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Appeals and Writs in Criminal Cases

Distinguished experts cover all aspects, including federal, to make appellate and writ review clear and increase your chances of success.

Distinguished experts cover all aspects of seeking higher relief in criminal cases, including federal habeas review of state court decisions.

  • Direct appeals in California criminal cases
  • Writs of mandate, prohibition, habeas corpus, coram nobis, and coram vobis in California state courts
  • Habeas corpus review in federal district court and the 9th Circuit
  • Writs of certiorari to the Supreme Court
  • All relevant, amended, and newly enacted Rules of Court
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Distinguished experts cover all aspects of seeking higher relief in criminal cases, including federal habeas review of state court decisions.

  • Direct appeals in California criminal cases
  • Writs of mandate, prohibition, habeas corpus, coram nobis, and coram vobis in California state courts
  • Habeas corpus review in federal district court and the 9th Circuit
  • Writs of certiorari to the Supreme Court
  • All relevant, amended, and newly enacted Rules of Court

1

Appellate Review of Criminal Convictions

Amy HaddixBridget Billeter

  • I. RIGHT TO APPEAL
    • A. Source of Right 1.1
    • B. Purposes of Appeal 1.2
    • C. Defendant's Right to Notice 1.3
  • II. APPEALABLE JUDGMENTS AND ORDERS
    • A. Questions Appealable by Prosecution and Defense 1.4
    • B. Defendant's Appeals
      • 1. Felony Cases
        • a. After Plea of Not Guilty
          • (1) In General 1.5
          • (2) Final Judgment of Conviction 1.6
          • (3) Postjudgment Orders 1.7
          • (4) Sentence 1.8
          • (5) Probation Orders 1.9
          • (6) Commitment Orders 1.10
        • b. After Plea of Guilty or Nolo Contendere
          • (1) Scope of Appellate Review 1.11
          • (2) Certificate of Probable Cause Requirement 1.12
          • (3) Issues That Require Certificate of Probable Cause 1.13
          • (4) Issues Appealable Without Certificate of Probable Cause 1.14
          • (5) Waiver of Right to Appeal 1.15
      • 2. Misdemeanor and Infraction Cases
        • a. In General 1.16
        • b. Pretrial 1.17
        • c. Posttrial 1.18
    • C. Prosecution Appeals
      • 1. Felony Cases
        • a. Scope of Appeal 1.19
        • b. Order Setting Aside Indictment or Information 1.20
        • c. Order Sustaining Demurrer 1.21
        • d. Order Granting New Trial 1.22
        • e. Order Arresting Judgment 1.23
        • f. Postjudgment Order Affecting Substantial Rights of Prosecution 1.24
        • g. Order Modifying Verdict or Finding 1.25
        • h. Pretrial Order of Dismissal as a Result of Suppression of Evidence 1.26
        • i. Order of Dismissal 1.27
        • j. Order Denying Prosecution's Motion to Reinstate Complaint 1.28
        • k. Imposition of Unlawful Sentence 1.29
        • l. Order Granting Probation 1.29A
        • m. Order Granting Habeas Corpus Relief 1.30
      • 2. Misdemeanor and Infraction Cases 1.31
        • a. Probation Order 1.32
        • b. Order of Dismissal 1.33
  • III. APPELLATE AND WRIT JURISDICTION OF CALIFORNIA COURTS
    • A. Appeal of Right
      • 1. Supreme Court 1.34
      • 2. Court of Appeal 1.35
      • 3. Appellate Division of the Superior Court 1.36
    • B. Discretionary Review
      • 1. Supreme Court 1.37
      • 2. Court of Appeal 1.38
    • C. Writ Jurisdiction 1.39
    • D. Appellate Court Jurisdiction 1.40
  • IV. FEDERAL REVIEW OF STATE COURT CONVICTIONS: NONCAPITAL CASES 1.41

2

The Right to Counsel on Appeal; Implementation in California

Stephen Greenberg

  • I. CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT TO COUNSEL ON APPEAL
    • A. Indigent Defendant's Right to Appointment of Counsel on Appeal 2.1
    • B. Defendant's Right to Effective Assistance of Counsel on Appeal 2.2
  • II. ROLE OF TRIAL COUNSEL IN APPELLATE PROCESS
    • A. Trial Counsel Should Not Represent Defendant in Appellate Court
      • 1. Different Skills Required 2.3
      • 2. Inherent Conflict of Interest 2.4
    • B. Duty of Trial Counsel to Advise Client of Rights and Perfect Appeal
      • 1. Duty to Advise Convicted Client 2.5
      • 2. Duty to Assist Defendant in Perfecting Appeal
        • a. Duty to File Notice of Appeal 2.6
          • (1) Felony Appeals
            • (a) Appeals After Trial 2.7
            • (b) After Guilty or No Contest Plea 2.8
          • (2) Misdemeanor Appeals 2.9
          • (3) Juvenile Appeals 2.10
        • b. Additional Duties for Indigent Clients 2.11
      • 3. Application for Bail on Appeal
        • a. Appropriate Case 2.12
        • b. Criteria for Granting
          • (1) Felony Appeals 2.13
          • (2) Misdemeanor Appeals 2.14
      • 4. Application for Stay of Execution of Judgment 2.15
        • a. Criteria for Granting 2.16
        • b. Effect of Stay 2.17
  • III. PRIVATELY RETAINED COUNSEL
    • A. Referral 2.18
    • B. Setting Fees 2.19
    • C. Written Representation Agreement 2.20
  • IV. COURT-APPOINTED COUNSEL
    • A. Felonies Punishable by Imprisonment
      • 1. Appointment and Selection 2.21
      • 2. Supervision 2.22
      • 3. Fee Recommendations 2.23
    • B. Misdemeanors and Infractions 2.24
  • V. DUTIES OF APPELLATE COUNSEL
    • A. Duty to Raise All Arguable Issues 2.25
    • B. Duty When Appellate Counsel Finds No Arguable Issues
      • 1. Appointed Counsel 2.26
      • 2. Private Counsel 2.27
    • C. Duty When There May Be an Adverse Consequence 2.28
    • D. Duty When Showing of Error or Prejudice Depends on Facts Outside Record 2.29
    • E. Duty to Communicate With Client 2.30
  • VI. FORMS
    • A. Form: Notice of Appeal" Felony (Defendant) (Judicial Council Form CR-120) 2.31
    • B. Form: Notice of Appeal (Misdemeanor) (Judicial Council Form CR-132) 2.32
    • C. Form: Application for Certificate of Probable Cause 2.33
    • D. Form: Declaration in Support of Certificate of Probable Cause 2.34
    • E. Form: Certificate of Probable Cause 2.35
    • F. Form: Motion for Appointment of Counsel on Appeal 2.36
    • G. Form: Application for Bail on Appeal" Trial Court 2.37
    • H. Form: Application for Stay of Execution (and Bail)" Trial Court 2.38
    • I. Form: Wende Brief 2.39
    • J. Form: Abandonment of Appeal 2.40

3

Procedural Aspects of Appellate Representation

Charles M. Bonneau, Jr.

  • I. RECORD ON APPEAL
    • A. Record in Appeals to the Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court 3.1
      • 1. Normal Record on Appeal
        • a. From Judgment of Conviction or Order Granting New Trial 3.2
        • b. From Other Orders 3.3
        • c. Confidential Proceedings; Sealed Records 3.4
        • d. Preparation, Certification, and Filing 3.5
      • 2. Obtaining a Complete Record 3.6
        • a. Obtaining Items Omitted From Normal Record 3.7
        • b. Augmenting the Record 3.8
        • c. Bringing Exhibits to the Attention of the Court 3.9
        • d. Settling the Record 3.10
          • (1) Rules of Court 3.11
          • (2) Preliminary Steps 3.12
          • (3) Filing the Application 3.13
      • 3. Appeal on Agreed Statement 3.14
      • 4. Correction of the Record 3.14A
    • B. Appeals to Appellate Division of the Superior Court
      • 1. Contents of Record
        • a. Normal Record 3.15
        • b. Verbatim Record of Oral Proceedings: Reporter's Transcripts or Official Electronic Recording 3.16
        • c. Statement on Appeal 3.17
        • d. Settlement and Certification of Statement on Appeal 3.18
      • 2. Preparation and Transmission of Record on Appeal 3.19
      • 3. Augmenting the Record 3.20
  • II. BRIEFS
    • A. Appeals in the Court of Appeal and Supreme Court
      • 1. Required Briefs: Appellant's Opening Brief, Respondent's Brief 3.21
      • 2. Permitted Briefs
        • a. Appellant's Reply Brief 3.22
        • b. Supplemental Brief 3.23
        • c. Amicus Curiae Briefs 3.24
      • 3. Extension of Time to File Brief 3.25
      • 4. Form and Format Requirements for Briefs
        • a. Format 3.26
        • b. Length 3.27
        • c. Covers 3.28
        • d. Contents
          • (1) Headings and Tables 3.29
          • (2) Citations to the Record 3.30
          • (3) Statement of the Case 3.31
          • (4) Statement of Appealability 3.32
          • (5) Statement of Facts 3.33
          • (6) Questions on Appeal 3.34
          • (7) Summary of Argument 3.35
          • (8) Argument 3.36
            • (a) Section Headings 3.37
            • (b) Citation of Authorities 3.38
          • (9) Conclusion 3.39
          • (10) Attachments 3.40
      • 5. Service and Filing of Briefs 3.41
      • 6. Electronic Filing and Service 3.41A
      • 7. Noncomplying Briefs 3.42
    • B. Appeals in Misdemeanor and Infraction Cases
      • 1. In the Appellate Division of the Superior Court
        • a. Briefs Permitted or Required 3.43
        • b. Form and Content Requirements 3.44
      • 2. In Cases Transferred to Court of Appeal 3.45
  • III. FORMS
    • A. Form: Sample Letter Notifying Superior Court Clerk of Omissions From Appellate Record 3.46
    • B. Form: Motion to Augment Record on Appeal 3.47
    • C. Form: Application for Permission to Prepare Settled Statement 3.48
    • D. Form: Order Granting Application to Prepare Settled Statement [Deleted] 3.49
    • E. Form: Sample Proposed Statement on Appeal 3.50
    • F. Form: Application for Extension of Time 3.51
    • G. Form: Notice Regarding Record on Appeal (Misdemeanor) (CR-134) 3.52
    • H. Form: Proposed Statement on Appeal (Misdemeanor) (CR-135) 3.53
    • I. Form: Order Concerning Appellant's Proposed Statement on Appeal (Misdemeanor) (CR-136) 3.54

