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Neighbor Disputes: Law and Litigation

Handle whatever dispute comes your way. This book lays out issues and provides guidance for resolving common disputes. Includes checklists, tips, and forms to aid in preparing a complaint or response, conducting client interviews, and dealing with emotional clients. Addresses causes of action, remedies, recouping fees, and available defenses.

Handle whatever dispute comes your way. This book lays out issues and provides guidance for resolving common disputes. Includes checklists, tips, and forms to aid in preparing a complaint or response, conducting client interviews, and dealing with emotional clients. Addresses causes of action, remedies, recouping fees, and available defenses.

  • Easements and equitable servitudes
  • Encroachments and boundaries
  • Earth movement: landslide, subsidence, and drainage
  • Tree-related disputes
  • Non-boundary fences
  • Domestic animals
  • Noise, odor, and light
  • Solar and wind energy development and use
  • Vacancy, dangerous conditions, and blight
  • Criminal activities
  • Toxic torts
  • Neighborhood and home businesses
  • Light, air, views, and open space
  • Water rights disputes
  • Adult Use of Marijuana Act—NEW
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Handle whatever dispute comes your way. This book lays out issues and provides guidance for resolving common disputes. Includes checklists, tips, and forms to aid in preparing a complaint or response, conducting client interviews, and dealing with emotional clients. Addresses causes of action, remedies, recouping fees, and available defenses.

  • Easements and equitable servitudes
  • Encroachments and boundaries
  • Earth movement: landslide, subsidence, and drainage
  • Tree-related disputes
  • Non-boundary fences
  • Domestic animals
  • Noise, odor, and light
  • Solar and wind energy development and use
  • Vacancy, dangerous conditions, and blight
  • Criminal activities
  • Toxic torts
  • Neighborhood and home businesses
  • Light, air, views, and open space
  • Water rights disputes
  • Adult Use of Marijuana Act—NEW

1

Easements

David L. Roth

  • I. INTRODUCTION TO EASEMENTS 1.1
    • A. Easement Defined 1.2
      • 1. Interest in Land 1.3
      • 2. Appurtenant or in Gross
        • a. Appurtenant Easements 1.4
        • b. Easements in Gross 1.5
      • 3. Exclusive or Nonexclusive 1.6
    • B. Creation of Easements 1.7
    • C. Governing Law 1.8
  • II. RELATED OR ALTERNATIVE DOCTRINES 1.9
    • A. Servitudes 1.10
      • 1. Equitable Servitudes 1.11
      • 2. Profits à Prendre 1.12
      • 3. Licenses 1.13
      • 4. Leases and Deeds of Trust 1.14
    • B. Zoning and Land Use Regulations 1.15
  • III. CREATION OF EASEMENTS AND TYPES OF EASEMENTS
    • A. Express Easements 1.16
    • B. Prescriptive Easements 1.17
      • 1. Necessary Elements 1.18
      • 2. Scope and Term of Prescriptive Easements 1.19
      • 3. Preventing Prescriptive Use 1.20
      • 4. Difficulty of Obtaining Prescriptive Easement 1.21
    • C. Easements by Estoppel 1.22
    • D. Implied Easements 1.23
      • 1. Easements by Implication 1.24
      • 2. Easements by Necessity 1.25
    • E. Private Eminent Domain 1.26
    • F. Equitable Easements and the Doctrine of Relative Hardship 1.27
    • G. Easements Created by Statute 1.28
    • H. Additional Types of Easements 1.29
    • I. Scope of Easement 1.30
  • IV. TERMINATION OF EASEMENTS 1.31
    • A. Voluntary Termination 1.32
    • B. Involuntary Termination 1.33
    • C. Abandonment 1.34
    • D. Abandonment and Termination by Statutory Provision 1.35
  • V. HANDLING THE DISPUTE
    • A. Before Litigation
      • 1. Consider Demand Letter to Motivate Settlement 1.36
        • a. Obtain a Retainer 1.37
        • b. Prepare Demand Letter 1.38
        • c. Include Photos, Maps, and Surveys 1.39
      • 2. Negotiate With Neighbor or Neighbor's Attorney 1.40
      • 3. Make Complaint to Governmental Agency 1.41
      • 4. Explore Settlement Techniques
        • a. Express Easement, Covenant, or License 1.42
          • (1) Prepare the Legal Description 1.43
          • (2) Contact Senior Lienholders 1.44
          • (3) Review Title Insurance 1.45
        • b. Lot Line Adjustment 1.46
    • B. Mediation 1.47
    • C. Arbitration 1.48
    • D. Litigation
      • 1. Small Claims Court 1.49
      • 2. Superior Court 1.50
  • VI. LEGAL THEORIES AND CAUSES OF ACTION 1.51
    • A. Quiet Title 1.52
    • B. Trespass 1.53
      • 1. Permanent Trespass 1.54
      • 2. Continuing Trespass 1.55
    • C. Nuisance 1.56
    • D. Breach of Contract 1.57
    • E. Negligence 1.58
    • F. Slander of Title 1.59
  • VII. REMEDIES AND DAMAGES 1.60

2

Encroachments and Boundaries

David M. Marcus

  • I. DEFINITIONS
    • A. Property Boundaries 2.1
    • B. Encroachments 2.2
      • 1. Encroachment as Trespass 2.3
      • 2. Encroachment as Nuisance 2.4
  • II. PRACTICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES
    • A. How Issues Arise 2.5
    • B. Practical Issues 2.6
      • 1. Before Purchase of Property 2.7
      • 2. After Purchase of Property 2.8
        • a. Site Visit 2.9
        • b. Sharing of Information 2.10
      • 3. After Encroachment Is Identified 2.11
    • C. Client Checklist
      • 1. Checklist: Ownership Documents 2.12
      • 2. Checklist: Plans and Permits 2.13
      • 3. Checklist: Other Records and Documents 2.14
    • D. Experts and Consultants 2.15
    • E. Legal Issues
      • 1. Encroachment on Public Property 2.16
      • 2. Encroachment That Interferes With Existing Easement 2.17
      • 3. Encroachment on Private Property 2.18
  • III. HANDLING THE DISPUTE
    • A. Before Litigation 2.19
      • 1. Preexisting Encroachment Agreement 2.20
      • 2. Implied Right to Continue and Maintain Encroachment 2.21
      • 3. Settlement Agreement 2.22
      • 4. Police Complaint 2.23
      • 5. Complaint to Governmental Agency 2.24
      • 6. Instruments and Agreements to Implement Encroachments
        • a. Overview 2.25
        • b. Negotiated Lot Line Adjustment
          • (1) Coordination Between Property Owners 2.26
          • (2) Coordination With Public Entities 2.27
          • (3) Application of Subdivision Map Act 2.28
          • (4) Survey; Certificate of Compliance 2.29
          • (5) Delivery and Recordation of Documents 2.30
        • c. Easement 2.31
        • d. Covenant 2.32
        • e. License 2.33
        • f. Lease 2.34
    • B. Mediation 2.35
    • C. Litigation 2.36
      • 1. Small Claims Court 2.37
      • 2. Superior Court 2.38
      • 3. Civil Harassment Restraining Order 2.39
      • 4. Lis Pendens 2.40
  • IV. LEGAL THEORIES AND CAUSES OF ACTION
    • A. Theories in Support of Encroachment 2.41
      • 1. Agreed Boundary Doctrine
        • a. Historical Use of Doctrine 2.42
        • b. Doctrine May Be Obsolete 2.43
        • c. Fence as Manifestation of Agreed Boundary 2.44
      • 2. Adverse Possession 2.45
        • a. Statute of Limitations on Reclaiming Property From Adverse Possession 2.46
        • b. Payment of Taxes by Encroacher 2.47
      • 3. Prescriptive Easement 2.48
        • a. Similarities to Adverse Possession 2.49
        • b. Differences From Adverse Possession 2.50
      • 4. Implied Easement 2.51
      • 5. Equitable Easements; Protection of Innocent Encroacher's Interest
        • a. Historical Context for Development of the Doctrine 2.52
        • b. Three-Factor Test for Granting Equitable Easement 2.53
        • c. Crafting Equitable Easement Instead of Injunction 2.54
        • d. Equitable Easements Versus Prescriptive Easements 2.55
        • e. Limitations on Court's Equitable Powers 2.56
      • 6. Cullen Earthquake Act: Court-Mandated Boundary Revisions 2.56A
      • 7. Good Faith Improver Statutes 2.57
    • B. Causes of Action for Encroacher or Encroachee
      • 1. Action to Quiet Title 2.58
      • 2. Reformation of Title Documents 2.59
      • 3. Lot Line Adjustment 2.60
      • 4. Good Faith Improver Statutes 2.61
      • 5. Additional Causes of Action 2.62
      • 6. Action Against Third Parties 2.63
  • V. DAMAGES AND COSTS
    • A. Encroachment Damages 2.64
    • B. Attorney Fees 2.65
  • VI. ANSWERING THE COMPLAINT: STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
    • A. Three-Year Statute of Limitations Under CCP §338 2.66
    • B. Five-Year Limitation Under CCP §318 2.67

