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Advising California Employers and Employees

Be ready to deal with virtually any workplace issue your clients may face.

Be ready to deal with virtually any workplace issue your clients may face.

  • Hiring guidelines and employment contracts
  • Immigration law for employers
  • Wages and hours; family and medical leave
  • Employee handbooks
  • Protecting trade secrets; noncompetition covenants
  • Privacy issues in the workplace
  • Employer liability for employee acts; insurance coverage
  • Discrimination, harassment, and retaliation claims
  • Whistleblower issues and workplace investigations
  • Wrongful termination; reductions in force
  • Mediation and arbitration of employment disputes
  • Auditing your client’s workplace practices
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Be ready to deal with virtually any workplace issue your clients may face.

  • Hiring guidelines and employment contracts
  • Immigration law for employers
  • Wages and hours; family and medical leave
  • Employee handbooks
  • Protecting trade secrets; noncompetition covenants
  • Privacy issues in the workplace
  • Employer liability for employee acts; insurance coverage
  • Discrimination, harassment, and retaliation claims
  • Whistleblower issues and workplace investigations
  • Wrongful termination; reductions in force
  • Mediation and arbitration of employment disputes
  • Auditing your client’s workplace practices

1

Hiring Guidelines and Pitfalls

Lawrence J. Gartner

Stefanie M. Gushá

  • I.  OVERVIEW  1.1
  • II.  RECRUITING
    • A.  Avoiding Discrimination Claims
      • 1.  Using Employment Agencies and Hiring Halls  1.2
      • 2.  Recruiting at Schools and Colleges  1.3
      • 3.  Newspaper Advertisements  1.4
    • B.  Recruiting During a Labor Dispute  1.5
    • C.  Raiding Other Employers  1.6
    • D.  Foreign Labor Contractors  1.6A
  • III.  JOB QUALIFICATIONS
    • A.  Hiring Standards Must Pass Business-Necessity Test  1.7
    • B.  Age  1.8
    • C.  Citizenship, National Origin, and Ancestry  1.9
    • D.  Sex, Sexual Orientation, and Gender Expression  1.10
    • E.  Financial Circumstances  1.11
    • F.  Dress and Personal Appearance Standards  1.12
    • G.  Rehabilitated Drug and Alcohol Users  1.13
    • H.  Education Requirements  1.14
    • I.  English Fluency  1.15
    • J.  Physical Abilities and Mental Health  1.16
    • K.  Medical Condition  1.17
    • L.  Spouses and Family Members Working Together  1.18
    • M.  Veterans  1.19
    • N.  Caregivers  1.19A
  • IV.  APPLICATIONS AND PRE-EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEWS
    • A.  Applications
      • 1.  Application Form Is Source of Useful Information  1.20
      • 2.  Applicant’s Copy  1.21
    • B.  Interview Restrictions
      • 1.  Non-Job-Related Questions  1.22
      • 2.  Specific Topics
        • a.  Age  1.23
        • b.  Marital Status  1.24
        • c.  Pregnancy  1.25
        • d.  Disability or Medical Condition
          • (1)  Prohibited Inquiries  1.26
          • (2)  Permitted Inquiries Concerning Ability  1.27
        • e.  Religion  1.28
        • f.  Criminal History: California’s “Ban the Box” Law and Related Restrictions  1.29
        • g.  Questions About Discipline for Sexual Harassment Permitted  1.30
        • h.  Salary History  1.30A
      • 3.  Agency Form: Employment Inquiries: What Can Employers Ask Applicants and Employees? (DFEH-161)  1.31
  • V.  REFERENCES AND BACKGROUND CHECKS
    • A.  References From Former Employers  1.32
    • B.  Credit History and Other Background Checks
      • 1.  Governing Law  1.33
      • 2.  Federal Requirements for Employers  1.34
      • 3.  California Law
        • a.  Consumer Credit Reporting Agencies Act  1.35
        • b.  Lab C §1024.5  1.35A
        • c.  Investigative Consumer Reporting Agencies Act  1.36
      • 4.  Procedural Requirements  1.37
        • a.  Notice of Intention to Obtain Report  1.38
          • (1)  Under Fair Credit Reporting Act  1.39
          • (2)  Under Consumer Credit Reporting Agencies Act  1.40
          • (3)  Under California Investigative Consumer Reporting Agencies Act  1.41
        • b.  Applicant’s Authorization  1.42
        • c.  Employer Certification of Compliance  1.43
        • d.  Employer Obligation to Provide Applicant With Copy of Report  1.44
        • e.  Employer’s Obligations When Employment Is Denied on Basis of Consumer Report  1.45
      • 5.  Information That May Not Be Included in Consumer Report  1.46
      • 6.  Form: Notice and Disclosure  1.47
      • 7.  Form: Certification to Credit Reporting Agency  1.48
      • 8.  Form: Certificate of Compliance by Agency  1.49
      • 9.  Form: Notification of Request for Investigative Consumer Report  1.50
      • 10.  Form: Authorization to Obtain Investigation Reports  1.51
      • 11.  Form: Pre-Adverse Action Disclosure  1.52
      • 12.  Form: Summary of Rights Under Fair Credit Reporting Act  1.53
      • 13.  Form: Post-Adverse Action Disclosure  1.54
      • 14.  Form: Notification of Intent to Procure Investigative Consumer Report  1.55
    • C.  Employee Misrepresentations  1.56
  • VI.  PRE-EMPLOYMENT TESTING
    • A.  General Education or Intelligence Tests  1.57
    • B.  Psychological Tests  1.58
    • C.  Polygraph Tests
      • 1.  Federal Law  1.59
      • 2.  California Law  1.60
    • D.  Voice Stress Analysis  1.61
    • E.  Fingerprints and Photographs  1.62
    • F.  Medical and Physical Examinations Given Only After Job Offer  1.63
    • G.  AIDS Testing  1.64
    • H.  Drug Tests Permissible  1.65
  • VII.  RECOMMENDATIONS FOR REDUCING THE RISK OF LIABILITY
    • A.  Statements Made During Recruitment  1.66
      • 1.  Avoiding Claims of Misrepresentation  1.67
        • a.  Do Not Falsely Induce Employee Relocation  1.68
        • b.  Covenant of Good Faith and Fair Dealing Is Implied in Employment Offer  1.69
        • c.  Use Checklist of Terms of Employment  1.70
      • 2.  Avoiding Claims of Implied Contract
        • a.  Use Written At-Will Provisions  1.71
        • b.  Do Not Assure Term of Job  1.72
    • B.  Follow Step-by-Step ADA/FEHA Hiring Guidelines  1.73
    • C.  Use Care in Hiring  1.74
  • VIII.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Paperwork for New Employees  1.75
    • B.  Checklist: Trade Secret Concerns in Interviewing Applicant  1.76
    • C.  Checklist: Issues to Consider Before Implementing Employee Testing  1.77
  • IX.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Application for Employment  1.78
    • B.  Form: Applicant’s Statement  1.79
    • C.  Form: Notification of Rejection of Application  1.80
    • D.  Form: Employment Offer Letter  1.81
    • E.  Form: Mutual Agreement to Arbitrate Claims  1.82
    • F.  Form: Authorization for Job-Related Medical Examination and Drug-Testing and for Release of Information  1.83
    • G.  Form: Sample Job Description Questionnaire  1.84
    • H.  Form: Sample Job Description for Receptionist  1.85

2

Employment Contracts and Executive Compensation

Margaret Hart Edwards

Kate West Rowan

Michael Pedhirney

  • I.  GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS IN USE OF EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS
    • A.  Overview of Benefits to Employer  2.1
      • 1.  Anticipating Termination of Employment  2.2
      • 2.  Exercising Business Control Over an Employee  2.3
      • 3.  Attracting and Retaining Employees for a Period or Purpose  2.4
      • 4.  Protecting the Employer’s Intellectual Property  2.5
      • 5.  Agreeing on Alternative Forums for Dispute Resolution  2.6
    • B.  Drafting Considerations
      • 1.  Gathering Relevant Background Information  2.7
      • 2.  Other Legal Considerations
        • a.  Reporting Requirements  2.8
        • b.  Conflicts of Interest  2.9
  • II.  EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT PROVISIONS
    • A.  General Comment on Use of Forms  2.10
    • B.  Preliminary Matters
      • 1.  Form: Preamble to Employment Contract  2.11
      • 2.  Recitals
        • a.  Purpose  2.12
        • b.  Form: Recitals  2.13
    • C.  Term of Employment
      • 1.  Drafting Considerations  2.14
        • a.  At-Will Employment
          • (1)  Erosion of At-Will Nature of Employment  2.15
          • (2)  Including At-Will Clause in Employment Contract  2.16
        • b.  Indefinite Term  2.17
        • c.  Specified Term  2.18
      • 2.  Form: Term of Employment  2.19
    • D.  Form: Place of Employment  2.20
    • E.  Employee’s Duties and Authority
      • 1.  Describing Duties in Broad Terms  2.21
      • 2.  Form: Employee’s Duties and Authority  2.22
    • F.  Employee’s Outside Business Activities
      • 1.  Duty Not to Engage in Conflicting Activities  2.23
      • 2.  Drafting Considerations  2.24
      • 3.  Form: Outside Business Activities Precluded or Restricted  2.25
      • 4.  Form: Reasonable Time and Effort Required  2.26
      • 5.  Form: Covenant Not to Compete During Employment Term  2.27
      • 6.  Form: Morality Clause  2.28
      • 7.  Consulting Arrangement
        • a.  Drafting Considerations  2.29
        • b.  Form: Consulting Services  2.30
    • G.  Employee’s Compensation and Benefits
      • 1.  Planning Executive Compensation  2.31
        • a.  Salary  2.32
        • b.  Deferred Compensation  2.33
        • c.  Incentives  2.34
        • d.  Benefits  2.35
      • 2.  Form: Base Salary  2.36
      • 3.  Form: Adjustment to Base Salary  2.37
      • 4.  Form: Incentive Compensation  2.38
      • 5.  Form: Stock Bonus  2.39
      • 6.  Form: Stock Options  2.40
      • 7.  Form: Cash Bonus  2.41
      • 8.  Form: Commissions  2.42
      • 9.  Form: Royalties  2.43
      • 10.  Form: Deferred Compensation  2.44
      • 11.  Additional Benefits  2.45
        • a.  Form: Additional Benefits  2.46
        • b.  Form: Vacation  2.47
        • c.  Board Membership  2.48
        • d.  Form: Board Membership  2.49
        • e.  Expenses
          • (1)  Drafting Considerations  2.50
          • (2)  Form: Expense Reimbursement  2.51
        • f.  Form: Automobile Allowance  2.52
        • g.  Form: Life Insurance  2.53
      • 12.  Repayment of Compensation Held Excessive
        • a.  Tax Considerations in Drafting  2.54
        • b.  Form: Repayment of Compensation Held Excessive  2.55
    • H.  Ownership of Intangibles
      • 1.  Drafting Considerations  2.56
      • 2.  Form: Ownership of Intangibles  2.57
        • a.  Proprietary Information Obligations  2.58
          • (1)  Protecting Confidential Information  2.59
          • (2)  Restraint of Unfair Competition After Employment Termination  2.60
      • 3.  Form: Proprietary Information Obligations  2.61
      • 4.  Form: Noninterference  2.62
      • 5.  Form: Noncompetition [Deleted]  2.63
      • 6.  Form: Use of Employee’s Name and Image  2.64
    • I.  Indemnification of Employee
      • 1.  Need for Indemnification Provisions  2.65
      • 2.  Form: Indemnification by Employer  2.66
      • 3.  Form: Employer-Provided Indemnity Insurance  2.67
      • 4.  Form: Qualification for Surety Bond  2.68
      • 5.  Form: Indemnification by Employee  2.69
    • J.  Termination of Agreement
      • 1.  Provisions Regarding Termination
        • a.  Termination of Employment  2.70
        • b.  Effect of Mergers, Transfers of Assets, or Dissolutions  2.71
      • 2.  Form: Termination of Employment; Termination Date  2.72
        • a.  Form: Involuntary Termination  2.73
          • (1)  Form: Termination Payment  2.74
          • (2)  Form: Termination of Employment by Employee  2.75
        • b.  Form: Termination for Cause  2.76
        • c.  Form: Termination on Resignation  2.77
        • d.  Form: Termination on Retirement  2.78
        • e.  Form: Termination Because of Disability  2.79
        • f.  Form: Termination on Death  2.80
      • 3.  Form: Employer Has Right to Terminate or Assign Agreement  2.81
      • 4.  Form: Agreement Survives Combination or Dissolution  2.82
      • 5.  Form: Rights and Obligations After Notice of Termination  2.83
      • 6.  Duty of Cooperation After Termination  2.84
      • 7.  Form: Other Benefits  2.84A
      • 8.  Form: IRC §409A  2.84B
    • K.  Resolving Disputes
      • 1.  Arbitration
        • a.  Drafting Considerations  2.85
        • b.  Form: Arbitration  2.86
      • 2.  Injunction
        • a.  Drafting Considerations  2.87
        • b.  Form: Injunction  2.88
      • 3.  Liquidated Damages
        • a.  Drafting Considerations  2.89
        • b.  Form: Liquidated Damages for Employer  2.90
        • c.  Form: Liquidated Damages for Employee  2.91
      • 4.  Form: Statute of Limitations  2.91A
    • L.  Miscellaneous Provisions
      • 1.  Form: Integration  2.92
      • 2.  Form: Choice of Law  2.93
      • 3.  Form: Notices  2.94
      • 4.  Form: Severability  2.95
      • 5.  Form: Employee’s Representations  2.96
      • 6.  Form: Counterparts  2.97
      • 7.  Form: Successors and Assigns  2.98
      • 8.  Form: Attorney Fees  2.99
      • 9.  Form: Amendments  2.100
      • 10.  Form: No Third Party Rights  2.101
    • M.  Form: Execution  2.102
  • III.  EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION
    • A.  Types of Compensation Generally  2.103
    • B.  Cash Compensation  2.104
      • 1.  Base Salary  2.105
      • 2.  Cash Commissions  2.106
      • 3.  Bonuses and Incentive Bonus Plans  2.107
    • C.  Equity or Equity-Related Compensation  2.108
      • 1.  Publicly Traded Company Considerations  2.109
      • 2.  General Tax Rules  2.110
      • 3.  Restricted Stock  2.111
      • 4.  Stock Options  2.112
        • a.  Incentive Stock Options  2.113
        • b.  Nonqualified Stock Options  2.114
      • 5.  Phantom Stock and Stock Appreciation Rights (SARs)  2.115
    • D.  Deferred Compensation  2.116
    • E.  Other Types of Compensation
      • 1.  Severance Benefits  2.117
      • 2.  Below-Market Loans  2.118
    • F.  Miscellaneous Issues
      • 1.  Parachute Payments  2.119
      • 2.  Excess Employee Remuneration  2.120

3

Independent Contractors, Leased Workers, and Outsourcing

Arthur Chinski

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  3.1
  • II.  TERMINOLOGY  3.2
  • III.  ADVISING CLIENT ON ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF USING INDEPENDENT CONTRACTORS
    • A.  Preliminary Considerations  3.3
    • B.  Potential Advantages in Using Independent Contractors  3.4
    • C.  Disadvantages in Using Independent Contractors  3.5
  • IV.  CHART: TESTS THAT DETERMINE WHETHER WORKER IS INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR OR EMPLOYEE  3.6
    • A.  California Law
      • 1.  State Income Tax Withholding  3.7
        • a.  Restatement Test  3.8
        • b.  Common-Law-Based Control Factors Determining Employment Status  3.9
      • 2.  Wage and Hour Laws: Dynamex Decision  3.9A
      • 3.  California Unemployment and Disability Insurance
        • a.  Taxes and Contributions  3.10
        • b.  Common-Law Control Test Applied for Unemployment and Disability Insurance Purposes  3.11
      • 4.  California Workers’ Compensation  3.12
        • a.  Definitions of “Employer” and “Employee” in California Workers’ Compensation Law  3.13
        • b.  Presumption of Employment  3.14
        • c.  Licensed Contractor  3.15
        • d.  Definition of Independent Contractor in California Workers’ Compensation Law  3.16
        • e.  Test Under the Borello Decision  3.17
      • 5.  Areas Other Than Workers’ Compensation Where Borello Test May Apply  3.18
    • B.  Federal Law
      • 1.  Payroll Taxes
        • a.  Social Security and Medicare Contributions (FICA)  3.19
        • b.  Federal Unemployment Tax  3.20
        • c.  Tests Determining Worker Classification for Federal Payroll Tax Purposes
          • (1)  Classification by IRS Based on Common-Law Control Test  3.21
            • (a)  Revenue Ruling 87–41: Source of 20 “Control of Work” Factors  3.22
            • (b)  The “Safe Harbor” Provision  3.23
          • (2)  Classification of Corporate Officers as Statutory Employees  3.24
          • (3)  Other Statutory Employees  3.25
      • 2.  Title VII of the Civil Rights Act (EEOC)
        • a.  Prohibited Acts  3.26
        • b.  Definitions of Employer, Employee, and Independent Contractor Under Title VII
          • (1)  Employer  3.27
          • (2)  Employee  3.28
          • (3)  Independent Contractor  3.29
        • c.  Tests Determining Status Under Title VII
          • (1)  “Economic Realities” Test  3.30
          • (2)  EEOC Test  3.31
      • 3.  National Labor Relations Act  3.32
        • a.  Employees and Independent Contractors Under the NLRA  3.33
        • b.  Common-Law Agency Test  3.34
      • 4.  Fair Labor Standards Act  3.35
        • a.  Employer, Employee, and Independent Contractor Under the FLSA  3.36
        • b.  Ninth Circuit “Economic Realities” Test  3.37
    • C.  The “Smell Test”  3.38
  • V.  EMPLOYING LEASED WORKERS
    • A.  Increasing Use of Leased Workers  3.39
    • B.  Risk of Joint-Employer Status  3.40
      • 1.  Applicability of Title VII to Joint Employers  3.41
      • 2.  Applicability of Fair Labor Standards Act to Joint Employers  3.42
      • 3.  Applicability of Family Medical Leave Act to Joint Employers  3.43
      • 4.  Applicability of National Labor Relations Act to Joint Employers  3.44
      • 5.  Special Employment and Workers’ Compensation Liability  3.45
      • 6.  California Unemployment and Disability Compensation  3.46
      • 7.  Tax Liability  3.47
  • VI.  POTENTIAL PENALTIES FOR MISCLASSIFICATION  3.48
    • A.  Chart: Penalties for Misclassifying Employee as Independent Contractor  3.49
    • B.  Failure to Withhold/Contribute Payroll Taxes
      • 1.  IRS Sanctions  3.50
      • 2.  EDD Sanctions  3.51
      • 3.  Severity of Combined State and Federal Penalties; IRS Authority to Compromise Assessments  3.52
      • 4.  Statutes of Limitations  3.53
    • C.  Potential Penalties Imposed by Workers’ Compensation Appeals Board  3.54
    • D.  Penalties Under National Labor Relations Act  3.55
    • E.  Liability for Minimum Wages and Overtime
      • 1.  Potential Penalties  3.56
      • 2.  Statutes of Limitations  3.57
    • F.  Employee Benefits  3.58
  • VII.  AUDIT CONSIDERATIONS
    • A.  IRS and EDD Usually Audit  3.59
    • B.  EDD Audit Procedures
      • 1.  Investigation  3.60
      • 2.  Assessment  3.61
      • 3.  Appeal  3.62
    • C.  IRS Audit Procedures
      • 1.  Investigation  3.63
      • 2.  Appeal of Determination  3.64
      • 3.  Correcting Retirement Plan Errors  3.64A
  • VIII.  DATA SUMMARIZING LEGAL STATUS OF EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIPS
    • A.  Chart: Industry-Specific Rulings and Guidelines  3.65
    • B.  Chart: California and Federal Statutory Exceptions to General Rules Governing Employees  3.66
  • IX.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Independent Contractor Data Sheet  3.67
    • B.  Form: Sample Agreement Between Principal and Independent Contractor  3.68

4

Immigration Law Requirements for Employers

Mitchell L. Wexler

Michael H. Boshnaick

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  4.1
  • II.  TO WHOM DOES IRCA APPLY?  4.2
  • III.  REQUIREMENTS FOR EMPLOYERS
    • A.  Summary  4.3
    • B.  Hiring Obligations  4.4
      • 1.  Acceptable Documents  4.5
        • a.  To Establish Both Identity and Employment Authorization  4.6
        • b.  To Establish Identity Only  4.7
        • c.  To Establish Employment Authorization Only  4.8
        • d.  Receipts in Place of Required Documents  4.9
      • 2.  Employer Document Examining Procedures  4.10
      • 3.  Form I-9 is Evidence of Compliance  4.11
      • 4.  Form: Employment Eligibility Verification (Form I-9)  4.12
    • C.  Document Retention Requirements; DHS Inspection  4.13
    • D.  I-9 Electronic Signatures and Storage  4.14
    • E.  Social Security Administration “Mismatch Letters”  4.14A
    • F.  E-Verify; IMAGE Program  4.14B
  • IV.  EMPLOYEE STATUS
    • A.  Who Is an “Unauthorized Alien”?  4.15
    • B.  Aliens Eligible for Employment  4.16
    • C.  Restricted Categories  4.17
    • D.  Independent Contractors  4.18
    • E.  Employees Hired From State Employment Agency  4.19
  • V.  RECRUITERS AND REFERRERS  4.20
  • VI.  INVESTIGATIONS  4.21
  • VII.  PENALTIES  4.22
    • A.  Hiring Violations  4.23
    • B.  Paperwork Violations  4.24
    • C.  Criminal Violations
      • 1.  “Pattern or Practice” Violations  4.25
      • 2.  Penalties: Fines, Imprisonment, Civil Sanctions  4.26
    • D.  Indemnification Against Employer Liability Prohibited  4.27
  • VIII.  ANTIDISCRIMINATION PROVISIONS
    • A.  Prohibited Conduct  4.28
    • B.  Exceptions  4.29
    • C.  Penalties  4.30
  • IX.  CALIFORNIA UNFAIR IMMIGRATION PRACTICES  4.30A
  • X.  CALIFORNIA IMMIGRANT WORKER PROTECTION ACT  4.30B
  • XI.  CHECKLIST: ESTABLISHING EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES THAT COMPLY WITH IMMIGRATION LAWS  4.31
  • XII.  CHECKLIST: IDENTITY AND EMPLOYMENT AUTHORIZATION DOCUMENTS  4.32
  • XIII.  HIRING FOREIGN NATIONALS  4.33
    • A.  Client Representation  4.34
    • B.  Temporary Categories: Nonimmigrant Visa Categories  4.35
    • C.  Nonimmigrant Status Categories That Require Petition to USCIS
      • 1.  H-1B Specialty Occupations  4.36
        • a.  Dual Intent Permitted  4.37
        • b.  Prevailing Wage Requirement  4.38
        • c.  Labor Condition Application  4.39
        • d.  Filing Petition With USCIS  4.40
        • e.  Authorized Work Period  4.41
        • f.  Where to Obtain H-1B Visas  4.42
        • g.  Change of Status  4.43
        • h.  Presumption of Fraud  4.44
        • i.  Extension of H-1B Status  4.45
      • 2.  L-1 Intracompany Transferee  4.46
        • a.  Qualification for L-1 Status  4.47
        • b.  Procedure for Applying for L-1 Status  4.48
      • 3.  O-1 Extraordinary Ability or Achievement  4.49
    • D.  Nonimmigrant Status Categories That Do Not Require Petition to USCIS
      • 1.  Generally  4.50
      • 2.  E-1 and E-2: Treaty Traders and Treaty Investors  4.51
      • 3.  E-3: Australian Specialty Occupation Workers  4.51A
        • a.  Methods for Obtaining Visa  4.52
          • (1)  Treaty Trader (E-1) Status  4.53
          • (2)  Treaty Investor (E-2) Status  4.54
        • b.  Specific Procedures for E Status  4.55
      • 4.  J-1 Exchange Visitors  4.56
        • a.  Procedure  4.57
        • b.  Requirement to Return to Home Country  4.58
        • c.  Application to Waive J-1 Home Return Requirement  4.59
      • 5.  F-1 Students  4.60
      • 6.  B-1 Business Visitors  4.61
      • 7.  TN Canadian and Mexican Professionals  4.62
      • 8.  Other Nonimmigrant Visa Categories  4.63
  • XIV.  PERMANENT RESIDENCE; IMMIGRATION THROUGH EMPLOYMENT  4.64
    • A.  Immigrant Visa Categories
      • 1.  First Preference: Priority Workers  4.65
        • a.  Persons With Extraordinary Ability  4.66
        • b.  Outstanding Professors and Researchers  4.67
        • c.  Multinational Executives and Managers  4.68
      • 2.  Second Preference: Workers With Advanced Degrees or Exceptional Ability  4.69
        • a.  Advanced Degree Professionals  4.70
        • b.  Persons of Exceptional Ability  4.71
      • 3.  Third Preference: Skilled or Unskilled Workers Without Advanced Degrees  4.72
        • a.  Skilled Workers  4.73
        • b.  Professional Workers Without Advanced Degree  4.74
        • c.  Unskilled Workers  4.75
    • B.  Labor Certification  4.76
      • 1.  Schedule A  4.77
      • 2.  Filing PERM Labor Certification Applications  4.78
      • 3.  Ban on Sale, Barter, or Purchase of Labor Certifications, and on Certain Payments  4.79
      • 4.  PERM Prefiling Recruitment  4.80
      • 5.  DOL Audits  4.81
    • C.  Immigrant Petition  4.82
    • D.  Immigrant Visa Application  4.83
      • 1.  Consular Processing  4.84
      • 2.  Adjustment of Status  4.85