4

Handling a Criminal Appeal

George Schraer

  • I. STEPS TO TAKE BEFORE OBTAINING RECORD 4.1
  • II. ASCERTAINING THE FACTUAL AND LEGAL BASIS FOR APPEAL
    • A. Reviewing the Record 4.2
    • B. Reviewing the Trial Court File 4.3
    • C. Discussing Case With Trial Counsel 4.4
    • D. Finding Arguable Issues 4.5
      • 1. Regularity of Proceedings 4.6
      • 2. Interrogation, Confessions, and Admissions 4.7
      • 3. Search and Seizure 4.8
      • 4. Identification Procedures 4.9
      • 5. Right to Counsel 4.10
      • 6. Joinder of Defendants or Counts 4.11
      • 7. Issues Involving the Statute Defining the Charged Offense 4.12
      • 8. Issues Involving Defendant's Mental Condition 4.13
      • 9. Right to Jury Trial 4.14
      • 10. Trial Questions 4.15
        • a. Errors in Admission or Exclusion of Evidence 4.16
        • b. Instructional Error 4.17
        • c. Prosecutorial Misconduct 4.18
        • d. Judicial Misconduct 4.19
      • 11. Punishment 4.20
  • III. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF APPELLATE REVIEW
    • A. Introduction 4.21
    • B. Standards of Review
      • 1. Findings of Fact 4.22
      • 2. Questions of Law 4.23
      • 3. Mixed Questions of Law and Fact 4.24
      • 4. Discretionary Rulings 4.25
    • C. Procedural Obstacles to Review
      • 1. Failure to Object
        • a. Rationale 4.26
        • b. Exceptions 4.27
        • c. Forfeiture 4.28
      • 2. Invited Error 4.29
    • D. Rules for Determining Whether Error Requires Reversal
      • 1. Errors Reversible Per Se 4.30
      • 2. Errors of Federal Constitutional Law 4.31
      • 3. Errors of State Law 4.32
  • IV. OVERCOMING OBSTACLES TO REVIEW OR REVERSAL
    • A. Arguing Against Forfeiture 4.33
    • B. Arguing Ineffective Assistance of Trial Counsel 4.34
    • C. Requesting the Court to Take Judicial Notice 4.35
    • D. Federalizing Issues 4.36
  • V. KEEPING UP WITH CHANGES IN THE LAW 4.37
    • A. Retroactivity 4.38
    • B. Resources 4.39
  • VI. PREPARING BRIEFS
    • A. General Drafting Principles 4.40
    • B. Statement of Facts 4.41
    • C. Argument
      • 1. Exhaustiveness and Supplementation 4.42
      • 2. Organization 4.43
      • 3. Use of Authority 4.44
  • VII. FORMS
    • A. Form: General Information About Criminal Appeals 4.45
    • B. Form: Application to Reviewing Court for Release Pending Appeal 4.46
    • C. Form: Application to Reviewing Court for Stay of Execution 4.47
    • D. Form: Motion for Judicial Notice 4.48
    • E. Form: Application to Expand Appointment 4.49

5

Hearing and Determination of Appeal

George Schraer

  • I. ORAL ARGUMENT
    • A. In the Court of Appeal
      • 1. Judicial Conferencing and Tentative Opinions 5.1
      • 2. Procedures 5.2
      • 3. Obtaining Trial Exhibits for Use at Argument 5.3
      • 4. Argument and Waiver 5.4
      • 5. Telephonic and Video Oral Arguments 5.5
      • 6. Oral Presentation Guidelines 5.6
      • 7. Submission of Case for Decision 5.7
    • B. In the Appellate Division of the Superior Court 5.7A
  • II. DETERMINATION OF APPEAL
    • A. Opinions in the Court of Appeal
      • 1. In General
        • a. Opinion Must Address Every Issue Raised in Brief 5.8
        • b. Opinion May Be Based on Unbriefed Issue 5.9
      • 2. Unpublished Opinions
        • a. Majority of Criminal Appeals Unpublished 5.10
        • b. Citation of Unpublished Opinions 5.11
      • 3. Superseded Opinions 5.12
      • 4. Publication
        • a. Standards for Publication 5.13
        • b. Publication Procedure 5.14
        • c. Requesting Publication or Depublication 5.15
    • B. Disposition of Case
      • 1. Dismissal
        • a. Grounds for Dismissal
          • (1) Irregularities in Proceedings 5.16
          • (2) Escape of Defendant 5.17
          • (3) Death of Defendant 5.18
          • (4) Mootness 5.19
          • (5) Voluntary Dismissal by Defendant 5.20
        • b. Motion to Dismiss 5.21
      • 2. Disposition on the Merits 5.22
        • a. Affirmance 5.23
        • b. Reversal
          • (1) Retrial Permitted 5.24
            • (a) Double Jeopardy Considerations 5.25
            • (b) Bail After Decision 5.26
          • (2) Retrial Barred by Double Jeopardy Clause
            • (a) Insufficiency of Evidence 5.27
            • (b) Implied Acquittal 5.28
            • (c) Discharge of Defendant 5.29
        • c. Reduction in Degree of Offense (Noncapital Cases) 5.30
        • d. Remand With Directions 5.31
        • e. Summary Reversal 5.32
  • III. FINALITY OF DECISIONS
    • A. In the Supreme Court and Court of Appeal
      • 1. Date of Finality 5.33
      • 2. Remittitur 5.34
        • a. Issuance 5.35
        • b. Transmission 5.36
        • c. Grounds for Recall 5.37
    • B. In the Appellate Division of the Superior Court 5.38
  • IV. PETITION FOR REHEARING
    • A. In Supreme Court and Court of Appeal 5.39
    • B. In Appellate Division of the Superior Court 5.40
  • V. PETITION FOR REVIEW IN THE CALIFORNIA SUPREME COURT
    • A. Grounds for Review 5.41
    • B. Factors to Consider in Deciding Whether to Seek Review 5.42
    • C. Procedural Rules
      • 1. Petition 5.43
      • 2. Petition for Review to Exhaust State Remedies 5.44
      • 3. Answer and Reply 5.45
      • 4. Ordering Review 5.46
    • D. Determination of Petition 5.47
    • E. Briefs on the Merits 5.48
    • F. Oral Argument 5.49
    • G. Opinion 5.50
  • VI. DUTIES OF APPELLATE COUNSEL AFTER TERMINATION OF APPEAL 5.51
  • VII. FORMS
    • A. Form: Transmission of Exhibits 5.52
    • B. Form: Petition for Rehearing 5.53
    • C. Form: Petition for Review 5.54

6

Postconviction Review in Death Penalty Cases

Clifford Gardner

Therene Powell

  • I. INTRODUCTION
    • A. Scope of Chapter 6.1
    • B. Differences Between Capital Appeals and Noncapital Appeals 6.2
  • II. AUTOMATIC APPEAL AND STAY OF EXECUTION 6.3
  • III. APPOINTMENT OF COUNSEL FOR AUTOMATIC APPEAL AND HABEAS CORPUS PROCEEDINGS
    • A. Right to Appointed Counsel 6.4
    • B. Appointment of State Public Defender 6.5
    • C. Appointment of Private Counsel
      • 1. Appellate Counsel 6.6
      • 2. Habeas Corpus Counsel 6.7
    • D. Criteria for Appointment of Counsel in Capital Appeals and Habeas Corpus Proceedings 6.8
      • 1. Qualifications for Appointment of Appellate Counsel 6.9
      • 2. Qualifications for Appointment as Habeas Corpus Counsel 6.10
      • 3. Alternate Qualifications 6.11
      • 4. Use of Supervised Counsel 6.12
      • 5. Dual Appointment 6.13
    • E. Withdrawal of Counsel 6.14
    • F. Compensation of Counsel 6.15
    • G. No Right to Self-Representation 6.16
  • IV. RESOURCES
    • A. California Appellate Project 6.17
    • B. California Habeas Corpus Resource Center 6.18
    • C. Other Resources 6.19
  • V. RESPONSIBILITIES OF COUNSEL FOR DEFENDANTS SENTENCED TO DEATH
    • A. General Duties and Supreme Court Standards
      • 1. Ongoing Duties of Trial Counsel 6.20
      • 2. Duties of Appellate Counsel 6.21
      • 3. Duties of Habeas Corpus Counsel
        • a. Scope of Representation 6.22
        • b. Importance of Meeting Timeliness Standards 6.23
      • 4. Duty of All Postconviction Counsel to Cooperate With Assisting Organization or Attorney 6.24
      • 5. Duty to Determine Defendant's Citizenship Status 6.25
    • B. Certification of the Record for Completeness and Accuracy 6.26
      • 1. Duties of Trial Counsel 6.27
      • 2. Duties of Appellate Counsel 6.28
    • C. Timeline of Specific Tasks for Postconviction Counsel 6.29
      • 1. Before Certification of the Record for Accuracy
        • a. Appellate Counsel 6.30
        • b. Habeas Corpus Counsel 6.31
      • 2. Before Appellant's Opening Brief Is Filed
        • a. Appellate Counsel 6.32
        • b. Habeas Corpus Counsel 6.33
      • 3. Before the Reply Brief Is Filed
        • a. Appellate Counsel 6.34
        • b. Habeas Corpus Counsel 6.35
      • 4. Between the Reply Brief and Decision
        • a. Habeas Corpus Counsel
          • (1) Filing the Habeas Corpus Petition 6.36
          • (2) Informal Briefing on Habeas Corpus Petition 6.37
          • (3) Order to Show Cause 6.38
        • b. Appellate Counsel 6.39
      • 5. After Decision
        • a. Petition for Rehearing 6.40
        • b. Petition for Writ of Certiorari 6.41
      • 6. After Conclusion of Federal Postconviction Proceedings 6.42
  • VI. SUPREME COURT POLICIES AND PROCEDURES TO ENSURE TIMELINESS IN CAPITAL CASES
    • A. Status Reports 6.43
    • B. Extensions of Time 6.44
    • C. Sanctions 6.45
  • VII. DRAFTING APPELLANT'S OPENING BRIEF
    • A. Length 6.46
    • B. Organization 6.47
    • C. Briefing Previously Rejected Issues 6.48
    • D. Statement of the Case and Statement of Facts 6.49
    • E. Argument
      • 1. Identifying Issues 6.50
      • 2. Drafting the Arguments 6.51
      • 3. Arguing Prejudice 6.52
  • VIII. ORAL ARGUMENT 6.53
  • IX. ISSUES UNIQUE TO CAPITAL CASES
    • A. The Eighth Amendment 6.54
      • 1. Uniformity (Non-Arbitrariness) 6.55
      • 2. Individualization 6.56
      • 3. Proportionality 6.57
      • 4. Reliability 6.58
    • B. Jury Selection 6.59
    • C. Due Process at Sentencing 6.60
    • D. Automatic Motion to Modify the Penalty 6.61
    • E. Method of Execution 6.62