3

Earth Movement: Landslide, Subsidence, and Drainage

Gina D. Boer

  • I. SELECTED DEFINITIONS 3.1
  • II. PRACTICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES
    • A. Practical Issues
      • 1. Initial Steps 3.2
        • a. Review Cost Estimates With Client 3.3
        • b. Gather Evidence
          • (1) Site Visit and Photographic Documentation 3.4
          • (2) Client Notebook 3.5
          • (3) Site Plans and Other Documentation 3.6
        • c. Retain Experts 3.7
      • 2. Checklist: Documents to Collect; Initial Steps 3.8
    • B. Legal Issues
      • 1. Insurance 3.9
      • 2. Potential Defendants 3.10
      • 3. Lateral and Subjacent Support: Reasonableness Standard 3.11
        • a. Common Law 3.12
        • b. Statutory Law 3.13
          • (1) Civil Code Section 832 Letter 3.13A
          • (2) Damages Under CC §832 3.14
          • (3) Who Can Bring Action Under CC §832 3.15
          • (4) Natural Versus Artificial Conditions of Land 3.16
          • (5) Successor in Interest Liability Under CC §832 3.17
        • c. Upper and Lower Property Owners: Reasonableness Standard 3.18
      • 4. Ultrahazardous Activities 3.19
  • III. HANDLING THE DISPUTE
    • A. Before Litigation 3.20
      • 1. Communication With Neighboring Landowner 3.21
      • 2. Construction Tieback Agreement 3.22
      • 3. Settlement and Repair Agreement 3.23
    • B. Mediation 3.24
    • C. Mitigation Measures 3.25
    • D. Civil Actions 3.26
      • 1. Small Claims Court 3.27
      • 2. Superior Court 3.28
      • 3. Appointment of Special Master or Referee 3.29
  • IV. LEGAL THEORIES AND CAUSES OF ACTION
    • A. Nuisance 3.30
      • 1. Sample Cases 3.31
      • 2. Failure to Remedy Earthquake Damage 3.32
      • 3. Permanent Nuisance or Continuing Nuisance? 3.33
      • 4. Public Nuisance 3.34
    • B. Trespass 3.35
    • C. Negligence 3.36
      • 1. Landowner's Liability for Independent Contractors and Employees 3.37
      • 2. Negligence Versus Nuisance 3.38
    • D. Waste 3.39
    • E. Strict Liability 3.40
    • F. Quiet Title
      • 1. To Reestablish Boundaries 3.41
      • 2. To Establish Easement for Encroachments 3.42
    • G. Violation of CC&Rs 3.43
    • H. Inverse Condemnation 3.44
    • I. Injunctive Relief 3.45
    • J. Temporary Eminent Domain Right 3.46
    • K. Remedial Action by Public Entity 3.47
  • V. DAMAGES AND COSTS
    • A. Compensatory Damages 3.48
    • B. Lateral and Subjacent Support Damages 3.49
    • C. Attorney Fees 3.50
    • D. Punitive Damages 3.51
  • VI. ANSWERING THE COMPLAINT
    • A. Available Choices 3.52
    • B. Possible Defenses
      • 1. Statute of Limitations
        • a. Three-Year Statute of Limitations 3.53
        • b. Two-Year Limitations on Personal Injury Actions 3.54
        • c. When Cause of Action Accrues 3.55
      • 2. Prescriptive Rights 3.56
      • 3. Other Affirmative Defenses 3.57
  • VII. CROSS-COMPLAINT: CAUSES OF ACTION 3.58
  • VIII. DISCOVERY 3.59
    • A. Joint Experts Meeting 3.60
    • B. Informal Discovery 3.61
    • C. Formal Discovery 3.62
      • 1. Subpoenas 3.63
      • 2. Expanding Discovery to Additional Neighboring Properties or Sources 3.64

4

Tree-Related Disputes

Dennis A. Yniguez

  • I. BENEFITS AND BURDENS OF TREES 4.1
  • II. PRACTICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES
    • A. Practical Issues
      • 1. Emotional Component 4.2
      • 2. Legal Component 4.3
      • 3. Neighborhood Component 4.4
    • B. Legal Issues
      • 1. Ownership 4.5
      • 2. Branches and Debris 4.6
      • 3. Roots
        • a. Encroaching on Neighbor's Property 4.7
        • b. Damaging Public Sidewalks 4.8
      • 4. View Obstruction
        • a. No Right to View, Light, or Air 4.9
        • b. Local View Ordinances 4.10
        • c. Views Versus Trees 4.11
        • d. Allocating Costs 4.12
      • 5. Interference With Crops 4.13
      • 6. Spite Fences 4.14
        • a. Malicious Intent 4.15
        • b. Injury to Comfort and Enjoyment of Property 4.16
        • c. Constructive Fence 4.17
      • 7. Interference With Solar Access 4.18
        • a. Tree Exemption 4.19
        • b. What Is a "Solar Collector"? 4.20
      • 8. Heritage Trees and Protected Trees
        • a. Heritage Trees 4.21
        • b. Protected Trees 4.22
  • III. HANDLING THE DISPUTE
    • A. Before Litigation
      • 1. Early Retention of Experts 4.23
      • 2. Early Investigation 4.24
    • B. Insurance Coverage Issues 4.24A
    • C. Alternative Dispute Resolution 4.25
  • IV. LEGAL THEORIES AND CAUSES OF ACTION
    • A. Nuisance or Abatement Action Against Neighboring Tree Owner
      • 1. Duty of Reasonable Care Owed by Every Landowner 4.26
      • 2. Nuisance Generally 4.27
      • 3. Remedies for Private Tree Nuisance 4.28
        • a. Injunctive Relief 4.29
        • b. Separate Actions for Each Instance of Nuisance 4.30
      • 4. Limits on Self-Help 4.31
    • B. Action Against Neighbor for Damage to Tree 4.32
      • 1. Restoration Costs 4.33
        • a. Reasonability of Restoration 4.34
        • b. Personal Reason for Restoration 4.35
      • 2. Professional Guidance 4.36
      • 3. Appraisal of Damage to Trees 4.37
        • a. Market Approach 4.38
        • b. Income Approach 4.39
        • c. Cost Approach 4.40
      • 4. Criminal Violations 4.41
  • V. ATTORNEY FEES, DAMAGES, AND COSTS
    • A. Attorney Fees 4.42
    • B. Doubling or Trebling of Damages 4.43
      • 1. Double Damages Are Mandatory 4.44
      • 2. Treble Damages Are Discretionary 4.45
        • a. Treble Damages Require Willful and Malicious Action by Defendant 4.46
        • b. Necessity May Trump Damages 4.47
    • C. Punitive Damages 4.48

5

Non-Boundary Fences

Lewis J. Soffer

  • I. BEYOND EASEMENTS AND BOUNDARIES 5.1
  • II. PRACTICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES
    • A. Practical Issues
      • 1. Checklist: Client Documentation 5.2
      • 2. Checklist: Client Information 5.3
      • 3. Expert Witnesses 5.4
    • B. Legal Issues
      • 1. Regulations and Oversight of Fences
        • a. Governmental Regulations 5.5
        • b. CC&Rs 5.6
          • (1) Protection of Views in CC&Rs 5.7
          • (2) Enforcement of CC&Rs 5.8
      • 2. Easements and Fences
        • a. Fence Versus Easement for Air, Light, or View 5.9
        • b. Easement for Construction of Fence
          • (1) How Easement Dispute May Arise 5.10
          • (2) Equitable Resolution of Easement Dispute 5.11
      • 3. Spite Fence 5.12
        • a. Statutory Definition and Remedies 5.13
        • b. Malicious Intent 5.14
      • 4. Fence Versus Easement for Access 5.15
        • a. Self-Help 5.16
        • b. Extinguishment of Easement by Adverse Possession 5.17
          • (1) Partial Extinguishment 5.18
          • (2) Scruby v Vintage Grapevine, Inc. 5.19
            • (a) Attempt to Construe Scope and Intent of Easement 5.20
            • (b) Balancing of Harms 5.21
      • 5. Grazing Fences
        • a. Damages Caused by Livestock
          • (1) Open-Range and Closed-Range Systems 5.22
          • (2) History of Livestock Fencing Law in California 5.23
          • (3) Shift Away From Open-Range System in Most California Counties 5.24
          • (4) Estray Act 5.25
          • (5) Effect of Estray Act on Trespass Actions 5.26
          • (6) Herding Onto Another's Property; Duty of Ordinary Care 5.27
          • (7) Damages in Trespass Action 5.28
        • b. Other Issues Related to Fencing for Animal Husbandry 5.29
          • (1) Adverse Possession 5.30
          • (2) Prescriptive Easement 5.31
          • (3) Actions Incurring Criminal Liability 5.32
          • (4) Electric Fences 5.33
  • III. HANDLING THE DISPUTE
    • A. Before Litigation
      • 1. Provide Self-Help Advice 5.34
      • 2. Make Complaint to Governmental Agency or HOA 5.35
      • 3. Seek Civil Harassment Restraining Order 5.36
      • 4. Visit Site; Take Photos and Video 5.37
    • B. Mediation 5.38
    • C. Civil Actions 5.39
      • 1. Small Claims Court 5.40
      • 2. Superior Court 5.41
      • 3. Lis Pendens 5.42
  • IV. LEGAL THEORIES AND CAUSES OF ACTION 5.43
  • V. ANSWERING THE COMPLAINT 5.44

6

Domestic Animals

Mary Catherine Wiederhold

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER 6.1
    • A. Animal Ownership and Injury 6.2
    • B. Animal Cruelty Laws 6.3
    • C. Service Animals 6.4
  • II. PRACTICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES
    • A. Practical Issues
      • 1. Injured Client 6.5
      • 2. Checklist: Gathering Information From Client 6.6
    • B. Legal Issues
      • 1. Duty of Care to Prevent Harm
        • a. Homeowners 6.7
        • b. Landlords and HOAs 6.8
        • c. When Landlord May Be Exculpated 6.9
      • 2. Dangerous Animals 6.10
      • 3. Horses 6.11
      • 4. Dogs
        • a. Dog Bite Statute: Strict Liability 6.12
          • (1) Exceptions to Strict Liability Under Dog Bite Statute
            • (a) Keepers 6.13
            • (b) Veterinarian's Rule 6.14
            • (c) Trespassers 6.15
            • (d) Police Dogs 6.16
            • (e) Public Dog Parks 6.16A
          • (2) Limited Civil Suit Available Under Dog Bite Statute 6.17
        • b. Vicious and Potentially Dangerous Dogs 6.18
          • (1) Vicious Dog Defined 6.19
          • (2) Potentially Dangerous Dog Defined 6.20
          • (3) Hearing Process 6.21
            • (a) Administrative Hearing 6.22
            • (b) Judicial Hearing 6.23
          • (4) Removal From List of Potentially Dangerous Dogs 6.24
      • 5. Service Animals and Landlords 6.25
      • 6. Criminal Liability 6.26
  • III. HANDLING THE DISPUTE
    • A. Before Litigation 6.27
      • 1. Site Visit 6.28
      • 2. Experts 6.29
    • B. Mediation 6.30
    • C. Civil Actions
      • 1. Small Claims Court 6.31
      • 2. Superior Court 6.32
  • IV. LEGAL THEORIES AND CAUSES OF ACTION
    • A. Strict Liability for Dog Bite 6.33
    • B. Common Law Strict Liability 6.34
    • C. Negligence 6.35
    • D. Negligence Per Se 6.36
    • E. Conversion 6.37
    • F. Nuisance 6.38
    • G. Intentional Misrepresentation 6.39
  • V. DAMAGES AND COSTS 6.40
    • A. Special Damages
      • 1. Animal Harms Plaintiff 6.41
      • 2. Defendant Harms Animal 6.42
    • B. Bystander's Emotional Distress Damages 6.43
    • C. Unusual Damages in Conversion Cases 6.44
    • D. Punitive Damages 6.45
    • E. Attorney Fees 6.46
  • VI. ANSWERING THE COMPLAINT 6.47
    • A. Defenses to Strict Liability Under Dog Bite Statute
      • 1. Affirmative Defenses 6.48
      • 2. Denial of Ownership 6.49
    • B. Comparative Negligence 6.50
    • C. Reasonable Behavior as Rebuttal to Negligence Per Se 6.51
    • D. Statutes of Limitation 6.52