5

Wage and Hour Laws

Richard S. Rosenberg

Matthew T. Wakefield

Jeffrey P. Fuchsman

  • I.  OVERVIEW OF APPLICABLE LAW  5.1
    • A.  Basic Federal Statutes  5.2
    • B.  California Regulatory Scheme: Wage Orders  5.3
  • II.  APPLICATION OF THE FLSA
    • A.  Requires Employer-Employee Relationship  5.4
    • B.  Joint Employer Relationship  5.4A
    • C.  “In Commerce” Requirement  5.5
      • 1.  Employee Test  5.6
        • a.  “Engaged in Commerce”  5.7
        • b.  “Engaged in the Production of Goods for Commerce”  5.8
        • c.  Employees of Not-for-Profit Organizations  5.9
      • 2.  Enterprise Test  5.10
        • a.  Family Business Exception  5.11
        • b.  Public Entities  5.12
        • c.  Indian Tribes  5.12A
  • III.  COVERAGE UNDER CALIFORNIA LAW  5.13
  • IV.  WAGE REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  Employers May Not Rely on Applicant’s Salary History in Hiring  5.13A
    • B.  Information to Be Provided to Employees on Hire  5.13B
    • C.  Employment Agreement Requirements  5.13C
    • D.  Pay Periods  5.14
    • E.  Method of Payment  5.14A
    • F.  Itemized Wage Statements  5.14B
    • G.  Sick Pay Statements   5.14C
    • H.  Pay for Reporting to Work  5.15
    • I.  Split-Shift Premiums  5.15A
    • J.  Payment of Wages on Termination of Employment  5.16
    • K.  Payment of Commissions on Termination of Employment  5.16A
    • L.  Payment of Bonuses and Other Incentives on Termination of Employment  5.16B
    • M.  Minimum Wage
      • 1.  Basic Rate
        • a.  Adult Employees  5.17
        • b.  Minors and Learners  5.18
      • 2.  Crediting of Tips Toward Minimum Wage
        • a.  Under the FLSA  5.19
        • b.  Under California Law  5.20
      • 3.  Meal and Lodging Credits  5.21
    • N.  Overtime Compensation
      • 1.  General Rules
        • a.  Under California Law  5.22
        • b.  Under the FLSA  5.23
      • 2.  The Workweek
        • a.  Under the FLSA and California Law  5.24
        • b.  Alternative Workweek Arrangements in California  5.25
        • c.  Make-Up Time Exception in California  5.26
      • 3.  The Regular Rate
        • a.  Hourly Employees  5.27
        • b.  Salaried Employees  5.28
        • c.  Fluctuating Workweek
          • (1)  Under the FLSA  5.29
          • (2)  Not Permitted Under California Law  5.30
          • (3)  Example Illustrating Differences Between Federal and State Approach  5.31
        • d.  Piece-Rate Employees  5.32
        • e.  Different Rates of Pay for Different Types of Work
          • (1)  Under California Law  5.33
          • (2)  Under the FLSA  5.34
        • f.  Noncash Wages and Commissions  5.35
      • 4.  Exclusions From the Regular Rate
        • a.  Gifts and Special Occasion Bonuses  5.36
        • b.  Payment for Hours Not Worked or Expenses  5.37
        • c.  Discretionary Bonuses and Payments to Certain Benefit Plans  5.38
        • d.  Other Benefit Plan Contributions  5.39
        • e.  Stock Options and Other Equity Devices  5.40
        • f.  Premium Pay for Overtime  5.41
      • 5.  Different Overtime Rules for Different Industries  5.42
    • O.  Equal Pay for Substantially Similar Work, Regardless of Gender, Race, or Ethnicity  5.42A
    • P.  Compensatory Time Off  5.43
    • Q.  Tips  5.44
  • V.  DETERMINING HOURS WORKED
    • A.  Generally
      • 1.  Under California Law  5.45
      • 2.  Under the FLSA  5.46
    • B.  Preparatory and Concluding Activities  5.47
    • C.  Rest, Lactation, Recovery, and Meal Periods
      • 1.  Under California Law  5.48
      • 2.  Under the FLSA  5.49
    • D.  Waiting Time/On-Call Time  5.50
    • E.  Sleeping Time  5.51
    • F.  Travel Time
      • 1.  California Law  5.52
      • 2.  Federal Law  5.53
    • G.  Training Time  5.54
    • H.  Trainees and Interns  5.54A
    • I.  Volunteers  5.54B
    • J.  Rounding of Time Entries  5.54C
    • K.  Off-the-Clock Work  5.54D
    • L.  Other Limitations on Time Worked  5.55
  • VI.  EXEMPTIONS FROM MINIMUM WAGE AND OVERTIME REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  California Exemptions  5.56
      • 1.  Executive Exemption  5.57
      • 2.  Administrative Exemption  5.58
      • 3.  Professional Exemption  5.59
      • 4.  Exempt Treatment of Other Particular Occupations
        • a.  Computer-Related Professionals  5.60
        • b.  Outside Salespersons  5.61
        • c.  Commissioned Salespersons  5.61A
        • d.  Other Exemptions  5.61B
    • B.  Under Federal Law  5.62
      • 1.  Executive Exemption  5.63
        • a.  Salary Basis  5.64
        • b.  Primary Duty  5.65
        • c.  Supervisory Position  5.66
        • d.  Authority to Hire or Fire  5.67
      • 2.  Administrative Exemption  5.68
        • a.  Salary Basis  5.69
        • b.  Primary Duty  5.70
        • c.  Exercise of Discretion and Independent Judgment  5.71
      • 3.  Professional Exemption
        • a.  Learned Professional  5.72
          • (1)  Salary Basis  5.73
          • (2)  Primary Duty  5.74
        • b.  Creative Professional  5.75
      • 4.  Exempt Treatment of Other Particular Occupations
        • a.  Computer-Related Professionals  5.76
        • b.  Outside Salespersons  5.77
        • c.  Commissioned Employees  5.77A
        • d.  Certain Agricultural Workers  5.78
      • 5.  Miscellaneous Exemptions
        • a.  From Both Minimum Wage and Overtime Requirements  5.79
        • b.  From Overtime Requirements Only  5.80
  • VII.  CHILD LABOR
    • A.  California Law
      • 1.  Limitations on Employment  5.81
      • 2.  Wages and Hours  5.82
    • B.  Federal Law
      • 1.  Application of the FLSA  5.83
      • 2.  Prohibition Against “Oppressive Child Labor”  5.84
        • a.  Hazardous Occupations  5.85
        • b.  Limited Occupations for Minors 14 and 15 Years Old  5.86
        • c.  Waivers  5.87
    • C.  Chart: Child Labor Laws  5.88
  • VIII.  RESPONSIBILITY FOR UNIFORMS, EQUIPMENT, PROPERTY LOSS, AND SALES ADJUSTMENTS
    • A.  Employee/Employer Responsibility
      • 1.  Uniforms  5.89
      • 2.  Tools and Equipment  5.89A
      • 3.  Shortages, Breakage, or Losses  5.89B
      • 4.  Adjustments, Charge Backs, or Deductions  5.89C
      • 5.  Indemnification  5.89D
      • 6.  Employer-Provided Training Costs  5.89E
  • IX.  MANDATORY WORKING CONDITIONS
    • A.  Changing Rooms and Resting Facilities  5.89F
    • B.  Seating  5.89G
    • C.  Temperature  5.89H
    • D.  Other Requirements  5.89I
  • X.  ENFORCEMENT
    • A.  California Wage and Hour Laws
      • 1.  Investigation and Hearings  5.90
      • 2.  Enforcement of Judgments by Labor Commissioner  5.90A
      • 3.  Subpoenas  5.91
      • 4.  Civil Actions; Remedies Available  5.92
      • 5.  Unfair Competition Claims  5.92A
      • 6.  Class Actions  5.93
      • 7.  Class Actions and Arbitration  5.93A
      • 8.  Class Action Settlements  5.93B
      • 9.  Statute of Limitations  5.94
      • 10.  Criminal Actions  5.95
      • 11.  Civil Penalties  5.96
      • 12.  Labor Code Private Attorneys General Act  5.97
        • a.  More Serious Violations  5.98
        • b.  Other Labor Code Violations  5.99
        • c.  Health and Safety Violations  5.100
        • d.  Construction Industry Exception  5.100A
      • 13.  Punitive Damages  5.100B
      • 14.  Settlements and Releases of Claims Under California Law  5.100C
      • 15.  Successor Liability Under California Law  5.100D
      • 16.  Joint Employer Liability With Labor Contractor  5.100E
      • 17.  Joint Employer Liability of Construction Contractors  5.100F
      • 18.  Owner, Director, Officer, or Managing Agent Liability  5.100G
    • B.  Federal Enforcement of Wage and Hour Laws
      • 1.  Investigations and Inspections  5.101
      • 2.  Civil Actions
        • a.  Remedies Available in Suits by the Department of Labor  5.102
        • b.  Remedies Available in Private Suits  5.103
        • c.  Successor Liability Under Federal Law  5.103A
        • d.  Union Employees May Bypass Grievance and Arbitration Procedure  5.104
        • e.  Statute of Limitations  5.105
      • 3.  Criminal Actions  5.106
      • 4.  Settlements and Releases of Claims Under Federal Law  5.106A
  • XI.  WAGE AND HOUR REQUIREMENTS FOR GOVERNMENT CONTRACTORS
    • A.  Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act  5.107
    • B.  Davis-Bacon Act  5.108
    • C.  Copeland Act  5.109
    • D.  Contract Work Hours Standards Act  5.110
    • E.  McNamara-O’Hara Service Contract Act  5.111
  • XII.  WAGE GARNISHMENTS
    • A.  Earnings Withholding Orders  5.112
    • B.  Employees and Earnings Subject to Order  5.113
    • C.  Service of Withholding Orders  5.114
    • D.  Employer’s Procedure After Service
      • 1.  Notice to Employee  5.115
      • 2.  Determining Withholding Periods, Amounts; Priority
        • a.  Withholding Period  5.116
        • b.  Amount to Be Withheld  5.117
        • c.  Priorities of Conflicting Levies and Assignments  5.118
      • 3.  Employer’s Return  5.119
      • 4.  Remitting Withheld Earnings  5.120
    • E.  Notice of Termination or Modification  5.121

6

Vacations, Family and Medical Leave, and Other Time Off

Deborah Crandall Saxe

  • I.  VACATIONS
    • A.  Right to Paid Vacation Benefits
      • 1.  Employer Agreement Requirement  6.1
      • 2.  Waiting Period  6.2
      • 3.  “Use It or Lose It” Policy  6.3
      • 4.  Limit on Accrual of Vacation  6.4
      • 5.  Accelerating Accrual  6.5
      • 6.  Payment on Termination of Employment  6.6
      • 7.  Recovery of Vacation Pay Advances  6.7
    • B.  Employee Actions for Unpaid Vacation Benefits  6.8
    • C.  Funded Vacation Plans and ERISA  6.9
    • D.  Checklist: Guidelines for Drafting Vacation Policy  6.10
  • II.  SICK LEAVE
    • A.  All California Employers Must Provide Paid Sick Leave  6.11
      • 1.  Covered Employees  6.11A
      • 2.  Permissible Uses of Sick Leave  6.11B
        • a.  Use for Family Member  6.11C
        • b.  Minimum Amount and Limit  6.11D
        • c.  Notice to Employer  6.11E
      • 3.  Accrual  6.11F
      • 4.  Carryover of Unused Sick Leave  6.11G
      • 5.  Reinstatement of Accrued and Unused Sick Leave  6.11H
      • 6.  No Discrimination or Retaliation for Use of Sick Leave  6.11I
    • B.  Posting and Recordkeeping Requirements  6.12
    • C.  Enforcement and Penalties  6.13
    • D.  No Preemption of Greater Requirements  6.13A
    • E.  Exemption for Certain Existing Sick Leave Policies  6.14
    • F.  Kin Care Leave  6.14A
  • III.  PAID TIME OFF  6.15
  • IV.  HOLIDAYS
    • A.  Table: Legal Holidays  6.16
    • B.  Floating Holidays  6.16A
    • C.  Checklist: Guidelines for Drafting Holiday Pay Policy  6.17
    • D.  Day of Rest  6.18
  • V.  PREGNANCY DISABILITY LEAVE
    • A.  Covered Employers  6.19
    • B.  Eligible Employees  6.20
    • C.  Length of Pregnancy Disability Leave  6.21
    • D.  Intermittent or Reduced Work Schedule Leave  6.22
    • E.  Employee and Employer Notices
      • 1.  Employee Notice of Leave  6.23
      • 2.  Required Employer Notices  6.24
    • F.  Medical Certification
      • 1.  When Required  6.25
      • 2.  Medical Certification and HIPAA  6.26
    • G.  Pay During Pregnancy Disability Leave  6.27
    • H.  Benefits Available During Pregnancy Leave  6.28
    • I.  Reinstatement to Same or Comparable Position  6.29
    • J.  Relationship to Family and Medical Leave  6.30
  • VI.  NEW PARENT LEAVE
    • A.  Employers Subject to Coverage  6.30A
    • B.  Employee Qualification for Leave  6.30B
    • C.  Employer Obligations  6.30C
    • D.  Relationship to Pregnancy Disability Leave  6.30D
    • E.  When Both Parents Work for Same Employer  6.30E
    • F.  CFRA Regulations Incorporated  6.30F
    • G.  Pilot Mediation Program  6.30G
  • VII.  FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE UNDER THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT (FMLA) AND CALIFORNIA FAMILY RIGHTS ACT (CFRA)  6.31
    • A.  Basic Requirements  6.32
    • B.  Reasons for Leave
      • 1.  FMLA Leave  6.33
      • 2.  California Variation: Pregnancy Exception  6.34
      • 3.  California Variation: Domestic Partners  6.35
    • C.  Employers Covered by FMLA and CFRA
      • 1.  Private Employers  6.36
      • 2.  Public Agencies  6.37
    • D.  Eligibility Requirements for Employees
      • 1.  In General  6.38
      • 2.  Medical Need Requirement for Leave to Care for Relative  6.39
    • E.  Definitions
      • 1.  “Spouse”  6.40
      • 2.  “Child” or “Son or Daughter”  6.41
      • 3.  “Parent”  6.42
      • 4.  “Serious Health Condition”  6.43
      • 5.  “Needed to Care for” a Family Member  6.44
      • 6.  “Health Care Provider”  6.45
      • 7.  “Continuing Treatment”  6.46
      • 8.  “Incapacity”  6.47
    • F.  Length of Family and Medical Leave  6.48
      • 1.  Calculating 12 Weeks of Leave  6.49
      • 2.  12-Month “Leave Year”  6.50
      • 3.  Limits on Leave for Birth or Child Care  6.51
      • 4.  Combined Leave for Spouses Under the FMLA  6.52
      • 5.  California Variation: Combined Leave for Parents of Child  6.53
    • G.  Intermittent and Reduced-Time Leave
      • 1.  When Appropriate  6.54
      • 2.  California Variation: Intermittent Leave for Child Care  6.55
    • H.  Employer Designation as FMLA/CFRA Leave  6.56
      • 1.  Basis for Employer’s Designation  6.57
      • 2.  When Employee Merely Requests Paid Time Off  6.58
      • 3.  Preliminary Designation While Awaiting Confirming Information [Deleted]  6.59
      • 4.  Timing and Form of Employer’s Designation  6.60
      • 5.  Retroactive Designation  6.61
        • a.  Exception: Employer Learns FMLA Purpose for Leave After Leave Has Begun [Deleted]  6.62
        • b.  Exception: Employer Learns FMLA or CFRA Purpose for Leave After Employee Returns [Deleted]  6.63
      • 6.  Effect of Employer’s Failure to Notify Employee of FMLA Leave Designation  6.64
    • I.  Employee Responsibilities
      • 1.  Notice of Need for Leave  6.65
        • a.  Form of Notice  6.66
        • b.  Form: Notice of Intent to Take Family or Medical Leave  6.67
        • c.  Form: Notice of Eligibility and Rights and Responsibilities (DOL Form WH-381)  6.68
      • 2.  Medical Certification  6.69
        • a.  Contents of Medical Certifications  6.69A
        • b.  Recertifications  6.69B
        • c.  Second and Third Opinions  6.70
        • d.  California Variation: Second or Third Opinion  6.71
        • e.  Medical Certification Forms  6.72
          • (1)  Form: Certification of Health Care Provider for Employee’s Serious Health Condition (DOL Form WH-380-E)  6.73
          • (2)  Form: Certification of Health Care Provider for Family Member’s Serious Health Condition (DOL Form WH-380-F)  6.73A
          • (3)  Form: Certification of Health Care Provider for Employee’s Serious Health Condition  6.74
      • 3.  Fitness-for-Duty Report  6.75
    • J.  Employee’s Right to Reinstatement After Leave
      • 1.  Right to Same Position  6.76
        • a.  Notice of Guarantee of Reinstatement  6.77
        • b.  Waiver of Rights; Light Duty Assignment  6.78
        • c.  Inability to Perform Essential Function on Return From Leave  6.79
        • d.  Layoff While on Leave  6.80
      • 2.  Special Reinstatement Rules for Key Employees
        • a.  “Key Employee” Defined  6.81
        • b.  Potential Denial of Reinstatement and Benefit Maintenance  6.82
    • K.  Relationship of FMLA and CFRA Leave to California Paid Family Leave  6.83
    • L.  Pay During FMLA/CFRA Leave  6.84
      • 1.  Substitution of Accrued Employer-Provided Paid Leave
        • a.  Under the FMLA  6.85
        • b.  Employer Credit for Paid Family and Medical Leave   6.85A
        • c.  Under the CFRA  6.86
      • 2.  Limitation on Substitution of Accrued Employer-Provided Paid Leave  6.87
      • 3.  Exempt Status and Deductions From Salary for Unpaid FMLA Leave  6.88
    • M.  Effect of FMLA/CFRA Leave on Employee Status and Benefits
      • 1.  Health Insurance
        • a.  Employer Obligation to Maintain  6.89
        • b.  Payment of Premiums  6.90
        • c.  When Employee Chooses Not to Retain Health Insurance During Leave  6.91
        • d.  When Employee Does Not Return to Work  6.92
        • e.  When Employee Takes Combined Pregnancy Leave  6.93
      • 2.  Benefit Levels, Vesting, and Seniority  6.94
      • 3.  Other Benefits  6.95
    • N.  Notice and Recordkeeping Requirements for Employers
      • 1.  Notices
        • a.  Leave Rights Notice  6.96
          • (1)  Form Notice: Your Rights Under the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (DOL WH Publication 1420)  6.97
          • (2)  Form Notice: Family Care and Medical Leave (CFRA Leave) and Pregnancy Disability Leave  6.98
          • (3)  Form Notice: Your Rights and Obligations as a Pregnant Employee  6.99
        • b.  Specific Notices From Employer to Employee  6.100
          • (1)  Mandatory Provisions in the Rights and Responsibilities Notice  6.101
          • (2)  Optional Inclusions in Rights and Responsibilities Notice  6.102
      • 2.  Personnel Manuals [Deleted]  6.103
      • 3.  Recordkeeping Required of Employers Under the FMLA  6.104
    • O.  Effect on Other Laws or Benefits  6.105
    • P.  Prohibited Acts and Remedies  6.106
      • 1.  Remedies Under the FMLA  6.107
      • 2.  Individual Liability Under the FMLA  6.108
      • 3.  Remedies Under the CFRA  6.109
  • VIII.  LEAVES REQUIRED BY OTHER STATE AND FEDERAL LAWS PROTECTING INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES
    • A.  ADA and FEHA
      • 1.  Comparison of Acts
        • a.  Application of Acts  6.110
        • b.  Definitions
          • (1)  “Physical Disability”  6.111
          • (2)  “Mental Disability”  6.112
          • (3)  “Limits on Major Life Activities”  6.113
          • (4)  “Reasonable Accommodation”  6.114
          • (5)  “Undue Hardship”  6.115
      • 2.  Effect on Employer Leave Policy  6.116
    • B.  Rehabilitation Act  6.117
  • IX.  ACCOMMODATION OF RELIGIOUS BELIEFS  6.118
  • X.  ACCOMMODATION OF EMPLOYEES WHO VOLUNTARILY ENTER DRUG OR ALCOHOL REHABILITATION PROGRAMS  6.119
  • XI.  ACCOMMODATION OF EMPLOYEES WHO ENROLL IN ADULT LITERACY EDUCATION PROGRAMS  6.120
  • XII.  ACCOMMODATION OF CIVIC RESPONSIBILITIES
    • A.  Voting  6.121
    • B.  Service as Election Official  6.122
    • C.  Service as Juror or Witness  6.123
    • D.  Leave for Emergency Duty as Volunteer Firefighter, Reserve Peace Officer, or Emergency Rescue Person  6.124
    • E.  Training Leave for Volunteer Firefighter, Reserve Peace Officer, or Emergency Rescue Person  6.125
    • F.  Leave for Military Service
      • 1.  State Law  6.126
      • 2.  Federal Law: USERRA
        • a.  Application  6.127
        • b.  Employee Obligations
          • (1)  Notice of Leave  6.128
          • (2)  Notice of Intention to Return to Work  6.129
          • (3)  Documentation  6.129A
        • c.  Employer Obligations
          • (1)  Pay Issues  6.130
          • (2)  Benefits  6.131
          • (3)  Reinstatement of Employee  6.132
        • d.  Discrimination and Termination Protections  6.133
        • e.  Remedies  6.134
    • G.  FMLA Leave to Care for a “Covered Servicemember”  6.134A
      • 1.  Definition of “Covered Servicemember”  6.134B
      • 2.  Definition of “Serious Injury or Illness” and “Outpatient Status”  6.134C
      • 3.  Definition of “Son or Daughter”  6.134D
      • 4.  Definition of “Next of Kin”  6.134E
      • 5.  FMLA Leave Allowed to Care for a “Covered Servicemember”  6.134F
      • 6.  Certification  6.134G
      • 7.  Effect of Other FMLA Regulations  6.134H
    • H.  FMLA Leave Due to a Qualifying Exigency  6.134I
      • 1.  Definition of “Son or Daughter”  6.134J
      • 2.  Definition of “Covered Active Duty”  6.134K
      • 3.  Definition of “Contingency Operation”  6.134L
      • 4.  Definition of “Qualifying Exigency”  6.134M
      • 5.  Amount of FMLA Leave Allowed for Qualifying Exigencies  6.134N
      • 6.  Certification  6.134O
      • 7.  Effect of Other FMLA Regulations  6.134P
    • I.  Leave for Spouses of Military Personnel  6.134Q
  • XIII.  SCHOOL LEAVES
    • A.  Leave for School Suspension  6.135
    • B.  Leave for Participation in School Activities  6.136
  • XIV.  LEAVES FOR VICTIMS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE, SEXUAL ASSAULT, OR STALKING  6.137
  • XV.  LEAVE FOR VICTIMS OF SERIOUS OR VIOLENT FELONIES AND THEIR RELATIVES  6.138
  • XVI.  LEAVE FOR ORGAN AND BONE MARROW DONATION  6.138A
  • XVII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Policy for FMLA/CFRA Leave  6.139
    • B.  Form: Sample Policy for Pregnancy Disability Leave  6.139A
    • C.  Form: Sample Policy for Disability Leave [Deleted]  6.140
    • D.  Form: Sample Policy for Personal Leave  6.141
    • E.  Form: Sample Policy for Bereavement Leave  6.142
    • F.  Form: Sample Policy for Leave for Spouses of Military Personnel  6.143
  • XVIII.  CHART: OVERVIEW OF LEAVE LAWS  6.144

7

Tax Compliance

Richard A. Saffir

  • I.  OVERVIEW  7.1
    • A.  Importance of Tax Compliance  7.2
    • B.  Role of Attorney and Accountant  7.3
    • C.  Notifying Taxing Authorities  7.4
      • 1.  Notifying IRS  7.5
      • 2.  Notifying California Employment Development Department  7.6
      • 3.  Notifying California Franchise Tax Board  7.7
      • 4.  Notifying California State Board of Equalization  7.8
      • 5.  Notifying Local Taxing Authorities  7.9
    • D.  Establishing Recordkeeping Procedures
      • 1.  Organizing Information  7.10
      • 2.  Collecting Employee/Payee Information  7.11
        • a.  Employees  7.12
        • b.  Other Payees  7.13
      • 3.  Use of Computers and Electronic Storage Data  7.14
    • E.  Withholding and Employment Taxes
      • 1.  Who Withholds and Pays Employment Taxes
        • a.  Federal  7.15
        • b.  California  7.16
      • 2.  Calculation of Withholding and Employment Taxes
        • a.  Federal  7.17
        • b.  California  7.18
          • (1)  Personal Income Tax (PIT) Withholding  7.19
          • (2)  State Disability Insurance (SDI)  7.20
          • (3)  Unemployment Insurance (UI)  7.21
          • (4)  Employment Training Tax (ETT)  7.22
          • (5)  New Employment Credit  7.22A
          • (6)  Work Opportunity Tax Credit  7.22B
        • c.  Deposits of Federal Employment Taxes  7.23
          • (1)  Monthly Deposits  7.24
          • (2)  Semiweekly Deposits  7.25
          • (3)  One-Day Rule  7.26
          • (4)  Reporting Deposits  7.27
        • d.  Deposits of California Employment Taxes  7.28
        • e.  Penalties for Failure to Withhold, Deposit, or Pay Taxes  7.29
      • 3.  California Sales and Use Tax
        • a.  Sales Tax Coverage and Exemptions
          • (1)  Retailers Pay Sales Tax  7.30
          • (2)  Tax Measured by Gross Receipts  7.31
          • (3)  Tax on Tangible Personal Property  7.32
          • (4)  Use Tax on Consumption or Storage of Property  7.33
          • (5)  Tangible Personal Property Not Subject to Sales Tax  7.34
          • (6)  Resale Exemption  7.35
          • (7)  Occasional Sale Exemption  7.36
        • b.  Sales Tax on Transfers of Property to Start-Up; Mergers  7.37
        • c.  Sales and Use Tax Returns and Payment
          • (1)  Due Dates of Returns and Payments  7.38
          • (2)  State Board of Equalization Tax Returns  7.39
          • (3)  Prepayment of Sales and Use Tax  7.40
        • d.  Penalties  7.41
      • 4.  Property Taxes
        • a.  Property Tax Coverage and Exemptions  7.42
          • (1)  Real Property  7.43
          • (2)  Personal Property  7.44
        • b.  Assessment of Tax  7.45
        • c.  Filing Property Statements  7.46
        • d.  Payment of Tax  7.47
        • e.  Purchase and Change in Ownership  7.48
          • (1)  Transfers of Property Between Legal Entities  7.49
          • (2)  Transfers of Ownership Interests in Legal Entities  7.50
        • f.  Protesting or Adjusting Assessed Values  7.51
      • 5.  Documentary Transfer Tax
        • a.  Assessment of Transfer Tax  7.52
        • b.  Tax Rate  7.53
      • 6.  Local Business Taxes  7.54
      • 7.  Excise and Miscellaneous Taxes
        • a.  What Businesses Pay Excise and Miscellaneous Taxes  7.55
        • b.  Compliance With Excise Tax  7.56
    • F.  Information Returns and Reporting Obligations
      • 1.  Activities and Payments That Must Be Reported; Required Forms  7.57
        • a.  Wages  7.58
        • b.  Individual Retirement Information  7.59
        • c.  Dividends  7.60
        • d.  Interest  7.61
        • e.  Service Fees, Commissions, Rentals, and Royalties  7.62
        • f.  Retirement Plan Distributions  7.63
        • g.  Real Estate Transactions  7.64
        • h.  Brokers and Barter Exchanges  7.65
        • i.  Restaurants, Tips  7.66
        • j.  Cash Transactions  7.67
        • k.  Other Transactions  7.68
      • 2.  Failure to File Information Returns  7.69
  • II.  TABLES AND LISTS
    • A.  Taxes Imposed on Different Forms of Business Entities  7.70
    • B.  Tax Forms Commonly Used by Business Entities  7.71
      • 1.  Sole Proprietorship Income Tax Forms  7.72
      • 2.  Corporation Income Tax Forms  7.73
      • 3.  Partnership and LLC Income Reporting Forms  7.74
      • 4.  Business Activities Reporting Forms  7.75
      • 5.  Employment Tax Forms  7.76
      • 6.  California Sales Tax Forms  7.77
      • 7.  Excise Tax Forms  7.78
      • 8.  Miscellaneous Tax Forms  7.79
    • C.  IRS Tax Compliance Publications
      • 1.  General Guides  7.80
      • 2.  Guides for Specific Transactions or Businesses  7.81
  • III.  COMBINED CALIFORNIA AND FEDERAL TAX CALENDAR
    • A.  Overview
      • 1.  Standard Filings for Calendar Year Taxpayers  7.82
      • 2.  Filings and Payment Obligations Without Fixed Due Dates
        • a.  Filings Triggered by an Event  7.83
        • b.  Recurring Monthly or Semiweekly Employment Tax Deposit Obligations  7.84
        • c.  Formation and Qualification Fees and Taxes  7.85
    • B.  January  7.86
    • C.  February  7.87
    • D.  March  7.88
    • E.  April  7.89
    • F.  May  7.90
    • G.  June  7.91
    • H.  July  7.92
    • I.  August  7.93
    • J.  September  7.94
    • K.  October  7.95
    • L.  November  7.96
    • M.  December  7.97

