specifying Any Activity to Be Performed  8.60
      • 1.  Object and Land Tests  8.61
      • 2.  Physical Inspection of Computer Systems  8.62
    • D.  Seeking Agreement With Responding Party on How to Make Record of Production  8.63
      • 1.  When Documents Are Voluminous  8.64
      • 2.  When Documents Are Stored or Produced Electronically  8.65
      • 3.  When Inspection Activities Performed  8.66
      • 4.  If No Agreement Reached  8.67
      • 5.  Sending Follow-Up Letter  8.68
    • E.  Service and Filing  8.69
  • IV.  RESPONDING TO DEMAND
    • A.  Duty to Respond  8.70
      • 1.  Duty to Organize Documents  8.71
      • 2.  Duty to Translate Data Compilations Into Reasonable Usable Form  8.72
    • B.  Time to Respond  8.73
      • 1.  Agreement to Extend Time  8.74
      • 2.  Effect of Failure to Serve Timely Response  8.75
    • C.  Required Elements of Response  8.76
      • 1.  Statement of Compliance  8.77
      • 2.  Representation of Inability to Comply  8.78
      • 3.  Representation of Inability to Comply When Electronically Stored Information Requested  8.79
      • 4.  Objections  8.80
        • a.  Privilege  8.81
        • b.  Outside Scope of Discovery  8.82
        • c.  Demand Does Not Comply With Statutory Requirements  8.83
    • D.  Signature and Verification  8.84
    • E.  Service of Responses  8.85
  • V.  MOTION FOR PROTECTIVE ORDER
    • A.  When Motion Is Appropriate  8.86
    • B.  Court’s Authority to Make Protective Orders; Sanctions  8.87
    • C.  Protective Order for Electronically Stored Information  8.87A
    • D.  Procedures for Making Motion; Timing  8.88
    • E.  Stipulated Protective Order  8.89
  • VI.  COMPELLING DISCOVERY UNDER CCP §§2031.300–2031.320
    • A.  Types of Motions Available  8.90
    • B.  Possible Sanctions  8.91
    • C.  Specific Motions to Compel
      • 1.  Motion to Compel Response  8.92
      • 2.  Motion to Compel Further Response
        • a.  When to Bring Motion to Compel Further Response  8.93
        • b.  Motion to Compel Further Response Relating to Electronically Stored Information  8.93A
        • c.  Format for Motion to Compel Further Response  8.94
        • d.  Timing for Motion to Compel Further Response  8.95
      • 3.  Motion to Compel Compliance in Accordance With Prior Response  8.96
  • VII.  INSPECTION DEMANDS IN FEDERAL COURT  8.97
    • A.  Procedures for Making Inspection Demands in Federal Court
      • 1.  Persons to Whom Inspection Demands May Be Made  8.98
      • 2.  Time for Service of Inspection Demands  8.99
      • 3.  Number of Inspection Demands  8.100
      • 4.  Format of Inspection Demands  8.101
      • 5.  Scope of Inspection Demands
        • a.  Matters Relevant, Not Privileged, and Proportional to Needs of Case  8.102
        • b.  Items Subject to Inspection  8.103
        • c.  Electronically Stored Information  8.104
          • (1)  What Electronically Stored Information Is Discoverable?  8.105
          • (2)  Considerations Before Service of Demand for Inspection of Electronically Stored Information  8.106
          • (3)  Retention of Electronically Stored Information  8.107
          • (4)  Spoliation of Electronically Stored Information  8.108
        • d.  Possession, Custody, or Control  8.109
      • 6.  Demands for Inspection
        • a.  Reasonable Particularity  8.110
        • b.  Time, Place, and Manner of Inspection  8.111
    • B.  Responding to Inspection Demands in Federal Court
      • 1.  Time to Respond  8.112
      • 2.  Format of Responses  8.113
      • 3.  Responding to Demands  8.114
      • 4.  Objections  8.115
    • C.  Costs of Production  8.116
    • D.  Motion to Compel  8.117
    • E.  Sanctions for Failure to Respond to Inspection Demands  8.118
    • F.  Motion for Protective Order  8.119
  • VIII.  CHECKLIST: PROCEDURES FOR INSPECTION OF DOCUMENTS, THINGS, AND PLACES  8.120
  • IX.  FORMS FOR USE IN PURSUING DISCOVERY UNDER CCP §§2031.010–2031.510
    • A.  Sample Form: Stipulated Provisions Concerning Related Activities  8.121
    • B.  Form: Stipulation for Inspection  8.122
    • C.  Form: Demand for Inspection  8.123
    • D.  Form: Response to Demand for Inspection  8.124
    • E.  Form: Stipulation for Protective Order (Confidential Information); Order  8.125
    • F.  Motion to Compel Response
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion and Motion for Order Compelling Response to Demand for Inspection and for Sanction  8.126
      • 2.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion for Order Compelling Response and for Sanction  8.127
    • G.  Form: Notice of Motion and Motion to Compel Further Response  8.128
    • H.  Form: Notice of Motion and Motion to Compel Compliance in Accordance With Prior Response  8.129

9

Requests for Admission

Kyle Kveton

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  9.1
  • II.  DECIDING TO MAKE REQUESTS FOR ADMISSION
    • A.  What Requests for Admission Are  9.2
    • B.  How Requests for Admission Are Used  9.3
    • C.  Numerical Limitations on Requests for Admission
      • 1.  Unlimited If on Genuineness of Documents  9.4
      • 2.  Limit of 35 If Other Than Genuineness of Documents  9.5
      • 3.  Limited Civil Cases  9.6
    • D.  Timing Limitations on Request for Admissions
      • 1.  First Opportunity to Serve  9.7
        • a.  Premature Service  9.8
        • b.  Application to Serve Requests Early  9.9
      • 2.  Deadline to Serve  9.10
      • 3.  Deadline to Respond  9.11
      • 4.  Tactical Considerations on When to Serve  9.12
    • E.  Who Can Be Served With Requests for Admission  9.13
    • F.  Strategic Considerations
      • 1.  Persons Bound  9.14
      • 2.  When and Where Admissions Binding  9.15
    • G.  Benefits and Drawbacks of Using Requests for Admissions
      • 1.  Purpose of RFAs  9.16
      • 2.  Information Established by Admissions  9.17
        • a.  Admission of Fact  9.18
        • b.  Opinions Relating to Fact  9.18A
        • c.  Application of Law to Fact  9.18B
        • d.  Genuineness of Document  9.19
        • e.  Facts About Electronically Prepared Documents  9.20
      • 3.  Strategy Considerations  9.21
  • III.  DRAFTING REQUESTS FOR ADMISSION
    • A.  Format and Content
      • 1.  Using Judicial Council Forms  9.22
      • 2.  Using Attorney-Drafted Sets
        • a.  Combining With Other Methods of Discovery  9.23
        • b.  Format for Caption  9.24
        • c.  Response Date  9.25
        • d.  No Separate Preface or Instructions  9.26
        • e.  Format for Definitions Used  9.27
        • f.  Numbering  9.28
        • g.  Requests Must Be Complete With No Subparts  9.29
      • 3.  Signing and Dating  9.30
      • 4.  Attaching Documents  9.31
      • 5.  Preserving Original Documents for Inspection  9.32
    • B.  Permissible Requests
      • 1.  Truth of Facts  9.33
      • 2.  Opinions Relating to Fact  9.34
      • 3.  Application of Law to Fact  9.35
      • 4.  Genuineness of Documents  9.36
    • C.  Methods of Service  9.37
    • D.  Requesting Party’s Custody of Originals; Filing  9.38
    • E.  Procedure for Shortening Time to Respond
      • 1.  Noticed Motion  9.39
      • 2.  Ex Parte Application  9.40
      • 3.  Stipulations Shortening Time  9.41
    • F.  Stipulated Admissions  9.42
  • IV.  PREPARING AND SERVING RESPONSES
    • A.  Responding Party’s Duty to Respond  9.43
    • B.  Alternatives Available to Responding Party  9.44
    • C.  Time to Respond
      • 1.  Statutory Limits  9.45
      • 2.  Effect of Failure to Serve Timely Response  9.46
    • D.  Drafting Written Responses
      • 1.  Form: Caption; Introduction; Instructions; Definitions  9.47
      • 2.  Numbering Individual Answers and Objections  9.48
      • 3.  Admissions
        • a.  Form: Completeness; Restating Request  9.49
        • b.  Form: Partial or Qualified  9.50
        • c.  Form: Based on Information and Belief  9.51
      • 4.  Form: Lack of Information or Knowledge; Duty to Investigate  9.52
      • 5.  Form: Denials  9.53
      • 6.  Objections  9.54
        • a.  Form: Relevance  9.55
        • b.  Form: Privilege  9.56
        • c.  Work Product  9.57
        • d.  Form: Request Exceeds Numerical Limit  9.58
        • e.  Burdensome and Oppressive  9.59
        • f.  Form: Other Objections  9.60
      • 7.  Form: Signature; Verification  9.61
    • E.  Service: Parties and Methods  9.62
    • F.  Filing  9.63
    • G.  Procedure for Extending Time to Respond
      • 1.  Stipulation  9.64
      • 2.  Motion or Ex Parte Application  9.65
  • V.  MOTIONS FOR PROTECTIVE ORDERS  9.66
    • A.  Purpose of Protective Order  9.67
      • 1.  When Responding Party Unavailable  9.68
      • 2.  Trade Secrets or Other Proprietary Information  9.69
    • B.  Deciding Whether to Object or Move for a Protective Order  9.70
    • C.  Protective Order Procedure; Showing Good Faith and Good Cause  9.71
  • VI.  MOTIONS THAT REQUESTS BE DEEMED ADMITTED
    • A.  How and When Used
      • 1.  Response Untimely  9.72
      • 2.  Timely but Defective Response  9.73
      • 3.  Timely but Incomplete Response  9.74
    • B.  Timing  9.75
    • C.  Procedure  9.76
    • D.  Responding Party’s Reply; Relief From Waiver; Hearing  9.77
  • VII.  MOTIONS TO COMPEL FURTHER RESPONSE
    • A.  How and When Used  9.78
    • B.  Timing of Motion  9.79
    • C.  Responding Party’s Procedures  9.80
    • D.  Procedure If Responding Party Fails to Obey Order Compelling Further Response  9.81
  • VIII.  MOTIONS TO WITHDRAW OR AMEND ADMISSION
    • A.  How and When Used  9.82
    • B.  Timing and Procedure  9.83
    • C.  Requesting Party’s Opposition  9.84
  • IX.  USING ADMISSIONS IN MOTIONS AND AT TRIAL
    • A.  Establishing Facts and Genuineness of Documents  9.85
    • B.  Limiting Evidence and Issues  9.86
  • X.  MOVING TO RECOVER EXPENSE OF PROVING UNADMITTED MATTERS
    • A.  Requesting Party’s Right to Recover Cost of Proof
      • 1.  Required Statutory Showing  9.87
      • 2.  When Recovery Granted  9.88
      • 3.  When Recovery Denied  9.89
    • B.  Timing  9.90
    • C.  Procedure  9.91
  • XI.  RFAS IN FEDERAL COURT CASES
    • A.  Relationship of Fed R Civ P 36 to CCP §§2033.010–2033.740  9.92
    • B.  Procedures for Requesting RFAs in Federal Case  9.93
    • C.  Procedures for Responding to RFAs in Federal Case  9.94
    • D.  Modification or Amendment of Admissions in Federal Case  9.95
    • E.  Motions  9.96
  • XII.  CHECKLIST: PROCEDURES FOR SERVING REQUESTS FOR ADMISSION  9.97
  • XIII.  FORMS FOR REQUESTS FOR ADMISSION
    • A.  Requesting Admissions
      • 1.  Form: Requests for Admission (Judicial Council Form DISC-020)  9.98
      • 2.  Form: Sample Requests for Admission  9.99
      • 3.  Form: Sample Requests for Admission (Electronic Documents)  9.100
      • 4.  Form: Declaration for Additional Discovery  9.101
      • 5.  Form: Stipulated Admissions  9.102
    • B.  Responding to Requests for Admission
      • 1.  Form: Sample Response to Requests for Admission  9.103
      • 2.  Form: Stipulation Extending Time to Respond  9.104
      • 3.  Form: Application for Order Extending Time to Respond to Requests for Admission  9.105
      • 4.  Form: Notice of Motion and Motion for Order Extending Time to Respond  9.106
      • 5.  Form: Order Extending Time to Respond  9.107
    • C.  Relief From Waiver of Objections
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion and Motion for Order Relieving Responding Party From Waiver of Objections to Requests for Admission  9.108
      • 2.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion for Order Relieving Responding Party From Waiver of Objections to Requests for Admission  9.109
    • D.  Protective Orders
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion and Motion for Protective Order Concerning Requests for Admission  9.110
      • 2.  Form: Protective Order Concerning Requests for Admission  9.111
    • E.  Motion That Requests for Admission Be Deemed Admitted
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion and Motion for Order That Requests for Admission Be Deemed Admitted  9.112
      • 2.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion That Requests for Admission Be Deemed Admitted  9.113
      • 3.  Form: Order That Requests for Admission Be Deemed Admitted  9.114
    • F.  Compelling Further Response
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion and Motion for Order Compelling Further Response to Requests for Admission  9.115
      • 2.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion for Order Compelling Further Response to Requests for Admission  9.116
      • 3.  Form: Separate Statement Listing Requests and Responses  9.117
      • 4.  Form: Order Compelling Further Response to Requests for Admission  9.118
      • 5.  Form: Declaration Opposing Motion for Order Compelling Further Response to Requests for Admission  9.119
    • G.  Withdrawing or Amending Admissions
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion and Motion for Order Withdrawing or Amending Admissions  9.120
      • 2.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion for Order Amending or Withdrawing Admissions  9.121
      • 3.  Form: Order Withdrawing or Amending Admissions  9.122
    • H.  Motion to Recover Expenses of Proof
      • 1.  Form: Application for Order Requiring Payment of Expenses of Proof  9.123
      • 2.  Form: Declaration Opposing Motion for Order Requiring Payment of Expenses of Proof  9.124