7

Noise, Odor, and Light

Carey L. Cooper

Catherine A. Richardson

  • I. DEFINITIONS UNDERLYING CASES INVOLVING NOISE, ODOR, AND LIGHT 7.1
    • A. Nuisance 7.2
      • 1. Public Nuisance 7.3
      • 2. Private Nuisance 7.4
    • B. Trespass 7.5
  • II. PRACTICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES
    • A. Practical Issues
      • 1. Initial Steps 7.6
      • 2. Checklist: Client Information 7.7
      • 3. Preliminary Investigation 7.8
    • B. Legal Issues
      • 1. Common Law
        • a. Common Law Nuisance 7.9
        • b. Common Law Trespass 7.10
        • c. Nuisance and Trespass Compared 7.11
        • d. Disclosure to Potential Purchaser 7.12
      • 2. Statutory Law 7.13
        • a. Nuisance Statute 7.14
        • b. Trespass Statutes 7.15
        • c. Seller's Transfer Disclosure Obligations 7.16
        • d. Local Ordinances, Land Use, and Zoning 7.17
        • e. Public Agency as Defendant—Inverse Condemnation 7.18
          • (1) Is Damage Compensable? 7.19
          • (2) Damage to Property Versus Damage to Property Owner 7.20
  • III. HANDLING THE DISPUTE
    • A. Before Litigation
      • 1. Seek State or Local Agency Enforcement 7.21
      • 2. Offer Prelitigation Letters and Negotiations 7.22
      • 3. Form: Demand Letter Requesting Abatement of Nuisance 7.22A
      • 4. Consider Offering Tolling Agreement 7.23
    • B. Mediation 7.24
    • C. Civil Actions 7.25
      • 1. Discovery 7.26
      • 2. Public Records 7.27
        • a. Informal Public Record Request 7.28
        • b. Formal Public Record Request 7.29
      • 3. Title Searches 7.30
  • IV. LEGAL THEORIES AND CAUSES OF ACTION 7.31
    • A. Public Nuisance 7.32
    • B. Private Nuisance 7.33
    • C. Negligence Per Se and Nuisance Per Se 7.34
  • V. REMEDIES, DAMAGES, AND COSTS 7.35
    • A. Injunctive Relief to Abate Nuisance or Trespass 7.36
    • B. Monetary Damages 7.37
    • C. Personal Injury, Emotional Distress, and Exemplary Damages 7.38
  • VI. ANSWERING THE COMPLAINT
    • A. Available Choices 7.39
    • B. Affirmative Defenses 7.40
      • 1. Statute of Limitations 7.41
      • 2. Balancing Equities 7.42
      • 3. Lack of Notice or Opportunity to Cure 7.43
      • 4. Plaintiff's Failure to Mitigate 7.44
      • 5. Activity Is Compliant With Zoning Regulations 7.45
      • 6. Activity Is Expressly Authorized by Law 7.46
      • 7. Consent 7.47
      • 8. Activity Is Regulated by Public Utilities Commission 7.48
      • 9. Free Speech 7.49
    • C. Due Care Is Not a Defense to Nuisance 7.50
    • D. "Coming to the Nuisance" Is Typically Not a Defense to Nuisance 7.51
  • VII. CROSS-COMPLAINTS 7.52
  • VIII. ISSUES UNIQUE TO RURAL PROPERTIES: RIGHT TO FARM LAWS
    • A. Civil Code §3482.5 7.53
    • B. Local Ordinances 7.54
  • IX. ISSUES UNIQUE TO COMMON AREAS 7.55
  • X. FORMS
    • A. Form: Public Records Request 7.56
    • B. Form: Tolling Agreement 7.57

8

Solar and Wind Energy Development and Use

Jay A. Christofferson

Daniel E. Witte

  • I. DEFINITIONS
    • A. Solar Power 8.1
    • B. Wind Power 8.2
  • II. POTENTIAL LEGAL ISSUES IN HANDLING DISPUTES CONCERNING SOLAR AND WIND ENERGY SYSTEMS 8.3
  • III. LAWS RELATING TO INSTALLATION OF WIND AND SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTION SYSTEMS
    • A. Legal Protection for Renewable Energy Systems 8.4
    • B. Net Metering for Generation of Power 8.5
    • C. Interference With Solar or Wind Access as Nuisance
      • 1. Common Law Nuisance Claims 8.6
      • 2. Elements of Private Nuisance Claim 8.7
    • D. Solar Power Systems
      • 1. Solar Shade Control Act (SSCA) 8.8
        • a. What Constitutes a Protected Solar Energy System? 8.9
        • b. Notice to Affected Properties 8.10
        • c. Form: Solar Shade Control Notice 8.10A
        • d. Who Is Liable Under SSCA? 8.11
      • 2. Anti-Solar CC&Rs Generally Prohibited 8.12
        • a. Appropriate CC&Rs 8.13
        • b. Height and View Restrictions 8.14
      • 3. Solar Easements 8.15
      • 4. Use Permits 8.16
      • 5. Required Disclosures 8.17
    • E. Wind Energy Systems
      • 1. Former Regulations 8.18
      • 2. Small Wind Energy Systems 8.19
  • IV. HANDLING THE DISPUTE
    • A. Legal Challenges to Maintaining Solar and Wind Collectors
      • 1. CC&Rs Prohibitions 8.20
      • 2. Zoning Limitations; Writ of Mandate 8.21
      • 3. Tenant's Claim for Failure of Wind or Solar Energy System 8.22
      • 4. When County Opts Out of Solar Shade Control Act 8.23
      • 5. Excessive Noise 8.24
      • 6. Inverse Condemnation 8.25
      • 7. Constitutionality of Alternative Energy Laws 8.26
      • 8. Government Delay in Approving Alternative Energy Projects 8.27
      • 9. Delay in Enforcing Rights as Defense 8.28
    • B. Civil Actions
      • 1. Causes of Action and Remedies
        • a. Enforcement of Alternative Energy Rights 8.29
        • b. Equitable Actions to Remove or Prevent Installation of Alternative Energy System 8.30
      • 2. Actions by Common Interest Developments 8.31
      • 3. Litigation Consideration
        • a. Answering Complaint 8.32
        • b. Cross-Complaint 8.33
        • c. Discovery Strategies 8.34
        • d. Experts 8.35

9

Vacancy, Dangerous Conditions, and Blight

Teresa Buchheit Klinkner

  • I. ADDRESSING THE ISSUES
    • A. Public Concern 9.1
    • B. Definitions and Concepts
      • 1. Vacant or Abandoned Property 9.2
      • 2. Squatters 9.3
      • 3. Blight
        • a. Under Local Ordinances 9.4
        • b. Under State Law 9.5
    • C. Dangerous Conditions 9.5A
  • II. PRACTICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES
    • A. Practical Issues
      • 1. Identify Potential Conflicts 9.6
      • 2. Client Guidance 9.7
      • 3. Defending Against Government Action 9.8
      • 4. Checklist: Client Information 9.9
    • B. Legal Issues 9.10
      • 1. Nuisance Law 9.11
        • a. Nuisance Under CC §3479 9.12
        • b. Public Nuisance Under CC §3480 9.13
        • c. Private Nuisance Under CC §3481 9.14
        • d. Nuisance Per Se 9.15
        • e. Attractive Nuisance 9.16
        • f. Nuisance Abatement 9.17
          • (1) Administrative Action 9.18
          • (2) Self-Help 9.19
      • 2. Vacant Foreclosed Property 9.20
      • 3. Squatters
        • a. Trespass 9.21
        • b. Adverse Possession 9.22
      • 4. Blight
        • a. Local Zoning Ordinances 9.23
        • b. Redevelopment Agencies 9.24
        • c. Eminent Domain Post-Kelo 9.25
  • III. HANDLING THE DISPUTE
    • A. Before Litigation
      • 1. Evaluate Personal Injury to Client 9.26
      • 2. Visit Site 9.27
      • 3. Organize Neighbors 9.28
      • 4. Make Complaint to Local Authority 9.29
      • 5. Representing the Property Owner 9.30
    • B. Mediation 9.31
    • C. Civil Actions
      • 1. Administrative Hearing 9.32
        • a. Communicating With Enforcement Agency 9.33
        • b. Complying With Abatement Order 9.34
        • c. Opposing the Abatement Action 9.35
      • 2. Receivership 9.36
      • 3. Private Nuisance Action 9.37
      • 4. Government Code §36900 9.37A
      • 5. Harassment Action Against Neighborhood Activists 9.38
      • 6. Injunctive Relief 9.38A
    • D. Criminal Action 9.38B
  • IV. LEGAL THEORIES AND CAUSES OF ACTION
    • A. Trespass and Unlawful Detainer 9.39
    • B. Quiet Title 9.40
    • C. Nuisance 9.41
    • D. Breach of Contract 9.42
    • E. Writ of Mandamus 9.43
    • F. Personal Injury
      • 1. Public Property 9.44
      • 2. Private Property 9.45
    • G. Emotional Distress 9.46
    • H. Receivership 9.47
  • V. DAMAGES AND COSTS 9.48
  • VI. ANSWERING THE COMPLAINT
    • A. Available Choices: Comply or Fight? 9.49
    • B. Possible Defenses to Abatement Order
      • 1. No Nuisance Per Se 9.50
      • 2. Denial of Due Process 9.51
      • 3. Statute of Limitations 9.52
      • 4. Takings 9.53
      • 5. Consent 9.54
      • 6. Recreational Use 9.55
      • 7. Code Authority 9.56