8

Unemployment Compensation and State Disability Insurance

Terence R. Savage

Eric Hendrickson

  • I.  FEDERAL-STATE SYSTEM  8.1
    • A.  Governing Laws  8.2
    • B.  Entitlement to Unemployment Compensation and Disability Insurance Benefits Generally  8.3
  • II.  OBLIGATION TO PAY OR WITHHOLD TAXES  8.4
    • A.  Employer-Employee Relationship Required  8.5
    • B.  Location of Employment  8.6
      • 1.  Services Localized in California  8.7
      • 2.  Services Deemed Performed in California  8.8
    • C.  Definition of “Employer”  8.9
    • D.  Definition of “Employee”  8.10
    • E.  Effect of Contract Language  8.11
    • F.  Services Included or Excluded by Statute  8.12
      • 1.  Excluded Services  8.13
        • a.  Specific Exclusions  8.14
        • b.  Directors of a Corporation  8.15
        • c.  Domestic Services  8.16
          • (1)  Wage Threshold for Unemployment Insurance Contribution  8.17
          • (2)  Wage Threshold for Disability Insurance Contribution  8.18
        • d.  Real Estate and Direct Salespersons  8.19
        • e.  Consultants  8.20
      • 2.  Exclusions Contingent on Similar Exclusions Under FUTA  8.21
      • 3.  Excluded Services for Public Entities or Nonprofit Organizations  8.22
      • 4.  Included Services  8.23
        • a.  Public Entities  8.24
        • b.  Leasing or Temporary Services Employers  8.25
        • c.  Substitute and Assistant Workers Hired by Employee  8.26
        • d.  Agricultural Employment  8.27
        • e.  Exempt Religious, Charitable, and Other Organizations  8.28
        • f.  Elective Employer Coverage  8.29
    • G.  Both Exempt and Nonexempt Services  8.30
  • III.  TAX WITHHOLDING AND PAYMENT
    • A.  Returns and Reports  8.31
      • 1.  Work Records  8.32
      • 2.  Filing Returns and Reports  8.33
      • 3.  New Employee Report Required for Certain “Transient” Occupations  8.34
      • 4.  Notices Required by Employer  8.35
    • B.  Employer Contributions to the Unemployment Fund
      • 1.  Contributions Rate  8.36
      • 2.  Wages as the Basis of Contribution
        • a.  Included Remuneration  8.37
          • (1)  General Inclusions  8.38
          • (2)  Taxable Value of Board and Lodging  8.39
          • (3)  Tips  8.40
          • (4)  Deferred Compensation Plans  8.41
        • b.  Excluded Remuneration
          • (1)  Business Expenses  8.42
          • (2)  Insurance  8.43
          • (3)  Payments to or From a Trust  8.44
          • (4)  Miscellaneous Exemptions  8.45
          • (5)  Other Exclusions  8.46
        • c.  Taxable Amount of Wages  8.47
      • 3.  Reserve Accounts  8.48
        • a.  Annual Statement of Account  8.49
        • b.  Protest of Charges  8.50
      • 4.  Quarterly Payments  8.51
      • 5.  Reimbursable Financing  8.52
    • C.  Assessments
      • 1.  When Assessments May Be Made  8.53
      • 2.  Penalties and Interest  8.54
      • 3.  When Assessments Become Final  8.55
      • 4.  Jeopardy Assessments  8.56
      • 5.  Cancellation of Erroneous Assessments  8.57
      • 6.  Statute of Limitations  8.58
    • D.  Liens and Successor Liability
      • 1.  Liens  8.59
      • 2.  Successor Liability  8.60
      • 3.  Liability of Corporate Officers  8.61
    • E.  Refunds and Overpayments
      • 1.  Claims for Credit or Refund of Overpayment  8.62
      • 2.  Notice of Denial of Claim  8.63
      • 3.  Reversal of Erroneous Denial  8.64
      • 4.  Recovery of Erroneous Refund  8.65
    • F.  Administrative Appellate Review
      • 1.  Review by Administrative Law Judge  8.66
      • 2.  Review of Jeopardy Assessments  8.67
      • 3.  Review by Unemployment Insurance Appeals Board  8.68
    • G.  Judicial Review  8.69
    • H.  Use of Information Obtained  8.70
      • 1.  Confidentiality  8.71
      • 2.  Purposes for Which Information May Be Used  8.72
        • a.  Exchange of Information With Other Governmental Agencies  8.73
        • b.  Exchange of Information With Law Enforcement Agencies and Others  8.74
  • IV.  CLAIMS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION BENEFITS
    • A.  “Unemployment” as Basis for Benefits  8.75
      • 1.  Distinctions Between Total Unemployment and Partial Unemployment  8.76
      • 2.  “Wages” for Purposes of Defining “Unemployed”  8.77
    • B.  Maximum Benefits Payable  8.78
      • 1.  “Benefit Year” Defined  8.79
      • 2.  “Base Period” Defined  8.80
    • C.  Conditions of Eligibility
      • 1.  Availability for Work  8.81
      • 2.  Search for Suitable Work  8.82
      • 3.  Requirement of 1-Week Waiting Period  8.83
    • D.  Factors Not Affecting Eligibility
      • 1.  Physical or Mental Illness or Injury  8.84
      • 2.  Court-Related Duties  8.85
      • 3.  Emergency Hospitalization  8.86
      • 4.  Student Status  8.87
      • 5.  Death in Immediate Family  8.88
      • 6.  Unexpired Leave Time on Discharge From Armed Services  8.89
    • E.  Ineligible Persons
      • 1.  Aliens  8.90
      • 2.  Strikers  8.91
      • 3.  Recipients of Temporary Total Disability Indemnity  8.92
      • 4.  Persons Convicted of Making False Statements  8.93
    • F.  Disqualification for Voluntarily Quitting or Discharge for Misconduct  8.94
      • 1.  Presumption of Nondisqualifying Conduct  8.95
      • 2.  Definition of “Most Recent Work”  8.96
      • 3.  Voluntarily Leaving Work Without Good Cause
        • a.  What Constitutes “Voluntary” Leaving  8.97
        • b.  “Constructive” Quitting  8.98
        • c.  “Good Cause” Defined  8.99
        • d.  Employee’s Duty to Preserve Employment Relationship  8.100
        • e.  Situations Deemed “Good Cause” by Statute
          • (1)  Compulsory Retirement  8.101
          • (2)  Election to be Laid Off Under Collective Bargaining Agreement  8.102
          • (3)  Deprivation of Equal Employment Opportunities  8.103
          • (4)  Sexual Harassment  8.104
          • (5)  Accompanying Spouse or Domestic Partner to Another Location  8.105
          • (6)  Domestic Violence Abuse  8.106
        • f.  Application of Good-Cause Principles to Factual Examples
          • (1)  Religious or Ethical Reasons  8.107
          • (2)  Concerns for Health, Safety, or Morals  8.108
          • (3)  Dissatisfaction With Earnings  8.109
          • (4)  Transportation Difficulties  8.110
          • (5)  Attendance at School  8.111
          • (6)  Domestic Circumstances  8.112
          • (7)  Other Reasons  8.113
      • 4.  Discharge for Misconduct; What Constitutes “Misconduct”  8.114
        • a.  Requirement That Misconduct Be Connected With Most Recent Work  8.115
        • b.  Situations Giving Rise to Issues of Misconduct  8.116
      • 5.  Duration of Disqualification From Eligibility to Receive Benefits
        • a.  Misconduct or Voluntary Quit  8.117
        • b.  Refusal of Suitable Work  8.118
        • c.  False Statements  8.119
        • d.  Intoxication  8.120
    • G.  Effect of Remuneration During Period of Unemployment on Amount of Benefits
      • 1.  Reduction of Benefits by Amount of Retirement Pay  8.121
      • 2.  Employer Payments to Supplement Unemployment Compensation; Severance or Dismissal Pay  8.122
      • 3.  Vacation Pay  8.123
      • 4.  Holiday Pay  8.124
      • 5.  Sick Pay  8.125
    • H.  Claims Procedure
      • 1.  Types of Claims  8.126
        • a.  New Claim  8.127
        • b.  Continued Claim  8.128
        • c.  Partial Claim  8.129
        • d.  Additional Claim  8.130
        • e.  Reopened Claim  8.131
      • 2.  Steps in EDD’s Processing of Claims  8.132
        • a.  Filing of Claim and Notice to Last Employer  8.133
        • b.  Computation of Benefits  8.134
          • (1)  Notice of Computation  8.135
          • (2)  Protest of Computation  8.136
        • c.  Continued Claim Statement  8.137
        • d.  Determination of Eligibility and Notice of Determination  8.138
        • e.  Periodic Eligibility Review  8.139
        • f.  Attachment of Unemployment Benefits for Child Support  8.139A
      • 3.  Reconsideration of Determinations or Computations  8.140
    • I.  Payment of Claims  8.141
    • J.  Liability for Overpayment of Benefits  8.142
      • 1.  Notice of Overpayment and Assessment Determination  8.143
      • 2.  Appeal of Overpayment  8.144
      • 3.  Recovery of Overpayments
        • a.  Civil Action by the EDD  8.145
        • b.  Summary Judgment  8.146
        • c.  Offset  8.147
      • 4.  Penalties  8.148
    • K.  Invalidity of Waiver or Assignment of Benefits  8.149
  • V.  ADMINISTRATIVE APPEALS AND JUDICIAL REVIEW  8.150
    • A.  Appeals to Administrative Law Judge  8.151
    • B.  Appeals to Appeals Board
      • 1.  Appeals Procedure  8.152
      • 2.  Payment of Benefits During Appeals Procedure  8.153
        • a.  Before Administrative Law Judge Decision  8.154
        • b.  After Administrative Law Judge Decision  8.155
    • C.  Judicial Review of Appeals Board Decisions  8.156
      • 1.  Review of Benefit Determination by Administrative Mandate Proceedings  8.157
      • 2.  Scope of Judicial Review  8.158
  • VI.  CLAIMS FOR DISABILITY INSURANCE BENEFITS
    • A.  Governing Law  8.159
      • 1.  Statutes and Regulations  8.160
      • 2.  Case Law  8.161
    • B.  Nature and Source of Disability Benefits  8.162
      • 1.  State Disability Plan  8.163
      • 2.  Voluntary Plans  8.164
      • 3.  Elective Coverage  8.165
    • C.  What Constitutes a Disability  8.166
    • D.  Eligibility for Benefits  8.167
      • 1.  Departmental Medical Examination  8.168
      • 2.  Other Conditions of Eligibility  8.169
      • 3.  Physician and Practitioner Defined  8.170
    • E.  Ineligibility for Benefits
      • 1.  Employee Covered by Approved Voluntary Plan  8.171
      • 2.  Entitlement to Unemployment Compensation Benefits  8.172
      • 3.  Entitlement to Workers’ Compensation Benefits  8.173
        • a.  When Rate Is Less Than Disability Insurance Rate  8.174
        • b.  Payment of Disability Insurance Benefits While Workers’ Compensation Claim Is Pending  8.175
    • F.  Disqualifications
      • 1.  Alcoholism or Drug Addiction  8.176
      • 2.  Incarceration  8.177
      • 3.  Disqualification Under Certain Unemployment Compensation Provisions  8.178
    • G.  Amount of Benefits
      • 1.  Weekly Benefit Amount  8.179
      • 2.  Base Period  8.180
      • 3.  Maximum Benefits During One Disability Period  8.181
      • 4.  Reduction of Benefit Amount by Wages Received  8.182
      • 5.  Waiting Period  8.183
      • 6.  Disability Insurance Weekly Benefits  8.184
    • H.  Claim Procedures
      • 1.  Filing and Notice of Claim  8.185
      • 2.  Late Filing  8.186
      • 3.  Determination and Notice of Determination  8.187
      • 4.  Computation and Notice of Benefit Amount  8.188
      • 5.  Protest of Computation  8.189
      • 6.  Reconsideration  8.190
      • 7.  Continued Claims  8.191
      • 8.  Overpayments and Penalties  8.192
    • I.  Administrative Review  8.193
    • J.  Judicial Review  8.194
  • VII.  FAMILY TEMPORARY DISABILITY INSURANCE  8.195

9

Notice-Posting, Training, and Recordkeeping Requirements

Margaret Hart Edwards

Michael Pedhirney

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  9.1
  • II.  POSTING REQUIREMENTS  9.2
    • A.  Postings Related to Wages, Hours, and Working Conditions
      • 1.  Federal Law
        • a.  Fair Labor Standards Act  9.3
        • b.  Davis-Bacon Act  9.4
        • c.  Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act  9.5
        • d.  Service Contract Act  9.6
        • e.  Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act  9.7
        • f.  Shipping Act  9.8
        • g.  American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009  9.8A
        • h.  National Labor Relations Act  9.8B
      • 2.  California Law
        • a.  Payday Notice  9.9
        • b.  Security for Payroll: Certain Occupations  9.10
        • c.  Labor Disturbances  9.11
        • d.  Wage Orders  9.12
        • e.  California MW-2017 Minimum Wage Poster  9.13
        • f.  California Sick Leave  9.14
    • B.  LHWCA and Workers’ Compensation Postings
      • 1.  Federal Longshore and Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act  9.15
      • 2.  California Workers’ Compensation Act  9.16
    • C.  Occupational Safety and Health Postings  9.17
      • 1.  General Posting Requirements Under Cal/OSHA
        • a.  Overall Safety and Health Obligations in the Workplace  9.18
        • b.  Hazardous Substances  9.19
        • c.  Posting of Citations  9.20
        • d.  Posting After Investigation of Accident  9.21
        • e.  Notice of Exposure  9.22
        • f.  Annual Summary  9.23
        • g.  Notice of Unsafe Condition  9.24
        • h.  Notice of Access to Medical and Exposure Records  9.25
        • i.  Permits  9.26
        • j.  Injury and Illness Prevention Program Code of Safe Practices  9.27
        • k.  Emergency Action Plan and Telephone Numbers  9.28
        • l.  Fire Protection Plan  9.29
        • m.  Smoking Prohibition  9.30
      • 2.  Chart: Specific Posting Requirements for Certain Industries or Activities  9.31
    • D.  Antidiscrimination Law Postings
      • 1.  Federal Law
        • a.  Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII  9.32
        • b.  Age Discrimination in Employment Act  9.33
        • c.  Americans With Disabilities Act  9.34
      • 2.  California Fair Employment and Housing Act  9.35
    • E.  Affirmative Action Notice Postings
      • 1.  Under Executive Order No. 11246  9.36
      • 2.  For Vietnam Era Veterans  9.37
      • 3.  For Individuals With Disabilities  9.38
    • F.  Leave-of-Absence Postings
      • 1.  Family and Medical Leave Act  9.39
      • 2.  California Family Rights Act  9.40
      • 3.  Pregnancy Leave  9.41
      • 4.  Family Temporary Disability Leave  9.42
      • 5.  State Disability Insurance and Unemployment  9.43
      • 6.  Military Leave  9.44
    • G.  Miscellaneous Postings
      • 1.  Federal Law
        • a.  Posting of ERISA Plan “Notice to Interested Parties” Required by IRS  9.45
        • b.  Employee Polygraph Protection Act  9.46
        • c.  Drug-Free Workplace Act  9.47
        • d.  Union Elections  9.48
        • e.  Intention to Use Foreign Nationals  9.49
      • 2.  State Law
        • a.  Time Off to Vote  9.50
        • b.  California Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1990  9.51
        • c.  Organizing Agricultural Workers  9.52
        • d.  Whistleblower Hotline  9.53
        • e.  Sex Trafficking  9.53A
      • 3.  Local Ordinances  9.54
  • III.  TRAINING REQUIREMENTS  9.55
    • A.  Ethics Training Under Sarbanes-Oxley and Foreign Corrupt Practices Act  9.56
    • B.  Drug-Free Workplace Act Training
      • 1.  Federal Drug-Free Workplace Act  9.57
      • 2.  California Drug-Free Workplace Act  9.58
    • C.  Safety Training
      • 1.  Federal OSHA  9.59
      • 2.  California OSHA  9.60
    • D.  Discrimination Prevention Training
      • 1.  California Sexual Harassment Prevention Training  9.61
      • 2.  Harassment Training for Farm Labor Contractors   9.61A
      • 3.  Protections for Janitorial Service Workers  9.61B
      • 4.  Human Trafficking Awareness Training for Hotel Employees   9.61C
      • 5.  Discrimination Prevention Training Generally  9.62
      • 6.  As Part of Affirmative Defense to Federal Claims  9.63
      • 7.  As Part of Affirmative Defense to California Law Discrimination Claims  9.64
      • 8.  As Defense Against Punitive Damages Under Federal Law  9.65
      • 9.  Affirmative Action Training Requirements  9.65A
    • E.  Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act  9.66
  • IV.  RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS  9.67
    • A.  Records Relating to Wages, Hours, and Working Conditions
      • 1.  Federal Law
        • a.  Fair Labor Standards Act  9.68
        • b.  Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act  9.69
      • 2.  California Law
        • a.  Employee Wage Records  9.70
        • b.  Public Works Contractors  9.71
        • c.  Industrial Homeworkers  9.72
        • d.  Garment Manufacturing  9.73
        • e.  Car Wash and Polishing  9.73A
        • f.  Janitorial Service Workers  9.73B
        • g.  Records for Unemployment Insurance Purposes  9.74
        • h.  Gratuities  9.75
        • i.  Employment of Minors  9.76
        • j.  Wage Orders  9.77
        • k.  Deductions From Cash Payment of Wages  9.78
    • B.  Occupational Safety and Health Records
      • 1.  Federal OSHA Form 300  9.79
      • 2.  California Occupational Safety and Health Act  9.80
        • a.  Monitoring Exposure to Hazardous Materials  9.81
        • b.  Training Records  9.82
        • c.  Records of Illnesses and Injuries  9.83
        • d.  Records of Workers’ Compensation Claims
          • (1)  Claim File  9.84
          • (2)  Claim Log  9.85
    • C.  Records Relating to Antidiscrimination Laws
      • 1.  Federal Law
        • a.  Records of Title VII Actions  9.86
        • b.  Records Required by ADEA  9.87
        • c.  Records Required by ADA  9.88
        • d.  Records Required by GINA  9.88A
      • 2.  California Law
        • a.  Records Required by FEHA  9.89
        • b.  Records for Monitoring Wage Discrimination on Basis of Gender, Race, or Ethnicity  9.90
    • D.  Affirmative Action Records Required of Government Contractors
      • 1.  Records Relating to Required Affirmative Action Programs  9.91
      • 2.  Records Relating to Veterans and Individuals With Disabilities  9.92
    • E.  Records Relating to Family and Medical Leave
      • 1.  FMLA Requirements  9.93
      • 2.  CFRA Requirements  9.94
    • F.  Tax Records
      • 1.  Federal Law
        • a.  Records Relating to Taxable Income  9.95
        • b.  Income Tax Withholding Records  9.96
        • c.  Federal Unemployment Tax Records  9.97
        • d.  FICA Contributions Records  9.98
      • 2.  California Income Tax Records  9.99
    • G.  Miscellaneous Recordkeeping Requirements
      • 1.  Federal Law
        • a.  Records Related to Immigration Law  9.100
        • b.  Polygraph Test Records  9.101
        • c.  Supply Contractor Records (Walsh-Healey Act)  9.102
        • d.  Service Contractor Records (Service Contract Act)  9.103
        • e.  Contractor Records (Davis-Bacon Act)  9.104
        • f.  Records on Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers  9.105
        • g.  Shipping Records  9.106
        • h.  Records Relating to ERISA Benefits  9.107
        • i.  Bioterrorism Preparedness Act  9.108
        • j.  Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003  9.109
        • k.  HIPAA Records  9.110
      • 2.  California Law
        • a.  California Public Work Contracts  9.111
        • b.  Specialized Employers  9.112
    • H.  Additional Recordkeeping Recommendations
      • 1.  Chart: Retention of Personnel Records  9.113
      • 2.  Records Not to Be Kept in Personnel File  9.114
      • 3.  Spoliation of Evidence  9.115
    • I.  Chart: Summary of Posting Requirements  9.116
    • J.  Chart: Summary of Recordkeeping and Retention Requirements  9.117

10

Employee Handbooks

Denise N. Brucker

Lisa A. Frank

William B. Sailer

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  10.1
    • B.  Employee Handbooks Distinguished From Personnel Policy Manuals  10.2
    • C.  Advantages and Disadvantages  10.3
  • II.  LEGAL EFFECT OF EMPLOYEE HANDBOOKS
    • A.  Effect of Employer’s Policies on Employment Contract  10.4
    • B.  At-Will Disclaimers and Employee Handbooks  10.5
      • 1.  Contractual Effect of Handbook Receipt  10.6
        • a.  Agreement to At-Will Employment  10.7
        • b.  Disclaimer of Other Agreements  10.8
      • 2.  Form: Employee Handbook Receipt Acknowledgment  10.9
  • III.  POLICIES TO INCLUDE IN THE EMPLOYEE HANDBOOK
    • A.  Assessing Current Policies for Inclusion in Handbook  10.10
    • B.  Checklist: Potential Inclusions  10.11
    • C.  Introductory Comments  10.12
    • D.  Equal Employment Opportunity
      • 1.  Compliance With Statutory Prohibitions  10.13
      • 2.  Form: Equal Opportunity Employment Policy  10.14
    • E.  Employment At Will
      • 1.  Reaffirmation of Policy  10.15
      • 2.  Form: At-Will Employment Policy  10.16
    • F.  Introductory Period
      • 1.  May Create Implied-in-Fact Contract of Employment  10.17
      • 2.  Form: Introductory Period Policy  10.18
    • G.  Policy Against Discrimination, Harassment and Retaliation
      • 1.  Governing Law  10.19
      • 2.  Guidelines for Drafting a Policy Against Discrimination, Harassment, and Retaliation  10.20
    • H.  Dispute Resolution Policy
      • 1.  Advisability of Inclusion; Caveats  10.21
      • 2.  Guidelines for Drafting Dispute Resolution Policy  10.22
    • I.  Confidential Information  10.23
    • J.  Inspection of Work Stations, Personal Belongings, or Electronic Data  10.24
    • K.  Pay Policies and Practices
      • 1.  Employee Classifications  10.25
      • 2.  Work Hours, Payroll, and Other Issues  10.26
    • L.  Employee Benefits  10.27
    • M.  Leave Policies  10.28
    • N.  Employment of Relatives  10.29
    • O.  Regulation of Outside Employment  10.30
    • P.  Standards of Performance and Conduct
      • 1.  Topics to be Covered in Handbook
        • a.  Punctuality and Attendance  10.31
        • b.  Solicitation Rules  10.32
        • c.  Dress and Grooming Standards  10.33
        • d.  Customer Relations  10.34
        • e.  Use of Drugs and Alcohol  10.35
        • f.  Performance Reviews and Evaluations  10.36
      • 2.  General Considerations Regarding Standards of Performance, Discipline, and Termination  10.37
        • a.  Specific Drafting Guidelines  10.38
        • b.  Form: Performance Standards; Misconduct, Discipline, and Termination  10.39
    • Q.  References  10.40
    • R.  Policies Relating to Workplace Safety and Health
      • 1.  Workplace Safety Program
        • a.  Required Elements  10.41
        • b.  Guidelines for Drafting Workplace Safety Policy  10.42
      • 2.  Workplace Violence
        • a.  OSHA Guidelines  10.43
        • b.  Drafting Workplace Violence Policy  10.44
      • 3.  Smoking in the Workplace  10.45
      • 4.  Cell Phone and Wireless Devices Policy  10.46