10

Physical and Mental Examinations

Arthur J. Casey

Hon. Mary E. Wiss

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  10.1
  • II.  DECIDING TO OBTAIN PHYSICAL OR MENTAL EXAMINATION
    • A.  Advantages and Disadvantages of Examination  10.2
      • 1.  Advantages and Disadvantages for Plaintiff  10.3
      • 2.  Advantages and Disadvantages for Defendant  10.4
    • B.  Scope and Limits of Examination
      • 1.  Scope of Examination Determined by Condition in Controversy  10.5
        • a.  Definition of “In Controversy”  10.6
        • b.  How Condition Is Placed in Controversy  10.7
          • (1)  Using Pleadings  10.8
          • (2)  Using Specific Facts  10.9
        • c.  Sexual Harassment Cases in Which Condition May Be in Controversy  10.10
        • d.  Cases, Other Than Personal Injury, in Which Condition May Be in Controversy  10.11
      • 2.  Limitations on Scope of Examination
        • a.  Painful, Protracted, or Intrusive Tests  10.12
        • b.  X Rays  10.13
        • c.  Inquiry Into Prior Sexual Conduct in Actions Alleging Sexual Harassment, Assault, or Battery  10.14
      • 3.  Multiple Examinations
        • a.  Examination by Demand Limited to One Physical Examination Without Court Order  10.15
        • b.  Additional Court-Ordered Mental Examination If Good Cause Shown  10.16
    • C.  Who Can Be Examined  10.17
      • 1.  Party  10.18
      • 2.  Agent of Party  10.19
      • 3.  Any Person Under Custody or Control of Party  10.20
    • D.  Who Can Be Examiner
      • 1.  Qualifications of Examiner
        • a.  For Physical Examination  10.21
        • b.  For Mental Examination  10.22
      • 2.  Choice of Examiner
        • a.  Selection of Examiner by Party Requesting Examination  10.23
        • b.  Objection to Selected Examiner  10.24
    • E.  Who Can Observe and Record Examination
      • 1.  Physical Examinations
        • a.  Observation by Examinee’s Attorney or Attorney’s Representative  10.25
        • b.  Audio or Stenographic Recording Permitted; Video Prohibited  10.26
        • c.  Attendance of Certified Interpreter If Examinee Requires Language Assistance  10.27
      • 2.  Mental Examinations
        • a.  Observation Prohibited Except by Court Order  10.28
        • b.  Audio Recording Permitted; Video and Stenographic Recording Prohibited  10.29
  • III.  PROCEDURES FOR OBTAINING PHYSICAL OR MENTAL EXAMINATION  10.30
    • A.  Demand for Physical Examination in Personal Injury Cases
      • 1.  Who May Make Demand for Physical Examination  10.31
      • 2.  When Demand for Physical Examination May Be Made  10.32
      • 3.  Contents of Demand for Physical Examination  10.33
      • 4.  Service of Demand for Physical Examination  10.34
      • 5.  Plaintiff’s Response to Demand for Physical Examination
        • a.  Time to Respond; Waiver  10.35
        • b.  Plaintiff’s Other Options  10.36
      • 6.  Defendant’s Motion to Compel Response to Demand for Physical Examination
        • a.  Procedures; Declaration  10.37
        • b.  Separate Statement  10.38
        • c.  Sanctions  10.39
    • B.  Stipulation for Physical or Mental Examination; Writing Required  10.40
      • 1.  Contents of Written Stipulation  10.41
      • 2.  Enforcement of Stipulated Examination  10.42
    • C.  Court Order for Physical or Mental Examination  10.43
      • 1.  Good Faith Attempt to Resolve Required  10.44
      • 2.  Good Cause Required  10.45
      • 3.  Content of Motion; Supporting Declaration  10.46
      • 4.  Service of Motion  10.47
      • 5.  Response to Motion  10.48
      • 6.  Court Order  10.49
  • IV.  CONDUCT OF EXAMINATION
    • A.  Medical History  10.50
    • B.  Examinee’s Participation  10.51
    • C.  Examiner’s Duty of Care  10.52
    • D.  Protective Orders
      • 1.  For Conduct of Examiner  10.53
      • 2.  For Conduct of Observer  10.54
      • 3.  Sanctions  10.55
    • E.  Remedies for Party’s Failure to Appear  10.56
    • F.  Remedies for Nonparty’s Failure to Appear  10.57
  • V.  EXCHANGE OF EXAMINATION REPORTS
    • A.  Examinee Entitled to Examination Report  10.58
    • B.  Privileges Waived by Demand of Examination Report
      • 1.  Waiver by Examinee  10.59
      • 2.  Waiver by Examining Party  10.60
    • C.  Examining Party’s Response to Demand for Examination Report
      • 1.  Time for Examining Party to Produce Examination Report  10.61
      • 2.  Motion to Compel Delivery of Examination Report  10.62
      • 3.  Sanctions Arising From Motion to Compel Delivery of Examination Report
        • a.  Monetary Sanctions  10.63
        • b.  Issue, Evidence, or Termination Sanctions  10.64
        • c.  Examiner’s Testimony Barred If Examination Report Not Provided  10.65
    • D.  Examinee Has Reciprocal Duties to Exchange Reports  10.66
    • E.  Failure to Make Reciprocal Exchange of Reports  10.67
  • VI.  SANCTIONS FOR FAILURE TO COMPLY WITH CCP §§2032.010–2032.650
    • A.  Sanctions Generally Under CCP §§2032.010–2032.650  10.68
    • B.  Monetary Sanctions  10.69
    • C.  When Sanctions Are Available Against Examiner  10.70
    • D.  When Sanctions Are Available Against Attorney  10.71
  • VII.  PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATIONS AUTHORIZED BY OTHER STATUTES
    • A.  Physical and Mental Examination by Court-Appointed Experts Under Evid C §730  10.72
    • B.  Genetic Test to Determine Paternity
      • 1.  Paternity Must Be Relevant Fact  10.73
      • 2.  Genetic Test Not Required in Certain Types of Cases  10.74
      • 3.  Procedure for Testimony of Examiners  10.75
      • 4.  Appointment of Examiner; Compensation  10.76
      • 5.  Sanctions for Noncompliance  10.77
  • VIII.  MENTAL AND PHYSICAL EXAMS IN FEDERAL COURT  10.78
  • IX.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Demand for Physical Examination of Plaintiff  10.79
    • B.  Form: Response to Demand for Physical Examination of Plaintiff  10.80
    • C.  Form: Notice of Motion and Motion to Compel Compliance With Demand for Physical Examination of Plaintiff  10.81
    • D.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion to Compel Compliance With Demand for Physical Examination of Plaintiff  10.82
    • E.  Form: Stipulation for Physical Examination  10.83
    • F.  Form: Stipulation for Mental Examination  10.84
    • G.  Form: Notice of Motion and Motion for Physical or Mental Examination of Plaintiff  10.85
    • H.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion for Physical or Mental Examination  10.86
    • I.  Form: Order for Physical or Mental Examination  10.87
    • J.  Form: Demand for Copy of Report of Physical or Mental Examination  10.88
    • K.  Form: Notice of Motion and Motion for Order for Genetic Tests  10.89
    • L.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion for Genetic Tests  10.90