7

Writs of Mandate and Prohibition Defined

Susan Horst

James A. Lassart

  • I. OVERVIEW OF WRITS IN CRIMINAL CASES 7.1
  • II. JURISDICTION OF COURTS TO CONSIDER WRIT PETITIONS 7.2
  • III. MANDATE AND PROHIBITION COMPARED
    • A. Difference in Function 7.3
    • B. Mislabeling of Writ Will Not Cause Denial of Relief 7.4
    • C. Concurrent Use of Mandate and Prohibition 7.5
    • D. Either Writ May Be Proper When Challenging Speedy Trial Violations 7.6
  • IV. STATUTES AND RULES OF COURT AUTHORIZING REVIEW BY PETITION FOR WRIT OF MANDATE OR PROHIBITION 7.7
  • V. PREREQUISITES TO RELIEF BY WRIT OF MANDATE OR PROHIBITION
    • A. Appellate Remedy Inadequate 7.8
      • 1. Defendant's Appellate Remedy Inadequate 7.9
      • 2. Prosecution's Appellate Remedies Inadequate 7.10
    • B. Petitioner Must Be Beneficially Interested 7.11
    • C. Petitioner Must Perfect or Exhaust Lower Court Remedies 7.12
    • D. Petition Must Be Timely
      • 1. Petitioner Must Comply With Applicable Statutory and Rule of Court Time Limits 7.13
      • 2. Petitioner Must Exercise Diligence in Seeking Relief 7.14
      • 3. Mootness 7.15
  • VI. WRIT OF MANDATE: SPECIFIC USES
    • A. Overview 7.16
    • B. Pretrial Uses
      • 1. Discovery 7.17
      • 2. Denial of Speedy Trial Rights 7.18
      • 3. Ruling on Pen C §1538.5 Motion to Suppress Evidence
        • a. Availability in Felony Cases 7.19
        • b. Availability in Misdemeanor Cases 7.20
        • c. Substantial Evidence Standard [Deleted] 7.21
        • d. Time Limitations for Pretrial Relief: Pen C §§1538.5, 1510 7.22
        • e. Mandate Not Available to Challenge Pretrial Rulings on Admissibility of Evidence Not Involving Unlawful Search or Seizure 7.23
      • 4. Denial of Motion to Disqualify Judge 7.24
      • 5. Erroneous Orders Under Pen C §999a(b) 7.25
      • 6. Change of Venue 7.26
      • 7. Other Pretrial Issues 7.27
    • C. Sentencing and Related Postconviction Problems 7.28
    • D. Perfecting Right of Appeal 7.29
    • E. Declaration of Rights (Class Action Relief) 7.30
    • F. Collateral Matters 7.31
  • VII. WRIT OF PROHIBITION: SPECIFIC USES 7.32
    • A. Overview 7.33
    • B. Common Uses of Prohibition
      • 1. Challenge to Denial of Pen C §995 Motion 7.34
        • a. Time Limitations for Pretrial Relief: Pen C §§999a, 1510 7.35
        • b. When §995 Motion Is Based on Illegal Commitment or Denial of Substantial Right 7.36
        • c. Determining When Motion Has Been Made for Purposes of Pen C §1510 7.37
        • d. Time Limitations on Nonstatutory Motion to Dismiss for Errors Committed During Preliminary Hearing Not Appearing on Face of Transcript 7.38
        • e. Review of Pen C §871.5 Ruling 7.39
      • 2. Other Uses of Prohibition
        • a. Pre-Preliminary Hearing Issues 7.40
        • b. Double Jeopardy 7.41
        • c. Multiple Prosecution 7.42
        • d. Statute Unconstitutional; Offense Is Not Crime 7.43
      • 3. Miscellaneous Uses 7.44

8

Preparing and Opposing Petitions for Mandate or Prohibition

Adrian G. Driscoll

  • I. GOVERNING RULES 8.1
  • II. GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR DRAFTING THE PETITION 8.2
  • III. NO FILING FEE REQUIRED 8.3
  • IV. REQUESTING A STAY OF LOWER COURT PROCEEDINGS 8.4
  • V. WHERE TO FILE
    • A. General Rule 8.5
    • B. Original Filing in Supreme Court 8.6
  • VI. FORMAT OF PETITION
    • A. Cover or Title Page
      • 1. Court of Appeal and Supreme Court 8.7
      • 2. Appellate Division 8.8
      • 3. Superior Court 8.9
      • 4. Form: Cover for Use in the Appellate Courts 8.10
      • 5. Form: Title Page in the Superior Court 8.11
    • B. Table of Contents; Table of Authorities 8.12
      • 1. Form: Table of Contents 8.13
      • 2. Form: Table of Authorities 8.14
    • C. Request for Stay
      • 1. May Be Included in Petition 8.15
      • 2. Form: Allegation Concerning Request for Stay 8.16
    • D. Petition 8.17
      • 1. Form: Salutation 8.18
      • 2. Form: Opening Paragraph 8.19
      • 3. Introductory Allegations 8.20
        • a. Form: Allegation Concerning Beneficial Interest of Petitioner and Capacity of Respondent and Real Party in Interest 8.21
        • b. Form: Allegation Concerning Respondent 8.22
        • c. Form: Allegation Concerning Venue 8.23
        • d. Form: Prior Petitions 8.24
        • e. Form: Allegation Explaining Why Petition Not Brought in Lower Court 8.25
        • f. Form: Allegation Explaining Why Relief Previously Sought in Higher Court 8.26
      • 4. Allegations Specifying Grounds for Relief
        • a. Prima Facie Case for Relief 8.27
        • b. Factual and Legal Basis for Claim 8.28
      • 5. Allegation Concerning Exhaustion of Remedies 8.29
        • a. Form: Allegation When Objection Raised Below and Rejected or Not Ruled on 8.30
        • b. Form: Allegation When Objection Impossible or Futile 8.31
      • 6. Allegation of Diligence 8.32
        • a. Form: Allegation When Time for Appeal Has Expired 8.33
        • b. Form: Allegation When Petition Challenges Nonappealable Order 8.34
      • 7. Allegations Concerning Absence or Inadequacy of Other Remedies and Need for Relief
        • a. Form: No Right of Appeal 8.35
        • b. Form: Remedy on Appeal Inadequate 8.36
        • c. Form: Allegation Concerning Need for Relief 8.37
      • 8. Closing Matters
        • a. Prayer 8.38
        • b. Form: Prayer 8.39
        • c. Form: Verification 8.40
        • d. Certificate of Interested Entities or Persons 8.41
    • E. Exhibits
      • 1. Contents of Record 8.42
      • 2. Facts Outside the Record 8.43
      • 3. Format of Exhibits 8.44
      • 4. Procedures When Required Record Unavailable 8.45
      • 5. Form: Sample Request for Preparation of Transcript for Pretrial Writ Petition (Superior Court) 8.46
      • 6. Sealing and Unsealing Documents 8.47
        • a. Filing Records Sealed by Trial Court 8.48
        • b. Requesting Reviewing Court to File Records Under Seal 8.49
        • c. Findings Required to Seal Record 8.50
        • d. Moving to Unseal Records Sealed by the Trial Court 8.51
    • F. Memorandum of Points and Authorities 8.52
      • 1. Form and Content
        • a. In the Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court 8.53
        • b. In the Appellate Division of the Superior Court 8.54
      • 2. Drafting Considerations 8.55
      • 3. Length
        • a. In the Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court 8.56
        • b. In the Appellate Division of the Superior Court 8.57
    • G. Procedure
      • 1. Filing and Service of Petition
        • a. Filing 8.58
        • b. Service 8.59
        • c. Proof of Service 8.60
      • 2. Stay of Proceedings 8.61
      • 3. First Action on Petition
        • a. Summary Denial
          • (1) When Direct Appeal Available 8.62
          • (2) When No Direct Appeal Available 8.63
        • b. Alternative Writ or Order to Show Cause 8.64
        • c. Peremptory Writ "In First Instance" 8.65
      • 4. Form: Alternative Writ (Superior Court) 8.66
      • 5. Opposing Party's Response to Petition
        • a. Preliminary Opposition 8.67
        • b. Return and Opposition Brief 8.68
        • c. Opposition to Issuance of Peremptory Writ in First Instance 8.69
        • d. Reply 8.70
    • H. Proceedings on Petition
      • 1. Hearing 8.71
      • 2. Effect of Failure to File Return 8.72
      • 3. Right to Argument 8.73
      • 4. Burden of Proof 8.74
      • 5. Standard of Review 8.75
      • 6. Superior Court: Findings; Statement of Decision 8.76
    • I. Appellate Review of Denial of Prohibition and Mandamus Writs
      • 1. From Order of Superior Court 8.77
      • 2. From Order of Court of Appeal 8.78