11

Trade Secrets Protection and Unfair Competition

Sean A. O’Brien

  • I.  IMPORTANCE OF PROTECTING TRADE SECRETS AND PREVENTING UNLAWFUL COMPETITIVE BUSINESS PRACTICES  11.1
  • II.  FEDERAL DEFEND TRADE SECRETS ACT OF 2016; IMPACT ON EXISTING STATE TRADE SECRETS LAW   11.1A
  • III.  THE UNIFORM TRADE SECRETS ACT  11.2
    • A.  Defining Trade Secret Under UTSA  11.3
      • 1.  Information That Has Economic Value Because Not Generally Known
        • a.  In General  11.4
        • b.  Customer List/Information Cases  11.5
        • c.  Professional or New Job Announcement Exception  11.5A
        • d.  Special Rules for Financial Advisors and Brokers Subject to FINRA: The “Protocol for Broker Recruiting”  11.5B
      • 2.  Reasonable Efforts to Maintain Secrecy  11.6
      • 3.  TROs and Preliminary Injunctions—A Word of Caution [Deleted]  11.6A
    • B.  Defining Misappropriation Under UTSA; How Misappropriation Can Occur and Who Can Be Liable  11.7
      • 1.  Requirement That Misappropriating Party Actually “Use” or “Disclose” Trade Secret  11.7A
      • 2.  Reverse Engineering Not Misappropriation  11.8
      • 3.  Avoiding Misappropriation When Hiring Competitor’s Employees  11.9
      • 4.  Inevitable Disclosure Doctrine  11.10
      • 5.  Obtaining Personal Jurisdiction Over Out-of-State Defendants [Deleted]  11.11
    • C.  Loss of Trade Secret Protection Through Public Disclosure  11.12
      • 1.  Through Publication on the Internet or in Trade Journals  11.13
      • 2.  Through Patent Applications  11.14
      • 3.  Under Copyright Laws  11.15
      • 4.  Disclosure to Governmental Agencies Under Disclosure Laws  11.16
      • 5.  Disclosure Through Licensing Agreements  11.16A
      • 6.  Inadvertent Disclosure in Litigation or to Third Parties  11.17
      • 7.  Form: Protective Language for Submissions  11.18
    • D.  Security Measures to Protect Trade Secrets  11.19
      • 1.  When Hiring or Contracting With Another
        • a.  Areas of Concern  11.20
        • b.  Use of Indemnity Agreements  11.20A
        • c.  Conflicts of Interest  11.20B
        • d.  Form: Sample Offer or Hire Letter to New Employee  11.21
        • e.  Safeguard Measures  11.22
      • 2.  During Period of Employment or Contractual Relationship  11.23
        • a.  Use of Confidentiality, Nondisclosure, and Antisolicitation Agreements  11.24
        • b.  Identification of Trade Secret Information  11.25
        • c.  Implementation of Plant and Workplace Security Procedures  11.26
        • d.  Use of Confidential Stamps and Legends  11.27
        • e.  Use of Confidentiality or Secrecy Agreements With Customers, Clients, and Third Parties  11.28
        • f.  Information Inadvertently Disclosed to Others  11.29
        • g.  Protecting Digital or Electronically Stored Information; Computer Database Security Measures  11.30
        • h.  Importance of Implementing “BYOD” Policies  11.30A
        • i.  Other Technological Issues  11.31
        • j.  Forms for Ensuring Confidentiality and Nondisclosure
          • (1)  Form: Visitor Log-In  11.32
          • (2)  Form: Receipt Acknowledgment  11.33
          • (3)  Form: Confidentiality Legend  11.34
          • (4)  Form: Sample Approval of Information Release  11.35
          • (5)  Form: Notice for Facsimile Transmission  11.36
      • 3.  When Terminating Employment or Contractual Relationship  11.37
        • a.  Exit Interview: Reaffirmation of Confidentiality Obligations Through “Termination Certificate”  11.38
        • b.  Form: Employee Termination Certificate  11.38A
        • c.  Letter to Exiting Employee’s New Employer and to Existing Customers  11.39
        • d.  Form: Letter to Employee Confirming Exit Interview  11.40
        • e.  Form: Letter to New Employer  11.41
      • 4.  Investigation of Employees and Privacy Concerns  11.41A
        • a.  Eavesdropping, Recording Telephone Conversations, Video Surveillance, and Use of GPS Tracking Devices  11.41B
        • b.  Monitoring and Retrieving Computer Data or Accessing Employee’s Private Social Media or E-mail Accounts  11.41C
        • c.  Discovery From Third Parties Into Social Media Sites and Private Internet or “Cloud” Accounts  11.41D
        • d.  Searching Property, Offices, and Trash  11.41E
        • e.  Interrogating Persons; Physical Searches  11.41F
        • f.  Pretexting: Obtaining Personal Information Through False Pretenses  11.41G
        • g.  Use of Private Investigators  11.41H
        • h.  Form: Company Policy for Use of Company Computers, Internet, E-Mail, and Personal or Cloud-Based Electronic Storage Devices   11.41I
    • E.  Remedies Available to Plaintiff Whose Trade Secrets Have Been Misappropriated  11.42
    • F.  Recovery of Attorney Fees in Trade Secret Litigation  11.42A
    • G.  TROs, Preliminary Injunctions, and Expedited Discovery: A Word of Caution  11.42B
    • H.  Asserting Claims for Trade Secret Misappropriation in Litigation: The Compulsory Counterclaim Trap for the Unwary  11.42C
    • I.  Obtaining Personal Jurisdiction Over Out-of-State Defendants in Trade Secret/Unfair Competition Litigation  11.42D
    • J.  Use and Enforceability of Employment-Related Arbitration Contracts in Trade Secret Litigation  11.42E
    • K.  Protecting Against Unwanted Disclosure During Litigation
      • 1.  Disclosure of Trade Secrets at Outset of Case
        • a.  Trade Secret Must Be Identified With Reasonable Particularity  11.43
        • b.  Requisite Degree of Specificity  11.43A
      • 2.  Protective Orders  11.44
      • 3.  Sealing of Court Records  11.44A
      • 4.  Trade Secret Privilege  11.45
      • 5.  Preservation of Trade Secrets and Evidence  11.46
      • 6.  Managing the Burden and Expense of Electronic Discovery  11.46A
      • 7.  Protocols for Conducting Forensic Discovery of Electronic/Digital Stored Information  11.46B
    • L.  Insurance Coverage for Defense of Trade Secret Misappropriation and Unfair Competition Claims  11.47
    • M.  Employer’s Duty to Defend and Indemnify the Newly Hired Employee  11.47A
  • IV.  EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS
    • A.  Overview of Trade Secret and Invention Ownership Law  11.48
    • B.  Contractual Assignments of Employee Inventions  11.49
    • C.  Enforcement of Ownership Rights  11.50
  • V.  CONTRACTUAL RESTRAINTS ON COMPETITION AND THEIR ENFORCEABILITY  11.51
    • A.  Covenants Not to Compete  11.52
    • B.  Attempts to Circumvent California’s Strong Public Policy Against Covenants Not to Compete
      • 1.  “Sham” Employee Stock Sale or Repurchase Transactions  11.53
      • 2.  Postemployment “Forfeiture” of Benefits  11.54
      • 3.  Use of Choice of Law, Forum Selection, or Contractual Arbitration Clauses  11.55
        • a.  Choice of Law  11.55A
        • b.  Forum Selection Clauses and Their Enforceability  11.55B
        • c.  Contractual Arbitration  11.55C
      • 4.  Use of Narrowly Drawn Noncompete Provisions  11.56
    • C.  Antisolicitation Agreements
      • 1.  Employee Solicitation and No-Hire/No-Poaching Agreements  11.57
      • 2.  Customer Solicitation  11.58
    • D.  Confidentiality Agreements and Covenants Not to Disclose  11.59
    • E.  Remedies for Breach of Contractual Restraints  11.60
  • VI.  STATUTORY UNFAIR COMPETITION CLAIMS AND BUSINESS-RELATED TORTS  11.61
    • A.  Preemption by UTSA  11.61A
    • B.  Statutory Unfair Competition (Bus & P C §§17200–17210)  11.62
    • C.  Criminal Sanctions for Theft of Trade Secrets  11.63
    • D.  Common Law Misappropriation  11.64
    • E.  Breach of Confidence  11.65
    • F.  Inducing Breach of Contract; Interference With Prospective Business and Economic Advantage  11.65A
      • 1.  Tortious Interference With Contractual Relations  11.66
      • 2.  Tortious Interference With Prospective Economic or Business Relations  11.67
    • G.  Breach of Fiduciary Duty and Duty of Loyalty  11.68
      • 1.  Competing With Company  11.69
      • 2.  Corporate Opportunity Doctrine  11.70
      • 3.  Constructive Fraud Based on Fiduciary Relationship  11.71
    • H.  Trade Libel  11.72
    • I.  Conversion of Personal Property  11.73
    • J.  Civil Remedies for Theft, Destruction, or Misuse of Computer Data  11.74
    • K.  Civil Conspiracy and Aiding and Abetting Liability  11.74A
  • VII.  EMPLOYEE AGREEMENT: PROPRIETARY INFORMATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF INVENTIONS
    • A.  General Comment  11.75
    • B.  Form: Short Agreement for Protection of Proprietary Information  11.76
    • C.  Form: Long Agreement for Protection of Proprietary Information and Assignment of Inventions
      • 1.  Form: Introductory Provisions  11.77
      • 2.  Form: Definitions  11.78
      • 3.  Form: Duty of Trust and Confidentiality  11.79
      • 4.  Form: No Disclosure or Misappropriation of Proprietary Information  11.80
      • 5.  Provisions Regarding Invention Assignment
        • a.  Form: Assignment of Proprietary Information and Inventions  11.81
        • b.  Form: Proprietary Right Registrations; Execution of Necessary Documents  11.82
        • c.  Form: Exception to Assignment of Inventions  11.83
        • d.  Form: Disclosure of Inventions and Maintenance of Records  11.84
      • 6.  Form: Provisions Regarding Noncompetition and Nonsolicitation
        • a.  Form: Conflicting Employment or Business Opportunities  11.85
        • b.  Form: Nonsolicitation of Employees  11.86
        • c.  Form: Nonsolicitation of Customers  11.87
        • d.  Form: Noncompetition  11.88
      • 7.  Provisions Regarding Obligations on Termination of Employment
        • a.  Form: Returning Company Documents and Other Tangible Items  11.89
        • b.  Form: Reaffirmation of Obligations on Termination of Employment  11.90
        • c.  Form: Notification to New Employer  11.91
      • 8.  Miscellaneous Provisions
        • a.  Form: Representations and Warranties  11.92
        • b.  Form: At-Will Employment  11.93
        • c.  Form: Equitable Remedies  11.94
        • d.  Form: Choice of Law  11.95
        • e.  Form: Enforceability and Severability  11.96
        • f.  Form: No Waiver  11.97
        • g.  Form: Attorney Fees  11.98
        • h.  Form: Amendment and Modification  11.99
        • i.  Form: Entire Agreement  11.100
        • j.  Form: Successors and Assigns  11.101
        • k.  Form: Word Usage  11.102
        • l.  Form: Exhibits  11.103
        • m.  Form: Effective Date  11.104
      • 9.  Form: Conclusion  11.105
      • 10.  Form: Execution  11.106
      • 11.  Form: Exhibit A—California Labor Code §2870  11.107
      • 12.  Form: Exhibit B—Existing Inventions and Improvements  11.108
      • 13.  Form: Exhibit C—Termination Certificate  11.109

12

Workplace Safety

Fred Walter

Lisa Prince

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  12.1
  • II.  NEW AND NOTEWORTHY  12.1A
  • III.  FEDERAL OVERVIEW
    • A.  Applicable Law: The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970
      • 1.  General Mandate to Employers; Historical Context  12.2
      • 2.  Jurisdiction  12.3
      • 3.  Federal Preemption; Cal/OSHA  12.4
    • B.  Navigating the Federal OSHA  12.5
      • 1.  Rulemaking  12.6
      • 2.  Enforcement  12.7
      • 3.  Adjudication and Administrative Appeals  12.8
        • a.  Appeals of Administrative Hearing Officer’s Decisions  12.9
        • b.  Appeals of Commission Decisions  12.10
  • IV.  NAVIGATING CAL/OSHA
    • A.  Applicable Law: California Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1973
      • 1.  General Mandate to Employers  12.11
      • 2.  Scope of Act  12.12
      • 3.  Regulatory and Administrative Scheme  12.13
    • B.  Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board
      • 1.  Authority and Composition  12.14
      • 2.  Adoption of Standards  12.15
      • 3.  Employer-Requested Variances
        • a.  Permanent Variance  12.16
          • (1)  Applying for Interim Variance [Deleted]  12.17
          • (2)  Before Hearing  12.18
            • (a)  Disqualification of Hearing Officer  12.19
            • (b)  Prehearing Motions, Discovery, and Evidence  12.20
          • (3)  Hearing Procedure  12.21
            • (a)  Party Representation  12.22
            • (b)  Admission of Evidence During Hearing  12.23
            • (c)  Continuances and Defaults  12.24
          • (4)  Posthearing Procedure  12.25
        • b.  Requesting Temporary Variances  12.26
          • (1)  Hearings  12.27
          • (2)  Appeals of Temporary Variances  12.28
    • C.  The Division of Occupational Safety and Health  12.29
      • 1.  Investigations Following Workplace Injury, Illness, or Death
        • a.  Notification of Serious Injury or Illness or Death  12.30
        • b.  Complaints About the Workplace  12.31
          • (1)  Formal Complaints  12.31A
          • (2)  Informal Complaints  12.31B
          • (3)  Discrimination  12.31C
      • 2.  Bureau of Investigations  12.32
      • 3.  Workplace Inspections
        • a.  Basis for Inspections  12.33
        • b.  Inspection Process  12.34
        • c.  Pros and Cons of Insisting on a Warrant  12.35
      • 4.  Citations
        • a.  Issuance of Serious Citation (1BY Letter)  12.35A
        • b.  Grounds for Issuance  12.36
        • c.  Multiemployer Worksite Liability  12.37
          • (1)  Exposing Employer Defense  12.37A
          • (2)  Controlling Employer "Due Diligence” Defense  12.37B
        • d.  Types and Degrees of Violations: Regulatory Definitions
          • (1)  Willful Violation  12.38
          • (2)  Repeat Violation  12.39
          • (3)  Serious Violation  12.40
          • (4)  General Violation  12.41
          • (5)  Regulatory Violation  12.42
        • e.  Notice in Lieu of Citation  12.43
        • f.  Information Memorandum  12.44
        • g.  Orders and Special Orders
          • (1)  Temporary Restraining Orders  12.45
          • (2)  Order Prohibiting Use  12.46
            • (a)  Notice Procedure  12.47
            • (b)  Contesting Order  12.48
          • (3)  Special Orders  12.49
      • 5.  Order to Take Special Action  12.50
      • 6.  Posting Requirements  12.51
      • 7.  Civil Penalties
        • a.  Service of Notice of Proposed Penalty  12.52
        • b.  Amounts of Civil Penalties  12.53
          • (1)  Basis for Assessing Penalty Amounts  12.54
          • (2)  Penalty Adjustment: Abatement Credit and Waiver  12.55
          • (3)  Chart: Violations Subject to Fixed Penalties or Mandatory Minimums  12.56
        • c.  Abatement  12.57
        • d.  Failure to Pay Civil Penalties  12.58
      • 8.  Criminal Penalties  12.59
        • a.  Summary: Criminal Liability Under Cal/OSHA  12.60
        • b.  Corporate Criminal Liability Act  12.61
  • V.  APPEALING CAL/OSHA CITATIONS
    • A.  Filing an Appeal
      • 1.  California Occupational Safety and Health Appeals Board  12.62
      • 2.  Initiating Appeal  12.62A
    • B.  Appealable Issues and Posting Requirements  12.63
    • C.  Expedited Hearing Process  12.63A
    • D.  Prehearing Procedure  12.64
    • E.  Settlement  12.65
    • F.  Mandatory Settlement Conference [Deleted]  12.65A
    • G.  Discovery  12.66
    • H.  The Hearing  12.67
      • 1.  Representation, Evidence, Oral and Written Argument  12.68
      • 2.  Failure to Appear  12.69
      • 3.  Division’s Burden  12.70
    • I.  Defenses to Citations  12.71
      • 1.  Independent Employee Act  12.72
      • 2.  Unforeseeable Isolated Employee Act  12.73
      • 3.  Void for Vagueness  12.74
      • 4.  Exposing Employer Defense  12.75
      • 5.  Logical Time Not Yet Reached  12.75A
    • J.  Findings and Order  12.75B
    • K.  Petition for Reconsideration  12.76
      • 1.  Grounds for Reconsideration  12.77
      • 2.  Pleadings, Service Requirements, Answer  12.78
      • 3.  Disposition of Petition  12.79
    • L.  Appealing an OSHAB Decision
      • 1.  Prerequisite of Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies  12.80
      • 2.  Application for Writ of Mandate  12.81
      • 3.  Review by Superior Court  12.82
    • M.  Costs  12.83
  • VI.  INJURY AND ILLNESS PREVENTION PROGRAMS
    • A.  Overview  12.84
    • B.  Requirements
      • 1.  Generally  12.85
      • 2.  Recordkeeping Requirements  12.86
      • 3.  Employers With Fewer Than 20 Employees  12.87
      • 4.  Communicating With Employees  12.88
      • 5.  Joint Labor-Management Safety and Health Committees  12.89
      • 6.  Procedures for Enforcement of IIPP  12.90
      • 7.  Chart: Summary of Employer Duties Under the IIPP and Other Laws  12.91
      • 8.  Trade Secret Preservation When Employee Requests Medical Records  12.92
      • 9.  IIPP Compliance Checklist  12.93
  • VII.  HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES INFORMATION AND TRAINING ACT
    • A.  Navigating the Act  12.94
      • 1.  Who Is Covered  12.95
      • 2.  When It Applies  12.96
      • 3.  Exemptions From the Act  12.97
    • B.  Safety Data Sheets (SDS)  12.98
      • 1.  Information Required  12.99
      • 2.  Exceptions to Providing SDS  12.100
      • 3.  California Hazard Communication Standard (8 Cal Code Regs §5194)  12.101
        • a.  Hazard Communication Program  12.102
        • b.  Duty to Collect SDSs for Hazardous Substances  12.103
        • c.  Notice to Employees  12.104
        • d.  Form: Notice to Employees of Right to SDSs  12.105
        • e.  Employee Training  12.106
        • f.  Employer Labeling  12.107
  • VIII.  CAL/OSHA FORM 300 LOG AND ANNUAL SUMMARY
    • A.  Log of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses  12.108
      • 1.  Recordable Illnesses and Injuries  12.109
      • 2.  Contents of Cal/OSHA Form 300  12.110
      • 3.  Completing the Injury and Illness Incident Report (Cal/OSHA Form 301)  12.111
    • B.  Annual Summary: Cal/OSHA Form 300A  12.112
    • C.  Reporting Occupational Injury and Illness  12.113
  • IX.  SUMMARY OF EMPLOYEE SAFETY AND HEALTH RIGHTS  12.114
  • X.  OTHER WORKPLACE HEALTH AND SAFETY ISSUES
    • A.  Smoking in the Workplace  12.115
      • 1.  Employer Duties  12.116
      • 2.  Places of Employment  12.116A
      • 3.  Places of Employment Not Covered  12.117
      • 4.  Applicable Penalties  12.118
    • B.  Prevention of Workplace Violence
      • 1.  Workplace Violence Prevention in Healthcare  12.118A
      • 2.  Other Theories of Liability  12.119
      • 3.  Workplace Violence Safety Act  12.120
      • 4.  Preventive Measures  12.121
    • C.  Workplace Ergonomic Requirements
      • 1.  Application  12.122
      • 2.  Required Program  12.123
  • XI.  USE OF CAL/OSHA CITATIONS IN CIVIL LITIGATION  12.124

13

Workplace Privacy

Everett F. Meiners

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  13.1
  • II.  CONSTITUTIONAL AND COMMON-LAW PRIVACY ISSUES
    • A.  United States Constitutional Privacy Protections  13.2
    • B.  California Constitutional Privacy Protections  13.3
    • C.  Common-Law Privacy Rights  13.4
      • 1.  Unreasonable Intrusion Into Private Affairs  13.5
      • 2.  Public Disclosure of Private Facts About an Individual  13.6
      • 3.  False-Light Publicity  13.7
      • 4.  Unauthorized Appropriation of an Individual’s Name or Likeness  13.8
    • D.  Contractual Theories of Recovery  13.9
  • III.  SPECIFIC INFORMATION-GATHERING PRACTICES INVOLVING EMPLOYEE PRIVACY ISSUES
    • A.  Criminal History Inquiries
      • 1.  Inquiries Regarding Convictions  13.10
      • 2.  Arrests Versus Convictions  13.10A
      • 3.  Remedies  13.11
    • B.  Fingerprints and Photographs  13.12
    • C.  Polygraph Examinations
      • 1.  Federal Law
        • a.  Application of Employee Polygraph Protection Act  13.13
        • b.  Limited Use of Polygraph Procedure  13.14
        • c.  Remedies  13.15
      • 2.  California Law  13.16
      • 3.  Summary of Factors to Consider Before Implementing Polygraph Testing  13.17
      • 4.  Form: Polygraph Consent Form  13.18
    • D.  Voice Stress Analysis  13.19
    • E.  Psychological and Integrity Tests  13.20
    • F.  Eavesdropping on or Recording Confidential Communications
      • 1.  Federal Law  13.21
        • a.  Consent Exception  13.22
        • b.  Business Extension Exception  13.23
        • c.  Remedies  13.24
      • 2.  California Law
        • a.  Activities Prohibited  13.25
        • b.  Wiretapping  13.26
        • c.  Eavesdropping  13.27
        • d.  Penalties for Wiretapping or Eavesdropping  13.28
        • e.  Monitoring Employee’s Telephone Calls With the Public  13.29
    • G.  Retrieval of E-Mail, Voice-Mail, and Employee Information on Company Computer
      • 1.  Restrictions on Access  13.30
      • 2.  Internet Content  13.31
      • 3.  Social Media and Blogging  13.32
      • 4.  Form: Sample Computer/E-Mail Usage Policy  13.33
    • H.  Use of Two-Way Mirrors, Surveillance Cameras, and Audio Recording  13.34
    • I.  Investigations and Use of Private Investigators
      • 1.  Guidelines for Disciplinary Investigations  13.35
      • 2.  Potential Claims for False Imprisonment  13.36
      • 3.  Potential Claims for False Arrest  13.37
      • 4.  Use of Private Investigators  13.38
    • J.  Use of Undercover Shoppers  13.39
    • K.  Workplace Searches
      • 1.  Constitutional Limitations
        • a.  Public Employers  13.40
        • b.  Private Employers  13.41
      • 2.  Practical Advice About Searches  13.42
      • 3.  Form: Workplace Search Policy  13.43
    • L.  Medical and Physical Examinations
      • 1.  Limitation Under Constitutional Privacy Protection  13.44
      • 2.  Limitation Under Common-Law Privacy Protection  13.45
      • 3.  Potential Areas of Liability in Addition to Privacy Violation  13.46
      • 4.  Applicant Testing
        • a.  Constraints Imposed by FEHA and ADA  13.47
        • b.  HIV/AIDS Testing  13.48
    • M.  Medical Records
      • 1.  Federal Law  13.49
      • 2.  California Law
        • a.  Information Protected; Exceptions  13.50
        • b.  Written Authorization  13.51
        • c.  Waivers and Effect of Separate Policy or Agreement  13.52
        • d.  Penalties for Unauthorized Disclosure  13.53
        • e.  Special Rules for Health Care Providers and Insurance Transactions  13.54
        • f.  Employee Assistance Program Records: Confidentiality Versus Required Disclosure  13.55
        • g.  Access by Government Agencies  13.56
        • h.  Inspection by Employee Representatives; Union Inspection  13.57
    • N.  Drug and Alcohol Issues
      • 1.  Employee Participation in Rehabilitation Program  13.58
      • 2.  Drug Testing
        • a.  Drug-Free Workplace Acts for Public Employers and Contractors  13.59
        • b.  Types of Testing
          • (1)  Applicant Testing  13.60
          • (2)  Random Testing
            • (a)  Private Employers  13.61
            • (b)  Government Employees and Government Contractors  13.62
            • (c)  Automatic Postaccident Testing  13.63
          • (3)  Reasonable-Suspicion Testing  13.64
        • c.  Potential Areas of Liability  13.65
        • d.  Form: Sample Drug and Alcohol Policy  13.66
        • e.  Guidelines for Implementing Drug- and Alcohol-Testing Policy  13.67
        • f.  Employee Consent to Testing and Release of Results  13.68
        • g.  Form: Sample Consent to Drug and Alcohol Test  13.69
      • 3.  Adult Use of Marijuana and Compassionate Use Acts  13.69A
    • O.  Psychological Tests [Deleted]  13.70
    • P.  Checklist: Questions to Consider Before Implementing Any Form of Employee Testing  13.71
  • IV.  USE AND DISCLOSURE OF PRIVATE INFORMATION ABOUT EMPLOYEES
    • A.  Employee’s Right to Personnel Records  13.72
    • B.  Financial Records  13.73
    • C.  Disclosure to Persons Other Than Employee
      • 1.  Disclosure to Union  13.74
      • 2.  Disclosures to Prospective Employers  13.75
      • 3.  Voluntary Disclosure to Government Officials  13.76
      • 4.  Internal Dissemination of Personnel Records  13.77
      • 5.  Mandatory Disclosures
        • a.  Required Disclosures to Government  13.78
        • b.  Subpoena Duces Tecum  13.79
    • D.  Negligent Maintenance of Employment Records  13.80
    • E.  Nondisclosure of Social Security Numbers  13.81
    • F.  Notice of Unauthorized Access  13.82
  • V.  ATTEMPTS TO REGULATE EMPLOYEE PERSONAL CHOICE
    • A.  Limitations  13.83
    • B.  Dress and Grooming Standards
      • 1.  Valid Reason Required  13.84
      • 2.  Form: Sample Dress and Grooming Policy  13.85
    • C.  Moonlighting
      • 1.  Prohibition May Be Legitimate  13.86
      • 2.  Form: Sample Outside Employment Policy  13.87
    • D.  Employment of Spouses, Relatives, or Cohabitants
      • 1.  Employer’s Policy May Prohibit  13.88
      • 2.  Form: Sample Policy on Employment of Relatives  13.89
    • E.  Workplace Romances  13.90
    • F.  Sexual Activities or Sexual Orientation
      • 1.  Constitutional and Statutory Limitations  13.91
      • 2.  Local Ordinances and Regulations  13.92
    • G.  Employee Communications  13.92A
    • H.  First Amendment Rights of Government Employees  13.93

14

Employer Liability for Acts of Employees

Joanie L. Roeschlein

Thomas G. Mackey

  • I.  TORT THEORIES OF EMPLOYER LIABILITY  14.1
    • A.  Agency Law—Employer Directs or Ratifies  14.2
    • B.  Negligent Hiring and Retention  14.3
    • C.  Respondeat Superior Doctrine  14.4
  • II.  WHO IS AN EMPLOYEE?
    • A.  Right-of-Control Test  14.5
    • B.  Borrowed and Leased Employees: Special and Dual Employment Situations  14.6
  • III.  TESTS FOR DETERMINING WHETHER TORTIOUS CONDUCT FALLS WITHIN SCOPE OF EMPLOYMENT
    • A.  General Rules and Interpretive Decisions
      • 1.  Interests of Employer Versus Employee’s Personal Motives  14.7
      • 2.  Narrowing of Scope of Respondeat Superior Liability  14.8
    • B.  Test to Determine Whether Injurious Conduct Falls Within Scope of Employment  14.9
      • 1.  Comparison to Workers’ Compensation Test  14.10
        • a.  The Going-and-Coming Rule  14.11
          • (1)  Special Mission Requested by Employer  14.12
          • (2)  Exception to Going-and-Coming Rule When Travel Time Is Compensated  14.13
          • (3)  Exception When Employer Substantially Benefits  14.14
          • (4)  Exception When Use of Automobile Is Required  14.15
          • (5)  Exception for Social Functions  14.16
          • (6)  Work-Related Risk  14.17
        • b.  Off-Duty and Break-Time Conduct  14.18
        • c.  Personal Business and Errands  14.19
        • d.  Use of Cell Phones or Other Mobile Devices  14.19A
      • 2.  Violation of Employer’s Rules and Regulations  14.20
  • IV.  LIABILITY FOR ACTIONS OF INDEPENDENT CONTRACTORS
    • A.  General Rule of No Liability  14.21
    • B.  Exception for Peculiar Risks  14.22
    • C.  Exception for Nondelegable Duties  14.23
    • D.  Possible Exception for Intentional Torts  14.24
  • V.  DAMAGES
    • A.  Availability of Punitive Damages Against Employer  14.25
    • B.  Noneconomic Damages Under Proposition 51: Joint and Several Liability  14.26
  • VI.  EMPLOYER LIABILITY FOR CONTRACTS ENTERED INTO BY EMPLOYEES
    • A.  Actual Authority
      • 1.  May Be Expressed or Implied  14.27
      • 2.  Equal Dignities Rule  14.28
    • B.  Ostensible Authority  14.29
    • C.  Ratification of Contracts  14.30
    • D.  Undisclosed Principal  14.31
    • E.  Employer’s Liability for Contracts in Excess of Employee’s Authority  14.32
    • F.  Employee-Agent’s Liability to Third Party  14.33
  • VII.  EMPLOYEE-AGENT’S RIGHT TO INDEMNIFICATION FROM EMPLOYER  14.34
  • VIII.  CORPORATE EMPLOYER’S LIABILITY FOR CRIMINAL ACTS OF EMPLOYEES  14.35