10

Criminal Activities

Kristine M. Burk

Michael S. Chernis

  • I. TYPICAL NEIGHBORHOOD ACTIVITIES THAT MAY BE CRIMINAL 10.1
    • A. Criminal Activity
      • 1. California Penal Code 10.2
      • 2. Other California Codes With Criminal Penalties 10.3
      • 3. Jurisdiction 10.4
    • B. Nuisance Activity 10.5
      • 1. Civil or Criminal Nuisance 10.6
      • 2. Unlawful Detainer Action by Prosecuting Attorney 10.7
      • 3. Nuisance Action by Prosecuting Attorney 10.8
      • 4. Municipal Nuisance Ordinances 10.9
  • II. DRUGS
    • A. Use, Possession, and Sale
      • 1. Use 10.10
      • 2. Possession 10.11
      • 3. Sale 10.12
    • B. Marijuana 10.13
    • C. Methamphetamine 10.14
    • D. Crack Houses 10.15
    • E. Methamphetamine Labs 10.16
    • F. Medical Marijuana 10.17
  • III. VIOLENCE AND INTIMIDATION
    • A. Street Gangs 10.18
      • 1. Who Qualifies? 10.19
      • 2. Gang-Related Vandalism and Graffiti 10.20
    • B. Family Violence 10.21
      • 1. Checklist: Client-Witness Considerations 10.22
      • 2. Domestic Violence 10.23
      • 3. Resources 10.24
      • 4. Child Abuse and Neglect 10.25
        • a. Criminal Child Abuse and Endangerment 10.26
        • b. Mental Abuse 10.27
      • 5. Elder Abuse 10.28
      • 6. Gun Violence Restraining Orders 10.28A
    • C. Sex Offenders 10.29
    • D. Harassment and Threats 10.30
  • IV. QUALITY OF LIFE
    • A. Vandalism 10.31
    • B. Disturbance of the Peace 10.32
    • C. Traffic and Speeding 10.33
  • V. PREVENTION AND COMPLAINTS TO LAW ENFORCEMENT
    • A. Neighborhood Watch 10.34
    • B. Citizen's Arrest 10.35
    • C. Civil Restraining Orders 10.36
    • D. Contacting Police 10.37
      • 1. Whom to Contact
        • a. City Police Authorities 10.38
        • b. County Police Authorities 10.39
        • c. State Police Authorities 10.40
        • d. Federal Police Authorities 10.41
      • 2. Checklist: Crime Reporting and Investigation 10.42
      • 3. Privacy Rights 10.43
      • 4. Protecting Client's Identity 10.44
  • VI. CRIMINAL CASE PROCESS
    • A. Defendant's Custodial Status 10.45
    • B. Criminal Protective Order 10.46
    • C. Prosecution 10.47
    • D. Hearings and Trial 10.48
    • E. Plea Bargaining and Sentencing 10.49
    • F. Probation and Jail 10.50
    • G. Prison and Parole 10.51
    • H. Restitution 10.52
    • I. Collateral Consequences 10.53
    • J. Victim's Rights (Marsy's Law)
      • 1. Who Is a "Victim" Under Marsy's Law 10.54
      • 2. Rights to Notice and to Be Heard 10.55
      • 3. Postconviction Notifications 10.56
    • K. Client's Self-Help Options
      • 1. Threats of Civil or Criminal Suit 10.57
      • 2. Tenants and Crime
        • a. Evicting Tenant Involved in Criminal Activity 10.58
        • b. Tenant Versus Tenant 10.59
      • 3. Vigilantism 10.60
  • VII. SPECIAL SITUATIONS
    • A. Marijuana 10.61
      • 1. Medical Marijuana
        • a. Compassionate Use Act 10.62
        • b. Medical Marijuana Program Act 10.63
        • c. Medical Cannabis Regulation and Safety Act 10.63A
        • d. Recreational Marijuana 10.63B
      • 2. Cultivation
        • a. Personal and Collective Gardens 10.64
        • b. What's a Neighbor to Do? 10.65
      • 3. Use 10.66
      • 4. Retailers, Distributors and Dispensaries 10.67
        • a. Retailers, Distributors and Dispensaries in Residential Neighborhoods 10.68
        • b. Dispensaries in Nonresidential Areas 10.69
      • 5. Minors 10.70
    • B. Registered Sex Offenders (Megan's Law) 10.71
      • 1. Neighbor as Registered Sex Offender: What Can Be Done? 10.72
      • 2. Where Children Gather (Jessica's Law) 10.73

11

Toxic Torts

Joseph W. Scalia

  • I. HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD 11.1
    • A. Definitions
      • 1. Toxic Tort 11.2
      • 2. Hazardous Substances 11.3
      • 3. Pollution and Nuisance 11.4
    • B. Sources of Hazardous Substances 11.5
  • II. PRACTICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES
    • A. Practical Issues
      • 1. Checklist: Client Interview 11.6
      • 2. Hiring Experts 11.7
      • 3. Importance of Immediately Preserving Evidence 11.8
    • B. Legal Issues
      • 1. Standing 11.9
        • a. Coastal Act 11.10
        • b. Safe Drinking Water Act 11.11
        • c. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 11.12
        • d. Lead-Based Paint 11.13
        • e. CERCLA 11.14
        • f. Unfair Competition Law 11.15
        • g. Other Potential Areas of Standing 11.16
      • 2. Burden of Proof of Causation 11.17
  • III. HANDLING THE DISPUTE
    • A. Claims for Future Physical Injury 11.18
    • B. Exclusion of Defense Experts 11.19
    • C. Identifying Potential Defendants 11.20
  • IV. LEGAL THEORIES AND CAUSES OF ACTION
    • A. Relevant Statutes 11.21
    • B. Negligence
      • 1. Basic Elements 11.22
      • 2. Negligence Per Se 11.23
      • 3. Res Ipsa Loquitur 11.24
      • 4. Conduct Giving Rise to Action for Negligence 11.25
    • C. Strict Liability
      • 1. Two Primary Areas 11.26
      • 2. Ultrahazardous Activity 11.27
      • 3. Product Liability 11.28
    • D. Nuisance 11.29
      • 1. Private Nuisance and Public Nuisance 11.30
      • 2. Establishing Nuisance 11.31
    • E. Trespass 11.32
  • V. DAMAGES AND COSTS 11.33
    • A. Environmental Cleanup Damages 11.34
    • B. Medical Monitoring Expenses 11.35
    • C. Emotional Distress Damages 11.36
    • D. Economic Damages 11.37
    • E. Loss of Value 11.38
    • F. Punitive Damages 11.39
    • G. Attorney Fees 11.40
  • VI. ANSWERING THE COMPLAINT
    • A. Affirmative Defenses 11.41
    • B. Statute of Limitations
      • 1. Negligence Claims 11.42
      • 2. CERCLA's Preemption of State's Statute of Limitations 11.43
      • 3. Nuisance and Trespass Claims 11.44
    • C. Contributory or Comparative Negligence 11.45
    • D. Compliance With Applicable Law
      • 1. Negligence and Strict Liability Claims 11.46
      • 2. Nuisance Claims 11.47
    • E. Assumption of the Risk 11.48
    • F. Federal Preemption 11.49
    • G. State Preemption 11.50
    • H. State-of-the-Art Product 11.51
    • I. Coming to the Nuisance 11.52
    • J. Lack of Foreseeability 11.53
    • K. Sovereign Immunity
      • 1. State Immunity 11.54
      • 2. Federal Immunity 11.55
  • VII. CROSS-COMPLAINT FOR APPORTIONMENT OF LIABILITY CONTRIBUTION AND INDEMNITY 11.56

12

Neighborhood and Home Businesses

Peter A. Kleinbrodt

  • I. What Is a Home Business? 12.1
    • A. Continuity of Service 12.2
    • B. More Than Incidental Use of Premises 12.3
    • C. No Interference With Character of Neighborhood 12.4
  • II. PRACTICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES
    • A. Practical Issues
      • 1. Checklist: Assessing Impact of Home Business 12.5
      • 2. Assess Relative Hardships 12.6
      • 3. Visit Site 12.7
      • 4. Check for Licenses and Permits 12.8
      • 5. Review Information From Public Records and Proceedings 12.9
      • 6. Checklist: Client Information 12.10
    • B. Legal Issues 12.11
      • 1. Zoning Ordinances 12.12
        • a. Zoning as Valid Use of Government Police Powers 12.13
        • b. Constitutionality of Ordinance 12.14
      • 2. CC&Rs 12.15
      • 3. Nuisance 12.16
        • a. Public Nuisance 12.17
        • b. Private Nuisance 12.18
          • (1) Damages and Injunction Available 12.19
          • (2) Unreasonableness of Use or Activity 12.20
      • 4. Trespass 12.21
  • III. HANDLING THE DISPUTE
    • A. Before Litigation
      • 1. Consider Informal Resolution and Agreement 12.22
      • 2. Notify Local Authorities 12.23
      • 3. Seek Administrative Approval of Nonpermitted Use or Activity 12.24
        • a. Obtain Variance 12.25
          • (1) Procedures Required for Consideration of Variance 12.26
          • (2) Advising the Client 12.27
        • b. Obtain Conditional Use Permit (CUP) 12.28
          • (1) Use Must Not Be Prohibited by Zoning Ordinance 12.29
          • (2) Procedures for Obtaining CUP 12.30
          • (3) Advising the Client 12.31
        • c. Establish Legal Nonconforming Use 12.32
          • (1) Procedures for Establishing Legal Nonconforming Use 12.33
          • (2) Advising the Client 12.34
          • (3) Is New Ordinance a Regulatory Taking? 12.35
    • B. Mediation 12.36
    • C. Litigation
      • 1. Preemptive Actions 12.37
      • 2. Difficulty of Success 12.38
      • 3. SLAPPs 12.39
      • 4. Anti-SLAPP Protection 12.40
  • IV. ISSUES UNIQUE TO CERTAIN BUSINESSES
    • A. Community Care Facilities 12.41
    • B. Right-to-Farm Laws 12.42
    • C. Homemade Food Act 12.43