11

Exchange of Expert Information

James C. Martin

Janet H. Kwuon

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  11.1
  • II.  DECIDING TO MAKE DEMAND FOR EXPERT WITNESS INFORMATION
    • A.  Experts’ Role in Litigation  11.2
    • B.  Who Are Discoverable “Experts”  11.3
      • 1.  Percipient Witnesses Distinguished  11.4
      • 2.  Attorney Advisors and Consultants Distinguished  11.5
    • C.  Demand for Production of Discoverable Reports and Writings May Be Included  11.6
      • 1.  “Discoverable Reports” and “Writings”  11.7
      • 2.  Scope and Application of CCP §§2034.010–2034.730  11.8
  • III.  EXCHANGING EXPERT WITNESS INFORMATION
    • A.  Making Demand for Exchange of Expert Witness Information
      • 1.  Making Demand Triggers Exchange Procedure  11.9
      • 2.  When Demand May Be Made  11.10
        • a.  “New” Initial Trial Date  11.11
        • b.  Relief From Premature Demand; Objection to Untimely Demand  11.12
      • 3.  Contents of Demand  11.13
      • 4.  Service of Demand  11.14
    • B.  Exchange of Expert Witness Information
      • 1.  Date and Place of Exchange  11.15
      • 2.  Contents of Written Exchange  11.16
      • 3.  Expert Witness Declaration  11.17
        • a.  Contents of Expert Witness Declaration  11.18
        • b.  Sufficiency of Declaration  11.19
        • c.  Declarations Involving Treating Physicians  11.20
      • 4.  Service of Written Exchange  11.21
      • 5.  Production of Discoverable Reports and Writings
        • a.  Scope of Requirement  11.22
        • b.  Time, Place, and Nature of Exchange  11.23
      • 6.  Submission of Supplemental Information  11.24
        • a.  Procedure  11.25
        • b.  Contents  11.26
      • 7.  Retention and Preservation of Expert Witness Demands, Lists, and Declarations  11.27
    • C.  Protective Orders
      • 1.  Procedure  11.28
      • 2.  Seeking Protective Order Before Demand Served  11.29
      • 3.  Grounds  11.30
  • IV.  DEPOSITION OF LISTED EXPERTS
    • A.  Authorization  11.31
    • B.  Compelling Attendance
      • 1.  Party, Employed, or Retained Experts  11.32
      • 2.  Nonparty, Nonemployed, or Nonretained Experts  11.33
    • C.  Time of Deposition
      • 1.  Allow Sufficient Time for Deposition  11.34
      • 2.  Specific Timing Considerations
        • a.  Deadlines for Expert Witness Discovery and Motions  11.35
        • b.  When Deposition Notice Served by Mail  11.36
        • c.  Court’s Discretion to Alter Deadlines  11.37
        • d.  Agreed-On Extensions  11.38
        • e.  When There Are Many Experts  11.39
    • D.  Place of Deposition  11.40
    • E.  Expert Witness Fees
      • 1.  Experts Entitled to Fees for Attending Depositions  11.41
      • 2.  Tender of Expert Witness Fees  11.42
      • 3.  Calculation of Expert Witness Fees  11.43
      • 4.  Tardy Counsel’s Payment of Fees  11.44
      • 5.  When Expert Witness Fees Are Disputed  11.45
        • a.  Informal Resolution of Dispute  11.46
        • b.  Court’s Determination of Dispute  11.47
    • F.  Video Recorded Depositions  11.48
    • G.  Duty to Notify Adversary of Change in Expert’s Testimony After Deposition  11.49
    • H.  Scope of Discovery From Expert  11.50
  • V.  MODIFICATION OF EXPERT WITNESS DESIGNATION AND INFORMATION
    • A.  Motion to Augment and Amend Expert Witness Information  11.51
      • 1.  Procedure  11.52
      • 2.  Showing Necessary to Support Order  11.53
      • 3.  Order  11.54
      • 4.  Sanctions  11.55
    • B.  Withdrawal of Expert Designation  11.56
    • C.  Motion to Submit Tardy Expert Witness Information
      • 1.  Procedure  11.57
      • 2.  Showing Necessary to Support Order  11.58
      • 3.  Order  11.59
      • 4.  Sanctions  11.60
  • VI.  EXCLUSION OF EXPERT TESTIMONY AT TRIAL
    • A.  Grounds for Exclusion of Expert Opinion  11.61
      • 1.  Examples: Expert’s Testimony Excluded  11.62
      • 2.  Examples: Expert’s Testimony Admitted  11.63
      • 3.  Challenging Excessive Number of Experts Designated in Exchange  11.64
    • B.  Statutory Exception When Expert Listed and Deposed  11.65
    • C.  Statutory Exception for Rebuttal Testimony by Unlisted Expert  11.66
  • VII.  FEDERAL PROCEDURES  11.67
  • VIII.  CHECKLIST: PROCEDURES FOR DISCOVERY OF EXPERT WITNESS INFORMATION  11.68
  • IX.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Demand for Exchange of Expert Trial Witness Information  11.69
    • B.  Form: Written Exchange of Required Expert Witness Information; Expert Witness Declaration  11.70

12

Depositions in Other States

William A. Daniels

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  12.1
  • II.  EVALUATING WHETHER TO TAKE OUT-OF-STATE DEPOSITION
    • A.  Statutory Authority  12.2
    • B.  Reasons to Use Out-of-State Deposition
      • 1.  To Depose Nonresident Nonparty Witness  12.3
      • 2.  To Compel Production of Materials Outside California  12.4
      • 3.  To Depose Party or Party-Related Witness Outside California  12.5
      • 4.  To Perpetuate Testimony  12.6
      • 5.  For Evidence in Special Proceedings  12.7
    • C.  Determining Need for Commission  12.8
    • D.  Reviewing Choice-of-Law Issues
      • 1.  Other State’s Law Applies to Subpoena Process, Motions to Compel, and Sanctions  12.9
      • 2.  Other State’s Law May Govern Privilege Claims  12.10
      • 3.  California Law Applies to Discovery Procedures  12.11
      • 4.  Other State’s Injunction to Prevent Discovery Is Unenforceable  12.12
    • E.  Considering Alternatives
      • 1.  Stipulating With Other Parties  12.13
        • a.  To Pay Expenses for Witness to Come to California for Deposition  12.14
        • b.  To Schedule Telephonic Deposition  12.15
      • 2.  Obtaining Sworn Statement  12.16
      • 3.  Taking Written Deposition  12.17
      • 4.  Stipulation for Party to Attend Deposition in California  12.18
    • F.  Limited Civil Cases  12.19
  • III.  PROCEDURES BEFORE DEPOSITION
    • A.  Associating Local Counsel  12.20
      • 1.  Recommended for Nonparty Deponents  12.21
      • 2.  May Not Be Necessary for Party Deponents  12.22
      • 3.  When Out-of-State Attorney Should Appear at Deposition  12.23
    • B.  Selecting Deposition Officer
      • 1.  Out-of-State Officer  12.24
      • 2.  California Officer  12.25
    • C.  Selecting Place for Taking Deposition  12.26
    • D.  Deciding Whether to Video Deposition  12.27
  • IV.  PROCEDURES FOR NOTICING OUT-OF-STATE DEPOSITION
    • A.  Compelling Parties to Appear and Produce  12.28
    • B.  When Unable to Attach Deposition Subpoena to Parties’ Notice  12.29
    • C.  Scheduling Deposition
      • 1.  Timing  12.30
      • 2.  Changing Time or Place of Deposition  12.31
    • D.  Right of Nondeposing Party to Submit Written Questions Instead of Participating in Oral Examination  12.32
    • E.  Forwarding Instructions to Deposition Officer  12.33
  • V.  PROCEDURES FOR OBTAINING COMMISSION
    • A.  Description of Commission  12.34
    • B.  When Commission Required
      • 1.  Deposition of Nonparty Witness  12.35
      • 2.  Depositions of More Than One Nonparty Witness  12.36
    • C.  When Commission May Be Needed
      • 1.  Deposition of Party or Party-Related Witness  12.37
      • 2.  Deposition of Other Party’s Expert  12.38
      • 3.  Exception When Commission Needed to Depose Independent Expert  12.39
    • D.  How to Obtain Commission  12.40
  • VI.  PROCEDURES FOR SUBPOENAING NONPARTY WITNESS
    • A.  Obtaining Out-of-State Subpoena or Subpoena Duces Tecum  12.41
    • B.  Seeking Personal Consumer and Employment Records  12.42
  • VII.  PROCEDURES FOR OPPOSING OUT-OF-STATE DEPOSITION AND QUASHING SUBPOENA
    • A.  Opposing Out-of-State Deposition  12.43
    • B.  Motion to Quash Subpoena or Subpoena Duces Tecum  12.44
  • VIII.  CONDUCTING OUT-OF-STATE DEPOSITION
    • A.  Taken in Same Manner as Deposition Within California  12.45
    • B.  Handling Disputes During Deposition  12.46
    • C.  Party’s Failure to Appear or Subpoena Witness  12.47
  • IX.  POSTDEPOSITION PROCEDURES
    • A.  Obtaining Sanctions  12.48
      • 1.  Sanctions Against Party  12.49
      • 2.  Sanctions Against Nonparty  12.50
      • 3.  Sanctions Against Counsel  12.51
    • B.  Dealing With Deposition Transcript  12.52
    • C.  Making Motion to Suppress  12.53
  • X.  USING OUT-OF-STATE DEPOSITION AT TRIAL
    • A.  Same as Any Other Deposition  12.54
    • B.  Deposition Taken in Earlier Action  12.55
  • XI.  FEDERAL COURTS  12.56
  • XII.  CHECKLIST: PROCEDURES FOR SCHEDULING OR OPPOSING NOTICE OF OUT-OF-STATE DEPOSITION  12.57
  • XIII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Notice of Out-of-State Deposition on Oral Examination  12.58
    • B.  Form: Ex Parte Application for Order Issuing Commission and Appointing Person to Take Out-of-State Deposition  12.59
    • C.  Form: Declaration Supporting Ex Parte Application for Order Issuing Commission  12.60
    • D.  Form: Order That Commission Issue  12.61
    • E.  Form: Commission to Take Out-of-State Deposition  12.62
    • F.  Form: Commission to Take Deposition Outside California (Judicial Council Form DISC-030)  12.63