9

Habeas Corpus: Scope of Writ

Lynda A. Romero

  • I. OVERVIEW OF HABEAS CORPUS
    • A. Role of Habeas Corpus Proceedings 9.1
    • B. No Constitutional Right to Counsel 9.2
    • C. Custody Requirement
      • 1. Actual Custody Not Required 9.3
      • 2. Restraint or Loss of Liberty Sufficient 9.4
      • 3. Relief May Not Be Available if Petitioner Not in Actual or Constructive Custody When Petition Filed 9.5
      • 4. Mootness Not Necessarily a Bar to Relief 9.6
    • D. Statutory Procedure 9.7
    • E. Stages of Habeas Corpus Proceedings 9.8
  • II. EXHAUSTION AND OTHER PROCEDURAL REQUIREMENTS
    • A. Significance of Procedural Rules 9.9
    • B. Exhaustion of Appellate Remedies 9.10
      • 1. Claim Rejected on Appeal 9.11
      • 2. Exceptions to Dixon and Waltreus 9.12
    • C. Second or Successive Petition 9.13
    • D. Delay in Seeking Relief 9.14
  • III. APPROPRIATE USES OF HABEAS CORPUS
    • A. Bail 9.15
      • 1. Bail on Pending Appeal of Felony Conviction 9.16
      • 2. Bail on Pending Appeal of Misdemeanor Conviction 9.17
      • 3. Detention Without Bail in Juvenile Proceedings 9.18
    • B. Extradition 9.19
    • C. Pardon; Commutation 9.20
    • D. Contempt 9.21
    • E. Challenging Length or Conditions of Confinement; Protecting or Declaring Rights 9.22
    • F. Common Pretrial Uses of Habeas Corpus
      • 1. Statute Unconstitutional; Offense Not a Crime 9.23
      • 2. Determination of Probable Cause 9.24
      • 3. Speedy Prosecution and Trial 9.25
    • G. Common Postconviction Uses of Habeas Corpus
      • 1. Absolute Defenses 9.26
      • 2. Denial of Fundamental Rights 9.27
      • 3. Changes in Law With Retroactive Effect 9.28
      • 4. Invalid or Excessive Sentences 9.29
      • 5. Invalid Orders Affecting Probation 9.30
      • 6. Improper Parole and Probation Revocation or Denial 9.31
      • 7. Prisoners' Rights and Conditions of Imprisonment 9.32
      • 8. Preservation of Rights on Appeal 9.33
      • 9. Appellate Remedy Inadequate 9.34
      • 10. Using Habeas Corpus in Conjunction With Appeal to Go Outside Appellate Record 9.35
        • a. Procedure 9.36
        • b. The Contention Cannot Be Adequately Raised on Appeal 9.37
        • c. Claims of Inadequate Representation 9.38
      • 11. Excess of Court's Jurisdiction 9.39
      • 12. Newly Discovered Evidence 9.40
      • 13. False Evidence Was Introduced in Court or Was Material to Guilty Plea 9.41
      • 14. Lawfulness of Civil Commitments 9.42

10

Preparing and Opposing Petition for Writ of Habeas Corpus

Lynda A. Romero

  • I. CHAPTER OVERVIEW 10.1
  • II. PREPARING AND FILING PETITION
    • A. Pro Se Petition by Incarcerated Person 10.2
    • B. Attorney-Drafted Petition 10.3
    • C. Contents of Petition 10.4
  • III. SELECTING COURT IN WHICH TO FILE PETITION
    • A. Trial Courts and Reviewing Courts Have Habeas Corpus Jurisdiction 10.5
    • B. Procedures in Court of Appeal and Supreme Court 10.6
    • C. Venue 10.7
    • D. Filing Requirements
      • 1. In the Superior Court 10.8
      • 2. In the Court of Appeal 10.9
      • 3. In the Supreme Court 10.10
    • E. Service Requirements 10.11
  • IV. HABEAS CORPUS PROCEDURES IN SUPERIOR COURT 10.12
    • A. Assignment to Superior Court Judge 10.13
    • B. Informal Response 10.14
    • C. Reply to Informal Response 10.15
    • D. Issuance of Order to Show Cause 10.16
    • E. Discovery 10.17
    • F. Return to Petition 10.18
      • 1. General Denial of Petition's Allegations Ordinarily Insufficient 10.19
      • 2. When Affirmative Pleading Not Required 10.20
      • 3. Return Must Be Responsive to Allegations of Petition 10.21
    • G. Denial (Traverse) 10.22
    • H. Evidentiary Hearing 10.23
    • I. Release Pending Decision 10.24
    • J. Denial of Petition 10.25
  • V. HABEAS CORPUS PROCEEDINGS IN REVIEWING COURTS
    • A. In Court of Appeal
      • 1. After Denial in Superior Court 10.26
      • 2. Filing Original Petition 10.27
      • 3. Filing Petition in Conjunction With Appeal 10.28
      • 4. Evidentiary Hearings 10.29
    • B. In California Supreme Court 10.30
    • C. Habeas Corpus Review in Death Penalty Cases 10.31
  • VI. PROSECUTION'S APPEAL FROM ORDER GRANTING WRIT 10.32
  • VII. FORMS
    • A. Form: Petition for Writ of Habeas Corpus (Judicial Council Form MC-275) 10.33
    • B. Form: Sample Petition for Writ of Habeas Corpus to Appellate Court 10.34
    • C. Form: Order to Show Cause Re Writ of Habeas Corpus 10.35

11

Writs of Error Coram Nobis and Coram Vobis

Morgan Prickett

  • I. NATURE OF WRIT 11.1
    • A. Petitioner Must Not Be Seeking Relief That Could Be Obtained From a Statutory Remedy 11.2
    • B. Petitioner Must Be Diligent in Presenting Petition 11.3
    • C. Motion to Vacate Judgment Considered Writ of Coram Nobis or Coram Vobis 11.4
  • II. USES OF WRIT
    • A. Used After Judgment to Withdraw Guilty Plea Wrongfully Induced 11.5
    • B. Other Uses 11.6
  • III. LIMITATIONS ON RELIEF
    • A. Rules 11.7
    • B. Examples of Insufficient Allegations 11.8
  • IV. FILING PETITION
    • A. Procedure 11.9
    • B. Form: Court and Cause in Trial Court 11.10
    • C. Filing in Court of Appeal 11.11
    • D. Pleadings" Trial Court or Appellate Court
    • E. Form: Opening Paragraphs 11.12
      • 1. Form: Common Facts and Grounds 11.13
      • 2. Form: Grounds for Writ" Misrepresentation and Corroboration 11.14
      • 3. Form: Diligence of Petitioner 11.15
      • 4. Form: Petitioner's Free Will Overcome 11.16
      • 5. Form: Existence of Meritorious Defense 11.17
      • 6. Form: Reliance on Misrepresentation 11.18
      • 7. Form: Facts Not Appearing of Record; Reference to Accompanying Affidavits 11.19
      • 8. Form: Exhaustion of Remedies; No Other Remedy Available 11.20
      • 9. Form: Prayer 11.21
      • 10. Form: Verification 11.22
    • F. Memorandum 11.23
    • G. Service and Filing 11.24
  • V. HEARING AND DETERMINATION OF WRIT
    • A. When Hearing and Counsel Not Required 11.25
    • B. When Hearing and Counsel Required 11.26
    • C. Burden of Proof at Hearing 11.27
    • D. Effect of Issuance of Writ 11.28
  • VI. REVIEW OF ORDER DENYING PETITION
    • A. Appeal From Order 11.29
    • B. Certificate of Probable Cause Not Required 11.30
    • C. Right to Counsel on Appeal 11.31
    • D. Presumptions on Appeal 11.32
    • E. Petition for Review in California Supreme Court 11.33