13

Light, Air, Views, and Open Space

Alice M. Graham

  • I. RIGHTS TO LIGHT, AIR, VIEWS, AND OPEN SPACE
    • A. Light, Air, and Views
      • 1. Source and Value of View Rights 13.1
      • 2. Specific Terminology 13.2
    • B. Open Space 13.3
      • 1. Conservation Easements 13.4
      • 2. Open-Space Zoning 13.5
      • 3. Government's Right to Airspace 13.5A
  • II. PRACTICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES
    • A. Practical Issues 13.6
      • 1. Avoiding Litigation 13.7
      • 2. Factors to Consider When Drafting Easement for Views or Open Space 13.8
      • 3. Description of Easement for Views or Open Space 13.9
        • a. Metes and Bounds Property Description 13.10
        • b. Precision of Description 13.11
      • 4. Recordation; Title Issues 13.12
    • B. Legal Issues
      • 1. Creation of Easement for View, Light, and Air
        • a. By Grant 13.13
        • b. Specific Recitation of Right Not Necessarily Required 13.14
        • c. By Deed Restriction 13.15
        • d. By Declaration of CC&Rs 13.16
        • e. By State and Local Law 13.17
        • f. Easement in Equity 13.18
      • 2. Drafting an Easement 13.19
  • III. HANDLING THE DISPUTE
    • A. Before Litigation
      • 1. Review Documents 13.20
      • 2. Review Title Insurance Policy; Tender Dispute to Insurer 13.21
      • 3. Visit Site 13.22
      • 4. Checklist: Client Information 13.23
      • 5. Purchase Dominant Estate 13.24
    • B. Mediation 13.25
    • C. Arbitration 13.26
    • D. Civil Actions
      • 1. Preliminary Steps 13.27
      • 2. Use of Lis Pendens 13.28
  • IV. LEGAL THEORIES AND CAUSES OF ACTION 13.29
  • V. REMEDIES, DAMAGES, AND ATTORNEY FEES
    • A. Remedies 13.30
    • B. Damages and Attorney Fees 13.31
  • VI. ANSWERING THE COMPLAINT 13.32
  • VII. CROSS-COMPLAINT 13.33
  • VIII. UNIQUE ISSUES
    • A. Residential Properties 13.34
    • B. Commercial Properties 13.35
    • C. Rural Properties 13.36
    • D. Common Interest Developments 13.37

14

Water Rights Disputes

Andrea P. Clark

Maya Ferry Stafford

  • I. GETTING STARTED
    • A. Water Disputes Are Property Disputes 14.1
    • B. Definitions and Terminology 14.2
      • 1. Riparian Rights 14.3
      • 2. Overlying Rights 14.4
      • 3. Appropriative Rights 14.5
      • 4. Prescriptive Rights 14.6
      • 5. Percolating Groundwater 14.7
      • 6. Adjudication 14.8
  • II. PRACTICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES
    • A. Checklist: Client Information 14.9
    • B. Legal Issues
      • 1. Reasonable and Beneficial Use 14.10
      • 2. Nature of Water Rights 14.11
      • 3. Appropriative Rights 14.12
        • a. Priority of Right 14.13
        • b. State Oversight of Post-1914 Appropriative Rights 14.14
        • c. Pre-1914 Appropriative Rights 14.15
      • 4. Riparian Rights 14.16
        • a. Riparian Rights Are Correlative Rights 14.17
        • b. No Loss Through Disuse 14.18
      • 5. Groundwater Rights 14.19
      • 6. Contractual Rights to Water 14.20
      • 7. Prescriptive Easements 14.21
        • a. Fighting Prescriptive User: Self-Help Doctrine 14.22
        • b. Legal Owner's Burden 14.23
    • C. Typical Water Issues
      • 1. Flow Issues 14.24
        • a. Point of Diversion 14.25
        • b. Priority 14.26
        • c. Difficulty of Expanding Senior Rights Against Junior Appropriator 14.27
        • d. Rights to Artificial Flow of Water 14.28
      • 2. Groundwater Use 14.29
        • a. Overlying User Versus Overlying User 14.30
        • b. Overlying User Versus Appropriative User 14.31
        • c. Appropriative User Versus Appropriative User 14.32
        • d. Groundwater User Versus Surface Water User 14.33
      • 3. Well Sharing 14.34
      • 4. Water Storage 14.35
      • 5. Drainage and Flow Issues 14.36
        • a. Seeking Recourse Against Private Entity or Individual
          • (1) Surface Flows: Civil Law Rule 14.37
          • (2) Floodwaters: "Common Enemy" Doctrine 14.38
        • b. Seeking Recourse Against Public Agency 14.39
          • (1) Inverse Condemnation 14.40
          • (2) Tort Claims 14.41
            • (a) Failure to Discharge Mandatory Duty 14.42
            • (b) Dangerous Condition of Property 14.43
  • III. HANDLING THE DISPUTE: LEGAL THEORIES AND CAUSES OF ACTION 14.44
    • A. Interference With Water Rights 14.45
    • B. Trespass 14.46
    • C. Nuisance 14.47
    • D. Negligence 14.48
    • E. Adjudications
      • 1. Surface Water Adjudications 14.49
      • 2. Groundwater Adjudications 14.50
    • F. Contract Causes of Action 14.51
    • G. Administrative Actions
      • 1. State Water Resources Control Board 14.52
      • 2. Local Water Entities: Public Agencies and Private Companies 14.53
  • IV. POTENTIAL FORMS OF RELIEF
    • A. Injunctions and Declaratory Relief 14.54
    • B. Damages 14.55
    • C. Physical Solutions 14.56
      • 1. Vested Water Rights 14.57
      • 2. Common Physical Solutions 14.58
    • D. Attorney Fees 14.59
  • V. DEFENSES
    • A. Timeliness 14.60
    • B. Forfeiture and Abandonment 14.61
      • 1. Forfeiture 14.62
      • 2. Abandonment 14.63

15

Client Interview

Steven J. Mehlman

  • I. FIRST CONTACT 15.1
    • A. Checking for Conflicts 15.2
      • 1. Conflict With Potential Witnesses and Related Third Parties 15.3
      • 2. Written Disclosure of Past Relationships 15.4
    • B. Checklist: Client Documents 15.5
    • C. Review Prior Litigation 15.6
    • D. Review CLETS Rulings 15.7
    • E. Review Damage Repair Estimates 15.8
    • F. Review Property Sales Disclosures 15.9
    • G. Review Client's and Prior Counsel's Research 15.10
  • II. INITIAL INTERVIEW 15.11
    • A. Discuss Attorney Fees and Costs 15.12
      • 1. Use Written Fee Agreement 15.13
      • 2. Obtain Deposit for Fees (Retainer) 15.14
      • 3. When Solely Drafting Client's Letter to Opponent 15.15
      • 4. When Representing Group of Neighbors 15.16
      • 5. Limited Scope Representation 15.17
    • B. Determine Client's Motivation and Objectives 15.18
    • C. Ascertain Relevant Facts and Parties 15.19
      • 1. Neighbors 15.20
      • 2. Children 15.21
      • 3. Homeowners Association (HOA) 15.22
      • 4. Previous Owners 15.23
      • 5. Real Estate Brokers and Agents 15.24
      • 6. Neighbors as Coplaintiffs 15.25
    • D. Ascertain Client's Understanding of Law 15.26
    • E. Advise About Experts 15.27
    • F. Discuss Alternatives to Litigation 15.28
      • 1. Alternative Adjudication 15.29
      • 2. HOA Enforcement Action 15.30
      • 3. Governmental Enforcement Action 15.31
        • a. Code and Zoning Enforcement 15.32
        • b. Animal Control Enforcement 15.33
        • c. Police Enforcement 15.34
      • 4. Small Claims Court 15.35
      • 5. CLETS Injunction 15.36
    • G. Ask Client to Make Record of Incidents 15.37
      • 1. Photographs and Video Recordings 15.38
      • 2. Audio and Surreptitious Recordings 15.39
    • H. Counsel Client Against Conflict 15.40
    • I. Conclude Interview 15.41
    • J. Send Letter When Counsel's Assistance Is Declined, Counsel Withdraws, or Case Concludes 15.42