13

Discovery in Other Nations

Nathan Lane III

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  13.1
  • II.  PLANNING DISCOVERY ABROAD
    • A.  When Foreign Discovery May Be Necessary  13.2
    • B.  Deciding Whether to Pursue Discovery Abroad  13.3
      • 1.  Determining What Evidence Is Sought  13.4
      • 2.  Verifying That Evidence Is Not Available in U.S.  13.5
      • 3.  Narrowing Focus of Foreign Discovery  13.6
      • 4.  Deciding Whether Hague Evidence Convention or Another Treaty Applies  13.7
      • 5.  Evaluating Costs and Benefits of Foreign Discovery  13.8
      • 6.  Consulting Trial Judge and Retaining Local Counsel  13.9
    • C.  Drafting Foreign Discovery Requests  13.10
      • 1.  Using Official Forms When Possible  13.11
      • 2.  Framing Requests Narrowly  13.12
      • 3.  Anticipating Privilege Claims  13.13
  • III.  PRINCIPAL STATUTORY PROVISIONS GOVERNING FOREIGN DISCOVERY
    • A.  California Law  13.14
    • B.  International Agreements  13.15
    • C.  Foreign Law  13.16
  • IV.  OBTAINING EVIDENCE UNDER HAGUE EVIDENCE CONVENTION
    • A.  Applicability to Discovery in California Proceedings
      • 1.  California Case Law  13.17
      • 2.  Standards and Application of Balancing Approach  13.18
      • 3.  Waiver of Convention  13.19
    • B.  Procedures for Obtaining Evidence Under Convention
      • 1.  Determining Whether Country Is Party to Convention  13.20
      • 2.  Applying for and Drafting Letters of Request
        • a.  Scope of Discovery Obtainable Through Letters of Request  13.21
        • b.  Procedure for Obtaining Letters of Request  13.22
        • c.  Required Content of Letters of Request; Recommended Model  13.23
        • d.  Language of Letters of Request  13.24
        • e.  Considerations of Foreign Legal Systems  13.25
        • f.  Transmittal of Letters of Request  13.26
        • g.  Execution of Letters of Request  13.27
        • h.  Privileges Available to Persons to Whom Letter of Request Is Directed  13.28
        • i.  Return of Letter of Request  13.29
        • j.  Fees and Costs  13.30
      • 3.  Evidence Taken by Diplomatic Officers, Consular Agents, and Commissioners  13.31
        • a.  Compelling Evidence Under Articles 15–22  13.32
        • b.  Permissible Representation of Parties  13.33
        • c.  Language of Request to Appear  13.34
        • d.  Procedure for Taking Evidence  13.35
  • V.  OBTAINING EVIDENCE BY LETTERS ROGATORY IN COUNTRIES THAT ARE NOT PARTIES TO HAGUE EVIDENCE CONVENTION
    • A.  Other Multinational Conventions
      • 1.  Inter-American Convention on Letters Rogatory  13.36
      • 2.  Inter-American “Evidence Convention”  13.37
    • B.  Bilateral Treaties  13.38
    • C.  Letters Rogatory in Absence of Multinational or Bilateral Treaties
      • 1.  Definition of “Letter Rogatory”  13.39
      • 2.  Procedure for Obtaining Issuance and Execution of Letters Rogatory  13.40
  • VI.  TAKING DEPOSITIONS ABROAD
    • A.  Preliminary Considerations  13.41
      • 1.  Necessity of Foreign Deposition  13.42
      • 2.  When Deponent Will Appear Voluntarily  13.43
      • 3.  When Deponent Is Reluctant to Appear Voluntarily  13.44
    • B.  Making Arrangements to Schedule and Conduct Deposition  13.45
      • 1.  Determining Where and Before Whom Foreign Deposition Will Be Taken  13.46
      • 2.  Scheduling Depositions Before Consular Officials  13.47
      • 3.  Interpreters  13.48
      • 4.  Court Reporters  13.49
      • 5.  Visas  13.50
      • 6.  Fees of Consular Officials or Commissioners  13.51
    • C.  Procedure for Initiating Foreign Depositions  13.52
      • 1.  Depositions by Stipulation  13.53
      • 2.  Depositions by Notice  13.54
      • 3.  Commission  13.55
    • D.  Procedure for Examining Witnesses at Depositions Taken Before Consular Officers  13.56
    • E.  Review, Signing, and Return of Deposition Transcript  13.57
    • F.  Deposition on Written Questions  13.58
  • VII.  PARTICULAR PROBLEMS IN OBTAINING DISCOVERY ABROAD
    • A.  Foreign Statutes Precluding Discovery of Certain Categories of Evidence  13.59
      • 1.  Local Courts Not Governed by Foreign Blocking Statutes  13.60
      • 2.  Commentaries on Blocking Statutes  13.61
    • B.  Privileges  13.62
    • C.  Linguistic Difficulties  13.63
    • D.  Absence of Full Diplomatic Relations  13.64
  • VIII.  FOREIGN DISCOVERY PROTECTION AND ENFORCEMENT
    • A.  Protective Orders, Motions to Compel, and Sanctions  13.65
    • B.  Procedural Defenses to Foreign Discovery  13.66
    • C.  Foreign Illegality as Defense to Foreign Discovery  13.67
    • D.  Obtaining Relief From Foreign Sovereign  13.68
  • IX.  FEDERAL COURT PROCEDURES
    • A.  Federal Statutory Law  13.69
    • B.  Effect of Hague Evidence Convention  13.70
  • X.  CHECKLIST: PROCEDURES FOR SEEKING DISCOVERY ABROAD  13.71
  • XI.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Letter of Request Recommended for Use in Applying Hague Evidence Convention on Taking of Evidence Abroad in Civil or Commercial Matters  13.72
    • B.  Form: Sample Letter Rogatory Recommended for Use in Applying Inter-American Convention on Letters Rogatory  13.73
    • C.  Form: Sample Letter Rogatory for Use in Absence of Treaties  13.74
    • D.  Motion for Issuance of Commission to Take Foreign Deposition
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion and Motion for Order Issuing Commission to Take Deposition Abroad  13.75
      • 2.  Form: Memorandum Supporting Motion for Order Issuing Commission to Take Deposition Abroad  13.76
      • 3.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion for Order Issuing Commission to Take Deposition Abroad  13.77
      • 4.  Form: Order That Commission Issue to Take Deposition Abroad  13.78
      • 5.  Form: Commission to Take Deposition of Witness  13.79
  • XII.  TABLE: CENTRAL AUTHORITY OF NATIONS PARTY TO HAGUE EVIDENCE CONVENTION  13.80

14

Discovery in Limited Civil Cases

Gayle L. Gough

Peter J. Messrobian

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  14.1
  • II.  NATURE OF LIMITED CIVIL CASES
    • A.  Limited Civil Cases Explained  14.2
      • 1.  Economic Litigation Procedures  14.3
      • 2.  Court’s Case Management Rules  14.4
    • B.  Permissible Discovery in Limited Civil Cases  14.5
  • III.  CONDUCTING DISCOVERY IN LIMITED CIVIL CASE
    • A.  Creating a Discovery Plan  14.6
      • 1.  Considering Cost  14.7
      • 2.  Considering Privileges and Other Protections  14.8
      • 3.  Evaluating Impact of Electronic Evidence  14.9
    • B.  Using a Case Questionnaire
      • 1.  Case Questionnaire Explained  14.10
      • 2.  Strategic Considerations  14.11
    • C.  Requesting Statement of Witnesses and Evidence to Be Used at Trial  14.12
      • 1.  Deadline  14.13
      • 2.  Additional or Amended Disclosure  14.14
      • 3.  Effect of Failure to Respond  14.15
    • D.  Depositions in Limited Civil Cases
      • 1.  One-Deposition Limit  14.16
      • 2.  Obtaining Additional Depositions  14.17
      • 3.  Out-of-State Depositions in Limited Civil Case  14.18
    • E.  Expert Discovery in Limited Civil Cases  14.19
    • F.  Interrogatories  14.20
    • G.  Deposition Subpoenas Duces Tecum in Limited Civil Case  14.21
  • IV.  RESOLVING DISPUTES IN LIMITED CIVIL CASE  14.22
  • V.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Case Questionnaire—For Limited Civil Cases (Under $25,000) (Judicial Council Form DISC-010)  14.23
    • B.  Form: Request for Statement of Witnesses and Evidence—For Limited Civil Cases (Under $25,000) (Judicial Council Form DISC-015)  14.24
    • C.  Form: Form Interrogatories—Limited Civil Case (Economic Litigation) (Judicial Council Form DISC-004)  14.25

15

Discovery Motion Practice and Sanctions

Jeffrey A. Tidus

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  15.1
  • II.  UNDERSTANDING THE JUDICIAL ROLE IN DISCOVERY
    • A.  Discovery Generally Self-Executing  15.2
    • B.  Attempting Informal Resolution (Meet-and-Confer Requirement)  15.3
    • C.  Informal Discovery Conference  15.3A
    • D.  Role of Good Cause  15.4
      • 1.  Existence of Good Cause Is Factual Question  15.5
      • 2.  When Showing of Good Cause Is Required
        • a.  Physical or Mental Examinations Under CCP §2032.310  15.6
        • b.  Discovery of Plaintiff’s Sexual Conduct Under CCP §2017.220(a)  15.7
        • c.  Motion for Protective Order  15.8
        • d.  To Modify Discovery Procedures  15.9
        • e.  On Motion to Compel Production of Documents Described in Deposition Notice  15.10
        • f.  Discovery of Electronically Stored Information  15.10A
  • III.  ORDERS SHORTENING TIME
    • A.  Order Shortening Time Explained  15.11
    • B.  Reasons for Seeking Shortened Time  15.12
    • C.  Who Can Seek Order Shortening Time  15.13
    • D.  Methods of Obtaining Order Shortening Time
      • 1.  By Stipulation  15.14
      • 2.  By Ex Parte Application  15.15
    • E.  Drafting Ex Parte Application for Order Shortening Time
      • 1.  Required Documents  15.16
      • 2.  Contents of Required Documents
        • a.  Application  15.17
        • b.  Declaration Stating Basis for Relief  15.18
        • c.  Declaration Regarding Notice  15.19
        • d.  Supporting Memorandum  15.20
        • e.  Proposed Order  15.21
    • F.  Timing and Content of Notice  15.22
    • G.  Filing Ex Parte Application  15.23
    • H.  Serving Ex Parte Application  15.24
    • I.  Personal Appearance Requirements  15.25
    • J.  Responding to Ex Parte Application for Order Shortening Time
      • 1.  Whether to Oppose Application  15.26
      • 2.  Content of Opposition  15.27
    • K.  Orders Shortening Time in Federal Court  15.28
    • L.  Checklist: Procedure for Application for Order Shortening Time  15.29
  • IV.  MOTIONS TO COMPEL
    • A.  Motion to Compel Explained  15.30
    • B.  How Motion to Compel Is Used  15.31
    • C.  Deciding Whether to Move to Compel  15.32
      • 1.  Time and Expense  15.33
      • 2.  Potential Imposition of Sanctions  15.34
      • 3.  Considering Alternative Discovery Methods  15.35
      • 4.  Considering to Meet and Confer Even If Not Required  15.36
      • 5.  Considering Discovery Referee or Special Master  15.37
      • 6.  Judicial Disfavor of Motions to Compel  15.38
    • D.  Who Can Bring Motion to Compel  15.39
    • E.  When to Make Motion to Compel
      • 1.  Deadline for Filing Motion to Compel  15.40
      • 2.  Chart: Time Limits for Filing Motions to Compel  15.41
      • 3.  Meet-and-Confer Requirement  15.42
        • a.  What Constitutes Good Faith Meet-and-Confer Effort?  15.43
        • b.  Sanctions for Failure to Meet and Confer  15.44
    • F.  Drafting Motion to Compel
      • 1.  Required Papers  15.45
        • a.  Notice of Motion and Motion  15.46
        • b.  Supporting Memorandum  15.47
        • c.  Separate Statement (Cal Rules of Ct 3.1345)  15.48
        • d.  Declarations and Exhibits  15.49
      • 2.  Request for Sanctions  15.50
      • 3.  Burden of Persuasion  15.51
      • 4.  Service  15.52
      • 5.  Filing  15.53
    • G.  Responding to Motion to Compel  15.54
    • H.  After Motion Has Been Heard
      • 1.  Preparation of Order  15.54A
      • 2.  Reconsideration  15.55
      • 3.  Enforcing Order Compelling Discovery  15.56
    • I.  Motions to Compel in Federal Court  15.57
    • J.  Checklist: Procedures for Motion to Compel  15.58
  • V.  MOTIONS FOR PROTECTIVE ORDERS
    • A.  Protective Order Explained  15.59
    • B.  Examples of Protective Orders  15.60
    • C.  Deciding to Make Motion for Protective Order
      • 1.  Relying on Objections  15.61
      • 2.  When to Seek Stipulated Protective Order  15.62
      • 3.  When to Disclose Information  15.63
      • 4.  When to Consider Motion for Protective Order  15.64
    • D.  Procedures for Making Motion for Protective Order
      • 1.  Table: Who May Make Motion  15.65
      • 2.  Grounds for Protective Order
        • a.  Statutes Authorizing Protective Orders  15.66
        • b.  Judicial Guidelines: The Greyhound Rules  15.67
        • c.  Balancing Constitutional and Statutory Privacy Rights  15.68
      • 3.  Timing  15.69
      • 4.  Meet-and-Confer Requirement  15.70
      • 5.  Drafting Motion for Protective Order
        • a.  Required Papers  15.71
        • b.  Factual Showing Required (Good Cause)  15.72
        • c.  When Burden of Showing Good Cause Shifts  15.73
        • d.  Effect of Presumptions  15.74
        • e.  Request for Sanctions  15.75
      • 6.  Service  15.76
      • 7.  Filing  15.77
    • E.  Responding to Motion for Protective Order  15.78
    • F.  After Motion Has Been Heard
      • 1.  Making Record of Court’s Order  15.79
      • 2.  Requesting Reconsideration  15.80
      • 3.  Seeking Appellate Review  15.81
      • 4.  Enforcing Protective Orders  15.82
    • G.  Protective Orders in Federal Court  15.83
    • H.  Checklist: Procedure for Obtaining Protective Order  15.84
  • VI.  SANCTIONS
    • A.  General Purposes of Sanctions
      • 1.  To Compel Discovery  15.85
      • 2.  To Curb Misuse of Discovery Process  15.86
    • B.  What Constitutes Misuse of Discovery Process
      • 1.  Misuse in General  15.87
      • 2.  Failure to Meet and Confer  15.88
      • 3.  Failure to Respond to Discovery Requests or Service of Inadequate Responses  15.89
      • 4.  Failure to Appear for, Proceed With, or Answer Questions at Deposition  15.90
      • 5.  Failure to Obey Court Order  15.91
    • C.  Types of Sanctions  15.92
      • 1.  Monetary Sanctions
        • a.  In General  15.93
        • b.  Willfulness Not Required  15.94
        • c.  Reasonable Expenses Recoverable  15.95
        • d.  Reasonable Attorney Fees Recoverable  15.96
      • 2.  Issue Sanctions  15.97
      • 3.  Evidence Sanctions  15.98
      • 4.  Terminating Sanctions  15.99
        • a.  When Terminating Sanctions May Be Granted  15.100
        • b.  When Terminating Sanctions Are Improper  15.101
      • 5.  Contempt Sanctions  15.102
      • 6.  Chart: Sanctions Authorized by Civil Discovery Act  15.103
    • D.  On Whom Sanctions May Be Imposed
      • 1.  Parties  15.104
      • 2.  Nonparties  15.105
      • 3.  Attorneys  15.106
    • E.  Sanctions Outside Civil Discovery Act  15.107
    • F.  Making Request for Sanctions
      • 1.  Content and Format for Request for Sanctions  15.108
      • 2.  Timing of Request for Sanctions  15.109
    • G.  Responding to Request for Sanctions  15.110
    • H.  Review of Sanctions Orders
      • 1.  Motion for Reconsideration  15.111
      • 2.  Motion to Vacate Under CCP §473  15.112
      • 3.  Writs and Appeals  15.113
    • I.  Enforcement of Orders Imposing Sanctions  15.114
    • J.  Requesting Sanctions in Federal Court  15.115
    • K.  Checklist: Procedures for Obtaining Sanctions  15.116
  • VII.  CHART: OTHER DISCOVERY MOTIONS  15.117
  • VIII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Proposed Order Granting Application for Order Shortening Time  15.118
    • B.  Form: Sample Order on Motion to Compel  15.119