12

Review in the United States Supreme Court

Neoma D. Kenwood

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 12.1
  • II. ATTORNEY AND PRO SE RESOURCES 12.2
  • III. SUMMARY OF WAYS CASE CAN REACH UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT 12.3
  • IV. WHEN UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT REVIEW SHOULD BE SOUGHT 12.4
  • V. EFFECT OF PETITION FOR CERTIORARI ON FEDERAL HABEAS CORPUS TIME LIMITS 12.5
  • VI. ADMISSION TO UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT BAR
    • A. Requirement 12.6
    • B. Qualifications and Procedure 12.7
    • C. Admission Pro Hac Vice 12.8
  • VII. STAYS
    • A. Requirements for Stay 12.9
    • B. Procedure 12.10
    • C. Examples 12.11
    • D. Form: Motion for Stay of Execution 12.12
  • VIII. PROCEEDING IN FORMA PAUPERIS 12.13
    • A. Procedure 12.14
    • B. Denial of Leave to Proceed In Forma Pauperis When Petition Is "Frivolous" or "Malicious" 12.15
    • C. Form: Motion for Leave to Proceed In Forma Pauperis 12.16
    • D. Form: Affidavit or Declaration in Support of Motion to Proceed In Forma Pauperis 12.17
    • E. Form: Certificate of Service 12.18
  • IX. PETITIONING FOR CERTIORARI
    • A. Format of Documents 12.19
    • B. Filing 12.20
    • C. Service 12.21
    • D. Docketing 12.22
    • E. Form: Declaration of Mailing 12.23
    • F. Form: Certificate of Service 12.24
    • G. Time to File
      • 1. Filing Deadlines 12.25
      • 2. Extensions of Time 12.26
    • H. Preparation of Petition for Writ of Certiorari
      • 1. Less Rigorous Compliance Allowed for Pro Per Petitioners 12.27
      • 2. Summary of Contents of Petition 12.28
      • 3. Form: Cover 12.29
      • 4. Form: Questions Presented 12.30
      • 5. Form: Parties to the Proceeding 12.31
      • 6. Table of Contents 12.32
      • 7. Table of Authorities 12.33
      • 8. Inside Caption; Prayer for Relief 12.34
      • 9. Opinions and Orders Below 12.35
      • 10. Grounds for Jurisdiction 12.36
      • 11. Form: Inside Caption, Prayer for Relief, Opinions Below, Jurisdiction (Petition for Writ of Certiorari) 12.37
      • 12. Constitutional Provisions, Treaties, and Statutes 12.38
      • 13. Statement of Case 12.39
      • 14. Reasons for Granting Writ 12.40
      • 15. Appendix 12.41
  • X. PREPARING THE BRIEF AND ORAL ARGUMENT
    • A. Joint Appendix 12.42
    • B. Writing the Brief 12.43
    • C. Oral Argument 12.44
  • XI. PETITION FOR REHEARING 12.45
  • XII. DECISION TO SEEK FURTHER REVIEW 12.46

13

Federal Habeas Corpus: Overview; Appointment of Counsel; Bail and Stays; Standards and Grounds for Review

Jonathan Grossman

Michael Satris

  • I. OVERVIEW OF FEDERAL HABEAS CORPUS
    • A. Availability of Writ 13.1
    • B. Limitations on Use 13.2
    • C. Exhausting State Remedies to Preserve the Right to Federal Habeas Corpus in California 13.3
    • D. Applicable Rules of Court 13.4
    • E. Location of Courts and Prisons by Federal Judicial District and County 13.5
    • F. Legal Research
      • 1. In General
        • a. Practice Aids 13.6
        • b. Controlling Legal Principles 13.7
      • 2. Pro Se Legal Research
        • a. Basic Tools 13.8
        • b. Access to Legal Materials 13.9
  • II. COURT-APPOINTED COUNSEL
    • A. Right to Counsel in Noncapital Habeas Proceedings 13.10
      • 1. Requests for Appointment of Counsel 13.11
      • 2. Appointment 13.12
      • 3. Compensation 13.13
    • B. Pro Se Petitioners 13.14
    • C. Form: Request for Appointment of Counsel 13.15
  • III. BAIL AND STAYS
    • A. Bail
      • 1. Requests for Bail 13.16
      • 2. Review of District Court's Denial of Bail 13.17
    • B. Stays 13.18
    • C. Forms
      • 1. Form: Application for Bail Pending Determination of Petition for Writ of Federal Habeas Corpus 13.19
      • 2. Form: Declaration in Support of Application for Bail 13.20
      • 3. Form: Proof of Service 13.21
  • IV. FEDERAL REVIEW OF STATE COURT DECISIONS
    • A. Highly Deferential Standard of Review 13.22
    • B. Standard of Review for Questions of Law
      • 1. U.S. Supreme Court Holdings Determine Federal Law 13.23
      • 2. Contrary to Federal Law 13.24
      • 3. Unreasonable Application of Federal Law 13.25
      • 4. Illustrative Ninth Circuit Cases 13.26
  • V. COMMON CONSTITUTIONAL CLAIMS 13.27
    • A. Fifth Amendment
      • 1. Double Jeopardy 13.28
      • 2. Unconstitutional Confessions and Privilege Against Self-Incrimination 13.29
    • B. Sixth Amendment
      • 1. Right to Speedy Trial 13.30
      • 2. Right of Confrontation 13.31
      • 3. Right to Counsel 13.32
      • 4. Right to Effective Assistance of Trial Counsel 13.33
      • 5. Right to Effective Assistance of Appellate Counsel 13.34
      • 6. Right to Self-Representation 13.35
      • 7. Right to Call Witnesses and to Present Defense 13.36
      • 8. Defendant's Right to Testify 13.37
      • 9. Right to Fair Notice of Crimes Charged 13.38
      • 10. Right to Jury Trial 13.39
    • C. Eighth Amendment: Disproportionate Penalty 13.40
    • D. Due Process
      • 1. Prosecutorial Misconduct 13.41
      • 2. Failure to Disclose Exculpatory Evidence 13.42
      • 3. Failure to Collect or Preserve Exculpatory Evidence 13.43
      • 4. Impermissibly Suggestive Identification Procedures 13.44
      • 5. Prosecutorial or Judicial Vindictiveness 13.45
      • 6. Involuntary Guilty Plea 13.46
      • 7. Denial of Continuance 13.47
      • 8. Competency to Stand Trial, or Plead Guilty 13.48
      • 9. Right to Effective Psychiatric Assistance 13.49
      • 10. Pretrial Publicity 13.50
      • 11. Juror Bias and Misconduct 13.51
      • 12. Judicial Bias 13.52
      • 13. Right to Be Present at Trial Proceedings 13.53
      • 14. Trial in Jail Garb 13.54
      • 15. Use of Restraints on Defendant at Trial 13.55
      • 16. Forced Medication of Defendant During Trial 13.56
      • 17. Jury Instructions 13.57
      • 18. Sufficiency of Evidence 13.58
      • 19. Sentencing 13.59
      • 20. Use of Prior Conviction in Subsequent Proceeding 13.60
      • 21. Failure to Provide an Adequate Record for State Appellate Review 13.61
      • 22. Failure to Protect the Right to Appeal 13.62
      • 23. Delay in Processing Appeal 13.63
    • E. Vagueness and Overbreadth of Statute 13.64
    • F. Ex Post Facto 13.65
    • G. Equal Protection 13.66
    • H. Lack of Jurisdiction 13.67
    • I. Nonconviction Restraints on Liberty 13.68
    • J. Federal Habeas Corpus Rules 13.69

14

Prerequisites to Seeking Federal Habeas Corpus Relief

Clifford Gardner

  • I. OVERVIEW: STATUTORY PREREQUISITES TO FEDERAL HABEAS CORPUS RELIEF 14.1
  • II. CUSTODY
    • A. Definition 14.2
      • 1. Situations in Which Custody Found to Exist
        • a. Restraints Short of Actual Custody 14.3
        • b. Consecutive or Concurrent Sentences 14.4
        • c. Future Restraints 14.5
      • 2. Situations in Which Custody Found Not to Exist
        • a. Petitioner Not in Custody on Prior Conviction Used to Enhance Sentence for Current Conviction 14.6
        • b. Other Situations in Which Custody Found Not to Exist 14.7
    • B. Petitioner Must Be in Custody When Petition Is Filed 14.8
    • C. Mootness and Custody Compared
      • 1. Federal Jurisdiction Limited to "Cases" and "Controversies" 14.9
      • 2. Challenge to Conviction Not Moot if Conviction Entails Collateral Consequences 14.10
      • 3. Challenge to Sentence Likely to Be Moot When Sentence Ends 14.11
      • 4. Whether Petitioner Must Allege Existence of Collateral Consequences to Avoid Mootness Is Unsettled 14.12
      • 5. Class Action May Prevent Petition from Becoming Moot 14.13
      • 6. Exception to Mootness Doctrine 14.14
    • D. Challenging Pretrial Custody
      • 1. Challenges to Pretrial Custody Governed by 28 USC §2241 14.15
      • 2. Grounds for Pretrial Relief 14.16
  • III. COGNIZABILITY 14.17
  • IV. EXHAUSTION OF STATE REMEDIES
    • A. Purpose and Nature of Doctrine 14.18
    • B. Major Requirements 14.19
      • 1. Fair Presentation 14.20
        • a. Fair Presentation of Legal Basis of Claim 14.21
          • (1) Fair Presentation Exhausts Claim Even if Court Does Not Address Claim 14.22
          • (2) Court's Consideration of Merits Exhausts Claim Even if Claim Not Properly Presented 14.23
        • b. Fair Presentation of Factual Basis of Claim 14.24
          • (1) Presentation of Additional Facts in Federal Court 14.25
          • (2) Illustrative Cases 14.26
      • 2. Presentation to the Highest State Court 14.27
    • C. Respondent Has Duty to Allege Nonexhaustion 14.28
    • D. Exhausting State Remedies in Felony Cases
      • 1. Issues Raised on Direct Appeal 14.29
      • 2. Petition for Writ of Habeas Corpus in California Supreme Court 14.30
    • E. Exhausting State Remedies in Misdemeanor Cases 14.31
    • F. Steps Not Required to Exhaust State Remedies
      • 1. Petitioner Not Required to Present Claims More Than Once 14.32
      • 2. Petitioner Not Required to Petition for Writ of Certiorari 14.33
    • G. Effect of Failure to Exhaust 14.34
    • H. Procedure for Petitions Containing Both Exhausted and Unexhausted Claims
      • 1. Former Rule: Dismissal Required 14.35
      • 2. Rule of Rhines v Weber: Stay and Abeyance 14.36
    • I. Circumstances Excusing Failure to Exhaust
      • 1. Waiver 14.37
      • 2. Statutory Exceptions to Exhaustion Requirement
        • a. No State Remedies Available 14.38
        • b. State Remedies Ineffective 14.39
      • 3. Non-Statutory Exceptions to the Exhaustion Requirement 14.40