15

Discrimination and Harassment

Teresa R. Tracy

  • I.  OVERVIEW  15.1
  • II.  PRINCIPAL STATUTES AND ORDERS
    • A.  Tables: Common Acronyms and Abbreviations  15.1A
    • B.  Federal Laws  15.2
      • 1.  Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII)
        • a.  Coverage: Employers and Employees  15.3
        • b.  Persons Who Are Typically Not Employees  15.3A
          • (1)  Partners  15.3B
          • (2)  Board Members  15.3C
          • (3)  Independent Contractors  15.3D
          • (4)  Volunteers  15.3E
        • c.  Foreign Employment Issues  15.4
        • d.  What Is Prohibited  15.5
        • e.  Special Issues Relating to Race and Color  15.5A
        • f.  Special Issues Relating to Religion  15.5B
        • g.  Special Issues Relating to Sex, Pregnancy, Sexual Orientation, and Gender Identity  15.5C
        • h.  Special Issues Relating to National Origin  15.5D
        • i.  Exceptions
          • (1)  Particular Organizations and Employees  15.6
          • (2)  Bona Fide Occupational Qualification  15.7
            • (a)  Customer Preferences Typically Do Not Excuse Discrimination  15.8
            • (b)  Employee Safety May Excuse Discrimination  15.9
          • (3)  Other Exceptions  15.10
      • 2.  Civil Rights Act of 1866: Contracts and Race (§1981)
        • a.  Coverage Broadened by Civil Rights Act of 1991  15.11
        • b.  What Is Prohibited  15.12
        • c.  Exceptions  15.13
      • 3.  Civil Rights Act of 1871 (§1983)
        • a.  Coverage  15.14
        • b.  What Is Prohibited  15.15
        • c.  Exceptions  15.16
      • 4.  Civil Rights Act of 1871 (§1985)  15.17
      • 5.  Equal Pay Act of 1963
        • a.  Coverage  15.18
        • b.  What Is Prohibited  15.19
        • c.  Exceptions  15.20
      • 6.  Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009  15.20A
      • 7.  Age Discrimination in Employment Act
        • a.  Coverage  15.21
        • b.  What Is Prohibited  15.22
        • c.  Additional Protections of OWBPA  15.23
        • d.  Exceptions
          • (1)  Seniority System, Benefit Plan, Retirement Incentives  15.24
          • (2)  Efficiency and Safety Concerns  15.25
          • (3)  Other Factors  15.26
        • e.  Defenses  15.27
      • 8.  Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986
        • a.  Coverage  15.28
        • b.  What Is Prohibited  15.29
        • c.  Exceptions  15.30
      • 9.  Americans with Disabilities Act
        • a.  Coverage  15.30A
        • b.  What Is Prohibited  15.30B
      • 10.  Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008
        • a.  Coverage  15.30C
        • b.  What Is Prohibited  15.30D
      • 11.  Rehabilitation Act of 1973  15.30E
        • a.  Coverage  15.30F
        • b.  What Is Prohibited  15.30G
      • 12.  First Amendment Issues  15.30H
    • C.  California Laws
      • 1.  Fair Employment and Housing Act
        • a.  Coverage
          • (1)  Employers  15.31
          • (2)  Employees  15.31A
          • (3)  Partners  15.31B
          • (4)  Special Rules for Religious Entities  15.32
        • b.  What Is Prohibited  15.33
          • (1)  Issues Relating to Age  15.34
          • (2)  Issues Relating to Physical or Mental Disability  15.35
          • (3)  Issues Relating to Medical Condition  15.36
          • (4)  Issues Relating to Religion  15.37
          • (5)  Issues Relating to Marital Status  15.38
          • (6)  Issues Relating to Sexual Orientation  15.39
          • (7)  Issues Relating to Gender Expression, Gender Identity, and Sex Stereotype  15.40
          • (8)  Issues Relating to Military and Veteran Status  15.40A
          • (9)  Issues Relating to National Origin  15.40B
          • (10)  Release of a Claim or Right Under FEHA  15.40C
        • c.  Affirmative Defenses Under FEHA  15.41
          • (1)  Bona Fide Occupational Qualification  15.42
          • (2)  Business Necessity  15.43
          • (3)  Preemption and Other Defenses  15.44
        • d.  Failure to Prevent Discrimination  15.44A
      • 2.  California Constitution  15.45
      • 3.  California Family Rights Act of 1993  15.46
      • 4.  California Equal Pay Law [Deleted]  15.47
      • 5.  Immigration Protection Under State Law  15.47A
      • 6.  Unruh Civil Rights Act and Related Statutes  15.48
      • 7.  Bane Act  15.49
      • 8.  Local Laws  15.50
  • III.  APPLICATION OF EQUAL EMPLOYMENT LAW
    • A.  Who Is Protected [Deleted]
      • 1.  Employees, Unpaid Interns, Volunteers, and Independent Contractors [Deleted]  15.51
      • 2.  Partnership “Employees” [Deleted]  15.52
      • 3.  More Than One Employer [Deleted]  15.53
      • 4.  Immigration Status [Deleted]  15.53A
    • B.  Basic Theories of Unlawful Discrimination  15.54
      • 1.  Disparate Treatment  15.55
        • a.  Prima Facie Case  15.56
        • b.  Employer’s Rebuttal That Action Was Not Discriminatory  15.57
          • (1)  Nondiscriminatory Motive Shown by “Same Actor Inference”  15.58
          • (2)  Stray Remarks  15.58A
          • (3)  Meeting Customer Preferences [Deleted]  15.59
          • (4)  “Cat’s Paw” Theory of Liability  15.59A
        • c.  Burden Shifts Back to Plaintiff  15.60
        • d.  Other Proof Issues  15.61
      • 2.  Disparate Impact
        • a.  Prima Facie Case  15.62
        • b.  Employer’s Rebuttal  15.63
        • c.  Plaintiff’s Showing That Nondiscriminatory Alternative Exists  15.64
      • 3.  Interplay of Theories: Ricci v DeStefano  15.64A
    • C.  Specific Prohibited or Restricted Practices
      • 1.  Recruiting  15.65
        • a.  Advertising  15.66
        • b.  Word-of-Mouth Referrals  15.67
      • 2.  Hiring Standards
        • a.  Reinstatement  15.67A
        • b.  Business Necessity Justification  15.68
        • c.  Testing  15.69
        • d.  Dress and Personal Appearance  15.70
        • e.  Use of Arrest and Conviction Records  15.70A
        • f.  Physical Requirements  15.71
        • g.  Overqualification  15.72
        • h.  Test Scores  15.73
        • i.  Waivers  15.73A
      • 3.  Promotion
        • a.  Seniority Systems  15.74
        • b.  Grounds for Promotion  15.75
      • 4.  Other Terms and Conditions of Employment
        • a.  Pregnancy-Related Issues  15.76
        • b.  Age-Related Issues  15.77
        • c.  Sex and Gender-Related Issues  15.78
        • d.  Providing or Canceling Pension Benefits  15.79
        • e.  Language Requirements [Deleted]  15.80
        • f.  Accommodation of Religion  15.81
        • g.  Health Issues Not Amounting to Disability  15.81A
      • 5.  Retaliation  15.82
        • a.  Engaging in Protected Activity  15.83
        • b.  Adverse Employment Action  15.84
          • (1)  Federal Cases  15.85
          • (2)  California Cases  15.86
        • c.  Causal Link  15.87
        • d.  Anti-SLAPP Defense  15.87A
      • 6.  Reorganizations or Job Elimination Decisions  15.88
      • 7.  Workers With Caregiving Responsibilities  15.88A
    • D.  Harassment  15.89
      • 1.  Sexual Harassment
        • a.  Generally  15.90
        • b.  Form: Acknowledgment of Consensual Relationship  15.90A
        • c.  Same-Sex Harassment  15.91
        • d.  Welcomeness  15.92
        • e.  Failure to Take Steps to Prevent  15.92A
        • f.  Standard for Judging Sexual Harassment
          • (1)  Quid pro Quo  15.93
          • (2)  Hostile Environment  15.94
      • 2.  Sources of Liability
        • a.  Agents and Supervisors  15.95
        • b.  Employees and Third Parties  15.96
      • 3.  Legislative Declarations About Harassment Claims  15.96A
      • 4.  Affirmative Defense to Harassment  15.97
        • a.  No Tangible Employment Action  15.98
        • b.  Reasonable Care to Prevent and Promptly Correct Harassment  15.99
        • c.  Plaintiff’s Failure to Act  15.100
        • d.  California Law  15.101
      • 5.  Discovery Issues  15.102
      • 6.  Preventive Steps for Employers  15.103
      • 7.  Form: Sample Policy Prohibiting Harassment  15.104
      • 8.  Form: Complaint for Harassment  15.105
      • 9.  Sexual Harassment Brochure (DFEH-185)  15.106
      • 10.  Form: Sample Investigation Documentation  15.106A
      • 11.  Form: Sample Training Documentation  15.106B
      • 12.  Checklist: Suggested Action Plan for Employer  15.107
      • 13.  Confidentiality Limits for Sexual Harassment Settlement Agreements  15.107A
      • 14.  Nonmanagement Employees’ Liability for Harassment  15.108
  • IV.  DISCRIMINATION AGAINST INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES
    • A.  Americans With Disabilities Act
      • 1.  Coverage
        • a.  Employers  15.109
        • b.  Employees  15.110
      • 2.  What Is Prohibited
        • a.  Generally  15.111
        • b.  Selection Criteria That Screen Out Individuals With Disabilities  15.112
        • c.  Inappropriate Employment Tests  15.113
        • d.  Accommodation Requirements  15.114
        • e.  Limiting Job Classifications  15.115
        • f.  Discrimination Based on Association With Individual With Disability  15.116
        • g.  Relationships With Entities Whose Practices May Violate ADA  15.117
      • 3.  Key Terms
        • a.  Disability  15.118
          • (1)  Physical or Mental Impairment  15.119
          • (2)  Substantially Limiting  15.120
          • (3)  Major Life Activities  15.121
          • (4)  Past Record of Physical or Mental Impairment  15.122
          • (5)  Regarded as Disabled  15.123
        • b.  What Is Not a Disability?  15.124
        • c.  Qualified Individual  15.125
          • (1)  Employer’s Judgment About Essential Job Functions  15.126
          • (2)  EEOC Standards  15.127
      • 4.  Reasonable Accommodation Requirement
        • a.  General Principles  15.128
        • b.  Rules Developed by Courts and EEOC  15.129
        • c.  Specific Types of Reasonable Accommodations  15.130
          • (1)  Retrofitting  15.131
          • (2)  Job Restructuring  15.132
          • (3)  Part-Time or Modified Work Schedules and Medical Leave  15.133
          • (4)  Reassignment  15.134
          • (5)  Use of Interpreters  15.135
          • (6)  Acquisition or Modification of Equipment  15.136
          • (7)  Further Examples of Reasonable Accommodations  15.137
        • d.  Interactive Process  15.138
        • e.  Undue Hardship  15.139
      • 5.  Permissible Grounds for Making an Adverse Employment Decision  15.140
        • a.  Job-Related  15.141
        • b.  Business Necessity  15.142
        • c.  No Reasonable Accommodation Is Possible  15.143
        • d.  Direct Threat to Health and Safety  15.144
      • 6.  Benefits and Insurance Considerations  15.145
        • a.  Preexisting Condition Exclusions on Health Insurance Still Acceptable  15.146
        • b.  Insured Benefits Subject to Discrimination Provisions  15.147
        • c.  Pension Issues  15.147A
      • 7.  ADA Compliance Guidelines  15.148
    • B.  FEHA
      • 1.  Who Is Covered?  15.149
      • 2.  California Law More Protective Than ADA  15.150
      • 3.  State Remedies Are Broader Than ADA’s  15.151
  • V.  REMEDIES AND PROCEDURES UNDER EQUAL EMPLOYMENT LAWS
    • A.  General Overview  15.152
      • 1.  State  15.153
      • 2.  Federal  15.154
      • 3.  Choice of Jurisdiction  15.155
      • 4.  Effect of “After-Acquired Evidence” Doctrine  15.156
      • 5.  Effect of Arbitration Clauses  15.157
    • B.  State Administrative Procedures
      • 1.  Complaint  15.158
        • a.  Time for Filing  15.159
        • b.  Filing Procedure  15.160
        • c.  Parties Named in the Complaint  15.161
        • d.  Claims Alleged  15.161A
        • e.  Service  15.162
      • 2.  Investigation
        • a.  Fact Gathering by DFEH  15.163
        • b.  Discovery  15.164
        • c.  Confidentiality  15.165
      • 3.  Employer’s Response
        • a.  Position Statement  15.166
        • b.  Defenses  15.167
      • 4.  Disposition of the Complaint
        • a.  Pre-Determination Settlement  15.168
        • b.  Dismissal and Closure  15.169
        • c.  Dispute Resolution [Deleted]  15.170
        • d.  Accusation [Deleted]  15.171
        • e.  Right-to-Sue Notice  15.172
        • f.  Mandatory Dispute Resolution and DFEH Litigation  15.172A
      • 5.  Prehearing Procedures [Deleted]
        • a.  Parties [Deleted]  15.173
        • b.  Notice of Defense and Representation of Respondent [Deleted]  15.174
        • c.  Transfer to Court [Deleted]  15.175
        • d.  Discovery and Motions [Deleted]  15.176
      • 6.  Evidentiary Hearing [Deleted]
        • a.  Hearing Officer [Deleted]  15.177
        • b.  Prehearing Procedures [Deleted]  15.178
        • c.  The Hearing [Deleted]  15.179
        • d.  Posthearing Briefs and Motions [Deleted]  15.180
      • 7.  Decision and Order [Deleted]
        • a.  Proposed Decision [Deleted]  15.181
        • b.  FEHC’s Decision [Deleted]  15.182
        • c.  Reconsideration [Deleted]  15.183
        • d.  Relief That FEHC May Order [Deleted]  15.184
      • 8.  Judicial Review and Enforcement [Deleted]
        • a.  Review [Deleted]  15.185
        • b.  Enforcement [Deleted]  15.186
    • C.  Federal Procedures
      • 1.  The Charge or Complaint  15.187
        • a.  Who May File  15.188
        • b.  Time for Filing  15.189
        • c.  Filing Procedure  15.190
        • d.  Service  15.191
      • 2.  EEOC Investigation
        • a.  Workshare Arrangement With DFEH  15.192
        • b.  Mediation and Fact Gathering  15.193
        • c.  Subpoenas and Discovery  15.194
        • d.  Confidentiality  15.195
      • 3.  Employer’s Response
        • a.  Internal Investigation  15.196
        • b.  Position Statement  15.197
        • c.  Defenses  15.198
      • 4.  Disposition of Charge
        • a.  Settlement  15.199
        • b.  Withdrawal  15.200
        • c.  Formal Determination by the EEOC  15.201
        • d.  Conciliation  15.202
        • e.  Notice of Right to Sue  15.203
      • 5.  EEOC Litigation  15.204
        • a.  Administrative Prerequisites  15.205
        • b.  Statute of Limitations  15.206
        • c.  Intervention by the Employee  15.207
        • d.  Scope of the Litigation  15.208
      • 6.  Special Issues Relating to Federal Employees  15.208A

16

Whistleblower Issues

Cynthia E. Fruchtman

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  16.1
  • II.  WHISTLEBLOWING AS PROTECTED ACTIVITY  16.2
  • III.  WHO QUALIFIES FOR WHISTLEBLOWER STATUS?  16.3
  • IV.  PUBLIC POLICY PROTECTS WHISTLEBLOWERS  16.4
  • V.  PRIVILEGE AND IMMUNITY EXCEPTIONS TO WHISTLEBLOWER PROTECTION
    • A.  Privilege of Confidentiality Is Breached or Trade Secrets Are Disclosed  16.5
    • B.  Privilege for Statements Made in Judicial or Official Proceedings  16.5A
    • C.  Tribal Immunity  16.5B
    • D.  Administrative Investigations  16.5C
  • VI.  SARBANES-OXLEY ACT  16.6
  • VII.  WHISTLEBLOWER’S MOTIVATION  16.7
  • VIII.  WHEN WHISTLEBLOWER PROTECTIONS ARISE  16.8
  • IX.  EMPLOYER MEASURES; WHISTLEBLOWER POLICY  16.9
  • X.  EXHAUSTION REQUIREMENT  16.9A
  • XI.  EMPLOYER RESPONSE TO WHISTLEBLOWING
    • A.  Inappropriate Response  16.10
    • B.  Appropriate Response  16.11
  • XII.  TIMELINESS OF WHISTLEBLOWER COMPLAINT  16.12
  • XIII.  PENALTIES FOR RETALIATION  16.13
  • XIV.  INSURANCE COVERAGE FOR DEFENSE OF WHISTLEBLOWER CLAIMS  16.14
  • XV.  PRACTICAL ADVICE  16.15

16A

Workplace Investigations

Patricia C. Perez

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  16A.1
    • B.  Duty to Investigate  16A.2
    • C.  Types of Claims Requiring Investigation; Scope  16A.3
  • II.  CASE LAW GOVERNING WORKPLACE INVESTIGATIONS  16A.4
  • III.  PRELIMINARY ISSUES TO CONSIDER BEFORE STARTING THE INVESTIGATION
    • A.  Ethical Considerations  16A.5
    • B.  Privacy Issues  16A.6
  • IV.  WHO SHOULD INVESTIGATE?  16A.7
  • V.  STARTING THE INVESTIGATION  16A.8
  • VI.  STRATEGIC PLANNING  16A.9
  • VII.  INTERVIEWS AND DOCUMENT REVIEW  16A.10
    • A.  Identity of Interviewee; Scheduling Interviews  16A.11
    • B.  Checklist: Suggested Interview Procedures and Questions  16A.11A
  • VIII.  REACHING FAIR AND WELL-REASONED CONCLUSIONS  16A.12
  • IX.  DRAFTING AN INVESTIGATION REPORT  16A.13
  • X.  INSTITUTING CORRECTIVE ACTION AND DOCUMENTING THE INVESTIGATION  16A.14
    • A.  Communicating the Results  16A.15
  • XI.  ADDITIONAL ISSUES
    • A.  Unionized Employees  16A.16
    • B.  Police Officers and Firefighters  16A.16A
    • C.  Litigation Issues  16A.17

17

Discipline and Termination

Douglas J. Farmer

James R. Moss, Jr.

Rodney Sorensen

  • I.  AT-WILL EMPLOYMENT
    • A.  Presumption in California  17.1
    • B.  Overcoming Presumption of Employer’s Right to Terminate at Will  17.2
      • 1.  Statutory Limitations on At-Will Terminations
        • a.  Equal Employment Opportunity Statutes  17.3
        • b.  Antiretaliation and Whistleblower Statutes  17.4
        • c.  Leave of Absence Statutes  17.5
        • d.  Labor Code Protections  17.6
      • 2.  Public Policy Limitations on At-Will Terminations  17.7
        • a.  “Fundamental” Public Policy Must Be at Stake  17.8
        • b.  Policy Must Benefit Public at Large  17.9
        • c.  Policy Must Apply to Defendant Employer  17.10
        • d.  Retaliatory Terminations Deemed to Violate Public Policy  17.11
          • (1)  Termination for Refusing to Further Employer’s Unlawful Conduct  17.12
          • (2)  Termination for Satisfying a Legal Obligation  17.13
          • (3)  Termination for Exercising a Legal Right  17.14
          • (4)  Termination for Opposing or Reporting Employer’s Unlawful Conduct  17.15
          • (5)  Termination for Engaging in “Protected Activity” Under NLRA  17.15A
        • e.  Private Disputes Not Protected  17.16
      • 3.  Contractual Limitations on At-Will Termination
        • a.  Express and Implied-in-Fact Contracts to Terminate Only for Good Cause  17.17
          • (1)  Express Contracts
            • (a)  Oral Contracts  17.18
            • (b)  Written Contracts  17.19
          • (2)  Implied-in-Fact Contract  17.20
            • (a)  Employment Policies  17.21
            • (b)  Past Employment Practices  17.22
            • (c)  Employee’s Length of Service  17.23
            • (d)  Promises of Job Security, Promotions, Raises, and Bonuses  17.24
            • (e)  Other Employer Writings  17.25
        • b.  Covenant of Good Faith and Fair Dealing  17.26
          • (1)  Violation of Good Cause Standard Is Prerequisite to Establishing Breach of the Covenant  17.27
          • (2)  No Tort Recovery for Bad Faith Denial of Existence of Contract  17.28
  • II.  ADVERSE EMPLOYER ACTIONS SHORT OF TERMINATION
    • A.  Constructive Termination  17.29
      • 1.  Intolerable Conditions
        • a.  Extraordinary and Egregious Conditions; Resignation Coerced  17.30
        • b.  Determination by Objective Standard
          • (1)  No Alternative But to Quit  17.31
          • (2)  Demotions, Transfers, Salary Decreases, and Performance Ratings Insufficient Alone to Support Claim  17.32
      • 2.  Actual Notice to Employer Required  17.33
      • 3.  Statute of Limitations  17.33A
    • B.  Wrongful Discipline  17.34
    • C.  Action Short of Termination May Support Retaliation or Discrimination Claim  17.34A
  • III.  CAUSES OF ACTION RELATED TO WRONGFUL TERMINATION
    • A.  Defamation
      • 1.  Elements  17.35
      • 2.  Defenses
        • a.  Preemption  17.36
        • b.  Privileged Communications  17.37
    • B.  Intentional and Negligent Infliction of Emotional Distress  17.38
    • C.  Interference With Contract or Prospective Economic Advantage  17.39
    • D.  Other Related Causes of Action
      • 1.  Fraud  17.40
      • 2.  Misrepresentation Preventing Former Employee’s Reemployment  17.41
      • 3.  Negligent Performance of Contractual Duty to Evaluate  17.42
      • 4.  Loss of Consortium or Negligent Infliction of Emotional Distress Claims by Employee’s Spouse  17.43
  • IV.  REMEDIES IN WRONGFUL TERMINATION ACTIONS
    • A.  Contract Damages  17.44
    • B.  Tort Damages
      • 1.  General Damages  17.45
      • 2.  Special Damages  17.46
      • 3.  Punitive Damages  17.47
    • C.  Mitigation of Damages  17.48
    • D.  Equitable Remedies  17.49
  • V.  DEFENSES TO A WRONGFUL TERMINATION ACTION
    • A.  Preemption by Statutory Remedy
      • 1.  Termination Involving Federal Labor Law Issues
        • a.  Engaging in Protected Activities  17.50
        • b.  Terminated Employee Covered by Collective Bargaining Agreement  17.51
        • c.  Claims Against Union by Former Union Employee  17.52
        • d.  Termination Claims by Railway Employee or Airline Worker  17.53
        • e.  Preemption by Federal Banking Laws  17.54
        • f.  Preemption by Immigration Reform and Control Act  17.54A
      • 2.  Termination Involving Discrimination Issues
        • a.  Preemption by FEHA  17.55
        • b.  Preemption by Federal Discrimination Statutes  17.56
      • 3.  Termination Involving Pension Benefits  17.57
      • 4.  California Workers’ Compensation Law  17.58
    • B.  Termination for Cause  17.59
    • C.  Termination Based on Good Faith Investigation  17.60
    • D.  After-Acquired Evidence of Employee Misconduct  17.61
    • E.  No Employment Relationship  17.62
    • F.  Statute of Limitations  17.63
  • VI.  INSURANCE COVERAGE FOR WRONGFUL TERMINATION CLAIMS  17.64
  • VII.  AVOIDING WRONGFUL TERMINATION CLAIMS
    • A.  Stress At-Will Policy of the Company  17.65
      • 1.  Include At-Will Language in Employment Applications  17.66
      • 2.  Form: Sample At-Will Statement and “After-Acquired Evidence” Clause for Employment Application  17.67
    • B.  Draft Offer Letters to Avoid “Good Cause” Presumption
      • 1.  Specific Language to Avoid  17.68
      • 2.  Form: Offer Letter  17.69
    • C.  Employment Agreements
      • 1.  Recommended Content  17.70
      • 2.  Form: Sample At-Will Provision for Employment Agreement  17.71
    • D.  Employee Handbooks
      • 1.  At-Will Statements in Employee Handbooks  17.72
      • 2.  “Introductory Period” Provisions  17.73
      • 3.  Discipline and Termination Policies
        • a.  Potential Consequences of Ill-Drafted Provisions  17.74
        • b.  “Progressive Discipline” Issues  17.75
    • E.  Performance Evaluations
      • 1.  Common Mistakes  17.76
      • 2.  Guidelines for Employee Evaluation  17.77
        • a.  Utilize Objective Standards  17.78
        • b.  Avoid Generic Preprinted “Check the Box” Forms  17.79
        • c.  Coordinate Evaluation Forms With Employee Job Descriptions  17.80
        • d.  Include Specific Examples of Strengths and Weaknesses  17.81
        • e.  Discuss Evaluation With Employee  17.82
        • f.  Allow Employee to Provide Feedback to the Evaluation  17.83
        • g.  Consider Review by More Than One Level  17.84
        • h.  Periodically Audit the Evaluation System  17.85
        • i.  Train and Evaluate the Evaluators  17.86
        • j.  Establish Effective Recordkeeping System  17.87
        • k.  Utilize Evaluation System to Prevent Lawsuits  17.88
    • F.  Grievance Policies  17.89
    • G.  Protecting Internal Investigations  17.90
    • H.  Discipline Checklist  17.91
  • VIII.  TERMINATION OF THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP  17.92
    • A.  Termination Checklist  17.93
    • B.  Additional Preventive Measures in “High Risk” Situations  17.94
    • C.  Required Pamphlet and Notice of Termination  17.94A
    • D.  Termination Letter  17.95
    • E.  Termination Meeting  17.96
    • F.  Time Limit for Payment of Final Wages  17.97
    • G.  Exit Interview  17.98
    • H.  Severance Pay and Settlement Agreements  17.98A
    • I.  Avoiding Posttermination Liability  17.99
  • IX.  SEVERANCE AND SETTLEMENT AGREEMENTS
    • A.  Releases of Liability
      • 1.  General Principles  17.100
      • 2.  Unilateral or Mutual Release of Claims  17.101
      • 3.  Releases of Age Discrimination Claims Under the OWBPA  17.102
      • 4.  Releases of Wage Claims  17.103
      • 5.  Release of Workers’ Compensation Claims  17.104
      • 6.  No Waiver of Unemployment Insurance Claims  17.105
      • 7.  Waiver of Unknown Claims  17.106
    • B.  Tax Considerations
      • 1.  Settlement Amounts  17.107
      • 2.  Attorney Fees  17.108
    • C.  Confidentiality  17.109
    • D.  Employment References  17.110
    • E.  Waiver of Reemployment Rights  17.111
    • F.  Form: Sample Settlement Agreement and Mutual Release  17.112
    • G.  Form: Short Form Severance Agreement  17.113
  • X.  POSTTERMINATION ISSUES
    • A.  Employment References  17.114
      • 1.  No-Reference or Limited-Reference Policies  17.115
      • 2.  Truthful Reference Guidelines  17.116
    • B.  Unemployment Insurance Claims  17.117
  • XI.  SUMMARY OF LAWS GOVERNING TERMINATION AND DISCIPLINE
    • A.  Chart: Federal Statutes Limiting Termination and Discipline  17.118
    • B.  Chart: California Statutes Limiting Termination and Discipline  17.119

18

Reductions in Force and Plant Closings

Cynthia L. Jackson

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  18.1
  • II.  PLANNING A REDUCTION IN FORCE (RIF)  18.2
    • A.  Consider Alternatives to Layoff and Termination
      • 1.  Offering Incentives for Voluntary Termination  18.3
        • a.  Releases and Waivers of Claims
          • (1)  Basic Requirements for Standard Waiver  18.4
          • (2)  Requirements for Waiver by Employees Age 40 and Over: OWBPA  18.5
          • (3)  Waiver for Group RIF  18.6
            • (a)  No Ratification of Voidable Releases  18.7
            • (b)  Form: Release  18.8
        • b.  Claims Not Subject to Waiver  18.9
        • c.  Tax Issues in Releasing ADEA and Title VII Claims  18.10
      • 2.  Transfers, Bumping, and Recall  18.11
    • B.  Establish Selection Criteria for Termination
      • 1.  Neutral Criteria  18.12
      • 2.  Typical Criteria for Retaining or Laying Off Employees
        • a.  Merit  18.13
        • b.  Versatility  18.14
        • c.  Seniority  18.15
        • d.  Salary  18.16
      • 3.  Prohibited Criteria  18.17
    • C.  Notice  18.18
    • D.  Checklist: RIF Guidelines for Minimizing Litigation Risk  18.19
  • III.  WORKER ADJUSTMENT AND RETRAINING NOTIFICATION ACT (WARN)
    • A.  Background  18.20
    • B.  Covered Employers  18.21
      • 1.  Requisite Number of Employees
        • a.  Employees Counted  18.22
        • b.  Employees Not Counted  18.23
      • 2.  Application to Independent Contractors and Subsidiaries  18.24
      • 3.  Application on Sale or Acquisition  18.25
    • C.  Triggering Events  18.26
      • 1.  Definitions of “Plant Closing,” “Termination,” and “Mass Layoff”
        • a.  Duration; Number of Employees Affected  18.27
        • b.  Strikes and Other Exemptions  18.28
      • 2.  Definition of “Employment Loss” and “Layoff”  18.29
    • D.  Notice
      • 1.  Required Recipients  18.30
      • 2.  Contents  18.31
      • 3.  Timing of Notice
        • a.  General Rule  18.32
        • b.  Exceptions  18.33
          • (1)  Faltering Company Exception  18.34
          • (2)  Unforeseen Business Circumstance Exception  18.35
          • (3)  Natural Disaster Exception  18.36
      • 4.  Manner of Service  18.37
      • 5.  Forms  18.38
        • a.  Form: Notice to Employees or Representative re: Mass Layoff  18.39
        • b.  Form: Notice to Chief Elected Government Official, State Dislocated Worker Unit, or Workforce Investment Board re: Mass Layoff  18.40
        • c.  Form: Notice to Chief Elected Government Official or Dislocated Worker Unit re: Plant Closing/Termination or Relocation  18.41
    • E.  Liability for Violation of WARN Notice Requirements  18.42
    • F.  Defenses
      • 1.  Statute of Limitations  18.43
      • 2.  Waiver  18.44
  • IV.  CONTINUING HEALTH INSURANCE BENEFITS
    • A.  COBRA  18.45
    • B.  Labor Code §2807  18.46
  • V.  DISCRIMINATION CLAIMS
    • A.  Protected Categories  18.47
    • B.  Showing Necessary to Support Discrimination Action
      • 1.  Disparate Treatment
        • a.  Prima Facie Case  18.48
        • b.  Rebuttal  18.49
        • c.  Pretext  18.50
      • 2.  Disparate Impact
        • a.  Prima Facie Case  18.51
        • b.  Rebuttal  18.52
        • c.  Nondiscriminatory Alternatives  18.53
        • d.  Adverse Impact Analysis for Age Discrimination  18.54
    • C.  Defenses  18.55
  • VI.  BREACH OF CONTRACT AND RELATED CLAIMS  18.56
  • VII.  NLRA COMPLIANCE  18.57
    • A.  Subjects of Decision Bargaining  18.58
      • 1.  Total Plant Closings  18.59
      • 2.  Partial Plant Closings  18.60
      • 3.  Plant Relocations  18.61
      • 4.  Subcontracting to Nonunion Employees  18.62
    • B.  Subjects of Effects Bargaining  18.63
    • C.  The Duty to Bargain  18.64
      • 1.  Decision Bargaining  18.65
      • 2.  Effects Bargaining  18.66
    • D.  The Duty to Disclose  18.67
    • E.  NLRB-Imposed Remedies  18.68
      • 1.  Decision Bargaining  18.69
      • 2.  Effects Bargaining  18.70
    • F.  Third Party Liability
      • 1.  Parent-Subsidiary  18.71
      • 2.  Effect of Bankruptcy Proceedings  18.72
    • G.  Statute of Limitations  18.73
    • H.  Preemption of State Law Claims by LMRA  18.74
  • VIII.  BANKRUPTCY ISSUES  18.75
    • A.  Employer Bankruptcy
      • 1.  Priority for Certain Wages and Benefits Claims  18.76
      • 2.  Employee Benefit Plan Contributions  18.77
      • 3.  Retiree Benefits  18.78
      • 4.  Employee Contract Termination Claims  18.79
      • 5.  Collective Bargaining Agreements  18.80
      • 6.  Non-NLRA Employment Agreements  18.81
      • 7.  Labor Union Standing and Plan of Reorganization  18.82
      • 8.  Nondischargeable Claims  18.83
    • B.  Employee Bankruptcy  18.84