16

Writs and Appeals

Robert C. Wright

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  16.1
  • II.  BEFORE SEEKING WRIT OR TAKING APPEAL
    • A.  Understanding Restrictions on Appellate Review  16.2
    • B.  Making Record of Court’s Reasoning  16.3
    • C.  Getting Adequate Arguments and Evidence on Record  16.4
    • D.  Understanding Standard of Review  16.5
    • E.  Table: Determining Type of Review Available  16.6
  • III.  REVIEW BY PETITION FOR EXTRAORDINARY WRIT  16.7
    • A.  When Important to Seek Writ Review  16.8
    • B.  Writs Granted Sparingly  16.9
    • C.  Who May Seek Writ Review  16.10
    • D.  When Writ Review Available  16.11
      • 1.  Case of First Impression or General Importance to Courts and Profession
        • a.  Case of First Impression  16.12
        • b.  Issue Important to Courts and Profession  16.13
      • 2.  Discovery Order May Prevent Fair Litigation of Case  16.14
      • 3.  Discovery May Violate Privilege or Other Protection  16.15
        • a.  Attorney-Client Privilege  16.16
        • b.  Attorney Work Product  16.17
        • c.  Constitutional Rights  16.18
        • d.  Legislative Motive  16.19
        • e.  Mediation Confidentiality  16.20
        • f.  Physician-Patient Privilege  16.21
        • g.  Right to Privacy  16.22
        • h.  Confidential Reporting Required by Law  16.23
      • 4.  Sanctions in Any Amount  16.24
    • E.  Procedure for Obtaining Writ
      • 1.  Timing Limitations  16.25
      • 2.  Format and Content  16.26
      • 3.  Filing and Service
        • a.  Service  16.27
        • b.  Filing  16.28
      • 4.  Request for Temporary Stay  16.29
  • IV.  REVIEW BY APPEAL
    • A.  Most Discovery Orders Not Immediately Appealable  16.30
    • B.  When Appeal Available
      • 1.  Discovery Sanctions Over $5000  16.31
      • 2.  Sanction Orders or Judgments of $5000 or Less  16.32
      • 3.  Person No Longer Involved in Suit  16.33
      • 4.  Order Made After Appealable Judgment  16.34
      • 5.  Expert Witness Fees  16.35
      • 6.  Order Directing Compliance With Administrative or Legislative Subpoena  16.35A
      • 7.  Order Ancillary to Litigation in Another Jurisdiction  16.35B
    • C.  When Important to Seek Review by Appeal  16.36
    • D.  Review on Appeal From Final Judgment  16.37
    • E.  Who May Appeal  16.38
    • F.  Appeal Procedure
      • 1.  Timing Limitations  16.39
      • 2.  Notice of Appeal  16.40
      • 3.  Filing and Service
        • a.  Filing of Notice of Appeal  16.41
        • b.  Service of Notice of Appeal
          • (1)  By Appellant  16.42
          • (2)  By Court Clerk  16.43
      • 4.  Procedures After Filing Notice of Appeal  16.44
  • V.  FEDERAL COURT WRIT AND APPELLATE REVIEW
    • A.  Differences From State Law  16.45
    • B.  Review by Petition for Extraordinary Writ  16.46
    • C.  Review by Appeal  16.47

CALIFORNIA CIVIL DISCOVERY PRACTICE

(4th Edition)

April 2018

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

File Name

Book Section

Title

CH03

Chapter 3

Evaluating Privileges, Work Product, and Other Protections

03-200

§3.200

Sample Written Agreement to Preserve Confidentiality of Information Exchanged in Course of Joint Defense

CH04

Chapter 4

Conducting Discovery in a Digital World: Managing Electronically Stored Information

04-055

§4.55

Legal Hold Letter

04-056

§4.56

Document Creation Reminders

04-057

§4.57

Checklist: Identifying Data

04-058

§4.58

Preservation Letter

04-059

§4.59

Chain-of-Custody Log

CH05

Chapter 5

Deposition Procedures

05-084

§5.84

Checklist: Video Recording Procedures

05-199

§5.199

Checklist: Procedures for Preparing Written Depositions

05-216

§5.216

Notice of Deposition

05-219

§5.219

Ex Parte Application for Order Shortening Time for Serving Notice of Deposition

05-220

§5.220

Other Party’s Notice of Intention to Audio or Video Record Deposition

05-221

§5.221

Other Party’s Notice of Intention to Appear at Deposition by Telephone, Video Conference, or Other Electronic Means

05-222

§5.222

Stipulation for Taking Deposition

05-224

§5.224

Declaration Accompanying Production of Business Records (Custodian or Other Qualified Witness)

05-225

§5.225

Declaration Accompanying Production of Business Records (Deposition Officer)

05-226

§5.226

Declaration Accompanying Production of Business Records (Attorney’s Representative)

05-228

§5.228

Notice of Motion and Motion to Quash Deposition Notice and for Sanctions

05-229

§5.229

Declaration Supporting Motion to Quash Deposition Notice and for Sanctions

05-230

§5.230

Notice of Motion for Order Authorizing Deposition to Perpetuate Testimony

05-231

§5.231

Petition for Order Authorizing Deposition to Perpetuate Testimony

05-232

§5.232

Order Authorizing Deposition to Perpetuate Testimony

CH06

Chapter 6

Taking and Defending Oral Depositions

06-142

§6.142

Notice of Motion and Motion for Order That Deposition Be Terminated or Limited; Request for Sanctions

06-143

§6.143

Memorandum Supporting Motion for Order That Deposition Be Terminated or Limited

06-144

§6.144

Declaration Supporting Motion for Protective Order

06-146

§6.146

Notice of Motion and Motion to Compel Answers to Questions and Production of Documents at Deposition

06-147

§6.147

Memorandum Supporting Motion to Compel Answers to Questions and Production of Documents at Deposition

06-148

§6.148

Declaration Supporting Motion to Compel Answers to Questions and Production of Documents at Deposition

06-149

§6.149

Separate Statement Listing Questions to Be Answered and Documents to Be Produced

06-150

§6.150

Order to Answer Questions and Produce Documents at Deposition and to Pay Sanctions

CH07

Chapter 7

Interrogatories

07-041

§7.41

Asking About Particular Contentions

07-042

§7.42

Referring to Allegations in Pleading

07-141

§7.141

CHECKLIST: PROCEDURES FOR INTERROGATORIES

07-143

§7.143

Declaration Supporting Request for Additional Discovery

07-144

§7.144

Format of Specially Prepared Interrogatories

07-145

§7.145

Letter to Client Accompanying Interrogatories

07-146

§7.146

Response to Interrogatories; Verification

07-147

§7.147

Notice of Motion and Motion for Order Compelling Answers or Further Answers to Interrogatories and for Sanctions

07-148

§7.148

Memorandum Supporting Motion for Order Compelling Answers (or Further Answers) to Interrogatories and for Sanctions

07-149

§7.149

Declaration Supporting Motion for Order Compelling Answers or Further Answers to Interrogatories and for Sanctions

07-150

§7.150

Separate Statement Listing Interrogatories to Which Further Responses Are Requested

07-151

§7.151

Order Compelling or Denying Answers or Further Answers to Interrogatories and for Sanctions

07-152

§7.152

Notice of Motion and Motion for Order Imposing Sanctions

07-153

§7.153

Declaration Supporting Motion for Order Imposing Sanctions

07-154

§7.154

Order Imposing Sanctions

07-155

§7.155

Notice of Motion and Motion for Protective Order

07-156

§7.156

Memorandum Supporting Motion for Protective Order

07-157

§7.157

Declaration Supporting Motion for Protective Order

07-158

§7.158

Order Limiting Discovery

CH08

Chapter 8

Demands for Inspection or Production

08-017

§8.17

Letter Alternative to Formal Preservation Order

08-068

§8.68

Sending Follow-Up Letter

08-120

§8.120

CHECKLIST: PROCEDURES FOR INSPECTION OF DOCUMENTS, THINGS, AND PLACES

08-121

§8.121

Sample Form: Stipulated Provisions Concerning Related Activities

08-122

§8.122

Stipulation for Inspection

08-123

§8.123

Demand for Inspection

08-124

§8.124

Response to Demand for Inspection

08-125

§8.125

Stipulation for Protective Order (Confidential Information); Order

08-126

§8.126

Notice of Motion and Motion for Order Compelling Response to Demand for Inspection and for Sanction