15

Limitations on Federal Habeas Corpus Relief

Carolyn Wiggin

  • I. AEDPA 1-YEAR TIME LIMIT 15.1
    • A. Calculating the Date of Finality 15.2
    • B. Statutory Tolling 15.3
    • C. Equitable Tolling
      • 1. Availability 15.4
      • 2. Circumstances Must Be Extraordinary 15.5
      • 3. Court May Be Required to Order Factual Development 15.6
      • 4. Actual Innocence 15.7
    • D. Amending Petition After Limitation Period 15.8
  • II. SECOND OR SUCCESSIVE PETITIONS
    • A. AEDPA Restrictions on Successive Petitions 15.9
    • B. New Claim in Subsequent Petition [Deleted] 15.10
    • C. Obtaining Permission to File 15.11
  • III. THE PROCEDURAL DEFAULT DOCTRINE
    • A. Definition of Procedural Default 15.12
    • B. Consequences of Procedural Default 15.13
    • C. Relation Between Exhaustion and Procedural Default 15.14
    • D. Purpose of Procedural Default Doctrine 15.15
    • E. State Court Denial of Relief Must Be Based on State Procedural Bar
      • 1. State Court Denies Relief on Both State and Federal Grounds 15.16
      • 2. State Court Denies Relief Without Explanation 15.17
      • 3. State Court Reviews Defaulted Claim Under More Stringent Standard Than It Would Ordinarily Apply 15.18
    • F. State Procedural Bar Must Be Independent and Adequate 15.19
      • 1. Determining Whether a State Procedural Bar Is Independent of Federal Law 15.20
      • 2. Determining Whether State Rule Is Adequate 15.21
      • 3. Independence and Adequacy of Specific California Procedural Bars 15.22
        • a. Bar on Habeas Review of Sufficiency of the Evidence Claims 15.23
        • b. Untimeliness Bar 15.24
        • c. Successive Petition Bar 15.24A
        • d. Rule Barring Pretermitted Claims 15.25
        • e. Bar on Claims Presented and Denied on Direct Appeal 15.26
    • G. Procedural Default Is Affirmative Defense 15.27
    • H. Avoiding the Procedural Default Bar to Federal Review
      • 1. Remedying Trial-Stage Procedural Defaults in State Court Proceedings 15.28
      • 2. Other Factors in Determining Whether a Procedural Default Bars Consideration on the Merits 15.29
      • 3. Procedural Default May Be the Basis of a Claim of Ineffective Assistance of Counsel 15.30
      • 4. Excusing Procedural Default by Showing Cause and Prejudice 15.31
        • a. Showing Cause for Procedural Default 15.32
          • (1) Circumstances Held to Satisfy the Cause Requirement 15.33
          • (2) Circumstances Held Not to Satisfy the Cause Requirement 15.34
        • b. Showing Actual Prejudice 15.35
      • 5. Exception to Cause and Prejudice Requirement for Fundamental Miscarriage of Justice: The Actual Innocence Gateway 15.36
  • IV. IMPERMISSIBLE BASES OF HABEAS CLAIMS
    • A. New Rules of Constitutional Criminal Procedure 15.37
      • 1. Determining Date of Finality 15.38
      • 2. What Constitutes a New Rule 15.39
      • 3. Exceptions to the Teague Nonretroactivity Rule 15.40
    • B. Fourth Amendment Claims 15.41
    • C. Issues of State Law 15.42
    • D. Federal Statutory and Supervisory Power Issues 15.43
    • E. Right to Preliminary Hearing 15.44
    • F. Errors in Postconviction Proceeding 15.45
    • G. Claims of Innocence 15.46
  • V. EFFECT OF GUILTY PLEA ON SCOPE OF HABEAS CORPUS 15.47

16

Preparing and Filing Petition

Carolyn Wiggin

  • I. REQUIREMENTS
    • A. Use of Form Petition 16.1
    • B. Obtaining Forms 16.2
    • C. Content 16.3
    • D. Verification 16.4
  • II. PROPER PARTIES
    • A. Petitioner or "Next Friend" 16.5
    • B. Respondent 16.6
  • III. FILING THE PETITION
    • A. Jurisdiction and Venue 16.7
    • B. Separate Petitions 16.8
    • C. Where to File; Copies 16.9
  • IV. FEES
    • A. In General 16.10
    • B. Requests for In Forma Pauperis Status 16.11
  • V. DEFECTIVE OR FRIVOLOUS PETITIONS 16.12
  • VI. PREFILING REVIEW OF IN FORMA PAUPERIS ACTIONS [Deleted] 16.13
  • VII. ASSIGNMENT OF THE CASE 16.13A
  • VIII. JURISDICTION OF MAGISTRATE JUDGE 16.13B
  • IX. CHECKLIST: STEPS IN PREPARING AND FILING FEDERAL HABEAS CORPUS PETITION 16.14
  • X. FORMS
    • A. Form: Petition for Writ of Habeas Corpus by a Person in State Custody (Central District) (Form CV-69) 16.15
    • B. Form: Declaration in Support of Request to Proceed In Forma Pauperis (Central District) (Form CV-69, Continued) 16.16

17

Hearing and Determination of Petition

A.J. Kutchins

  • I. WHO DECIDES CASE
    • A. Assignment of the Case 17.1
    • B. Referral to Magistrate Judge 17.2
  • II. INITIAL CONSIDERATION OF PETITION
    • A. Prompt Disposition Requirement 17.3
    • B. Summary Dismissal 17.4
    • C. Order to Show Cause 17.5
  • III. STATE'S RESPONSE
    • A. Motion to Dismiss 17.6
    • B. Answer to Petition 17.7
    • C. Service and Filing 17.8
    • D. Default Judgment Not Available 17.9
  • IV. PETITIONER'S REPLY OR "TRAVERSE" 17.10
  • V. DISTRICT COURT PROCEEDINGS
    • A. Summary Adjudication 17.11
    • B. Limitations On Additional Evidence That May Be Considered By Federal Court 17.12
      • 1. Diligence and Townsend v Sain 17.13
      • 2. Limitations Imposed Under AEDPA; Cullen v Pinholster 17.14
    • C. Discovery 17.15
    • D. Expanding the Record 17.16
    • E. Conduct of Evidentiary Hearing
      • 1. Generally 17.17
      • 2. Applicable Rules 17.18
      • 3. Petitioner's Right to Counsel 17.19
      • 4. Petitioner's Right to be Present 17.20
  • VI. DETERMINATION OF MERITS OF PETITIONER'S CLAIM FOR RELIEF
    • A. Substantive Limitations Imposed By AEDPA 17.21
    • B. Harmless Error
      • 1. The Brecht Standard 17.22
      • 2. When Brecht Applies and When It Does Not 17.23
  • VII. DISPOSITION
    • A. Immediate Effect of District Court's Habeas Decision 17.24
    • B. Res Judicata Effect of District Court's Habeas Decision 17.25
  • VIII. FORMS
    • A. Form: Motion to Dismiss 17.26
    • B. Form: Reply to Answer (Petitioner's Traverse) 17.27

18

Review of District Court's Decision

Michael Satris

  • I. APPEAL
    • A. Generally 18.1
    • B. Notice of Appeal
      • 1. Must Be Filed in District Court 18.2
      • 2. Must Be Timely 18.3
      • 3. Calculating Due Date 18.4
      • 4. Calculating Due Date When Post-Judgment Motion Filed 18.5
      • 5. Timeliness of Notice by Incarcerated Litigant: The "Mailbox Rule" 18.6
      • 6. Required Contents of Notice 18.7
      • 7. Service 18.8
      • 8. Extending or Reopening Time for Filing Notice 18.9
    • C. Certificate of Appealability
      • 1. When Required 18.10
      • 2. Standards for Issuance 18.11
      • 3. Scope of COA 18.12
      • 4. Procedural Aspects
        • a. In District Court 18.13
        • b. In Court of Appeals
          • (1) When District Court Denies COA 18.14
          • (2) When District or Circuit Court Certifies at Least One Issue 18.15
        • c. In the United States Supreme Court 18.16
    • D. Motion for Leave to Proceed In Forma Pauperis 18.17
    • E. Counsel on Appeal 18.18
    • F. Electronic Filing Requirements 18.19
    • G. Effect of Appeal on Inmate's Custodial Status
      • 1. Stays
        • a. Stay of State Court Proceedings or Judgment 18.20
        • b. Stay of District Court Judgment 18.21
        • c. Stays of Execution in Capital Cases 18.22
      • 2. Release Pending Appeal 18.23
      • 3. Transfer of Custody Pending Appeal 18.24
    • H. Record and Motions
      • 1. The Record on Appeal 18.25
      • 2. Possible Motions 18.25A
    • I. Briefs
      • 1. Content Requirements
        • a. Appellant's Brief 18.26
        • b. Appellee's Brief 18.27
        • c. Reply Brief 18.28
      • 2. Format Requirements 18.29
      • 3. Limitations on Length 18.30
      • 4. Service and Filing Requirements 18.31
        • a. Extension of Time for Filing Brief 18.32
        • b. Consequences of Failure to File Brief 18.33
      • 5. Number of Briefs 18.34
    • J. Excerpts of Record
      • 1. Content Requirements 18.35
      • 2. Format Requirements for Excerpts of Record 18.36
      • 3. Supplemental Excerpts of Record 18.37
      • 4. Failure to Comply With Excerpts of Record Requirements 18.38
      • 5. Pro Se Parties 18.39
    • K. Hearing
      • 1. Oral Argument 18.40
      • 2. Standard of Review 18.41
    • L. Forms
      • 1. Form: Notice of Appeal 18.42
      • 2. Form: Motion for Order Extending Time for Appeal 18.43
      • 3. Form: Declaration in Support of Motion for Order Extending Time for Appeal 18.44
      • 4. Form: Order Extending Time for Appeal 18.45
      • 5. Form: Motion for Leave to Proceed on Appeal In Forma Pauperis (Federal District Court) 18.46
      • 6. Form: Order Granting Leave to Prosecute Appeal In Forma Pauperis (Federal District Court) 18.47
      • 7. Form: Motion for Leave to Proceed In Forma Pauperis (Ninth Circuit) 18.48
      • 8. Form: Order Granting Leave to Proceed on Appeal In Forma Pauperis (Ninth Circuit) 18.49
      • 9. Form: Appellant's Opening Brief 18.50
  • II. POSTAPPELLATE REVIEW
    • A. Rehearing
      • 1. Petitions
        • a. Content and Form Requirements 18.51
        • b. Service and Filing Requirements 18.52
      • 2. Answer 18.53
      • 3. Disposition 18.54
      • 4. En Banc Determinations 18.55
      • 5. Mandate of the Court 18.56
    • B. Petition for Writ of Certiorari to United States Supreme Court 18.57
    • C. Form: Petition for Rehearing 18.58