19

Insurance Coverage for Employment Claims

Larry M. Golub

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  19.1
  • II.  COVERAGE UNDER STANDARD BUSINESS GENERAL LIABILITY POLICIES
    • A.  Overview of Coverage  19.2
    • B.  Specific Coverage Issues
      • 1.  Bodily Injury and Property Damage Coverage  19.3
      • 2.  Requirement of an “Occurrence”  19.4
      • 3.  Advertising Injury and Personal Injury Coverage Issues  19.5
      • 4.  General Liability Policy Exclusions  19.6
      • 5.  Nonstandard General Liability Policies  19.7
      • 6.  Employment-Related Practices Exclusion  19.7A
      • 7.   Is the Defendant an Insured?  19.7B
  • III.  COVERAGE UNDER EXCESS OR UMBRELLA POLICIES  19.8
  • IV.  COVERAGE UNDER WORKERS’ COMPENSATION POLICIES  19.9
  • V.  COVERAGE UNDER DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS LIABILITY POLICIES  19.10
  • VI.  COVERAGE UNDER ERRORS AND OMISSIONS POLICIES  19.11
  • VII.  COVERAGE UNDER EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES LIABILITY POLICIES  19.12
    • A.  Form: Employment Practices Liability Coverage (NAS Insurance Services Form 1808BO-0910)  19.13
    • B.  Form: Extension of Coverage for Defense Only of Wage and Hour Claims (NAS Insurance Services Form 1808B-0912)  19.13A
    • C.  Form: Employment Practices Liability Coverage Section (Chubb Form 14-02-3797)  19.14
    • D.  Form: Broad-Form Employment Practices Liability Insurance  19.15
  • VIII.  RESPONDING TO AN EMPLOYEE CLAIM
    • A.  Tender to All Potentially Applicable Insurers  19.16
    • B.  Form: Tender of Claim  19.17
    • C.  Factors to Consider in Analyzing Coverage  19.18
      • 1.  Occurrence Versus Claims-Made Coverage  19.19
      • 2.  Coverage Preclusion by Any Applicable Statutes  19.20
      • 3.  Defendants Named in the Action  19.21
        • a.  Is the Employee Covered?  19.22
        • b.  Is the Employer Covered?  19.23
      • 4.  Insurer’s Duty to Defend  19.24

20

Mediation and Arbitration of Employment Disputes

Joel Grossman

  • I.  OVERVIEW  20.1
  • II.  MEDIATION
    • A.  Available at All Stages of Dispute  20.2
    • B.  Factors to Consider in Deciding Whether to Mediate  20.3
    • C.  Selecting the Mediator  20.4
    • D.  Mediator’s Methodology  20.5
    • E.  Who Pays for Mediation?  20.6
    • F.  Checklist: Premediation Steps  20.7
    • G.  Mediation Session  20.8
    • H.  Practice Points: Strategies for Successful Mediation  20.9
    • I.  Mediated Settlement Agreement  20.10
    • J.  Terms to Include in Mediated Settlement Agreement
      • 1.  Recital of Settlement  20.11
      • 2.  Payment Terms  20.12
      • 3.  Release  20.13
      • 4.  Confidentiality  20.14
      • 5.  More Formal Agreement to Follow  20.15
      • 6.  Employment References  20.16
      • 7.  Controlling Law and Enforcement Provisions  20.17
      • 8.  Execution  20.18
      • 9.  Language Mandated by OWBPA  20.19
    • K.  Form: Sample Mediated Settlement Agreement  20.20
  • III.  ARBITRATION
    • A.  Practical Considerations in Deciding Whether to Compel Arbitration  20.21
      • 1.  Rule of Law  20.22
      • 2.  Competence and Bias of Decision-Maker  20.23
      • 3.  Discovery Rights  20.24
      • 4.  Statement of Decision  20.25
    • B.  Policy Considerations
      • 1.  When Arbitration Agreement Is Binding  20.26
      • 2.  Who Decides Whether Parties Agreed to Arbitrate  20.27
      • 3.  When Arbitration Agreement Is Not Enforceable
        • a.  “Contracts of Employment” Exclusion  20.28
        • b.  Title VII and Other Federal Claims  20.29
        • c.  Issues Outside Scope of Agreement to Arbitrate  20.30
        • d.  Unconscionability  20.31
        • e.  Class Action Waivers  20.31A
        • f.  Grounds for Rescission  20.32
        • g.  Waiver of Right to Arbitrate  20.33
      • 4.  Collective Bargaining Agreements  20.34
      • 5.  State Efforts to Regulate Arbitration Agreements  20.35
      • 6.  Effect of Arbitration Agreements on Administrative Claims  20.36
    • C.  Judicial Arbitration  20.37
    • D.  Selection of Arbitrator  20.38
      • 1.  Under California Arbitration Act  20.39
      • 2.  Under AAA and JAMS Rules
        • a.  AAA  20.40
        • b.  JAMS  20.41
    • E.  Prearbitration Discovery
      • 1.  Under California Arbitration Act  20.42
      • 2.  Under AAA and JAMS Rules
        • a.  AAA  20.43
        • b.  JAMS  20.44
    • F.  Arbitration Hearing
      • 1.  Under California Arbitration Act  20.45
      • 2.  Under AAA and JAMS Rules
        • a.  AAA  20.46
        • b.  JAMS  20.47
    • G.  Preparing for Arbitration Hearing  20.48
      • 1.  Pleadings  20.49
      • 2.  Arbitration Brief  20.50
      • 3.  Opening Statement  20.51
      • 4.  Witness Preparation  20.52
      • 5.  Examination of Opposing Party’s Witnesses  20.53
      • 6.  Closing Arguments  20.54
    • H.  Arbitrator’s Award
      • 1.  Requirements  20.55
      • 2.  Time for Making Award  20.56
      • 3.  Relief Granted  20.57
      • 4.  Correction of Award by Arbitrator  20.58
      • 5.  Collateral Effect of Award
        • a.  Res Judicata  20.59
        • b.  Unconfirmed Award as Contract  20.60
      • 6.  Court Review
        • a.  Confirmation, Vacation, or Correction of Award  20.61
        • b.  Pearson Dental Supplies, Inc. v Superior Court  20.61A
        • c.  Powers of Reviewing Court  20.62
        • d.  Review Procedure  20.63
    • I.  Alternative Arbitration Procedures
      • 1.  High-Low Arbitration  20.64
      • 2.  Baseball Arbitration  20.65
    • J.  Form: Sample Mediation/Arbitration Clause for Employment Agreement  20.66

21

Public Employment Issues

Bonnie Bogue

Erich W. Shiners

  • I.  LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR PUBLIC EMPLOYEE COLLECTIVE BARGAINING  21.1
    • A.  State Executive Branch  21.2
    • B.  Local Government  21.3
    • C.  Public Schools  21.4
    • D.  Higher Education  21.5
    • E.  Public Transit  21.6
    • F.  Trial Courts  21.7
    • G.  Judicial Council  21.7A
  • II.  REPRESENTATION RIGHTS AND DUTIES
    • A.  Employees’ Right to Be Represented  21.8
    • B.  Self-Representation Right  21.9
    • C.  Managerial, Supervisory and Confidential Employees  21.10
    • D.  Union’s Right to Represent  21.11
    • E.  Union Access to Employees  21.12
    • F.  Union’s Duty of Fair Representation  21.13
    • G.  Organizational Security  21.14
  • III.  RECOGNITION PROCEDURES  21.15
    • A.  Unit Determination  21.16
      • 1.  Unit Determination Under PERB Regulations  21.17
      • 2.  Unit Determination Under MMBA and Trial Court Acts  21.18
    • B.  Representation Elections and Recognition Procedures  21.19
    • C.  Decertifying the Representative  21.20
  • IV.  COLLECTIVE BARGAINING RIGHTS  21.21
    • A.  Scope of Representation  21.22
    • B.  Duty to Bargain  21.23
      • 1.  Good Faith Bargaining  21.24
      • 2.  Unilateral Action  21.25
    • C.  Impasse Resolution  21.26
      • 1.  Mediation  21.27
      • 2.  Factfinding  21.28
      • 3.  Arbitration of Impasses  21.29
      • 4.  Impasse Resolution in Transit Districts  21.29A
    • D.  Strikes  21.30
      • 1.  Right to Strike  21.31
      • 2.  Enjoining Strikes  21.32
      • 3.  Discipline of Strikers  21.33
    • E.  Agreements  21.34
  • V.  ENFORCEMENT OF STATUTORY RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS
    • A.  PERB-Administered Statutes  21.35
      • 1.  PERB Unfair Practice Procedures  21.36
      • 2.  Judicial Review of Board Decisions  21.37
    • B.  Enforcement of Non-PERB Statutes  21.38
  • VI.  ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACT RIGHTS  21.39
    • A.  Deferral to Arbitration  21.40
    • B.  Enforcement of Arbitration Awards  21.41
    • C.  Arbitrability  21.42

ADVISING CALIFORNIA EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES

(1st Edition)

March 2019

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

File Name

Book Section

Title

CH01

Chapter 1

Hiring Guidelines and Pitfalls

01-047

§1.47

Notice and Disclosure

01-048

§1.48

Certification to Credit Reporting Agency

01-049

§1.49

Certificate of Compliance by Agency

01-050

§1.50

Notification of Request for Investigative Consumer Report

01-051

§1.51

Authorization to Obtain Investigation Reports

01-052

§1.52

Pre-Adverse Action Disclosure

01-053

§1.53

Summary of Rights Under Fair Credit Reporting Act

01-054

§1.54

Post-Adverse Action Disclosure

01-055

§1.55

Notification of Intent to Procure Investigative Consumer Report

01-075

§1.75

Checklist: Paperwork for New Employees

01-076

§1.76

Checklist: Trade Secret Concerns in Interviewing Applicant

01-077

§1.77

Checklist: Issues to Consider Before Implementing Employee Testing

01-079

§1.79

Applicant’s Statement

01-080

§1.80

Notification of Rejection of Application

01-081

§1.81

Employment Offer Letter

01-082

§1.82

Mutual Agreement to Arbitrate Claims

01-083

§1.83

Authorization for Job-Related Medical Examination and Drug-Testing and for Release of Information

01-084

§1.84

Sample Job Description Questionnaire

01-085

§1.85

Sample Job Description for Receptionist

CH02

Chapter 2

Employment Contracts and Executive Compensation

02-011

§§2.11-2.102

Preamble to Employment Contract

 

§2.13

Recitals

 

§2.19

Term of Employment

 

§2.20

Place of Employment

 

§2.22

Employee’s Duties and Authority

 

§2.25

Outside Business Activities Precluded or Restricted

 

§2.26

Reasonable Time and Effort Required

 

§2.27

Covenant Not to Compete During Employment Term

 

§2.28

Morality Clause

 

§2.30

Consulting Services

 

§2.36

Base Salary

 

§2.37

Adjustment to Base Salary

 

§2.38

Incentive Compensation

 

§2.39

Stock Bonus

 

§2.40

Stock Options

 

§2.41

Cash Bonus

 

§2.42

Commissions

 

§2.43

Royalties

 

§2.44

Deferred Compensation

 

§2.46

Additional Benefits

 

§2.47

Vacation

 

§2.49

Board Membership

 

§2.51

Expense Reimbursement

 

§2.52

Automobile Allowance

 

§2.53

Life Insurance

 

§2.55

Repayment of Compensation Held Excessive

 

§2.57

Ownership of Intangibles

 

§2.61

Proprietary Information Obligations

 

§2.62

Noninterference

 

§2.64

Use of Employee’s Name and Image

 

§2.66

Indemnification by Employer

 

§2.67

Employer-Provided Indemnity Insurance

 

§2.68

Qualification for Surety Bond

 

§2.69

Indemnification by Employee

 

§2.72

Termination of Employment; Termination Date

 

§2.73

Involuntary Termination

 

§2.74

Termination Payment

 

§2.75

Termination of Employment by Employee

 

§2.76

Termination for Cause

 

§2.77

Termination on Resignation

 

§2.78

Termination on Retirement

 

§2.79

Termination Because of Disability

 

§2.80

Termination on Death

 

§2.81

Employer Has Right to Terminate or Assign Agreement

 

§2.82

Agreement Survives Combination or Dissolution

 

§2.83

Rights and Obligations After Notice of Termination

 

§2.84A

Other Benefits

 

§2.84B

IRC §409A

 

§2.86

Arbitration

 

§2.88

Injunction

 

§2.90

Liquidated Damages for Employer

 

§2.91

Liquidated Damages for Employee

 

§2.91A

Statute of Limitations

 

§2.92

Integration

 

§2.93

Choice of Law

 

§2.94

Notices

 

§2.95

Severability

 

§2.96

Employee’s Representations

 

§2.97

Counterparts

 

§2.98

Successors and Assigns

 

§2.99

Attorney Fees

 

§2.100

Amendments

 

§2.101

No Third Party Rights

 

§2.102

Execution

CH03

Chapter 3

Independent Contractors, Leased Workers, and Outsourcing

03-067

§3.67

Sample Independent Contractor Data Sheet

03-068

§3.68

Sample Agreement Between Principal and Independent Contractor

CH04

Chapter 4

Immigration Law Requirements for Employers

04-031

§4.31

Checklist: Establishing Employment Practices That Comply With Immigration Laws

04-032

§4.32

Checklist: Identity and Employment Authorization Documents

CH06

Chapter 6

Vacations, Family and Medical Leave, and Other Time Off

06-010

§6.10

Checklist: Guidelines for Drafting Vacation Policy

06-017

§6.17

Checklist: Guidelines for Drafting Holiday Pay Policy

06-067

§6.67

Notice of Intent to Take Family or Medical Leave

06-139

§6.139

Sample Policy for FMLA/CFRA Leave

06-139A

§6.139A

Sample Policy for Pregnancy Disability Leave

06-141

§6.141

Sample Policy for Personal Leave

06-142

§6.142

Sample Policy for Bereavement Leave

06-143

§6.143

Sample Policy for Leave for Spouses of Military Personnel

CH10

Chapter 10

Employee Handbooks

10-009

§10.9

Employee Handbook Receipt Acknowledgment

10-011

§10.11

Checklist: Potential Inclusions

10-014

§10.14

Equal Opportunity Employment Policy

10-016

§10.16

At-Will Employment Policy

10-018

§10.18

Introductory Period Policy

10-039

§10.39

Performance Standards; Misconduct, Discipline, and Termination

CH11

Chapter 11

Trade Secrets Protection and Unfair Competition

11-018

§11.18

Protective Language for Submissions

11-021

§11.21

Sample Offer or Hire Letter to New Employee

11-032

§11.32

Visitor Log-In

11-033

§11.33

Receipt Acknowledgment

11-034

§11.34

Confidentiality Legend

11-035

§11.35

Sample Approval of Information Release

11-036

§11.36

Notice for Facsimile Transmission

11-038A

§11.38A

Employee Termination Certificate

11-040

§11.40

Letter to Employee Confirming Exit Interview

11-041

§11.41

Letter to New Employer

11-041I

§11.41I

Company Policy for Use of Company Computers, Internet, E-Mail, and Personal or Cloud-Based Electronic Storage Devices

11-076

§11.76

Short Agreement for Protection of Proprietary Information

11-077

§§11.77-11.109

Introductory Provisions

 

§11.78

Definitions

 

§11.79

Duty of Trust and Confidentiality

 

§11.80

No Disclosure or Misappropriation of Proprietary Information

 

§11.81

Assignment of Proprietary Information and Inventions

 

§11.82

Proprietary Right Registrations; Execution of Necessary Documents

 

§11.83

Exception to Assignment of Inventions

 

§11.84

Disclosure of Inventions and Maintenance of Records

 

§11.85

Conflicting Employment or Business Opportunities

 

§11.86

Nonsolicitation of Employees

 

§11.87

Nonsolicitation of Customers

 

§11.88

Noncompetition

 

§11.89

Returning Company Documents and Other Tangible Items

 

§11.90

Reaffirmation of Obligations on Termination of Employment

 

§11.91

Notification to New Employer

 

§11.92

Representations and Warranties

 

§11.93

At-Will Employment

 

§11.94

Equitable Remedies

 

§11.95

Choice of Law

 

§11.96

Enforceability and Severability

 

§11.97

No Waiver

 

§11.98

Attorney Fees

 

§11.99

Amendment and Modification

 

§11.100

Entire Agreement

 

§11.101

Successors and Assigns

 

§11.102

Word Usage

 

§11.103

Exhibits

 

§11.104

Effective Date

 

§11.105

Conclusion

 

§11.106

Execution

 

§11.107

Exhibit A—California Labor Code §2870

 

§11.108

Exhibit B—Existing Inventions and Improvements

 

§11.109

Exhibit C—Termination Certificate

CH12

Chapter 12

Workplace Safety

12-093

§12.93

IIPP Compliance Checklist

12-105

§12.105

Notice to Employees of Right to SDSs

CH13

Chapter 13

Workplace Privacy

13-018

§13.18

Polygraph Consent Form

13-033

§13.33

Sample Computer/E-Mail Usage Policy

13-043

§13.43

Workplace Search Policy

13-066

§13.66

Sample Drug and Alcohol Policy

13-069

§13.69

Sample Consent to Drug and Alcohol Test

13-071

§13.71

Checklist: Questions to Consider Before Implementing Any Form of Employee Testing

13-085

§13.85

Sample Dress and Grooming Policy

13-087

§13.87

Sample Outside Employment Policy

13-089

§13.89

Sample Policy on Employment of Relatives

CH15

Chapter 15

Discrimination and Harassment

15-090A

§15.90A

Acknowledgment of Consensual Relationship

15-104

§15.104

Sample Policy Prohibiting Harassment

15-105

§15.105

Complaint for Harassment

15-106A

§15.106A

Sample Investigation Documentation

15-106B

§15.106B

Sample Training Documentation

15-107

§15.107

Checklist: Suggested Action Plan for Employer

CH16A

Chapter 16A

Workplace Investigations

16A-011A

§16A.11A

Checklist: Suggested Interview Procedures and Questions

CH17

Chapter 17

Discipline and Termination

17-067

§17.67

Sample At-Will Statement and “After-Acquired Evidence” Clause for Employment Application

17-069

§17.69

Offer Letter

17-071

§17.71

Sample At-Will Provision for Employment Agreement

17-091

§17.91

Discipline Checklist

17-093

§17.93

Termination Checklist

17-112

§17.112

Sample Settlement Agreement and Mutual Release

17-113

§17.113

Short Form Severance Agreement

CH18

Chapter 18

Reductions in Force and Plant Closings

18-008

§18.8

Release

18-019

§18.19

Checklist: RIF Guidelines for Minimizing Litigation Risk

18-039

§18.39

Notice to Employees or Representative re: Mass Layoff

18-040

§18.40

Notice to Chief Elected Government Official, State Dislocated Worker Unit, or Workforce Investment Board re: Mass Layoff

18-041

§18.41

Notice to Chief Elected Government Official or Dislocated Worker Unit re: Plant Closing/Termination or Relocation

CH19

Chapter 19

Insurance Coverage for Employment Claims

19-017

§19.17

Tender of Claim

CH20

Chapter 20

Mediation and Arbitration of Employment Disputes

20-007

§20.7

Checklist: Premediation Steps

20-020

§20.20

Sample Mediated Settlement Agreement

20-066

§20.66

Sample Mediation/Arbitration Clause for Employment Agreement

APP

Appendix

APPENDIX

APP

APP

Workplace Audit Checklist

 

Selected Developments

March 2019 Update

On May 10, 2018, the California Supreme Court issued an order approving new Rules of Professional Conduct for attorneys, which went into effect November 1, 2018. All references to the former Rules in the text have been updated.

Chapter 1: Hiring Guidelines and Pitfalls

As amended effective January 1, 2019, Lab C §432.7(m) permits an employer to ask an applicant about, or seek from any source, information regarding, a particular conviction of the applicant if, under federal or state law, any of the following apply:

  • The employer is required by law to obtain information regarding the particular conviction of the applicant, regardless of whether that conviction has been expunged, judicially ordered sealed, statutorily eradicated, or judicially dismissed following probation.

  • The applicant would be required to possess or use a firearm in the course of his or her employment.

  • An individual with that particular conviction is prohibited by law from holding the position sought by the applicant, regardless of whether that conviction has been expunged, judicially ordered sealed, statutorily eradicated, or judicially dismissed following probation.

  • The employer is prohibited by law from hiring an applicant who has that particular conviction, regardless of whether that conviction has been expunged, judicially ordered sealed, statutorily eradicated, or judicially dismissed following probation.

See §1.29.

In Connor v First Student, Inc. (2018) 5 C5th 1026, the California Supreme Court, in resolving a conflict in the courts of appeal over whether the ICRAA is unconstitutionally vague, and violates due process as applied to employer background checks because it overlaps, in part, with the CCRAA (see §1.35), the court concluded that some overlap between the two statutes did not render the ICRAA unconstitutionally vague when the statutes are otherwise unambiguous. Further, the background check that defendant conducted of its bus drivers was an investigative consumer report under the ICRAA because it reported on their character, general reputation, personal characteristics, or mode of living. The fact that the CCRAA also applied did not exempt the defendant from the requirement that it obtain a written authorization under the ICRAA before conducting or procuring a background investigation. See §1.36.

Chapter 2: Employment Contracts and Executive Compensation

For a case finding the discovery provision and others in an arbitration agreement to be unconscionable, see Baxter v Genworth N. Am. Corp., (2018) 16 CA5th 713. See §2.6.

In Saheli v White Mem’l Med. Ctr. (2018) 21 CA5th 308, the court concluded that the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) preempts special requirements for arbitration agreements contained in the Ralph Civil Rights Act (CC §51.7) and the Bane Civil Rights Act (CC §52.1). See §2.6.

California appellate courts are split on whether claims for civil penalties under Lab C §558 are immune from FAA preemption. See Esparza v KS Indus., L.P. (2017) 13 CA5th 1228 (claim under Lab C §558 subject to arbitration); Lawson v ZB, N.A. (2018) 18 CA5th 705 (FAA preemption does not apply to Lab C §558 claims because that section provides no private right of action). Note: The California Supreme Court has granted review in Lawson v ZB, N.A. (review granted Mar. 21, 2018, S246711; superseded opinion at 18 CA5th 705). See §2.6.

In AMN Healthcare, Inc. v Aya Healthcare Servs., Inc. (2018) 28 CA5th 923, the court held that a nonsolicitation agreement signed by some travel nurse recruiters was an unenforceable restraint on competition under Bus & P C §16600 that prevented the recruiters from practicing their chosen profession. See §2.60.

In Epic Sys. Corp. v Lewis (2018) 584 US ___, 138 S Ct 1612, the Supreme Court rejected the NLRB’s position in Murphy Oil and D.R. Horton by ruling that employers can require employees to arbitrate disputes individually, and waive their right to pursue or participate in class or collective actions against their employer. The Court also noted that although “[t]he policy may be debatable,” Congress can pass new legislation to change the result. Following Epic Systems, the Ninth Circuit reversed class certification and the denial of a motion to compel individual arbitration in O’Connor v Uber Technols., Inc. (2018) 904 F3d 1087. See §2.85.

Chapter 3: Independent Contractors, Leased Workers, and Outsourcing

Businesses are generally not liable for injuries incurred by the employees of independent contractors. Alvarez v Seaside Transp. Servs. LLC (2017) 13 CA5th 635. See §3.4.

California cases continue to not give much weight to the parties’ intent or how they characterize their relationship when deciding whether a worker is an employee or independent contractor. See, e.g., Linton v DeSoto Cab Co. (2017) 15 CA5th 1208. See §3.9.

A new section has been added discussing the California Supreme Court’s landmark decision in Dynamex Operations W., Inc. v Superior Court (2018) 4 C5th 903, in which the court chose to essentially scrap the nearly 30-year old Borello test for determining whether a worker is an employee or an independent contractor for claims asserted under California’s Wage Orders. In replacing the decades-old Borello control test, which applied multiple factors to the determination of whether a worker qualifies as an independent contractor, the court adopted the simplified “ABC” test applied in various other jurisdictions around the country. See §3.9A.

For a recent case addressing independent contractor status for purposes of California workers’ compensation law, see Linton v DeSoto Cab Co. (2017) 15 CA5th 1208. See §3.17.

In the Ninth Circuit’s view, “Dynamex did not purport to replace the Borello standard in every instance where a worker must be classified as either an independent contractor or an employee for purposes of enforcing California’s labor protections.” See California Trucking Ass’n v Su (9th Cir 2018) 903 F3d 953, 959 n4; §3.18.

Title VII broadly defines “employee” to mean an individual employed by an employer. Frey v Hotel Coleman (7th Cir 2018) 903 F3d 671, 678. See §3.28.

In August 2015, a divided National Labor Relations Board overruled longstanding precedent and substantially relaxed the evidentiary requirements for finding a joint-employer relationship under the National Labor Relations Act (29 USC §§151–169). Browning-Ferris Indust. of Cal., Inc., d/b/a BFI Newby Island Recyclery (2015) 362 NLRB No. 186 (Browning-Ferris). Then, in December 2017, a different Board majority restored the prior, more stringent standard. In February 2018, the Board vacated that December 2017 decision, effectively changing the law back again to the relaxed standard of Browning-Ferris. See Hy-Brand Indus. Contractors, Ltd. (2018) 365 NLRB No. 156, 2018 NLRB Lexis 103. A petition for review challenging Browning-Ferris’ adoption of the relaxed standard as beyond the Board’s statutory authority is currently pending in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. In addition, the Board has proposed a regulation establishing the standard for determining whether two employers, as defined in §2(2) of the NLRA, are a joint employer of a group of employees under the NLRA. See §3.44.

The form “Sample Agreement Between Principal and Independent Contractor” has been modified. See §3.68.

Chapter 4: Immigration Law Requirements for Employers

In 2017, USCIS introduced a revised version of Form I-9, marked “Rev. 07/17/2017 N.” Effective September 18, 2017, employers must use only this new version of the form. See §4.12.

Fines for hiring and paperwork violations have been updated. See §§4.23–4.24.

On June 6, 2017 the Secretary of Labor issued a press release calling for a revised Labor Condition Application so that the agency can better protect American workers, confront fraud, and increase transparency. Effective November 19, 2018, the revised ETA Form 9035/9035E becomes mandatory. See §4.39.