08-127

§8.127

Declaration Supporting Motion for Order Compelling Response and for Sanction

08-128

§8.128

Notice of Motion and Motion to Compel Further Response

08-129

§8.129

Notice of Motion and Motion to Compel Compliance in Accordance With Prior Response

CH09

Chapter 9

Requests for Admission

09-027

§9.27

Format for Definitions Used

09-028

§9.28

Numbering

09-047

§9.47

Caption; Introduction; Instructions; Definitions

09-049

§9.49

Completeness; Restating Request

09-050

§9.50

Partial or Qualified

09-051

§9.51

Based on Information and Belief

09-052

§9.52

Lack of Information or Knowledge; Duty to Investigate

09-053

§9.53

Denials

09-055

§9.55

Relevance

09-056

§9.56

Privilege

09-057

§9.57

Work Product

09-058

§9.58

Request Exceeds Numerical Limit

09-060

§9.60

Other Objections

09-061

§9.61

Signature; Verification

09-097

§9.97

CHECKLIST: PROCEDURES FOR SERVING REQUESTS FOR ADMISSION

09-099

§9.99

Sample Requests for Admission

09-100

§9.100

Sample Requests for Admission (Electronic Documents)

09-101

§9.101

Declaration for Additional Discovery

09-102

§9.102

Stipulated Admissions

09-103

§9.103

Sample Response to Requests for Admission

09-104

§9.104

Stipulation Extending Time to Respond

09-105

§9.105

Application for Order Extending Time to Respond to Requests for Admission

09-106

§9.106

Notice of Motion and Motion for Order Extending Time to Respond

09-107

§9.107

Order Extending Time to Respond

09-108

§9.108

Notice of Motion and Motion for Order Relieving Responding Party From Waiver of Objections to Requests for Admission

09-109

§9.109

Declaration Supporting Motion for Order Relieving Responding Party From Waiver of Objections to Requests for Admission

09-110

§9.110

Notice of Motion and Motion for Protective Order Concerning Requests for Admission

09-111

§9.111

Protective Order Concerning Requests for Admission

09-112

§9.112

Notice of Motion and Motion for Order That Requests for Admission Be Deemed Admitted

09-113

§9.113

Declaration Supporting Motion That Requests for Admission Be Deemed Admitted

09-114

§9.114

Order That Requests for Admission Be Deemed Admitted

09-115

§9.115

Notice of Motion and Motion for Order Compelling Further Response to Requests for Admission

09-116

§9.116

Declaration Supporting Motion for Order Compelling Further Response to Requests for Admission

09-117

§9.117

Separate Statement Listing Requests and Responses

09-118

§9.118

Order Compelling Further Response to Requests for Admission

09-119

§9.119

Declaration Opposing Motion for Order Compelling Further Response to Requests for Admission

09-120

§9.120

Notice of Motion and Motion for Order Withdrawing or Amending Admissions

09-121

§9.121

Declaration Supporting Motion for Order Amending or Withdrawing Admissions

09-122

§9.122

Order Withdrawing or Amending Admissions

09-123

§9.123

Application for Order Requiring Payment of Expenses of Proof

09-124

§9.124

Declaration Opposing Motion for Order Requiring Payment of Expenses of Proof

CH10

Chapter 10

Physical and Mental Examinations

10-079

§10.79

Demand for Physical Examination of Plaintiff

10-080

§10.80

Response to Demand for Physical Examination of Plaintiff

10-081

§10.81

Notice of Motion and Motion to Compel Compliance With Demand for Physical Examination of Plaintiff

10-082

§10.82

Declaration Supporting Motion to Compel Compliance With Demand for Physical Examination of Plaintiff

10-083

§10.83

Stipulation for Physical Examination

10-084

§10.84

Stipulation for Mental Examination

10-085

§10.85

Notice of Motion and Motion for Physical or Mental Examination of Plaintiff

10-086

§10.86

Declaration Supporting Motion for Physical or Mental Examination

10-087

§10.87

Order for Physical or Mental Examination

10-088

§10.88

Demand for Copy of Report of Physical or Mental Examination

10-089

§10.89

Notice of Motion and Motion for Order for Genetic Tests

10-090

§10.90

Declaration Supporting Motion for Genetic Tests

CH11

Chapter 11

Exchange of Expert Information

11-068

§11.68

CHECKLIST: PROCEDURES FOR DISCOVERY OF EXPERT WITNESS INFORMATION

11-069

§11.69

Demand for Exchange of Expert Trial Witness Information

11-070

§11.70

Written Exchange of Required Expert Witness Information; Expert Witness Declaration

CH12

Chapter 12

Depositions in Other States

12-057

§12.57

CHECKLIST: PROCEDURES FOR SCHEDULING OR OPPOSING NOTICE OF OUT-OF-STATE DEPOSITION

12-058

§12.58

Notice of Out-of-State Deposition on Oral Examination

12-059

§12.59

Ex Parte Application for Order Issuing Commission and Appointing Person to Take Out-of-State Deposition

12-060

§12.60

Declaration Supporting Ex Parte Application for Order Issuing Commission

12-061

§12.61

Order That Commission Issue

12-062

§12.62

Commission to Take Out-of-State Deposition

CH13

Chapter 13

Discovery in Other Nations

13-071

§13.71

CHECKLIST: PROCEDURES FOR SEEKING DISCOVERY ABROAD

13-072

§13.72

Sample Letter of Request Recommended for Use in Applying Hague Evidence Convention on Taking of Evidence Abroad in Civil or Commercial Matters

13-073

§13.73

Sample Letter Rogatory Recommended for Use in Applying Inter-American Convention on Letters Rogatory

13-074

§13.74

Sample Letter Rogatory for Use in Absence of Treaties

13-075

§13.75

Notice of Motion and Motion for Order Issuing Commission to Take Deposition Abroad

13-076

§13.76

Memorandum Supporting Motion for Order Issuing Commission to Take Deposition Abroad

13-077

§13.77

Declaration Supporting Motion for Order Issuing Commission to Take Deposition Abroad

13-078

§13.78

Order That Commission Issue to Take Deposition Abroad

13-079

§13.79

Commission to Take Deposition of Witness

CH15

Chapter 15

Discovery Motion Practice and Sanctions

15-029

§15.29

Checklist: Procedure for Application for Order Shortening Time

15-058

§15.58

Checklist: Procedures for Motion to Compel

15-084

§15.84

Checklist: Procedure for Obtaining Protective Order

15-116

§15.116

Checklist: Procedures for Obtaining Sanctions

15-118

§15.118

Sample Proposed Order Granting Application for Order Shortening Time

15-119

§15.119

Sample Order on Motion to Compel

 

Selected Developments

April 2018

  • Scope of Discovery

    • Immigration Status. Civil Code §3339.10 was enacted to prohibit discovery regarding a person’s immigration or citizenship status in cases involving tenant housing rights, except in limited specified circumstances. See §1.36.

    • Third Party Percipient Witnesses. In a PAGA action alleging wage and hour violations, the contact information of allegedly aggrieved, nonparty employees is relevant and discoverable because such employees are percipient witnesses. Williams v Superior Court (2017) 3 C5th 531. See §1.50.

  • Discovery Referee. The referral to a discovery referee was found to be a “general reference” (and, therefore, its sanctions ruling stood as a “decision of the court”) because the referee was appointed for “all discovery matters” under CCP §638(a) and the parties and the trial court treated the referee’s ruling as binding without any further court action. Lindsey v Conteh (2017) 9 CA5th 1296. See §2.71.

  • Privileges

    • Attorney-Client—Attorney Invoices. The attorney-client privilege protects attorney invoices which reveal the amount and nature of work performed both during the pendency and after the conclusion of litigation. County of Los Angeles Bd. of Supervisors v Superior Court (2017) 12 CA5th 1264. See §3.9.

    • Attorney-Client—Communications with Public Relations Firms. The attorney-client privilege will be waived with respect to communications with a public relations firm, unless the party asserting the privilege can show that the firm was hired to assist with litigation strategy and the firm acts as a functional equivalent of an employee. Behunin v Superior Court (2017) 9 CA5th 833. See §3.14.

    • Work Product. After an attorney leaves a law firm, the law firm continues to control the attorney work product privilege over documents created by the formerly employed attorney during and in the scope of the attorney’s employment. Tucker Ellis LLP v Superior Court (2017) 12 CA5th 1233. See §3.63.

    • Psychotherapist-Patient. The psychotherapist-patient privilege does not protect against disclosure of records subpoenaed by the Medical Board of California during an investigation into potential improper prescribing of controlled substances by a psychiatrist. Cross v Superior Court (2017) 11 CA5th 305. See §3.84.

    • Confidential Informants. The unqualified privilege from tort liability under CC §47(b) for communications made by citizens who contact a law enforcement officer or agency to report suspected criminal activity does not apply to an insurance adjuster’s notice to the DMV that was not intended to trigger the DMV’s investigatory or decisionmaking functions. Klem v Access Ins. Co. (2017) 17 CA5th 595. See §3.143.

  • Proceedings Under Public Records Act. The procedures set forth in the Civil Discovery Act, including those that allow parties to initiate discovery requests, apply to actions brought under the California Public Records Act. City of Los Angeles v Superior Court (2017) 9 CA5th 272. See §3.110.

  • Right of Privacy

    • Discoverability of Private Information. The California Supreme Court declared that a compelling interest showing is not always necessary when a privacy objection is made to a discovery request. Instead, the appropriate balancing test to determine the discoverability of private information will depend on the extent and gravity of the invasion of privacy. For “obvious invasions of an interest fundamental to personal autonomy,” the party seeking discovery must demonstrate that a compelling interest overcomes the privacy interest at stake. For “less central” privacy interests, or when the privacy interest is in “bona fide dispute,” the court will employ a general balancing test. Williams v Superior Court (2017) 3 C5th 531. See §3.157A.

    • Privacy Rights in Defamation Cases. Privacy rights under Cal Const art I, §1 and the First Amendment will not shield a website from disclosing the identity of anonymous posters if the party seeking discovery can demonstrate the necessity of such information to pursue a defamation claim. ZL Techs., Inc. v Superior Court (2017) 13 CA5th 603; Yelp, Inc. v Superior Court (2017) 17 CA5th 1. See §3.159.

    • Some Websites May Assert First Amendment Interest on Behalf of Users. Generally, litigants must assert their own legal rights. However, two separate appellate courts held that Glassdoor.com and Yelp.com may assert First Amendment rights on behalf of anonymous posters. Glassdoor, Inc. v Superior Court (2017) 9 CA5th 623; Yelp, Inc. v Superior Court (2017) 17 CA5th 1. See §3.159.