APPEALS AND WRITS IN CRIMINAL CASES

(3d Edition)

June 2017

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

File Name

Book Section

Title

CH02

Chapter 2

The Right to Counsel on Appeal; Implementation in California

02-033

§2.33

Application for Certificate of Probable Cause

02-034

§2.34

Declaration in Support of Certificate of Probable Cause

02-035

§2.35

Certificate of Probable Cause

02-036

§2.36

Motion for Appointment of Counsel on Appeal

02-037

§2.37

Application for Bail on Appeal—Trial Court

02-038

§2.38

Application for Stay of Execution (and Bail)—Trial Court

02-039

§2.39

Wende Brief

02-040

§2.40

Abandonment of Appeal

CH03

Chapter 3

Procedural Aspects of Appellate Representation

03-046

§3.46

Sample Letter Notifying Superior Court Clerk of Omissions From Appellate Record

03-047

§3.47

Motion to Augment Record on Appeal

03-048

§3.48

Application for Permission to Prepare Settled Statement

03-050

§3.50

Sample Proposed Statement on Appeal

03-051

§3.51

Application for Extension of Time

CH04

Chapter 4

Handling a Criminal Appeal

04-045

§4.45

General Information About Criminal Appeals

04-046

§4.46

Application to Reviewing Court for Release Pending Appeal

04-047

§4.47

Application to Reviewing Court for Stay of Execution

04-048

§4.48

Motion for Judicial Notice

04-049

§4.49

Application to Expand Appointment

CH05

Chapter 5

Hearing and Determination of Appeal

05-052

§5.52

Transmission of Exhibits

05-053

§5.53

Petition for Rehearing

05-054

§5.54

Petition for Review

CH08

Chapter 8

Preparing and Opposing Petitions for Mandate or Prohibition

08-010

§8.10

Cover for Use in the Appellate Courts

08-011

§8.11

Title Page in the Superior Court

08-013

§§8.13-8.14

Table of Contents

 

§8.14

Table of Authorities

08-016

§8.16

Allegation Concerning Request for Stay

08-018

§8.18

Salutation

08-019

§8.19

Opening Paragraph

08-021

§8.21

Allegation Concerning Beneficial Interest of Petitioner and Capacity of Respondent and Real Party in Interest

08-022

§8.22

Allegation Concerning Respondent

08-023

§8.23

Allegation Concerning Venue

08-024

§8.24

Prior Petitions

08-025

§8.25

Allegation Explaining Why Petition Not Brought in Lower Court

08-026

§8.26

Allegation Explaining Why Relief Previously Sought in Higher Court

08-030

§8.30

Allegation When Objection Raised Below and Rejected or Not Ruled on

08-031

§8.31

Allegation When Objection Impossible or Futile

08-033

§8.33

Allegation When Time for Appeal Has Expired

08-034

§8.34

Allegation When Petition Challenges Nonappealable Order

08-035

§8.35

No Right of Appeal

08-036

§8.36

Remedy on Appeal Inadequate

08-037

§8.37

Allegation Concerning Need for Relief

08-039

§8.39

Prayer

08-040

§8.40

Verification

08-046

§8.46

Sample Request for Preparation of Transcript for Pretrial Writ Petition (Superior Court)

08-066

§8.66

Alternative Writ (Superior Court)

CH10

Chapter 10

Preparing and Opposing Petition for Writ of Habeas Corpus

10-034

§10.34

Sample Petition for Writ of Habeas Corpus to Appellate Court

10-035

§10.35

Order to Show Cause Re Writ of Habeas Corpus

CH11

Chapter 11

Writs of Error Coram Nobis and Coram Vobis

11-010

§11.10

Court and Cause in Trial Court

11-012

§11.12

Opening Paragraphs

11-013

§11.13

Common Facts and Grounds

11-014

§11.14

Grounds for Writ—Misrepresentation and Corroboration

11-015

§11.15

Diligence of Petitioner

11-016

§11.16

Petitioner’s Free Will Overcome

11-017

§11.17

Existence of Meritorious Defense

11-018

§11.18

Reliance on Misrepresentation

11-019

§11.19

Facts Not Appearing of Record; Reference to Accompanying Affidavits

11-020

§11.20

Exhaustion of Remedies; No Other Remedy Available

11-021

§11.21

Prayer

11-022

§11.22

Verification

CH12

Chapter 12

Review in the United States Supreme Court

12-012

§12.12

Motion for Stay of Execution

12-016

§12.16

Motion for Leave to Proceed In Forma Pauperis

12-018

§12.18

Certificate of Service

12-023

§12.23

Declaration of Mailing

12-024

§12.24

Certificate of Service

12-029

§12.29

Cover

12-030

§12.30

Questions Presented

12-031

§12.31

Parties to the Proceeding

12-037

§12.37

Inside Caption, Prayer for Relief, Opinions Below, Jurisdiction (Petition for Writ of Certiorari)

CH13

Chapter 13

Federal Habeas Corpus: Overview; Appointment of Counsel; Bail and Stays; Standards and Grounds for Review

13-015

§13.15

Request for Appointment of Counsel

13-019

§13.19

Application for Bail Pending Determination of Petition for Writ of Federal Habeas Corpus

13-020

§13.20

Declaration in Support of Application for Bail

13-021

§13.21

Proof of Service

CH16

Chapter 16

Preparing and Filing Petition

16-014

§16.14

CHECKLIST: STEPS IN PREPARING AND FILING FEDERAL HABEAS CORPUS PETITION

CH17

Chapter 17

Hearing and Determination of Petition

17-026

§17.26

Motion to Dismiss

17-027

§17.27

Reply to Answer (Petitioner’s Traverse)

CH18

Chapter 18

Review of District Court’s Decision

18-042

§18.42

Notice of Appeal

18-043

§18.43

Motion for Order Extending Time for Appeal

18-044

§18.44

Declaration in Support of Motion for Order Extending Time for Appeal

18-045

§18.45

Order Extending Time for Appeal

18-046

§18.46

Motion for Leave to Proceed on Appeal In Forma Pauperis (Federal District Court)

18-047

§18.47

Order Granting Leave to Prosecute Appeal In Forma Pauperis (Federal District Court)

18-048

§18.48

Motion for Leave to Proceed In Forma Pauperis (Ninth Circuit)

18-049

§18.49

Order Granting Leave to Proceed on Appeal In Forma Pauperis (Ninth Circuit)

18-050

§18.50

Appellant’s Opening Brief

18-058

§18.58

Petition for Rehearing

 

Selected Developments

June 2017 Update

STATUTORY DEVELOPMENTS

California Rule of Court, Rule 8.71. Effective January 1, 2017, all parties are required to file all documents electronically in the Court of Appeals, unless self-represented parties or local rules require otherwise. See §§3.41A, 8.58.

California Rule of Court, Rule 1.201. This rule requires parties to protect private information by omitting or redacting Social Security and financial account numbers from all pleadings and papers (including exhibits) filed in the public files of the Courts. See chap 8 for other issues to consider when filing a writ of mandate or prohibition.

CASE LAW DEVELOPMENTS

Appellate review. An order denying a request for attorney's fees pursuant to CCP §1021.5 is not appealable as an order affecting the defendant's substantial rights. Gray v Superior Court (2016) 247 CA4th 1159, 1166. See §1.7.

Right to attorney on appeal. Wende/Anders review procedures are inapplicable to appeals from extension of civil commitment under Pen C §1026.5(b). People v Martinez (2016) 246 CA4th 1422. See §2.26.

Review by writ of prohibition. Writ of prohibition may be used by an inmate to compel the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation to process his grievance according to their procedures. Villery v Department of Corrections & Rehabilitation (2016) 246 CA4th 407. See §7.44 for other grounds for which a writ of prohibition may be used.

Peremptory challenges on review. Petitioner who requests the name of the judge assigned to examine a petition for writ of habeas corpus is entitled to a notice of the assignment and may assert a peremptory challenge to the assigned judge who did not participate in the underlying criminal action. Maas v Superior Court (2016) 1 C5th 962. See §§10.5, 10.13.

Federal habeas: deference to state courts. A state court's summary denial of a state petition for writ of habeas corpus without comment is generally considered to be a denial on the merits, requiring deferential review in the federal court. Kernan v Hinojosa (2016) ___ US ___, 136 S Ct 1603. See §13.22.

Scope of federal habeas corpus relief. Habeas corpus is limited to the fact or length of custody; a 42 USC §1983 action provides the sole remedy for challenging discipliary or parole procedures of a prison not affecting the duration of confinement itself. Nettles v Grounds (9th Cir 2016) 830 F3d 922. See §13.1.

Federal review of state court opinions. The U.S. Supreme Court upheld California's Dixon bar, in which a petitioner procedurally defaults a claim raised for the first time on state collateral review if the claim could have been raised earlier on direct appeal. Johnson v Lee (2016) ___ US ___, 136 S Ct 1802. See §9.10.