16

Common Causes of Action

Todd W. Baxter

  • I. INTRODUCTION TO CAUSES OF ACTION 16.1
  • II. NUISANCE
    • A. Nuisance Defined
      • 1. Statutory Definition 16.2
      • 2. Case Law Interpretation 16.3
        • a. Examples of Nuisance Activities 16.4
        • b. No Nuisance Found 16.5
    • B. Continuing Nuisance Versus Permanent Nuisance 16.6
      • 1. Permanent Nuisance Defined; Recovering Damages 16.7
      • 2. Continuing Nuisance Defined; Recovering Damages 16.8
      • 3. Which Type to Claim? 16.9
    • C. Public Nuisance and Private Nuisance 16.10
    • D. Attorney Fees 16.11
  • III. ATTRACTIVE NUISANCE
    • A. General Rule Regarding Trespassers 16.12
    • B. Exception to General Rule: Attractive Nuisance 16.13
      • 1. Attractive Nuisance Defined 16.14
      • 2. Rowland v Christian: Standard of Ordinary Care 16.15
  • IV. TRESPASS
    • A. Trespass Defined 16.16
      • 1. Continuing Trespass Versus Permanent Trespass 16.17
      • 2. Physical Entry Not Required 16.18
      • 3. Intangible Intrusions 16.19
    • B. Whom to Name in Trespass Action 16.20
    • C. Recovering Damages 16.21
    • D. Treble Damages for Unlawfully Cutting or Carrying Away Trees or Timber 16.22
    • E. Attorney Fees for Trespass on Agricultural Lands 16.23
  • V. INTENTIONAL INFLICTION OF EMOTIONAL DISTRESS (IIED)
    • A. Background 16.24
    • B. IIED Defined 16.25
      • 1. Outrageous Conduct 16.26
      • 2. Outrageous Conduct and Neighbor Disputes 16.27
    • C. Recovering Damages 16.28
      • 1. Special Damages 16.29
      • 2. Punitive Damages 16.30
    • D. Attorney Fees Generally Not Available 16.31
  • VI. CIVIL HARASSMENT
    • A. Background 16.32
    • B. Harassment Defined 16.33
    • C. Examples of Harassing Conduct 16.34
    • D. Attorney Fees 16.35
  • VII. SLANDER OF TITLE
    • A. Slander of Title Defined 16.36
    • B. Differences From Defamation 16.37
    • C. When Act Is Privileged 16.38
    • D. Recovering Damages 16.39
    • E. Attorney Fees Not Available 16.40
  • VIII. NEGLIGENCE
    • A. Negligence Defined 16.41
      • 1. Precondition to Finding Negligence: Duty of Care Owed 16.42
      • 2. Negligence and Neighbor Disputes 16.43
    • B. Lateral and Subjacent Support 16.44
    • C. Recovering Damages and Attorney Fees 16.45
  • IX. QUIET TITLE
    • A. California Statutes 16.46
      • 1. Making Quiet Title Claim 16.47
      • 2. Obtaining Default Judgments 16.48
      • 3. Prove-Up Hearing 16.49
    • B. Quiet Title and Probate Actions 16.50
    • C. Attorney Fees Generally Not Available 16.51
    • D. Boundaries Involving Water 16.52
    • E. Federal Quiet Title Act 16.53
  • X. VIOLATION OF COVENANTS
    • A. Covenants That Run With the Land 16.54
    • B. Limits on Who Can Bring Enforcement Action 16.55
    • C. Additional Actions 16.56
    • D. Common Interest Communities 16.57
      • 1. Homeowners Association (HOA) 16.58
      • 2. Owners 16.59
      • 3. Attorney Fees 16.60
  • XI. EASEMENTS AND ADVERSE POSSESSION ACTIONS
    • A. Prescriptive Easements 16.61
      • 1. Establishing Prescriptive Easement 16.62
      • 2. Prescriptive Easement Not Available for Typical Backyard Disputes 16.63
    • B. Equitable Easements 16.64
      • 1. Establishing Equitable Easement: Doctrine of Relative Hardship 16.65
      • 2. When Equitable Easement Is Appropriate 16.66
    • C. Implied Easements 16.67
      • 1. Establishing Implied Easement 16.68
      • 2. When Implied Easement Is Appropriate 16.69
    • D. Adverse Possession 16.70
      • 1. Establishing Adverse Possession 16.71
      • 2. Defeating Adverse Possession 16.72
    • E. Attorney Fees 16.73
  • XII. MONUMENTS, FENCES, AND BOUNDARIES
    • A. The Good Neighbor Fence Act of 2013 16.74
    • B. Notice of Intent to Incur Costs for a Fence 16.74A
    • C. Agreed Boundary Doctrine 16.75
      • 1. Legal Description of Boundary Must Be Unclear 16.76
      • 2. Fence Generally Not Manifestation of Agreed Boundary 16.77
  • XIII. INVERSE CONDEMNATION
    • A. Mounting Action for Inverse Condemnation 16.78
    • B. Partial Interest in Damaged Property Sufficient to Provide Standing 16.79
    • C. Attorney Fees 16.80
  • XIV. ZONING AND CODE VIOLATIONS
    • A. Right to Regulate Found in Government Police Powers 16.81
    • B. Enforcement Actions 16.82
  • XV. NONDISCLOSURE AND MISREPRESENTATION 16.83
    • A. Seller's Nondisclosure or Misrepresentation of Facts 16.84
    • B. Broker's Nondisclosure of Facts 16.85
    • C. What Should Be Disclosed? 16.86
    • D. Buyer's Duties 16.87
    • E. Attorney Fees 16.88

17

Remedies Commonly Available

Todd W. Baxter

  • I. INTRODUCTION TO REMEDIES 17.1
  • II. LIS PENDENS
    • A. Purpose 17.2
      • 1. Advantages 17.3
      • 2. Disadvantages 17.4
    • B. Additional Remedies 17.5
  • III. ATTACHMENT 17.6
    • A. Process to Attain Attachment 17.7
    • B. Required Contents; Levy 17.8
  • IV. DECLARATORY RELIEF 17.9
    • A. Existence of Actual Controversy 17.10
    • B. Cumulative Remedies Available 17.11
    • C. When Declaratory Relief Is Appropriate 17.12
  • V. INJUNCTIVE RELIEF 17.13
    • A. Mandatory Injunction and Prohibitory Injunction 17.14
      • 1. Mandatory Injunction 17.15
      • 2. Prohibitory Injunction 17.16
    • B. Preliminary Injunction 17.17
      • 1. Factors Weighed 17.18
      • 2. When Request Is Likely to Be Denied 17.19
    • C. Anti-Harassment Temporary Restraining Order (TRO) and Injunction 17.20
      • 1. Conduct Constituting Harassment 17.21
        • a. Unlawful Violence or Credible Threat of Violence 17.22
        • b. Course of Conduct 17.23
      • 2. Obtaining TRO and Injunction 17.24
      • 3. Anti-SLAPP Motions 17.25
      • 4. Defendant's Protections 17.26
  • VI. WRIT OF MANDAMUS
    • A. Challenging Local Land Use Provisions
      • 1. General Plan and Zoning 17.27
      • 2. Types of Mandamus Proceedings 17.28
      • 3. Administrative Record 17.29
    • B. Administrative Mandamus
      • 1. Review of Administrative Decision 17.30
      • 2. Plaintiff's Burden 17.31
    • C. Traditional Mandamus
      • 1. Appropriate to Compel Action or Correct Abuse of Discretion 17.32
      • 2. Plaintiff's Burden 17.33
  • VII. EJECTMENT 17.34
    • A. Fighting Claim for Ejectment 17.35
    • B. Description of Property 17.36
    • C. Fencing of Pasture Land 17.37
    • D. Ejectment and Easements 17.38
    • E. Ejectment and Probate 17.39
  • VIII. FORCIBLE ENTRY AND FORCIBLE DETAINER 17.40
    • A. History of Forcible Entry and Detainer 17.41
    • B. Making the Complaint 17.42
      • 1. Forcible Detainer 17.43
      • 2. Forcible Entry 17.44
  • IX. DAMAGES 17.45
    • A. Measuring Damages 17.46
    • B. Emotional Distress Injury 17.47
    • C. Real Property Injury
      • 1. Diminution in Value Versus Replacement Costs 17.48
      • 2. Kelly v CB&I Constructors 17.49
    • D. Tree Injury 17.50
    • E. Trespass Damages 17.51
    • F. Nuisance Damages 17.52
    • G. Ejectment Damages 17.53
  • X. ATTORNEY FEES 17.54
    • A. Civil Code §3496: Government Agency; CCP §1021.5: Private Attorney General 17.55
    • B. Code of Civil Procedure §1021.9: Trespass on Cultivated Land 17.56
    • C. Civil Code §1354(c): Enforcement of Covenants, Conditions, and Restrictions (CC&Rs) 17.57
      • 1. Broad Construction by Courts 17.58
      • 2. Standing to Bring Suit 17.59
    • D. Civil Code §1717: Reciprocal Contractual Rights 17.60
      • 1. CC&Rs 17.61
      • 2. Nonsignatory Parties 17.62