    • State Prescription Drug Monitoring Program. The court held that the Medical Board of California did not violate patients’ right to privacy when, in the course of investigating a doctor, it obtained data from the state prescription drug monitoring program without a warrant or subpoena. Lewis v Superior Court (2017) 3 C5th 561. See §3.160.

  • Electronic Discovery

    • Litigation Holds. Motion to compel properly denied when plaintiff’s claim that discovery responses were incomplete was speculative and defendant could show that it had issued a timely and detailed litigation hold, with detailed instructions to ESI custodians regarding search parameters and the importance of conducting thorough searches. Mirmina v Genpact LLC (D Conn, July 27, 2017, 3:16 CV 00614 (AWT) 2017 US Dist Lexis 117412. See §4.16.

    • Request for Opposing Party to Create Computer Program to Analyze Database. In Meredith v United Collection Bureau, Inc. (ND Ohio 2017) 319 FRD 240, the court granted a request to compel the defendant to either write a program to analyze a database (with plaintiff’s bearing the reasonable cost of doing so) or to produce relevant portions of the database to plaintiff so that her expert could write the program. See §4.50.

    • Preference for Production of ESI in Native Format. The court in Bailey v Alpha Techs., Inc. (WD Wash, June 1, 2017, No. C16-0727-JCC) 2017 US Dist Lexis 84354 expressed a clear preference for production of ESI in a native form that includes metadata, finding that images of electronic documents provided in TIFF and PDF formats do not offer all of the possible relevant information. See §4.51.

  • Demands for Inspection or Production

    • Custody and Control. In Padron v Watchtower Bible & Tract Soc’y of New York, Inc. (2017) 16 CA5th 1246, the appellate court upheld an order requiring defendant to produce documents that were in the possession of a separate entity because the defendant had access to and could exercise control over the documents. See §8.70.

  • Demands for Inspection in Federal Court

    • Proportional to Needs of Case. The federal courts continued to analyze and apply the multi-factor test set forth in Fed R Civ P 26(b)(1) to determine whether the discovery sought is proportional to the needs of the case. In Armstrong Pump, Inc. v Hartman (WD NY, Dec. 13, 2016, No. 10-CV-446S) 2016 US Dist Lexis 172207, the court denied a motion to compel in part because discovery had “reached the point of diminishing returns” following 6 years of discovery. In Gordon v T.G.R. Logistics, Inc. (D Wyo 2017) 321 FRD 401, the court found that a request for a party’s entire Facebook history from the 3 years prior to an accident was disproportional to the needs of the case, in part because plaintiff was seeking damages for “garden variety” emotional distress. See §8.102.

    • Sanctions for Spoliation of ESI. In Eshelman v Puma Biotechnology, Inc. (SD NC, June 7, 2017, No. 7:16–CV–18–D) 2017 US Dist Lexis 87282, a request for discovery sanctions for plaintiff’s loss of internet browser histories was denied because the defendant did not explicitly reference internet browser histories in its legal hold notice and failed to establish that the information could not be obtained through other discovery avenues, such as deposition testimony. See §8.108.

    • No Routine Direct Access to Opposing Party’s Electronic Systems. In Bratcher v Navient Sols., Inc. (MD Fla 2017) 249 F Supp 3d 1283, the court noted that there is no routine right of direct access to a party’s electronic information system absent a factual finding of some noncompliance with discovery rules. See §8.111.

    • Shifting Cost of Production. After applying the Zubulake factors for shifting the cost of production from the responding party to the requesting party, cost-shifting requests were granted in Bailey v Brookdale Univ. Hosp. Med. Ctr. (ED NY, June 16, 2017, No. CV 16-2195 ADS AKT) 2017 US Dist Lexis 93093 and Phoenix Light SF Ltd. v Deutsche Bank Nat’l Trust Co. (SD NY, June 5, 2017, No. 14cv10103) 2017 US Dist Lexis 85955, but denied in Hawa v Coatesville Area Sch. Dist. (ED Pa, Mar. 16, 2017, No. 15–4828) 2017 US Dist Lexis 37675. See §8.116.

    • Default Judgment Sanction. In an “extreme” case of spoliation and bad faith, in which defendant destroyed possibly hundreds of thousands of files it was ordered to preserve and then tried to deceive an ALJ as to its acts, a default judgment sanction under Fed R Civ P 37(b) was upheld. Organik Kimya v ITC (Fed Cir 2017) 848 F3d 994, 1003. See §8.118.

  • Motions to Withdraw or Amend Admission. When granting a motion to withdraw or amend, the trial court has discretion to impose conditions that are not specified in CCP §2033.300, including an award of reasonable attorney fees to the requesting party. Rhule v WaveFront Tech., Inc. (2017) 8 CA5th 1223. See §9.82.

  • Physical and Mental Examinations

    • Vocational Rehabilitating Examinations. A vocational rehabilitation examination is not an available discovery method under CCP §2032.020(b) or CCP §2019.010. Haniff v Superior Court (2017) 9 CA5th 191. See §10.21.

    • Mental Examination of Minor Sexual Abuse Victim. Under the newly enacted CCP §§2032.020(c)(2), 2032.340, in any action involving sexual abuse of a minor where the examinee is less than 15 years of age, a mental examiner “shall have expertise in child abuse and trauma” and the examination shall not exceed 3 hours, inclusive of breaks. See §10.22.

  • Informal Discovery Conference. Under the newly enacted CCP §2016.080, if the parties cannot resolve a discovery dispute through meet and confer, then a party may file a motion requesting an informal discovery conference for the purpose of discussing the discovery dispute. See §15.3A.

  • Sanctions

    • An award of sanctions based on a finding of inadequate responses was found to be improper because of the complex issues presented in the case, the evolving and unsettled state of applicable law, and the trial court’s error in concluding Yelp.com lacked standing to assert the First Amendment rights of an anonymous reviewer. Yelp, Inc. v Superior Court (2017) 17 CA5th 1, 210. See §15.89.

    • An award of sanctions based on a finding of inadequate responses was found to be improper because, although the trial court correctly concluded that the Public Records Act proceedings were not (as the plaintiff had asserted) exempt from civil discovery procedures, the issue was one of first impression and the defendant’s position was arguably supported by federal authority. City of Los Angeles v Superior Court (2017) 9 CA5th 272. See §15.89.

    • An award of sanctions at a rate of $4000 per day for every day defendant did not search for or produce the requested documents was upheld based on a finding that such sanctions applied to current conduct (i.e., defendant’s refusal to comply with valid discovery order) rather than future potential conduct. Padron v Watchtower Bible & Tract Soc’y of New York, Inc. (2017) 16 CA5th 1246. See §15.93.

    • The United States Supreme Court held that, when a district court exercises its inherent authority to issue attorney fees sanctions, such sanctions must be compensatory rather than punitive and may only encompass those fees incurred solely because of the misconduct (i.e., a but-for causation standard). Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. v Haeger (2017) 137 S Ct 1178. See §15.96.

    • Bad faith is not required for a court to issue a terminating sanction and dismiss an action following a party’s misuse of the discovery process under CCP §2023.030(d)(3). Creed-21 v City of Wildomar (2017) 18 CA5th 690, 703. See §15.100.

    • The legislature amended CCP §128.5, clarifying that it applies to actions that were part of a civil case filed on or after January 1, 2015, and inserting certain provisions also contained in CCP §128.7 that were previously incorporated by reference. See §15.107.

    • Sanctions for failing to comply with an order compelling discovery was properly awarded when the sanctioned party could not provide a substantial justification for noncompliance, given that its privacy concerns had already been adequately addressed by a protective order. Padron v Watchtower Bible & Tract Soc’y of New York, Inc. (2017) 16 CA5th 1246. See §15.110.

  • Writs and Appeals. The court denied an appeal of a sanctions award when the absence of a reporter’s transcript or agreed-upon statement of proceedings at pertinent trial court hearings rendered it impossible to determine the basis of the trial court’s reasoning. Rhule v WaveFront Tech., Inc. (2017) 8 CA5th 1223. See §16.4.

About the Authors

MITCHELL E. ABBOTT serves as chair of the Appellate Practice Group of Richards, Watson & Gershon in Los Angeles, where his practice focuses on the representation of municipalities and other public entities. He has handled writ matters, civil rights actions, land use cases under the California Environmental Quality Act, public financing cases, taxpayers’ actions, and election contests. Mr. Abbott is a Certified Specialist in Appellate Law (State Bar of California Board of Legal Specialization), a member of the State Bar’s Appellate Law Advisory Commission, a member of the California Academy of Appellate Lawyers, and a past chair of the State Bar’s Committee on Appellate Courts. He was a contributing author of California Civil Appellate Practice (3d ed Cal CEB) and of California Administrative Mandamus (3d ed Cal CEB). Mr. Abbott received his A.B. (magna cum laude) in 1972 from the University of California, Davis, and his J.D. in 1975 from the University of Virginia Law School.

ARTHUR J. CASEY is a shareholder of Robinson & Wood, Inc., in San Jose, specializing in civil litigation with an emphasis on defense of product liability actions, insurance litigation, and insurance fraud. He also serves as a judicial hearing officer for the City of Campbell. Mr. Casey has been a CEB contributor and lecturer for several years. He received his B.A. in 1981 from the University of San Diego and his J.D. in 1985 from the University of Santa Clara.

WILLIAM A. DANIELS is a principal of Schwartz, Daniels & Bradley in Agoura Hills. Mr. Daniels practices in the areas of employment and consumer class actions, insurance bad faith, catastrophic personal injury, and employment discrimination. He received his B.A. in 1982 from San Francisco State University and his J.D. in 1994 from Loyola Law School of Los Angeles.

MARTIN L. FINEMAN is Partner in Charge of the San Francisco office of Davis Wright Tremaine LLP and handles complex litigation and dispute resolution in the corporate, securities, professional liability, and intellectual property fields. Mr. Fineman also acts as a Judge Pro Tem and judicial arbitrator for the San Francisco County Superior Court, and as a judicial mediator for the First District Court of Appeal. He received his B.S. from the University of California, Berkeley, his M.B.A. from the Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley, and his J.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law, where he was an editor of the California Law Review.

GINETTA L. GIOVINCO is an associate in the Los Angeles office of Richards, Watson & Gershon and represents public entities and private sector clients in litigation matters. She received her B.A. (summa cum laude) in 1997 from American University and her J.D. in 2003 from the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law.

JOSHUA S. GOODMAN is a founding partner of Jenkins Goodman Neuman & Hamilton LLP in San Francisco, specializing in personal injury, professional liability, insurance coverage, commercial, and construction litigation. Mr. Goodman also litigates insurance coverage matters on behalf of insurers, policyholders, and businesses seeking coverage for third party claims. He has authored articles published in CEB’s California Civil Litigation Reporter and serves as an arbitrator for San Francisco, Alameda, and Marin Counties. Mr. Goodman received his B.A. in 1978 from Pomona College, his M.Phil. in 1981 from the University of London, and his J.D. in 1984 from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law.

GAYLE L. GOUGH is a partner in the San Francisco office of Sedgwick, Detert, Moran & Arnold LLP, concentrating on class actions, personal injury, product liability, and warranty and contract actions. She also serves on the panel of court-appointed arbitrators for the San Francisco County Superior Court. Ms. Gough received her B.S.F.S. in 1981 from Georgetown University (School of Foreign Service) and her J.D. (summa cum laude) in 1991 from the University of San Francisco School of Law, where she was a member of the University of San Francisco Law Review.