Federal habeas; equitable tolling. Despite waiting 14 months to contact the court about the status of his case, petitioner was entitled to equitable tolling where the California Supreme Court rules indicated the court would inform a petitioner when it ruled on his petition but the court failed to do so. Fue v Biter (9th Cir 2016) 842 F3d 650. See §15.4.

About the Authors

CHARLES M. BONNEAU, JR., B.A., 1969, University of California, Berkeley; J.D., 1973, University of California, Davis, School of Law. Mr. Bonneau is in private practice in Sacramento. He co-authored the Supplement to Appeals and Writs in Criminal Cases (CEB) from 1988 to 1998. He is a member of the California Academy of Appellate Lawyers and California Attorneys for Criminal Justice. He has been a guest speaker for California Appellate Defense Counsel and the Federal Defender Training Program in Habeas Corpus. Mr. Bonneau has argued a number of cases in the California Supreme Court and the Ninth Circuit. He has defended four death penalty cases at trial and five in postconviction proceedings. He obtained the reversal of a death penalty conviction on grounds of ineffective assistance of counsel in In re Jones (1996) 13 C4th 552.

ADRIAN G. DRISCOLL, B.S., 1977, University of California, Davis; J.D., 1980, University of San Francisco School of Law. Mr. Driscoll is a senior counsel at Murphy, Pearson, Bradley & Feeney, with a practice that includes appeals and writs. He also teaches as an adjunct professor at the University of San Francisco School of Law.

CLIFFORD GARDNER, B.A., 1977, State University of New York at Binghamton; J.D., 1980, University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law. In private practice in Oakland, Mr. Gardner specializes in postconviction proceedings in state and federal courts. He has argued cases at all levels of the state and federal systems, including several cases in the United States Supreme Court and more than a dozen cases in the California Supreme Court. He is a frequent lecturer on state and federal habeas corpus practice and has served on both the state Judicial Council's Appellate Advisory Committee (1998–2004) and the Northern District Habeas Corpus Local Rules Advisory Subcommittee. In 2006, Mr. Gardner received the Paul E. Bell Memorial Award, given to honor excellence in representing the indigent.

STEPHEN GREENBERG, B.A., 1974, University of California, Santa Cruz; J.D., 1979, New College of California. Mr. Greenberg has been practicing appellate law since 1988. He is a panel attorney with the First District Appellate Project, Central California Appellate Program and California Appellate Program" Los Angeles. Mr. Greenberg has been published in Forecite, CACJ Forum and CADC's Cal App News. He is also a founder of CalAppErrors.com.

JONATHAN GROSSMAN, B.A., 1988, University of California, Berkeley; J.D., 1991, University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Mr. Grossman was a Deputy Public Defender in San Joaquin County and is currently a staff attorney with the Sixth District Appellate Program.

AMY HADDIX, B.A., 1993, University of California, Berkeley; J.D., 1996, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Ms. Haddix was a Deputy Attorney General in San Francisco from 1996 to 2012, specializing in criminal writs and appeals. She is currently a chamber attorney with the California Supreme Court.

SUSAN HORST, B.A., 1969, Stanford University; J.D., 1976, University of Santa Clara School of Law. Ms. Horst served as a writ attorney at the Court of Appeal, First Appellate District in San Francisco for over 31 years. She is currently in private practice in San Francisco. She is a former Assistant District Attorney for the City and County of San Francisco, and is a frequent lecturer on writ practice.

NEOMA D. KENWOOD, B.A., 1978, Indiana University; J.D., 1981, University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law. Ms. Kenwood is senior staff attorney at the California Appellate Project (San Francisco) and has been in private practice in Berkeley since 1993. She is a former staff attorney with the Office of the State Public Defender and the First District Appellate Project. Ms. Kenwood's capital case experience includes handling the automatic appeal in state court, and related habeas corpus proceedings in both state and federal court.

A.J. KUTCHINS, B.A., 1978, Antioch University; J.D., 1981, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. After 2 years as a law clerk for the Hon. Lawrence K. Karlton (then) Chief Judge of the East District of California, and a few years in a small law firm, in 1986 Mr. Kutchins established his solo practice devoted primarily to appeals and writs in criminal cases. His emphasis over the last decade or so has been on federal habeas practice in the district courts and the Ninth Circuit. He was one of the first group of attorneys selected to serve as Appellate Lawyer Representatives to the Ninth Circuit Judicial Conference, and was one of several authors and editors of "The Appellate Lawyer Representatives' Guide to Practice in the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit" (available on the Ninth Circuit website). Mr. Kutchins has served as an update author to chapter 42, Felony Appeals, in CEB's California Criminal Law Procedure and Practice (Cal CEB), and has authored numerous articles and award-winning training films on subjects related to the law, ethics, and civil rights.

JAMES A. LASSART, B.A., 1964, University of Santa Clara; J.D., 1967, University of San Francisco Law School. Mr. Lassart is a partner at Murphy, Pearson, Bradley & Feeney, with a practice that includes criminal defense. He is a former Assistant U.S. Attorney and Coordinator of the Northwest Region of the President's Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force, and served for 12 years as an Assistant District Attorney for the City and County of San Francisco.

THERENE POWELL, B.A., 1969, University of California, Berkeley; J.D., 1974, University of Southern California. Ms. Powell was an attorney with the Office of the State Public Defender from 1976–2005, and since 1993 has worked exclusively on automatic appeals and related habeas corpus proceedings in state court. She is currently in private practice in Sunnyvale.

MORGAN PRICKETT, B.A., 1976, University of Southern California; M.A., 1977, political science, University of Southern California; J.D., 1980, University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Mr. Prickett is a Senior Judicial Staff Attorney at the First District Court of Appeal in San Francisco. He is the author of Writ of Error Coram Nobis in California, 30 Santa Clara Law Review 1 (1990).

LYNDA A. ROMERO, B.A, 1976, University of California, Irvine; J.D., 1979, University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law. Ms. Romero is a sole practitioner in San Diego, who limits her practice to criminal appeals and postconviction work. Ms. Romero was a member of the State Bar Committee of the Appellate Courts from 1985–1989 and chaired the committee in 1988–1989. In 1998, Ms. Romero received a Clay Award (California Attorneys of the Year) from California Lawyer magazine. Also in 1998, Ms. Romero was named outstanding appellate lawyer of the year by the San Diego Criminal Defense Bar Association.

MICHAEL SATRIS, B.A., 1971, University of California, Berkeley; J.D. 1975, University of California, Davis, School of Law. In 1976, Mr. Satris co-founded the Prison Law Office, a nonprofit corporation adjacent to San Quentin Prison that provides legal services for California prisoners, and directed its operations until 1984. At that time, he established a private practice emphasizing postconviction remedies, which is now located in Bolinas.

GEORGE SCHRAER, B.A., 1968, University of California, Berkeley; J.D., 1971, University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law. Mr. Schraer, a sole practitioner in San Diego, has been a criminal appellate attorney for more than 30 years, including 5 years as a staff and supervising attorney in the California State Public Defender Office. Mr. Schraer has been counsel of record in more than 500 appeals, including 12 in the California Supreme Court, and has authored or co-authored amicus curiae briefs in three cases in the United States Supreme Court and 10 cases in the California Supreme Court. He is the 2002 recipient of the Paul Bell Memorial Award "for consistent professional excellence and unselfish commitment to the cause of indigent representation on appeal," and can still consistently hit a 20-foot jump shot.

DAVID Y. STANLEY, B.A., 1967, Willamette University; J.D., 1975, University of Michigan Law School. Mr. Stanley is in private practice in Klamath Falls, Oregon, specializing in criminal appeals and writs. A former executive director of the First District Appellate Project in San Francisco, Mr. Stanley has been both a prosecutor and a defense attorney and has practiced at the trial level and at the appellate level. From 1995 to 1998, Mr. Stanley was an adjunct professor at the University of California, Hastings College of the Law, where he taught appellate advocacy, legal writing and research, and moot court.

CAROLYN WIGGIN, B.A., 1990, University of California, Berkeley; J.D., 1994, Yale University School of Law. Ms. Wiggin is an Assistant Federal Defender in the Office of the Federal Public Defender in Sacramento, where she handles appeals and represents state prisoners in federal habeas corpus proceedings.

About the 2017 Update Authors

BRIDGET BILLETER, B.A., 1993, University of California, San Diego; J.D., 1996, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Ms. Billeter is a Deputy Attorney General with the California Department of Justice, Office of the Attorney General, since 1999. She handles felony appeals and writs in both state and federal court. She has been the People's Appeals Coordinator for the San Francisco office since 2012 and handles all international cases involving the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of Child Abduction. She has presented numerous times to both domestic and international audiences about the implementation of the Hague treaty provisions in California.

CHARLES M. BONNEAU, JR., see the About the Authors section for full biographical information.

ADRIAN G. DRISCOLL, see the About the Authors section for full biographical information.

CLIFFORD GARDNER, see the About the Authors section for full biographical information.

STEPHEN GREENBERG, see the About the Authors section for full biographical information.

JONATHAN GROSSMAN, see the About the Authors section for full biographical information.

SUSAN HORST, see the About the Authors section for full biographical information.

NEOMA D. KENWOOD, see the About the Authors section for full biographical information.

A.J. KUTCHINS, see the About the Authors section for full biographical information.

JAMES A. LASSART, see the About the Authors section for full biographical information.

MORGAN PRICKETT, see the About the Authors section for full biographical information.

LYNDA A. ROMERO, see the About the Authors section for full biographical information.

MICHAEL SATRIS, see the About the Authors section for full biographical information.

GEORGE SCHRAER, see the About the Authors section for full biographical information.

CAROLYN WIGGIN, see the About the Authors section for full biographical information.

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