18

Defenses and Cross-Complaints

David M. Majchrzak

  • I. INTRODUCTION TO DEFENSES AND CROSS-COMPLAINTS
    • A. Overview 18.1
    • B. Practical Approaches to Defense 18.2
      • 1. Battle of the Deeds 18.3
      • 2. Turning the Tables—Using Affirmative Claims to Negate Attacks 18.4
      • 3. Negating Elements of Causes of Action 18.5
  • II. DEFENSES BASED ON EXCESSIVE PASSAGE OF TIME 18.6
    • A. Statute of Limitations 18.7
      • 1. Likely Limitation Periods in Neighbor Disputes 18.8
      • 2. When Is Limitation Period Triggered? 18.9
        • a. Lack of Knowledge of Identity of Defendants Not Sufficient to Toll Statute 18.10
        • b. Fictitious Name Statute 18.11
    • B. Tolling 18.12
    • C. Laches 18.13
      • 1. Unreasonable Delay 18.14
      • 2. Elements of Laches 18.15
      • 3. Burden of Proof 18.16
  • III. DEFENSES BASED ON USE OF PROPERTY 18.17
    • A. Adverse Possession 18.18
      • 1. Occupancy 18.19
      • 2. Hostility 18.20
      • 3. Claim of Title 18.21
        • a. Color of Title 18.22
        • b. Claim of Right 18.23
      • 4. Continuous and Uninterrupted Possession 18.24
      • 5. Payment of Taxes 18.25
    • B. Easements 18.26
      • 1. Prescriptive Easement 18.27
        • a. Determining Purpose of Easement
          • (1) Five Years of Use 18.28
          • (2) Scope of Use 18.29
        • b. Difficulty of Obtaining Prescriptive Easement 18.30
      • 2. Implied Easement 18.31
        • a. Intent of Parties at Time of Transfer 18.32
        • b. Common Owner's Prior Use; Reasonable Future Use 18.33
      • 3. Easement by Necessity 18.34
        • a. Intent of Parties at Time of Transfer 18.35
        • b. Strict Necessity; Extinguishment 18.36
      • 4. Equitable Easement 18.37
        • a. Doctrine of Relative Hardship 18.38
        • b. Money Damages Still Available to Plaintiff 18.39
    • C. Extinguishment of Adverse Possession or Prescriptive Easement Rights 18.40
    • D. Good Faith Improver 18.41
      • 1. Attorney Costs and Fees Available to Plaintiff 18.42
      • 2. Negligent Defendant 18.43
  • IV. DEFENSES BASED ON GRANT OF CONSENT 18.44
    • A. Permissive Use Generally 18.45
    • B. Civil Code §813: Permission to Use Property 18.46
      • 1. Effect of Recorded Notice 18.47
      • 2. Recorded Notice Does Not Defeat Other Vested Rights 18.48
    • C. Civil Code §1008: Permission to Pass 18.49
  • V. DEFENSES BASED ON PLAINTIFF'S DECEPTIVE ACTS 18.50
    • A. Fraud 18.51
      • 1. Fraud in the Inception 18.52
      • 2. Fraud in the Inducement 18.53
    • B. Estoppel 18.54
      • 1. Judicial Estoppel 18.55
      • 2. Collateral Estoppel 18.56
  • VI. DEFENSES BASED ON NECESSITY
    • A. Applicable in Various Circumstances 18.57
    • B. Common Enemy Doctrine 18.58
      • 1. Natural Flow of Surface Water 18.59
      • 2. Floodwaters 18.60

NEIGHBOR DISPUTES: LAW AND LITIGATION

(1st Edition)

April 2017

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

File Name

Book Section

Title

CH02

Chapter 2

Encroachments and Boundaries

02-012

§2.12

Checklist: Ownership Documents

02-013

§2.13

Checklist: Plans and Permits

02-014

§2.14

Checklist: Other Records and Documents

CH03

Chapter 3

Earth Movement: Landslide, Subsidence, and Drainage

03-008

§3.8

Checklist: Documents to Collect; Initial Steps

03-013A

§3.13A

Civil Code Section 832 Letter

CH05

Chapter 5

Non-Boundary Fences

05-002

§5.2

Checklist: Client Documentation

05-003

§5.3

Checklist: Client Information

CH06

Chapter 6

Domestic Animals

06-006

§6.6

Checklist: Gathering Information From Client

CH07

Chapter 7

Noise, Odor, and Light

07-007

§7.7

Checklist: Client Information

07-022A

§7.22A

Demand Letter Requesting Abatement of Nuisance

07-056

§7.56

Public Records Request

07-057

§7.57

Tolling Agreement

CH08

Chapter 8

Solar and Wind Energy Development and Use

08-010A

§8.10A

Solar Shade Control Notice

CH09

Chapter 9

Vacancy, Dangerous Conditions, and Blight

09-009

§9.9

Checklist: Client Information

CH10

Chapter 10

Criminal Activities

10-022

§10.22

Checklist: Client-Witness Considerations

10-042

§10.42

Checklist: Crime Reporting and Investigation

CH11

Chapter 11

Toxic Torts

11-006

§11.6

Checklist: Client Interview

CH12

Chapter 12

Neighborhood and Home Businesses

12-005

§12.5

Checklist: Assessing Impact of Home Business

12-010

§12.10

Checklist: Client Information

CH13

Chapter 13

Light, Air, Views, and Open Space

13-023

§13.23

Checklist: Client Information

CH14

Chapter 14

Water Rights Disputes

14-009

§14.9

Checklist: Client Information

CH15

Chapter 15

Client Interview

15-005

§15.5

Checklist: Client Documents

CH16

Chapter 16

Common Causes of Action

16-074A

§16.74A

Notice of Intent to Incur Costs for a Fence

 

Selected Developments

April 2017 Update

Effective January 1, 2016, CC §§816.50–816.66 was enacted providing for the creation of greenway easements. See §§1.7, 1.28.

In Schafer v City of Los Angeles (2015) 237 CA4th 1250, the court held that if the landowner is a public entity, to find an easement by estoppel the court must weigh the policy concerns to determine whether the avoidance of injustice in the particular case justifies any adverse impact on public policy or the public interest. See §1.22.

In Nellie Gail Ranch Owners' Ass'n v McMullin (2016) 4 CA5th 982 and Salazar v Matejcek (2016) 245 CA4th 634, the courts denied an equitable easement and order removal of structures built intentionally, or perhaps even negligently, encroaching on adjacent property. See §1.27.

In Pacific Shores Prop. Owners Ass'n v Department of Fish & Wildlife (2016) 244 CA4th 12, the Department of Fish and Wildlife was strictly liable for the damages it caused property owners when it intentionally flooded private property to protect environmental resources. See §§3.44, 3.55, 14.40.

In Save Our Big Trees v City of Santa Cruz (2015) 241 CA4th 694, the city failed to demonstrate that its proposed modification of its heritage tree ordinance fell within categorical exemption to CEQA. See §4.21.

In Salazar v Matejcek (2016) 245 CA4th 634, owners of an undeveloped rural property who had personal reasons for keeping their ten-acre parcel in a natural undeveloped state were awarded restoration costs to replace 225 trees that were willfully and maliciously destroyed by a neighboring property owner and treble damages under CCP §733 and CC §3346. See §§4.33, 4.40, 4.46.

In Fulle v Kanani (Jan. 31, 2017, B271240) 2017 Cal App Lexis 65, the court held that annoyance and discomfort damages resulting from injuries to trees may be doubled or trebled under both CCP §733 and CC §3346. See §4.43.

Effective January 1, 2016, CC §835 was enacted providing that a property owner may install an electrified security fence if the property is not in a residential zone, the fence is identified by prominently placed warning signs, the height of the fence does not exceed 10 feet, the fence is located behind a perimeter fence that is not less than 6 feet in height, and the fence meets specified electrotechnical and local requirements. See §5.33.

Proposition 64 enacted the Control Regulate and Tax Adult Use of Marijuana Act (commonly referred to as the Adult Use of Marijuana Act (AUMA)) legalizes the possession and cultivation of certain amounts of marijuana products beginning November 9, 2016 (see Health & S C §§11018–11018.2, 11362.1–11362.45) and provides new criminal provisions for possession, cultivation, transportation, and sale of excessive amounts of marijuana products (see Health & S C §§11357–11362.8). See §§10.13, 10.17, 10.61–10.70.

In Boxer v City of Beverly Hills (2016) 246 CA4th 1212, the court held that a landowner does not have a right to a view over adjacent property, and mere impairment of a view does not constitute a taking or damaging of property. See §13.1.

In Property Reserve, Inc. v Superior Court (2016) 1 CA5th 151, the court held that a temporary physical alteration of property for the purpose of pre-condemnation testing and inspection was not a per se physical taking. See §14.40.

In Mendez v Rancho Valencia Resort Partners, LLC. (2016) 3 CA5th 248, 262, the court held that even though noise emanating from a public address system was clearly audible to the plaintiffs and other neighbors in the area, the noise was not unreasonably disturbing within the meaning of the county noise ordinance. See §§16.3, 16.10.

In Walters v Boosinger (2016) 2 CA5th 421, 432, the court held that certain documents gave an ex-boyfriend notice that his ex-girlfriend asserted that real property was being held in joint tenancy, thus starting the 3-year statute of limitations for relief on the ground of fraud or mistake. See §16.46.

In Nara Bank v Pho (In re Pho) (Bankr ND Cal 2016) 2016 Bankr Lexis 1792, after defending an adversary proceeding seeking nondischargeability of debt based on fraud, the bankruptcy debtor was not entitled to attorney fees because the bankruptcy court did not interpret loan documents in reaching its decision regarding dischargeability; case did not involve "action on a contract" under CC §1717. See §16.88.

In Harris v Stampolis (2016) 248 CA4th 484, in considering a restraining order, the court held that the determination of whether it is reasonably probable that unlawful act will be repeated rests upon nature of unlawful violent act evaluated in light of relevant surrounding circumstances of its commission and whether precipitating circumstances continue to exist so as to establish likelihood of future harm. See §17.23.

About the Authors

TODD W. BAXTER, a partner with McCormick Barstow LLP, Fresno, where he is chairman of the Appellate Law Group, is the author of chapters 16–17. He received his received his B.S. degree from the University of Wisconsin and his J.D. degree from the University of Nebraska College of Law. He practices appellate litigation, insurance coverage, and insurance bad faith litigation. Mr. Baxter has been certified by the State Bar of California Board of Legal Specialization as a specialist in appellate law.

GINA D. BOER, an attorney with Haapala, Thompson & Abern, LLP, Oakland, is the author of chapter 3. She received her B.A. degree, with honors, from the University of California, Berkeley, and her J.D. degree, with honors, from the George Washington University School of Law. Ms. Boer's practice includes complex litigation of earth movement, subsidence, and drainage disputes and easement and neighbor disputes; ADA claims; commercial and residential landlord-tenant disputes; construction defect claims; residential buyer-seller contract disputes; premises liability; and torts claims. She is a certified mediator and sits as Judge Pro Tem for the Contra Costa and Alameda County Superior Courts. Ms. Boer is a member of the Earl Warren American Inn of Court.

KRISTINE M. BURK, a deputy public defender with the Sonoma County Public Defender's Office, is a coauthor of chapter 10. She received her B.A. degree from the University of California, Los Angeles, and her J.D. degree from the University of California, Hastings College of Law. Ms. Burk has practiced exclusively in the area of criminal defense for more than 17 years.