On November 30, 2018, the United States, Mexico, and Canada signed the trilateral agreement to replace NAFTA with the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA). Ratification by the legislatures of the three countries is necessary before the USMCA will take effect. Ratification is expected to occur in early 2019. Labor mobility provisions of the new pact are largely the same as those under NAFTA, with no changes to the list of current NAFTA designated professions or to the minimum education and alternative requirements for the designated professions. See §4.62.

Chapter 5: Wage and Hour Laws

Employees working on oil drilling platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel, which are subject to the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (43 USC §§1331–1356b), are subject to the FLSA and to California’s wage and hour laws. Newton v Parker Drilling Mgmt. Servs. (9th Cir 2018) 881 F3d 1078. See §5.1.

The California Supreme Court has explained that under the definition of “suffer or permit” to work, whether a worker may be considered an independent contractor to whom the Wage Order does not apply, the appropriate standard is the “ABC” test. Under this test, a worker is an independent contractor only if the hiring entity establishes that the worker

(A) Is free from the control and direction of the hirer in connection with the performance of the work, both under the contract for the performance of such work and in fact;

(B) Performs work that is outside the usual course of the hiring entity’s business; and

(C) Is customarily engaged in an independently established trade, occupation, or business of the same nature as the work performed for the hiring entity.

Dynamex Operations West, Inc. v Superior Court (2018) 4 C5th 903, 958. For Wage Order claims, the ABC test replaces the “entirety of the circumstances” test, along with the usual common law “control of work” factors, that the court previously used to determine the existence of an employment relationship. S.G. Borello & Sons, Inc. v Department of Indus. Relations (1989) 48 C3d 341. See §5.13.

In Garcia v Border Transp. Group, LLC (2018) 28 CA5th 558, 570, the court applied the Borello test to uphold the dismissal of non-Wage Order claims, and applied Dynamex’s ABC test to reverse dismissal of Wage Order claims. See §5.13.

In 2017, California enacted AB 168, precluding employers from inquiring about prior salary history and requiring employers to provide on reasonable request by an applicant a pay scale for a position. However, employers have subsequently raised numerous questions, including who is considered “an applicant,” what is a “pay scale” and what constitutes a “reasonable request?” AB 2282 was enacted last year to clarify several of the provisions and terms used in AB 168. The text of §5.13A has been updated to reflect these clarifications.

In Mora v Webcor Constr., L.P. (2018) 20 CA5th 211, the court held that “gross wages earned” for purposes of Lab C §226(a)(1) (wage statements) do not include payments to a union vacation trust fund. See §5.14B.

In Alvarado v Dart Container Corp. of Cal. (2018) 4 C5th 542, the California Supreme Court held that when calculating overtime in pay periods in which an employee earns a flat sum bonus, employers must divide the total compensation earned in a pay period by only the non-overtime hours worked by an employee. See §5.37.

On March 23, 2018, in connection with amending the FLSA to prohibit employers from keeping tips for any reason, Congress nullified the 2011 amendments to 29 CFR §§531.52, 531.54, and 531.59 concerning 29 USC §203(m) until any future action is taken by the Wage-Hour Administrator. See §5.44.

Given the requirement that employees be paid for all hours worked, California does not recognize the federal de minimis doctrine, which permits an employee to work a few minutes each day without compensation. Troester v Starbucks Corp. (2018) 5 C5th 829. See §5.45.

The requirement that employees must be relieved of all duties during rest periods does not apply to an employee in a safety-sensitive position at a petroleum facility, to the extent that the employee is required to carry and monitor a communication device, such as a radio, pager, or other form of instant communication, and to respond to emergencies, or is required to remain on the employer’s premises to monitor the premises and respond to emergencies. Lab C §226.75(a). See §5.48.

For updated requirements regarding an employer’s obligation to provide a private location for women needing to express breast milk for their infant children, see §5.48.

An employer of temporary employees may comply with its obligation to provide meal periods by adopting a lawful meal period policy, training employees on the policy, instructing employees to immediately report if they are prevented from taking a meal period, and contractually requiring its clients that supervise the work of its employees to comply with all applicable laws. Serrano v Aerotek, Inc. (2018) 21 CA5th 773. See §5.48.

In Gerard v Orange Coast Mem. Med. Ctr. (Dec. 10, 2018, No. S241655) 2018 Cal Lexis 9500, the California Supreme Court rejected a challenge to the Industrial Welfare Commission’s authority to permit such waivers in the health care industry, upholding second period meal waivers for health care shifts of more than 12 hours. See §5.48.

If limitations on employees during meal breaks are too restrictive, meal breaks will be considered time worked and employees will be entitled to compensation for resulting overtime hours. In Rodriguez v Taco Bell Corp. (9th Cir 2018) 896 F3d 952, the Ninth Circuit held there was no violation of the meal break requirement when the employer required employees to remain on the work premises only when they elected to receive a discounted meal, because the intent was not to keep employees available for work duties, it was to prevent discounted meals from being given to nonemployees. See §5.48.

In Encino Motorcars, LLC v Navarro (2018) 584 US ___, 138 S Ct 1134, 1142, the Court rejected the principle that FLSA exemptions should be construed narrowly. Nothing in the FLSA requires the exemptions to be given “anything other than a fair (rather than a ‘narrow’) interpretation.” See §§5.62, 5.80.

Like the void Operations Manual, DLSE’s Enforcement Policies and Interpretations Manual is of questionable authority in court proceedings. See Troester v Starbucks Corp. (2018) 5 C5th 829, 841 (rejecting Labor Commissioner’s recognition of de minimis doctrine in DLSE manual).

The requirement in Lab C §98.2(b) to post an undertaking by the deadline for filing a notice of appeal is mandatory and jurisdictional. Palagin v Paniagua Constr., Inc. (2014) 222 CA4th 124, 132, 136. The only exception is established by CCP §995.240 for relief from undertaking requirements generally, and that application for relief must be made before expiration of the time provided for appeal under section §98.2. Burkes v Robertson (2018) 26 CA5th 334, 347. See §5.90.

In Epic Sys. Corp. v Lewis (2018) 584 US __, 138 S Ct 1612, the Court held that arbitration agreements between employers and employees that call for individualized proceedings are to be enforced. Neither the FAA’s savings clause—which recognizes only generally applicable contracts defenses, such as fraud, duress, or unconscionability—nor the NLRA’s protection of concerted activities by employees was a basis for striking down an agreement that requires bilateral arbitration. See §5.93A.

In Lawson v ZB, N.A. (review granted Mar. 21, 2018, S246711; superseded opinion at 18 CA5th 705), the California Supreme Court will decide whether a representative action under the Labor Code Private Attorneys General Act of 2004 (PAGA) (Lab C §§2698–2699.6) seeking recovery of individualized lost wages as civil penalties under Lab C §558 falls within the preemptive scope of the FAA. See §5.93A.

Unnamed class members may not appeal a class judgment, settlement, or attorney fees award unless they intervene in the action. Hernandez v Restoration Hardware, Inc. (2018) 4 C5th 260 (by filing appeal without first intervening in action, appellant never became aggrieved party of record to the action, as CCP §902 requires). See §5.93B.

In Atempa v Pedrazzani (2018) 27 CA5th 809, the court held a corporate employer’s owner, president, secretary, and director liable for civil penalties, attorney fees, costs, and post-judgment interest as an “other person acting on behalf of the employer” that violated Lab C §§558(a) and 1197.1(a) by failing to pay the minimum wage and overtime. See §5.96.

An employee that is not aggrieved lacks standing to pursue a PAGA claim. Cabrera v Rx Servs. (ND Cal, Sep. 25, 2018, No. C 17-05803 WHA) 2018 US Dist Lexis 164625 (plaintiffs lost their standing to sue under PAGA when they waived their individual claims by choosing not to pursue individual arbitrations). See §5.97.

In Kim v Reins Int’l Cal., Inc. (review granted Mar. 28, 2018, S246911; superseded opinion at 18 CA5th 1052), the California Supreme Court will decide whether an employee bringing an action under PAGA loses standing to pursue representative claims as an “aggrieved employee” by dismissing his or her individual claims against the employer. See §5.97.

PAGA does not apply to an employee in the construction industry with respect to work performed under a valid collective bargaining agreement in effect any time before January 1, 2025, under certain specified conditions. See §5.100A.

See Lab C §2810.4 regarding the joint and several liability of businesses with 25 or more employees that use a port drayage motor carrier to perform port drayage services, after the Labor Commissioner posts a notice on its website that the port drayage motor carrier owes unpaid wages, unreimbursed expenses, damages, interest, and penalties to a port drayage driver. See §5.100E.

Chapter 6: Vacations, Family and Medical Leave, and Other Time Off

In Mora v Webcor Constr., L.P. (2018) 20 CA5th 211, 221, the court held that payments made by the employer to a union vacation trust fund established under a collective bargaining agreement and authorized by the Labor Management Relations Act of 1947 (29 USC §§141–187) were not “wages” for purposes of Lab C §226(a). See §6.6.

Under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (Pub L 115–97, 131 Stat 2054) eligible employers may claim a tax credit equal to 12.5 percent of the amount of wages paid to qualifying employees on family or medical leave, if the rate of payment is at least 50 percent of the employee’s regular wages. The credit is limited to wages paid for 12 weeks in any taxable year. This credit ends on December 31, 2019, and is effective for wages paid after December 31, 2017. IRC §45S. See §6.85A.

The form “Sample Policy for Personal Leave” has been modified. See §6.141.

Chapter 7: Tax Compliance

A new section discussing the New Employment Credit has been added. See §7.22A.

Chapter 8: Unemployment Compensation and State Disability Insurance

In Brown v Unemployment Ins. Appeals Bd. (2018) 20 CA5th 1107, the court held that an employee’s failure to wear the correct shirt to work was not willful misconduct. At issue on appeal was the correct prejudgment interest rate on unemployment benefits wrongfully withheld. The court of appeal determined it was the 10 percent contract rate, rather than the 7 percent generic interest rate on judgments, finding a former employee’s right to unemployment benefits is sufficiently tied to his or her employment contract to justify imposition of prejudgment interest at the contractual rate of 10 percent. See §8.114.

Beginning January 1, 2021, an employee may receive wage replacement benefits for time off due to qualifying exigencies (as defined) related to the service by the employee’s spouse, domestic partner, child, or parent in the United States armed services. Employees seeking such benefits from the Employment Development Department may be required to provide copies of the active duty orders or other military-issued documentation confirming the family member’s service. See §8.195.

Under existing law, an employer may require an employee to take up to 2 weeks of earned but unused vacation before, and as a condition of, the employee’s initial receipt of paid family leave benefits under Un Ins C §3303.1. Under existing law, if an employer requires an employee to take vacation leave, that portion of the vacation leave that does not exceed 1 week is to be applied to the waiting period for receiving the benefits. Assembly Bill 2587 deleted that application of vacation leave to the waiting period, consistent with the removal of the 7-day waiting period last year for those benefits on and after January 1, 2018. See §8.195.

Chapter 9: Notice-Posting, Training, and Recordkeeping Requirements

Civil Code §52.6 was amended in 2018 to require the Attorney General to update the human trafficking notice by January 1, 2019. Affected businesses must post the updated notice on or after January 1, 2019. See §9.53A.

Government Code §12950.1 was amended in 2018 by SB 1343 to broaden required sexual harassment prevention training. As amended, the statute requires that by January 1, 2020, employers with five or more employees (including temporary and seasonal employees) provide training to all employees, not just supervisory employees, within 6 months of their hire. However, the mandatory harassment training required for non-supervisory employees is for 1 hour, rather than the 2 hours for supervisory employees. At the same time, SB 1300 expanded the potential content of harassment training by adding new Govt C §12950.2, to allow the training to include “bystander intervention training.” See §9.61.

A new section has been added, discussing the requirement that hotels and motels provide training regarding human trafficking to each employee who is likely to interact with human trafficking victims. The employees at whom training and education efforts are directed include those who work in the reception area, perform housekeeping duties, help customers in moving their possessions, or drive customers. See §9.61C.

Chapter 10: Employee Handbooks

Effective January 1, 2019, the so-called “common interest” privilege applies to statements made “without malice” relating to a complaint of sexual harassment by an employee to an employer based on credible evidence. It also applies to subsequent communications by the employer to other “interested persons” during a sexual harassment investigation. In addition, CC §47(c) as amended by AB 2770 provides a safe harbor against defamation liability by allowing employers to provide information during reference checks involving employees who previously engaged in sexually harassing behavior. Although the section already provided immunity for nonmalicious responses as to whether the employee in question was eligible for rehire, as amended, it allows the employer or its agent to indicate whether the decision to not rehire is based on the employer’s determination that the former employee engaged in sexual harassment. See §§10.40, 13.75.

Chapter 11: Trade Secrets Protection and Unfair Competition

The federal Defend Trade Secrets Act (DTSA) (Pub L 114–153, 130 Stat 376) uses the same statutory definition, and applies the same analysis, as the existing California version of the Uniform Trade Secrets Act (UTSA) (CC §§3426–3426.11). See Alta Devices, Inc. v LG Electronics, Inc. (ND Cal, Oct. 17, 2018, No. 18-CV-00404-LHK) 2018 US Dist Lexis 185071; Rockwell Collins, Inc. v Wallace (CD Cal, Nov. 10, 2017, No. SACV 17-01369 AG JCGx) 2017 US Dist Lexis 190361. See §11.1A.

“Know-how,” which includes methods, procedures, and expertise that are not patentable may nevertheless qualify for trade secret protection. BladeRoom Group Ltd. v Facebook, Inc. (ND Cal, Jan. 23, 2018, No. 5:15-cv-01370-EJD) 2018 US Dist Lexis 10905. See §11.3.

The employer should carefully follow its internal security procedures without exception, if possible, to establish that it undertook reasonable security measures. Evidence that certain established security measures or policies were not followed may defeat a trade secrets claim. See Carr v AutoNation Inc. (ED Cal, Jan. 8, 2018, No. 2:17-cv-01539-JAM) 2018 US Dist Lexis 3305 (plaintiff failed to take reasonable steps to maintain secrecy of its business plan). See §11.6.

In BladeRoom Group Ltd. v Emerson Elec. Co. (ND Cal 2018) 331 F Supp 3d 977, the court held that expert testimony was unnecessary to prove ownership of trade secrets. See §11.7.

Improper acquisition alone of a trade secret, with no showing of subsequent use, still might legally support damages under the DTSA and UTSA. Waymo LLC v Uber Technols., Inc. (ND Cal, Jan. 18, 2018, No. C 17-00939 WHA) 2018 US Dist Lexis 8263. See §11.7A.

Trade secret protection may be lost or terminated by public disclosure. Wang v Golf Tailor, LLC (ND Cal, Nov. 3, 2017, No. 17-cv-00898-LB) 2017 US Dist Lexis 182838 (public disclosure through marketing and sale of product). See §11.12.

In Golden v California Emergency Physicians Med. Group (9th Cir 2018) 896 F3d 1018, the Ninth Circuit held that a settlement agreement containing a “no employment” provision prohibiting a doctor from subsequently being employed throughout California with certain provider networks, not just his former medical provider group, might violate Bus & P C §16600. See §§11.42, 11.52, 11.58.

In Swarmfly, Inc. v Cloudflare, Inc. (ND Cal, Sept. 28, 2018, No. C 17-06957 WHA) 2018 US Dist Lexis 168317, the court found the plaintiff to be acting in “bad faith,” and awarded attorney fees to the defendant when the plaintiff failed to dismiss the case after receiving proof from the defendant disproving trade secrets misappropriation. See §11.42A.

A recent federal decision applying CCP §2019.210, stated that to satisfy the trade secret disclosure statute, a trade secret disclosure needs to include

(1) a summary of the specific trade secret; (2) the background of the trade secret and a description of how each secret has derived independent, actual or potential economic value by virtue of not being generally known to the public; (3) a description of how each secret has been the subject of reasonable efforts to maintain its secrecy; and finally (4) each of the precise claimed trade secrets, numbered, with a list of the specific elements for each, as claims would appear at the end of a patent.

Openwave Messaging, Inc. v Open-Xchange, Inc. (ND Cal, Feb. 2, 2018, No. 16-cv-00253-WHO) 2018 US Dist Lexis 17776, *11. See §11.43A.

In determining whether confidential information should be disclosed to a third party’s chosen expert, courts will balance the receiving party’s interest in selecting the expert most beneficial to its case with the disclosing party’s interest in protecting its trade secrets from disclosure to competitors. See Codexis, Inc. v EnzymeWorks, Inc. (ND Cal, Dec. 4, 2017, No. 3:16-cv-00826-WHO) 2018 US Dist Lexis 199186. See §11.44.

In McGill v Citibank, N.A. (2017) 2 C5th 945, the California Supreme Court held that claims for injunctive relief under the Unfair Competition Law and California Legal Remedies Act were not subject to a predispute arbitration clause. See §11.55C.

In Barker v Insight Global, LLC (ND Cal, July 24, 2018, No. 16-cv-07186-BLF) 2018 US Dist Lexis 123896, the court held that a former employee lacked standing to seek declaratory and injunctive relief from a customer nonsolicitation clause which had already expired. See §11.59.

An employer-employee relationship, without more, is not a fiduciary relationship. Nor does a fiduciary relationship arise simply because an employee is permitted access to the employer’s confidential and proprietary information. Agfa Corp. v Richard (CD Cal, June 1, 2018, No. SACV 17-01976-DOC) 2018 US Dist Lexis 103460. See §11.68.

In In re General Capacitor (ND Cal 2018) 325 F Supp 3d 1029, 1040, the court held that the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (18 USC §1030) did not apply to an employee who took data files and e-mails, and destroyed her employer’s computer records, while she was still employed. See §11.74.

Two recent Ninth Circuit decisions make clear that Pen C §502 still requires the plaintiff to plead and prove “non-permission to use” to establish liability under the statute. See Oracle USA, Inc. v Rimini St., Inc. (9th Cir 2018) 879 F3d 948, 962; Facebook, Inc. v Power Ventures, Inc. (9th Cir. 2016) 844 F3d 1058, 1069. As for now, it appears that courts will look at the “specific acts” that are alleged to constitute an offense under the California statute and whether there was “permission” to engage in those acts. San Miguel v HP Inc. (ND Cal 2018) 317 F Supp 3d 1075, 1987; New Box Solutions, LLC v Davis (CD Cal, Sept. 18, 2018, No. CV 18-5324-RSWL-KSx) 2018 US Dist Lexis 164510. See §11.74.

Chapter 12: Workplace Safety

In May 2016, OSHA published a final rule revising its Recording and Reporting Occupational Illness and Injuries Rule and requiring some employers to electronically submit certain injury and illness data. On November 1, 2018, the Office of Administrative law approved Cal/OSHA’s emergency action to conform with the OSHA requirements. Amendments require designated employers in California to electronically submit certain occupational injury and illness information to OSHA. The first submission was due December 31, 2018. See §12.1A.

In Solus Indus. Innovations, LLC v Superior Court (2018) 4 C5th 316, the California Supreme Court held that federal law does not preempt actions by California district attorneys against employers for recovery of civil penalties under the Unfair Competition Law (UCL) (Bus & P C §§17200–17210) based on violations of California workplace safety laws. See §12.4.

The Labor Code requires the Division of Occupational Safety and Health to issue a citation “with reasonable promptness.” No citation may be issued for violations after 6 months have elapsed since the violation occurred. Effective January 1, 2019, “occurrence” is defined to mean that the violative condition continues to exist, and the employer can be cited, until the violative condition is corrected, or the Division discovers the violation, or the employer’s duty to comply with the violated requirement ceases to exist. Lab C §6317. See §12.36.

Labor Code §6427(a) established the maximum penalty amounts for non-serious violations in 2017 at no more than $12,471. This includes general and regulatory violations of the safety orders, including posting, recording, and recordkeeping violations, but not failures to report a serious injury. However, Lab C §6427(b) has been added to comply with federal law and now requires that the amount of the maximum penalty be increased on January 1st of each year by the amount of the increase in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) the previous October. Thus, the maximum amount of a non-serious violation in 2018 rose to $12,726. The CPU-I for October 2018 was 0.3 percent, meaning that the maximum value of a non-serious penalty in 2019 is expected to be $12,764. See §12.53.

In Alvarez v Seaside Transp. Servs. LLC (2017) 13 CA5th 636, the court reaffirmed the principle that liability for work-related injuries when one hires an independent contractor generally depends on the independent negligence of the hirer. See §12.124.

Chapter 13: Workplace Privacy

The form “Polygraph Consent Form” has been modified. See §13.18.

The form “Sample Computer/E-Mail Usage Policy” has been modified. See §13.33.

The form “Workplace Search Policy” has been modified. See §13.43.

The form “Sample Drug and Alcohol Policy” has been modified. See §13.66.

The form “Sample Consent to Drug and Alcohol Test” has been modified. See §13.69.

The form “Sample Outside Employment Policy” has been modified. See §13.86.

Chapter 15: Discrimination and Harassment

In Hively v Ivy Tech Community College (7th Cir 2017) 853 F3d 339, the Seventh Circuit became the first federal court of appeals to explicitly recognize sexual orientation discrimination as an illegal type of sex discrimination under Title VII. The circuits has subsequently split on this issue. See Zarda v Altitude Express, Inc. (2d Cir 2018) 883 F3d 100 (employee was entitled to bring Title VII claim for discrimination based on sexual orientation); EEOC v R.G. & G.R. Harris Funeral Homes, Inc. (6th Cir 2018) 884 F3d 560 (EEOC was entitled to bring Title VII claim on ground that employer discriminated against employee on basis of her transgender and transitioning status); but see Evans v Georgia Regional Hosp. (11th Cir 2017) 850 F3d 1248 (discrimination based on sexual orientation not actionable under Title VII). See §15.5C.

Current law provides that employers may be liable for the acts of nonemployees with respect to sexual harassment of employees, applicants, unpaid interns or volunteers. Govt C §12940(j). Senate Bill 1300, enacted in 2018 and effective January 1, 2019, amended that section to extend that liability to any form of harassment, not just sexual. See §§15.31, 15.33.

Responding to concerns that some harassers use the prospect of future work to initiate unwelcome sexual harassment, CC §51.9 was amended effective January 1, 2019, to impose liability for sexual harassment on individuals who hold themselves out as being able to help the plaintiff establish a business, service or professional relationship with the defendant or a third party. See §15.48.

In 2018, SB 820 was enacted to respond to concerns that nondisclosure provisions in sexual harassment settlement agreements conceal and perpetuate harassing behavior. Accordingly, CCP §1001 was added to prohibit settlement agreement provisions preventing the disclosure of “factual information related to a claim filed in a civil action or a complaint filed in an administrative action” regarding (1) sexual assault; (2) sexual harassment under the Unruh Act (CC §51); or (3) workplace sexual harassment, sex discrimination or retaliation against a person for reporting sex harassment or discrimination under FEHA. It further prohibits a court from entering any stipulation or order that restricts the disclosure of information in a manner that conflicts with this section. Any such provisions entered into on or after January 1, 2019 will be deemed void as against public policy. See §15.107A.

In civil actions brought under Govt C §12965(b), the court, in its discretion, may award to the prevailing party, including the DFEH, reasonable attorney’s fees and costs, including expert witness fees. However, as amended by SB 1300 effective January 1, 2019, a prevailing defendant may not be awarded fees and costs unless the court finds the action was frivolous, unreasonable, or groundless when brought, or the plaintiff continued to litigate after it clearly became so. This limitation on the defendant’s costs recovery applies notwithstanding the provisions of CCP §998 (i.e., if the defendant offered a pre-judgment offer to compromise greater than the plaintiff’s trial recovery.) See §15.155.

The following new sections have been added to chap 15:

  • “Tables: Common Acronyms and Abbreviations.” See §15.1A.

  • “Persons Who Are Typically Not Employees” (i.e., for purposes of Title VII). See §15.3A.

  • “Partners.” See §15.3B.

  • “Board Members.” See §15.3C.

  • “Independent Contractors.” See §15.3D.

  • “Volunteers.” See §15.3E.

  • “Special Issues Relating to Race and Color” (i.e., under Title VII). See §15.5A.

  • “Special Issues Relating to Religion.” See §15.5B.

  • “Special Issues Relating to Sex, Pregnancy, Sexual Orientation, and Gender Identity.” See §15.5C.

  • “Special Issues Relating to National Origin.” See §15.5D.

  • “Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009.” See §15.20A.

  • “First Amendment Issues.” See §15.30H.

  • “Partners” (i.e., for purposes of coverage under FEHA). See §15.31B.

  • “Issues Relating to National Origin.” See §15.40B.

  • “Release of a Claim or Right Under FEHA.” See §15.40C.

  • “Immigration Protection Under State Law.” See §15.47A.

  • “Stray Remarks.” See §15.58A.

  • “Use of Arrest and Conviction Records.” See §15.70A.

  • “Legislative Declarations About Harassment Claims.” See §15.96A.

  • “Form: Sample Investigation Documentation.” See §15.106A.

  • “Form: Sample Training Documentation.” See §15.106B.

  • “Confidentiality Limits for Sexual Harassment Settlement Agreements.” See §15.107A.

  • “Claims Alleged.” See §15.161A.

  • “Special Issues Relating to Federal Employees.” See §15.208A.

The form “Sample Policy Prohibiting Harassment” has been replaced. See §15.104.

Chapter 16: Whistleblower Issues

In Light v Dep’t of Parks & Recreation (2017) 14 CA5th 75, the court held that claims of intentional infliction of emotion distress due to alleged whistleblower retaliation under FEHA were an exception to the workers’ compensation exclusivity rule. See §16.4.

Chapter 16A: Workplace Investigations

Workplace investigations are subject to a reasonableness standard. A recent example of that principle is Jameson v Pacific Gas & Elec. Co. (2017) 16 CA5th 901 (employer acted reasonably and in good faith after appropriate investigation when it determined, on basis of report, it had good cause to terminate employee for retaliating against coworker for raising safety issue; thus, termination was not wrongful; employee was informed of investigation and directed early on to speak to investigator, who interviewed ten witnesses and provided credible reasons for her decision not to interview three others, and investigator produced 12-page report that detailed evidence she gathered and her analysis of it). See §16A.12.

Chapter 17: Discipline and Termination

Effective January 1, 2019, the language of CC §1542, commonly included in a release of claims, has been slightly changed. The text in three affected sections has been modified to include the new language. See §§17.106, 17.112, and 17.113.

Chapter 18: Reductions in Force and Plant Closings

Effective January 1, 2019, the language of CC §1542, commonly included in a release of claims, has been slightly changed. The form “Release” in §18.8 has been modified to include the new language.

Under the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (WARN) (29 USC §§2101–2109), reduced-time notice of a plant closing or mass layoff is permissible if the cause is a business circumstance not reasonably foreseeable at the time notice otherwise would have been required. Such circumstances may include the termination of a major contract by a principal client, a strike at a major supplier, a dramatic economic downturn, a government ordered layoff, or a government order closing an employment site. In Varela v AE Liquidation, Inc. (In re AE Liquidation, Inc.) (3d Cir 2017) 866 F3d 515 the court excused the debtor-employer’s failure to give 60 days’ notice of a forced layoff when the sale of its assets as a going concern fell through and its Chapter 11 case was converted to one under Chapter 7. The trustee established that this business circumstance not reasonably foreseeable in advance. See §18.35.

Chapter 20: Mediation and Arbitration of Employment Disputes

Effective January 1, 2019, the language of CC §1542, commonly included in a release of claims, has been slightly changed. The form “Sample Mediated Settlement Agreement” in §20.20 has been modified to include the new language.

Chapter 21: Public Employment Issues

The free speech protections of the First Amendment prohibit public employees from being compelled to pay an “agency fee” or “fair share fee” to an exclusive representative instead of joining the union and paying member dues. Janus v AFSCME Council 31 (2018) 585 US ___, 138 S Ct 2448. The Janus decision does not appear to have invalidated negotiated maintenance of membership provisions (requiring union members to remain members during the term of the collective bargaining agreement) currently allowable under California law. In response to the Janus decision, the Public Employees Relations Board (PERB) stopped enforcing, as of June 27, 2018, provisions of the statutes under its jurisdiction that provide for agency fee or fair share fee arrangements. As of that same date, PERB ceased enforcing its regulations governing agency or fair share fees. See §21.14.