KYLE KVETON is a member of Robie & Matthai in Los Angeles and focuses on legal malpractice, business, and insurance litigation. He also serves as a mediator and arbitrator for the Los Angeles County Superior Court. He has spoken at numerous continuing legal education conferences and teaching programs. Mr. Kveton is a member of the Los Angeles County Bar Association, the Business Law section of the American Bar Association, the Association of Southern California Defense Counsel, and the Defense Research Institute. Mr. Kveton received his B.A. in 1980 from the State University of New York at Binghamton and his J.D. in 1983 from the University of Southern California.

JANET H. KWUON is a partner of Reed Smith LLP, where she has served as managing partner of the firm’s Los Angeles office and head of the Los Angeles office’s Product Liability Practice Group. Ms. Kwuon focuses on both complex civil litigation and nonlitigation client counseling in the areas of risk assessment, regulatory compliance, electronic data management, e-discovery, and investigations. She is also a former Los Angeles County Deputy District Attorney. Ms. Kwuon received her B.A. in 1985 from the University of California, Berkeley, and her J.D. in 1989 from the University of the Pacific (McGeorge School of Law).

NATHAN LANE III is a partner of Squire, Sanders & Dempsey LLP in San Francisco and leads the firm’s Intellectual Property Practice Group. Mr. Lane represents clients in disputes and business transactions involving intellectual property, antitrust and trade regulation, and commercial transactions as well as in domestic and international arbitrations. He has regularly litigated cases involving the discovery of evidence located outside of the United States. He is a past chair of the San Francisco Bar Association Antitrust Section. Mr. Lane received his A.B. in 1968 from Duke University and his J.D. in 1971 from the University of Pennsylvania, where he was a member of the Order of the Coif and of the Board of Editors of the University of Pennsylvania Law Review. Mr. Lane gratefully acknowledges the invaluable assistance of Michelle M. Full, an associate at Squire, Sanders & Dempsey LLP, in the preparation of chapter 13, Discovery in Other Nations.

ALEXANDER H. LUBARSKY is a practicing litigator, electronic discovery consultant, and author. He has litigated hundreds of cases involving electronic discovery and has received numerous awards in the industry, including the TechnoLawyer @ Award. Mr. Lubarsky has been elected to the Executive Committee of the Law Practice Management and Technology Section of the State Bar of California and is on the editorial boards of several technology publications. He has served on the San Francisco Bar Association Judicial Selection Committee and has served as co-chair of the AIDS Legal Referral Panel of San Francisco for a decade. He has consulted for numerous companies that provide electronic discovery support services. Mr. Lubarsky regularly consults with large law firms and Fortune 500 corporations in the area of ESI retention, e-discovery best practices, artificial intelligence, and litigation holds. He has taught courses on e-discovery and computers at California State University (San Francisco) and California State University (East Bay) for 20 years. Mr. Lubarsky received his B.A. degree from Lewis and Clark College and his J.D. and LL.M. degrees from Golden Gate University School of Law.

MARJORIE E. MANNING is a shareholder of Bolling, Walter & Gawthrop in Sacramento, specializing in civil litigation with an emphasis on appeals, professional malpractice, employment law, and civil rights. Ms. Manning heads the firm’s appellate department and is admitted to practice before the United States Supreme Court. She was a contributing author of the previous edition of California Civil Discovery Practice (3d ed Cal CEB) and has lectured on civil litigation techniques. She is also a member of the American Bar Association, the Sacramento County Bar Association, and the Northern California Association of Defense Counsel. Ms. Manning received her B.A. (with honors) in 1980 from California State University (Sacramento) and her J.D. in 1984 from the University of the Pacific (McGeorge School of Law).

BROWNING E. MAREAN III is a partner in the San Diego office of DLA Piper Rudnick Gray Cary. He specializes in complex business litigation, technology matters, and professional responsibility. Mr. Marean is chair of the San Diego County Bar Association Technology Committee. He lectures frequently on computer technology and its applications to law practice management as well as on legal ethics and the selection and use of expert witnesses. Mr. Marean received his A.B. in 1964 from Stanford University and his J.D. in 1969 from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law.

JAMES C. MARTIN is a partner in the appellate department of the Los Angeles and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, offices of Reed Smith LLP, specializing in civil appeals, writs, and posttrial motions. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Appellate Lawyers and a past president of the California Academy of Appellate Lawyers. Mr. Martin is certified as a specialist in appellate law by the State Bar of California Board of Legal Specialization. A frequent author and consultant for CEB, Mr. Martin has written on a variety of subjects involving civil litigation and was a contributing author of California Civil Appellate Practice (3d ed Cal CEB), California Civil Writ Practice (3d ed Cal CEB), and California Expert Witness Guide (2d ed Cal CEB). He received his B.A. in 1974 from Colorado College and his J.D. (summa cum laude) in 1978 from the University of Santa Clara, where he was Editor-in-Chief of the Santa Clara Law Review.

PETER J. MESSROBIAN is special counsel in the San Francisco office of Sedgwick, Detert, Moran & Arnold LLP, where his practice focuses on products liability, personal injury, and environmental regulatory matters. Mr. Messrobian received his B.A. in 1989 from the University of California, San Diego, and his J.D. in 1993 from the University of San Francisco School of Law.

MARK A. NEUBAUER is a civil business trial lawyer in Los Angeles, with an emphasis on securities, real estate, entertainment, unfair competition, and employment law. Mr. Neubauer is a past chair of the California State Bar Litigation Section and a past president of the Association of Business Trial Lawyers. He has written numerous articles for the American Bar Association Litigation Journal and was a contributing author of California Civil Procedure Before Trial (3d ed Cal CEB). Mr. Neubauer received his B.S.J. (with distinction) in 1972 and his M.S.J. in 1973 from Northwestern University, and his J.D. in 1976 from the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law, where he was an associate editor of the UCLA Law Review.

FARLEY J. NEUMAN is a founding partner of Jenkins Goodman Neuman & Hamilton LLP in San Francisco. His practice focuses on business and commercial litigation, with an emphasis on employment law, accounting malpractice, contractual disputes, real estate issues, and securities law. He is the author of articles published in CEB’s California Civil Litigation Reporter and is a frequent speaker for continuing legal education programs on complex commercial trials, expert witnesses, and accounting malpractice claims. Mr. Neuman, who is also a certified public accountant, is a member of the Pacific Stock Exchange’s panel of arbitrators. He received his B.S. in 1978 from the University of Illinois and his J.D. in 1981 from Loyola University of Chicago School of Law.

MICHAEL R. OVERLY is a partner in the Los Angeles office of Foley & Lardner LLP and a member of the firm’s Information Technology & Outsourcing Practice Group. He specializes in drafting and negotiating software licenses, outsourcing agreements, information security agreements, e-commerce agreements, and technology use policies. He has written numerous articles and books on multimedia law, online law, and the admissibility of electronic documents. Mr. Overly received his B.S. in 1982 and his M.S. in 1984 from Texas A&M University, and his J.D. (cum laude) in 1989 from Loyola University of Los Angeles School of Law, where he was a member of the Order of the Coif and Articles Editor of the Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review.

MARY PAT POTEET is the west coast litigation support manager for DLA Piper Rudnick Gray Cary LLP. In this capacity, she coordinates the administrative and technical support for the firm’s west coast litigation group and provides in-house consultation on litigation support issues such as discovery data management and electronic evidence processing. Ms. Poteet has extensive experience in database creation and administration, including data storage and warehousing. She is the Litigation Support Peer Group Vice President of the International Legal Technology Association and a committee member of the National Association of Litigation Support Managers. She is also a past president of the Bay Area Association of Litigation Support Managers. Ms. Poteet is a frequent speaker at industry seminars and conferences. She received her B.A. in 1987 from San Diego State University.

TAMI S. SMASON is a partner in the Los Angeles office of Foley & Lardner LLP, focusing on business, administrative, and healthcare litigation, including lease and partnership disputes, unfair competition, fraud, medical staff, and employment litigation. She is a former California office chair of the firm’s litigation department. Ms. Smason serves as a Judge Pro Tem for the Los Angeles County Superior Court. She received her B.S. (with honors) in 1981 from the University of California, Berkeley, and her J.D. in 1985 from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law.

JEFFREY A. TIDUS is a partner in the civil trial firm of Baute & Tidus LLP in Los Angeles and handles complex civil trials in a variety of business and real estate disputes, including cases involving fraud, insurance coverage issues, professional negligence, construction defects, and intellectual property. Mr. Tidus has tried a number of lengthy complex matters, including a 240-day trial in a securities and real estate fraud case. He also has an active practice as an arbitrator and mediator over a wide range of civil disputes. Mr. Tidus is a graduate of the Straus Institute for Mediation’s Basic and Advanced Mediation training programs and is a member of the American Arbitration Association’s Complex Litigation Panel. He has also testified as an expert witness in matters involving construction defects, legal ethics, and billing practices. Mr. Tidus received his B.A. in 1976 from the University of California, San Diego, and his J.D. in 1979 from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law.

SHIRLEY K. WATKINS is a member of Law Offices of Michels & Watkins in Los Angeles, specializing in medical malpractice and catastrophic personal injury cases. She is the author of numerous articles on discovery and is a frequent lecturer on trial techniques. She serves as a Judge Pro Tem, arbitrator, and settlement officer for the Los Angeles County Superior Court. Ms. Watkins is an emeritus member of the Board of Governors of the Consumer Attorneys Association of Los Angeles. She has served on the Board of Directors of Trial Lawyers for Public Justice, the Board of Trustees of the Los Angeles County Bar Association, and the Board of Governors of Women Lawyers Association of Los Angeles, where she is a Life Sustaining Member. She received her B.A. in 1979 from the University of California, San Diego, and her J.D. in 1982 from the California Western School of Law.

THE HONORABLE MARY E. WISS currently has a civil assignment at the San Francisco Superior Court. Before her appointment to the bench, Judge Wiss was a sole practitioner in San Francisco, specializing in personal injury, wrongful death, medical negligence, and product liability law. She is a past president of the San Francisco Trial Lawyers Association and of Queen’s Bench. Judge Wiss frequently lectures for CEB on torts, evidence, and trial practice topics and is the co-author of California Tort Damages (2d ed CEB). She received her B.A. in 1972 from the University of San Francisco, her M.S. in 1976 from the Lone Mountain College, and her J.D. in 1981 from the University of San Francisco School of Law.

ROBERT C. WRIGHT is a founding member of Wright, L’Estrange & Ergastolo in San Diego and specializes in business litigation. Mr. Wright is an adjunct professor at the University of San Diego School of Law, a life member of the American Law Institute, and currently serves as a discovery facilitator for the Contra Costa Superior Court. Mr. Wright was awarded the Spirit of CEB award in 2006, for his enormous contributions to multiple editions of CEB’s California Civil Discovery Practice and for embodying the generosity and public spirit so valued by CEB. He received his B.A. in 1968 from Occidental College and his J.D. in 1971 from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Mr. Wright acknowledges Davin H. Kono, an associate with Wright, L’Estrange & Ergastolo, for his valuable assistance on this edition.

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