It is not bad faith to fail to reach agreement on mandatory subjects, as long as a good faith effort has been made and impasse procedures have been exhausted. City of Davis (2018) PERB Dec. No. 2582M, 43 PERC 51. See §21.24.

Factfinding is a nonbinding impasse resolution procedure. The factfinder is an independent neutral, and may be the third party on a tripartite panel including a management and a union representative. The factfinder, or panel majority, makes findings of fact on all matters on which the parties have reached impasse and recommends terms of settlement. The parties may accept the recommendations or may conduct further bargaining over the recommendations. City of Davis (2018) PERB Dec. No. 2582M, 43 PERC 51. See §21.28.

A new section has been added discussing “Impasse Resolution in Transit Districts.” See §21.29A.

About the Authors

BONNIE BOGUE (chapter 21: Public Employment Issues) has been an arbitrator and mediator since 1977 and is a member of the National Academy of Arbitrators. Formerly director of the California Public Employee Relations Program at the University of California, Berkeley, she contributed to its journal, CPER, from 1970 until 1994. She also is coauthor of several titles in CPER’s Pocket Guide Series. She is a past Chair of the Labor and Employment Law Section of the California State Bar.

DENISE N. BRUCKER (chapter 10: Employee Handbooks) is a 1997 graduate of Northeastern School of Law and is associated with Paul, Plevin, Sullivan & Connaughton LLP in San Diego. She has over 6 years of experience in employment litigation and counseling. Ms. Brucker’s current practice is devoted to counseling management and human resource professionals on compliance issues and risk avoidance. Her areas of expertise cover a broad range of employment issues, including wage and hour, family and medical leaves, employment discrimination and harassment, trade secrets, and contract issues. Ms. Brucker also defends employers in administrative proceedings before the Department of Labor, DFEH, and EEOC.

ARTHUR CHINSKI (chapter 3: Independent Contractors, Leased Workers, and Outsourcing) is a shareholder with the firm of Buchalter Nemer, P.C., in Los Angeles. Mr. Chinski graduated in 1967 from the University of California, Los Angeles, and received his law degree in 1970 from the University of California, Davis, School of Law. From 1971 to 1974, he was an attorney with the Region 21 office of the National Labor Relations Board in Los Angeles. For the Business Law Institute, he was Director and Chair of the Employment Regulations Program, Director of the Compensation and Benefits Program, and Director and Chair of the Human Resources Program. Mr. Chinski has served on the Executive Board of the Los Angeles County Bar Association’s Labor Law Section and has served as Vice-Chair and a member of the Executive Committee of the Bar Association’s Arbitration Committee. He is currently Adjunct Professor of Law at Southwestern University School of Law, where he teaches Entertainment Industry Labor and Employment Law in the School’s Biederman Media and Entertainment Law Institute, which offers a Masters in Law Degree in Entertainment Law.

MARGARET HART EDWARDS (chapter 2: Employment Contracts and Executive Compensation and chapter 9: Notice-Posting, Training, and Recordkeeping Requirements) is a shareholder in the firm of Littler Mendelson P.C., San Francisco. Ms. Edwards graduated (cum laude) in 1972 from the University of Chicago and received her law degree (cum laude) in 1975 from Northwestern University. Ms. Edwards was a former member of the Board of Contributing Editors for the California Business Law Reporter. She is the author of Posting and Recordkeeping Requirements for Employers (Cal CEB Client Handbook Series 1997), A Model Employee Handbook for California Businesses (Cal CEB Client Handbook Series 1994), and Americans with Disabilities Act: A Practical Guide for Employers (Cal CEB Client Handbook Series 1994). In addition, Ms. Edwards has written over 30 articles on labor and employment topics for a wide range of publications. She has lectured before such groups as the Administrative Law Judges Association, the Employers Group, the Merchants and Manufacturers Association, the Northern California Human Resources Council, the Council on Education in Management, the Defense Research Institute, the California Continuing Education of the Bar, the American Council on International Personnel, the American Payroll Association, the California Hospitality and Lodging Association, the California Downtown Association, the California Mortgage Bankers Association, and a variety of legal professional organizations. Ms. Edwards is a member of the Board of Directors of the National Employment Center for the American Foundation of the Blind and served for 10 years as a member of the Board of Directors of the Legal Aid Society of San Francisco.

DOUGLAS J. FARMER (chapter 17: Discipline and Termination) received his A.B. (magna cum laude) from Harvard University and his J.D. from Harvard Law School. Mr. Farmer is a partner with Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton LLP in San Francisco, where he specializes in employment law counseling and class action litigation. He was recently identified by Chambers USA as one of California’s leading employment lawyers. He is a former EEOC Trial Attorney, a frequent speaker for human resources groups nationwide, and the author of several employment law publications for lawyers. He created one of the first Spanish-language sexual harassment training programs, which has been used by California employers to train managers and employees throughout the Southwest. Mr. Farmer is a member of the San Francisco Bar Association’s Diversity Committee.

LISA A. FRANK (chapter 10: Employee Handbooks) is co-founder of Kasper & Frank LLP. Ms. Frank advises employers on issues such as hiring, leaves of absence, disability accommodation, performance management, wage and hour compliance, reductions in force, and the protection of intellectual property. She also regularly provides management and human resources training and conducts workplace investigations and is a skilled litigator. Before founding Kasper & Frank, she served as partner at one of San Diego’s leading employment law firms, in-house counsel at the world’s largest independent biotechnology company, and associate at a prominent international law firm. Ms. Frank earned her B.A. (Phi Beta Kappa) from the University of California, Santa Cruz, in 1995, and her J.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law in 1999.

CYNTHIA E. FRUCHTMAN (chapter 16: Whistleblower Issues) earned her B.A. from Northwestern University in 1979 and her J.D. from Chicago-Kent College of Law in 1986. She was a law clerk to The Honorable N. Fred Woods of the Los Angeles County Superior Court and to The Honorable Prentice H. Marshall of the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois. She has been in sole practice in Santa Monica since 1997. Ms. Fruchtman has served as a Guest Lecturer at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law and as an Adjunct Professor at California State University in Los Angeles and at Whittier Law School. She is a mediator and Judge Pro Tem for the Los Angeles County Superior Court. In addition, she was Co-Chair of the Los Angeles County Bar Association Bioethics Committee from 1998 to 2000 and is active in the bioethics field, having been appointed to the Joint Bioethics Committee of the Los Angeles County Bar Association and the Los Angeles County Medical Association and serving as a Board Member of The Center for Research and Training in Humane and Ethical Medical Care at the Santa Monica/UCLA Medical Center. Her practice focuses on labor law and civil litigation in the areas of employment, business, and real estate. She has written extensively on employment law and assisted-reproduction topics.

JEFFREY P. FUCHSMAN (chapter 5: Wage and Hour Laws) is a partner in the Glendale firm Ballard Rosenberg Golper & Savitt, LLP, a labor and employment law firm representing management exclusively. For more than 25 years, Mr. Fuchsman has successfully defended employers in a wide range of employment law matters, including wage and hour class actions, wrongful termination, discrimination, and sexual harassment lawsuits. Mr. Fuchsman has appeared in state and federal courts throughout California, and has argued cases before the California Court of Appeal and the Ninth Circuit of Appeals. Mr. Fuchsman was co-counsel for the employer in a landmark case before the California Supreme Court on constructive discharge, Turner v Anheuser-Busch, Inc. (1994) 7 C4th 1238. He also counsels companies on day-to-day employment law issues, including wage and hour, family and medical leave, drug testing, investigations, employee discipline, and terminations. Mr. Fuchsman is also a frequent author and speaker on various labor and employment law topics. He received his B.A. in Economics from the State University of New York at Albany in 1979 and is a 1982 graduate of the University of San Diego School of Law.

LAWRENCE J. GARTNER (chapter 1: Hiring Guidelines and Pitfalls) is a partner with the firm of Ballard Spahr LLP in Los Angeles. Mr. Gartner graduated in 1967 from the University of California, Berkeley, and received his law degree in 1970 from Harvard Law School. He is a former trial attorney for the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. In 1985–1986, he was the Chair of the Public Employment Committee of the Labor and Employment Law Section of the State Bar.

LARRY M. GOLUB (chapter 19: Insurance Coverage for Employment Claims) is a partner with the firm of Hinshaw & Culbertson LLP in Los Angeles. Mr. Golub graduated magna cum laude in 1979 from the University of California, Los Angeles, and received his law degree magna cum laude in 1983 from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law, where he was the Note and Comment Editor of the Law Review. He served as a Judicial Extern to California Court of Appeals Justice Joseph Grodin in 1982. Among Mr. Golub’s insurance-related publications are the following: “Analyzing Coverage: Reading & Interpreting Insurance Policies” and “Claims Involving Excess Insurance,” both for California Liability Insurance Practice: Claims & Litigation (Cal CEB); “Business General Liability Policies,” for California Insurance Law & Practice (LexisNexis 1992); “Products Liability Insurance,” for California Insurance Law & Practice (LexisNexis 1994); and “Identifying and Using Insurance Coverage in Business Litigation,” for a CEB business law program presented in 1986, 1989, 1991, and 1993. Mr. Golub also lectures extensively on insurance coverage issues, including the issue of insurance coverage for employment claims.

JOEL GROSSMAN (chapter 20: Mediation and Arbitration of Employment Disputes) is a mediator and arbitrator with JAMS in Santa Monica. He graduated from the University of Pennsylvania with honors in 1972, received a Masters Degree in English from the University of California, Santa Barbara, in 1974, and received a J.D. from the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law in 1979, where he was elected to the Order of the Coif. He clerked for the Hon. Eugene Wright of the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals and then joined the Los Angeles office of O’Melveny & Myers, where he practiced labor and employment law. During this period, he co-authored a leading treatise on employment law, The Modern Law of Employment Contracts, with Charles G. Bakaly Jr. After O’Melveny & Myers, Mr. Grossman was a partner with Selvin & Weiner, where he handled labor and litigation matters. In early 1989, he left private practice to become the head of the Labor Relations and Litigation Divisions of Sony Pictures Entertainment, a major studio that produces motion pictures and television. After nearly 15 years at Sony, he became a mediator at ADR Services, Inc., and then moved to JAMS, the nation’s leading provider of mediation and arbitration services. He has been selected five times as one of the top neutrals in California by the Daily Journal.

STEFANIE M. GUSHÁ (chapter 1: Hiring Guidelines and Pitfalls) is Manager of Labor Relations with SUPERVALU INC. in Fullerton. She earned a B.A. from the University of California, Berkeley, in 2000 and a J.D. from Stanford Law School in 2003, where she served as an advocate for low-income students with disabilities during special education proceedings in conjunction with the Youth and Education Law Clinic. She also served as co-chairperson of academic affairs for the Stanford Law School Association and Senior Editor of the Stanford Law and Policy Review.

ERIC HENDRICKSON (chapter 8: Unemployment Compensation and State Disability Insurance) is a Staff Counsel with the Legal Office of the Employment Development Department in Sacramento.

CYNTHIA L. JACKSON (chapter 18: Reductions in Force and Plant Closings) is a partner with Baker & McKenzie LLP in the firm’s Palo Alto office. She is chair of the firm’s North America Compensation and Employment Law Practice Group and serves on both the Global Employment and North America Corporate Compliance steering committees. She has over 30 years of experience working on domestic and international employment counseling and litigation. Ms. Jackson has been consistently recognized as a leader in her field by Chambers USA, Legal 500, Best Lawyers of America, Northern California Super Lawyers, and America’s Leading Lawyers for Business. Her articles have appeared in numerous publications, including The San Francisco and Los Angeles Daily Journal and Financier Worldwide. She is also a frequent speaker for various seminars and institutions, such as the Association of Corporate Counsel, Bay Area Council, and Sciences Politiques (Paris). Ms. Jackson graduated in 1976 from Stanford University and received her law degree in 1979 from the University of Texas.

STEPHEN R. LUEKE (chapter 5: Wage and Hour Laws) is a partner with the firm of Ballard, Rosenberg, Golper & Savitt LLP in Universal City. Mr. Lueke graduated cum laude in 1973 from the University of South Carolina and received his law degree in 1984 from Loyola Marymount University. He held a number of positions with the NLRB’s headquarters and field offices before entering private practice.

THOMAS G. MACKEY (chapter 14: Employer Liability for Acts of Employees) is of counsel to Jackson Lewis in Los Angeles. Mr. Mackey graduated in 1991 from California State University at Northridge and received his law degree in 1994 from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law.

EVERETT F. MEINERS (chapter 13: Workplace Privacy) is a senior member of the Labor and Employment Department of Parker, Milliken, Clark, O’Hara & Samuelian in Los Angeles. Mr. Meiners graduated in 1961 from the University of California, Riverside, and received his law degree in 1964 from the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law, where he was the Chief Justice of the Moot Court Honors Program. He served as the law clerk to Justice Gordon L. Files of the California Court of Appeals from 1964 to 1965 and joined the law firm of Parker, Milliken in 1965. Mr. Meiners is a member of the Board of Directors of the Los Angeles Chapter of IRRA (Industrial Relations Research Association), an officer of the Orange County Chapter of IRRA, and a member and mentor for PIHRA (Professionals in Human Resources Association). He has spoken regularly at the Annual Labor Law Conference presented by Region 21 of the NLRB, the Orange County IRRA, and the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service. He is a Member of the Southern California Mediation Association and a graduate of the Straus Institute for Dispute Resolution at Pepperdine University School of Law. Mr. Meiners is also a member of the Los Angeles Superior Court Mediation Panel and a Trustee of the San Fernando Valley Bar Association. He is a regular contributor to the CEB Topics website on issues concerning employment law and the editor of PMCOS Labor News. In 2005 and 2006, he was selected as a Super Lawyer by Los Angeles Magazine in the category of Employment Litigation.

SEAN A. O’BRIEN (chapter 11: Trade Secrets Protection and Unfair Competition) is an attorney with the firm of Payne & Fears LLP and practices in Irvine. Mr. O’Brien graduated in 1983 from the University of California, Los Angeles, received an M.B.A. in 1986 from the University of California, Berkeley, and received his law degree in 1987 from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. (Mr. O’Brien can be contacted at sao@paynefears.com.)

MICHAEL PEDHIRNEY (chapter 2: Employment Contracts and Executive Compensation and chapter 9: Notice-Posting, Training, and Recordkeeping Requirements) is a shareholder in the San Francisco office of Littler Mendelson, P.C. He received a B.A. from the University of Notre Dame in 2001, where he graduated magna cum laude, and a J.D. from the University of Washington School of Law in 2004. While attending law school, he worked as an extern at the Associate Regional Solicitor’s Office for the Department of Labor. He also served as an associate notes and comments editor for the Washington Law Review. Mr. Pedhirney specializes in the representation of management in all aspects of labor and employment law, including contract negotiations, collective bargaining, appellate matters, and arbitration and mediation.

PATRICIA C. PEREZ (chapter 16A: Workplace Investigations) is founder and president of Puente Consulting, Inc. in San Diego. A graduate of the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law and a certified Senior Professional in Human Resources, Ms. Perez has practiced employment law since 1992. A native Spanish speaker, she has worked in Mexico with judicial education programs; has trained thousands of HR, legal, and other professionals; and has extensive experience as an employment attorney and an HR executive. Ms. Perez is active in community and professional organizations, including the Society for Human Resource Management’s (SHRM) national and local chapters, the California State Bar and the San Diego County Bar Association (she is Chair of the Executive Committee of the Labor and Employment Law Section of the California State Bar), the UCLA Alumni Association (she is a past member of its Board of Directors), San Diego MANA (she is a member of its Advisory Board), and the National Association of Women Business Owners (NAWBO). Ms. Perez was a 2006 finalist for NAWBO’s Business Owner of the Year Award and was recently named one of San Diego Metropolitan Magazine’s “40 under Forty”—an award given to the region’s outstanding young business and civic leaders. Ms. Perez makes frequent presentations about HR and employment law topics, including recent speaking engagements for the California State Bar, the California Restaurant Association, and the Hospitality Human Resources Association. She was a featured speaker at SHRM’s 2006 Annual National Diversity Conference. Additionally, Ms. Perez has taught employment law at the University of California, San Diego.

LISA PRINCE (chapter 12: Workplace Safety) is a partner with Walter & Prince LLP in Healdsburg. Ms. Prince earned her B.A. cum laude at Sonoma State University and her J.D. cum laude from Empire College School of Law in Santa Rosa. She is a member of the Sonoma County Bar Association and the American Society of Safety Engineers.

JOANIE L. ROESCHLEIN (chapter 14: Employer Liability for Acts of Employees) is Director for Employment Law, Ethics & Compliance for Synopsys, Inc., in Mountain View. Ms. Roeschlein earned a B.A. from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1994 and graduated summa cum laude from Southwestern University School of Law in 2000, where she was Managing Editor of the Law Review and a member of the Moot Court Honors Program. She received a first-place brief award and was a semifinalist oralist in the 1998–1999 Nationals Moot Court Competition. She has written articles for the Los Angeles Lawyer and for the 18th Annual Advanced ALI-ABA Course of Study on “Seeking and Defeating Summary Judgment in Light of Reeves v. Sanderson Plumbing Products and Its Progeny.”

RICHARD S. ROSENBERG (chapter 5: Wage and Hour Laws) is one of the founding partners of Ballard, Rosenberg, Golper & Savitt LLP in Universal City. Mr. Rosenberg graduated in 1974 from the College of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University and received his law degree magna cum laude from the University of Santa Clara in 1977, where he was an editor of the Law Review. He has devoted his entire career to the representation of employers in employment law matters and frequently lectures to management groups on the subject of wage hour law compliance and labor and employment law.

KATE WEST ROWAN (chapter 2: Employment Contracts and Executive Compensation) is a shareholder of Littler Mendelson, practicing in its San Francisco office. Ms. Rowan advises employers on all aspects of the design, implementation, taxation, and administration of employee benefits and executive compensation arrangements, including stock-related compensation programs such as option plans, restricted stock plans, and employee stock purchase plans; retirement plans such as qualified retirement plans and deferred compensation arrangements; and welfare and fringe benefit programs such as health plans, cafeteria plans, and severance programs. She has extensive experience with fiduciary issues involved with benefit plan fund investment (including prohibited transactions and private equity investments). Ms. Rowan provides expertise to employers regarding benefits issues arising in the context of mergers, acquisitions, and other business transactions, including negotiating benefits representations, warranties and covenants, and handling golden parachute issues. She also has extensive experience advising employers regarding employment law issues, including WARN Act compliance. Ms. Rowan earned a B.A. from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1975, and a J.D. from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law, in 1982. Ms. Rowan coauthored “Age, Sex and Disability Discrimination in Employee Benefit Plans,” for the BNA Tax Management Portfolio, 2d ed., and served as contributor and coeditor for the chapter on ERISA Reporting and Disclosure in Employee Benefits Law, 2d ed., published by the American Bar Association Labor Section. Ms. Rowan is a member of the Employee Benefits Committees of the Labor and Tax Sections of the American Bar Association and serves on the Advisory Board for Practicing Law Institute. She is also a member of the Western Pension & Benefits Conference and the San Francisco Bar Association. She has been a speaker before numerous employer and professional groups on employee benefits topics, including, most recently, programs on stock option plans and 401(k) plans.

RICHARD A. SAFFIR (chapter 7: Tax Compliance) received his B.A. in 1983 from State University of New York, Binghamton (Harpur College), his J.D. in 1986 from Albany Law School, and his LL.M. in 1987 from New York University. Mr. Saffir, who is licensed in New York and California, is Associate General Counsel for Imagine Media, Inc., in Brisbane. He specializes in tax and business planning for closely held start-up companies.

WILLIAM B. SAILER (chapter 10: Employee Handbooks), is Senior Vice President, Legal Counsel for Qualcomm Incorporated in San Diego, where he supervises all employment law issues for the company. He was formerly a partner with the firm of Gray Cary Ware & Freidenrich, representing employers in all labor and employment law matters. Mr. Sailer graduated with Honors in 1982 from Swarthmore College and received his law degree cum laude in 1985 from the University of Michigan Law School. He is President of the California Employment Law Council, a past member of the State Bar’s Labor and Employment Law Section Executive Committee, past President of the San Diego Chapter of the Industrial Relations Research Association, and past Chair of the San Diego County Bar Association’s Labor and Employment Law Section. Mr. Sailer is a multiple recipient of the State Bar’s Wiley E. Manual Pro Bono Service Award and the San Diego Volunteer Lawyer Program Distinguished Service Award. He is a frequent speaker for CEB and other organizations on the subject of employment law and has written extensively on employment law issues.

TERENCE R. SAVAGE (chapter 8: Unemployment Compensation and State Disability Insurance) is Staff Counsel III with the Legal Office of the Employment Development Department in Sacramento, where he is Supervisor of the Benefit Team responsible for Unemployment, Disability, and Paid Family Leave Benefits. Mr. Savage earned a B.A. in 1971 from La Grange College in Georgia, and a J.D. in 1975 from Widener College, The Delaware Law School, in Wilmington.

DEBORAH CRANDALL SAXE (chapter 6: Vacations, Family and Medical Leave, and Other Time Off) is a partner in the Los Angeles office of Jones Day. Ms. Saxe graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1971 from Pennsylvania State University. She received a Master’s Degree in Comparative Literature in 1973 from the University of California, Los Angeles, and her law degree in 1978 from the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law, where she was a member of the Law Review. Ms. Saxe is the author of Family and Medical Leave: A Practical Guide for Employers (Cal CEB Handbook Series 1995). She is a frequent lecturer on employment and labor issues for business and professional groups. She is a Fellow in the College of Labor and Employment Lawyers and was selected by her peers to be included in the 2006 edition of Best Lawyers of America. Ms. Saxe also was ranked by Chambers & Partners USA as a “leading lawyer” in employment law (2004 and 2005) and was recognized by her peers as one of the top 50 female Super Lawyers in Los Angeles and Orange counties (2004 and 2005).

TERESA R. TRACY (chapter 15: Discrimination and Harassment) is a partner with Freeman Freeman Smiley LLP in Los Angeles. Ms. Tracy graduated magna cum laude in 1974 from California State University, Northridge, and received her law degree cum laude in 1979 from Loyola University School of Law, where she was a member of the Law Review. She authored an article for the Law Review entitled “Comparative Fault and Intentional Torts.” She frequently writes articles on employment law topics and has participated in many national teleconferences addressing employers on such topics as discrimination and harassment, class actions, wage and hour cases, and noncompete agreements.

MATTHEW T. WAKEFIELD (chapter 5: Wage and Hour Laws) is a partner with the firm of Ballard Rosenberg Golper & Savitt, LLP in Universal City. Mr. Wakefield graduated in 1984 from California State University, Hayward, and received his law degree in 1994 from the University of San Diego Law School, where he was a member of the Order of the Coif and the Executive Editor of the Law Review. He is a recipient of the Brundage and Zellmann Award for Excellence in Labor Law and the American Jurisprudence Award for Civil Procedure.

FRED WALTER (chapter 12: Workplace Safety) is a founding partner of Walter & Prince LLP in Healdsburg. He graduated in 1970 from San Jose State University with a B.A. in Political Science (honors colloquium) and obtained his J.D. in 1978 from Lincoln University School of Law in Sacramento.

MITCHELL L. WEXLER (chapter 4: Immigration Law Requirements for Employers) is a partner and member of the Executive Committee of the worldwide immigration law firm Fragomen, Del Rey, Bernsen & Loewy, LLP, resident in its Irvine office. Mr. Wexler is certified in immigration and nationality law by the State Bar Board of Legal Specialization. He is past Vice Chair of that certifying body and past Chair of the Southern California Chapter of the American Immigration Law Association (AILA). He has written in excess of 200 articles on various immigration law-related topics and is a frequent speaker on employment-related immigration topics.

About the 2019 Update Authors

ARTHUR CHINSKI is the update author of chapter 3 (Independent Contractors, Leased Workers, and Outsourcing). For biographical information, see About the Authors.

CYNTHIA E. FRUCHTMAN is the update author of chapter 16 (Whistleblower Issues). For biographical information, see About the Authors.

JEFFREY P. FUCHSMAN is one of the update authors of chapter 5 (Wage and Hour Laws). For biographical information, see About the Authors.

LARRY M. GOLUB is the update author of chapter 19 (Insurance Coverage for Employment Claims). For biographical information, see About the Authors.

MARGARET J. GROVER is the update author of chapter 13 (Workplace Privacy). Ms. Grover is a partner in the Employment Practice Group of Wendel Rosen Black & Dean LLP in Oakland. During her nearly 30 years as an employment attorney, she has represented both employers and employees, served as an expert witness, and assisted parties in resolving cases as a mediator. She has conducted numerous jury and bench trials, as well as arbitrations and administrative hearings. She is experienced in both federal and state courts and has represented clients before a variety of administrative agencies. Ms. Grover received a B.S. in Business Management from the University of Maryland in 1980 and a J.D. (Order of the Coif) from Case Western Reserve University in 1983.

SEAN A. O’BRIEN is the update author of chapter 11 (Trade Secrets Protection and Unfair Competition). For biographical information, see About the Authors.

MICHAEL PEDHIRNEY is the update author of chapter 2 (Employment Contracts and Executive Compensation) and chapter 9 (Notice-Posting, Training, and Recordkeeping Requirements). For biographical information, see About the Authors.

LISA PRINCE is one of the update authors of chapter 12 (Workplace Safety). For biographical information, see About the Authors.

ERICH W. SHINERS is the update author of chapter 21 (Public Employment Issues). Mr. Shiners, with Liebert Cassidy Whitmore in Sacramento, practices in the areas of labor and employment law, with an emphasis on traditional labor law. His practice includes representing public and nonprofit employers in appellate and trial court litigation, arbitration, unfair labor practice proceedings, and representation elections. From 2008 to 2011, he served as a Legal Adviser to a member of the Public Employment Relations Board, where he drafted Board decisions and represented the agency in appellate litigation. Mr. Shiners is an advisor to the Executive Committee of the Labor & Employment Law Section of the State Bar of California, and a former Co-Editor-in-Chief of the Section’s Labor & Employment Law Review. He also served a 3-year term on the Executive Committee of the Sacramento County Bar Association’s Labor & Employment Law Section. Besides his work on this publication, Mr. Shiners is an author and consultant for California Public Sector Labor Relations (LexisNexis). He received a B.A. from Sacramento State University and a J.D. from the University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law.

TERESA R. TRACY is the update author of chapter 15 (Discrimination and Harassment). For biographical information, see About the Authors.

MATTHEW T. WAKEFIELD is one of the update author of chapter 5 (Wage and Hour Laws). Mr. Wakefield now practices law in the Charlotte, North Carolina, office of Ballard Rosenberg Golper & Savitt, LLP. For other biographical information, see About the Authors.

FRED WALTER is one of the update authors of chapter 12 (Workplace Safety). For biographical information, see About the Authors.

KARINE WENGER is one of the update authors of chapter 4 (Immigration Law Requirements for Employers). Ms. Wenger is a partner in the San Diego office of Fragomen, Del Rey, Bernsen & Loewy, LLP. She serves as corporate immigration counsel to a wide range of clients, from small domestic entities to large multinational corporations in varying industries. She has proven leadership skills in building collaborative relationships, strategic thinking, and leading in times of change and growth, and effectively provides cutting-edge immigration solutions to corporate clients and counsels them on all matters of U.S. immigration and nationality law, regulation, policy, and compliance. Ms. Wenger has practiced exclusively in the field of U.S. corporate immigration and nationality law since 1999 and has presented extensively to seminar groups in the United States on the topic. She received a B.A. from the University of California at San Diego in 1994 and a J.D. from Golden Gate University School of Law in 1998.

MITCHELL L. WEXLER is one of the update authors of chapter 4 (Immigration Law Requirements for Employers). For biographical information, see About the Authors.

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