MICHAEL S. CHERNIS, a partner with Abner Chernis LLP, Santa Monica, is a coauthor of chapter 10. He received his B.A. degree from Brandeis University and his J.D. degree from Fordham University School of Law. He represents clients seeking to form medical marijuana collectives and comply with California medical marijuana law; landlords and others seeking to do business with medical marijuana collectives; and individuals and businesses in civil litigation with municipalities arising from such activities. Mr. Chernis also represents individuals and businesses in federal criminal matters and those charged in state court for violating medical marijuana laws. He writes and lectures frequently on matters pertaining to the regulation of medical marijuana.

JAY A. CHRISTOFFERSON, a partner with the firm of McCormick Barstow LLP, Fresno, is a coauthor of chapter 8. He received his B.S. and M.S. degrees from the University of California, Santa Barbara, and his J.D. degree from the University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law. Mr. Christofferson specializes in insurance coverage, insurance bad faith, ERISA, civil litigation, and subrogation matters.

ANDREA P. CLARK, counsel with Downey Brand LLP, Sacramento, is a coauthor of chapter 14. She received her B.A. degree, with honors, from the University of California, Berkeley, and her J.D. degree from the University of Michigan Law School. Ms. Clark is a member of the Water Group and the Food and Agriculture practice. Her areas of expertise include public agency law (including the Brown Act, the Public Records Act, public bidding, financing, contracting, joint powers authorities, and elections), flood control liability, financing and strategy for flood control improvements, water transfers, and the California Environmental Quality Act. Ms. Clark writes and lectures regularly on public agency law and water law.

CAREY L. COOPER, a shareholder and the chair of the Environmental Law Group at Klinedinst PC, San Diego, is a coauthor of chapter 7. She received her B.A. degree, cum laude, from California State University, Northridge, and her J.D. degree, cum laude, from Washington & Lee University School of Law. Ms. Cooper's practice includes environmental, business, real estate, and professional liability litigation. She writes and speaks regularly on environmental matters and is a member of the Association of Environmental Professionals and the International Erosion Control Association. Ms. Cooper is a past editor of The National Forum for Environmental and Toxic Tort Issues.

ALICE M. GRAHAM, principal of the Graham Law Corporation, Marina Del Rey, is the author of chapter 13. She received her B.A. degree from the University of California, Los Angeles, and her J.D. degree from Loyola Law School. Ms. Graham specializes in the areas of real estate, business law, and mediation.

PETER A. KLEINBRODT, managing partner of Freitas, McCarthy, MacMahon & Keating, LLP, San Rafael, is the author of chapter 12. He received his B.A. degree, with honors, from the University of California, Los Angeles, and his J.D. degree from LaVerne University. Mr. Kleinbrodt represents clients in a broad range of matters with extensive litigation and transactional expertise in real property and business matters. Mr. Kleinbrodt serves as Judge Pro Tem, commissioner, and arbitrator for the Marin County Superior Court.

TERESA BUCHHEIT KLINKNER, principal of Klinkner Law Offices, Redondo Beach, is the author of chapter 9. She received her B.A. degree, cum laude, from Centre College of Kentucky and her J.D. degree from Duke University School of Law. Ms. Klinkner practices in the area of real estate and business transactions. She is also a licensed California real estate broker and a member of California Real Estate Women–LA. Ms. Klinkner has served as editor-in-chief of the California Real Property Journal, the official publication of the Real Property Law Section of the State Bar of California.

DAVID M. MAJCHRZAK, counsel at Klinedinst PC, San Diego, is the author of chapter 18. He received his B.A. degree from the University of Southern California and his J.D. degree, summa cum laude, from the Thomas Jefferson School of Law. Mr. Majchrzak's practice incorporates all phases of litigation, appellate work, and mediation. He focuses primarily on professional liability defense, especially legal malpractice, and insurance coverage litigation. Mr. Majchrzak also serves as president of the William L. Todd, Jr., American Inn of Court.

DAVID M. MARCUS, a partner with Marcus, Watanabe & Dave, LLP, Los Angeles, is the author of chapter 2. He received his B.A. degree from the University of California, Berkeley, and his J.D. degree from Loyola Law School. Mr. Marcus's practice includes real property, escrow, title insurance, and general business transactions. He is a former member of the Board of Governors of the State Bar of California. Mr. Marcus is a former co-chair of the Title Insurance Subsection of the Real Estate Section of the Los Angeles County Bar Association and also serves as a Judge Pro Tem with the Los Angeles County Superior Court. He lectures frequently on title insurance and related real estate issues.

STEVEN J. MEHLMAN, a partner with Kimball, Tirey & St. John LLP, Walnut Creek, where he is the managing partner of the Northern California Business Real Estate Group, is the author of chapter 15. He received his B.A. degree from the University of California, Berkeley; his M.P.P. degree from the University of Michigan School of Public Policy; and his J.D. degree, cum laude, from the University of Michigan Law School. Mr. Mehlman represents business clients and individuals in a wide variety of civil lawsuits and arbitrations as well as in transactional matters. He is a regular participant in legal advice programs offered by the Contra Costa Bar Association on neighbor disputes and animal law. He is a former member of both the City of Walnut Creek and Contra Costa County planning commissions.

CATHERINE A. RICHARDSON, senior counsel with Klinedinst PC, San Diego, is a coauthor of chapter 7. She received her B.A. degree from the University of California, San Diego, and her J.D. degree from the University of San Diego School of Law. Ms. Richardson is a litigator specializing in professional negligence defense, wrongful death, medical malpractice, products liability, construction defects, eminent domain, insurance bad faith, and business cases. She has served as a Pro Tem Administrative Law Judge for the State of California, a Judge Pro Tem for the San Diego Small Claims Court, and an arbitrator for a number of local entities.

DAVID L. ROTH, principal of The Real Estate Law Offices of David L. Roth, Oakland, is the author of chapter 1. He received his B.A. degree from Occidental College and his J.D. degree from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Mr. Roth specializes in real estate litigation and transactions. He is a former executive editor of the California Real Property Journal, the quarterly publication of the Real Property Section of the State Bar of California, and a former chair of the Alameda County Bar Association Real Estate Section. Mr. Roth speaks regularly to lawyer groups on real estate topics.

JOSEPH W. SCALIA, principal of the Law Offices of Joseph W. Scalia, Roseville, is the author of chapter 11. He received his B.A. degree from the University of Notre Dame and his J.D. degree from the University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law. Mr. Scalia's litigation practice primarily consists of real estate, construction, and business matters as well as entity formation and dissolution and estate planning. He is a Settlement Judge Pro Tem for the Sacramento County Superior Court and an arbitrator and mediator for several local entities.

LEWIS J. SOFFER, a shareholder with Miller Starr Regalia, Walnut Creek, is the author of chapter 5. He received his B.A. degree from Stanford University and his J.D./M.B.A. degrees from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Mr. Soffer's practice encompasses a wide variety of litigation involving real estate issues, including title insurance cases for both insureds and insurers; contract disputes; entitlements and environmental matters; commercial leasing; easements, boundary, and prescriptive rights disputes; adverse possession; mortgage and financing transactions; and foreclosures.

MAYA FERRY STAFFORD, a staff counsel specialist with the California Department of Water Resources (DWR), Sacramento, is a coauthor of chapter 14. She received her B.S. degree from the University of Washington and her J.D. degree, cum laude, from Lewis & Clark Law School. Prior to her position at the DWR, Ms. Stafford was in private practice, where she represented clients on issues related to water rights, the Endangered Species Act, the California Environmental Quality Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, public agency laws and in natural resources litigation. Any views expressed in chapter 14 are those of the authors and do not represent the views of the DWR.

MARY CATHERINE WIEDERHOLD practices law in San Francisco and is the author of chapter 6. She received her B.A. degree from the University of California, Berkeley, and her J.D. degree from the University of San Francisco School of Law. Ms. Wiederhold is a real estate litigator and concentrates in tenant representation, including defending eviction actions and affirmative lawsuits. In 2010, she received the Housing Justice Award from the Bar Association of San Francisco. In 2014, she received the Attorney of the Year Award from the AIDS Legal Referral Panel. She is on the board of directors of the San Francisco Trial Lawyers Association. She is also a member of the executive committee of the Lawyers' Club of San Francisco Inn of Court.

DANIEL E. WITTE, of counsel with the firm of McCormick Barstow LLP, Fresno, is a coauthor of chapter 8. He received his M.O.B. and B.S. degrees, magna cum laude, from Brigham Young University and his J.D. degree, magna cum laude, from the Brigham Young University School of Law. Mr. Witte concentrates in insurance coverage, insurance bad faith, and subrogation. He has been qualified as a Chartered Financial Consultant (ChFC) and Certified Life Underwriter (CLU). Mr. Witte is a Fellow of the Life Management Institute (FLMI). His designations include Associate, Insurance Regulatory Compliance (AIRC); Associate, Reinsurance Administration (ARA); and Associate, Customer Service (ACS).

DENNIS A. YNIGUEZ, an International Society of Arboriculture Board Certified Master Arborist and the principal of Tree Decisions, an arboricultural consulting firm in Berkeley, is the author of chapter 4. He received his B.A. and M.A. degrees from the University of California, Berkeley, and his J.D. degree from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Mr. Yniguez is a past president of the American Society of Consulting Arborists and has served on their national faculty since 2000. His consulting practice includes tree health and risk assessment, forensic examination and case analysis, insurance claim evaluation, expert trial assistance, and alternative dispute resolution for tree-related issues.

About the 2017 Update Authors

TODD W. BAXTER is the update author of chapters 16 and 17. See biography in the About the Authors section.

GINA D. BOER is the update author of chapter 3. See biography in the About the Authors section.

KRISTINE M. BURK is the update coauthor of chapter 10. See biography in the About the Authors section.

MICHAEL S. CHERNIS is the update coauthor of chapter 10. He is currently a Principal with the Chernis Law Group in Santa Monica. See biography in the About the Authors section.

JAY A. CHRISTOFFERSON is the update author of chapter 8. See biography in the About the Authors section.

ANDREA P. CLARK is the update author of chapter 14. See biography in the About the Authors section.

CAREY L. COOPER is the update coauthor of chapter 7. See biography in the About the Authors section.

ALICE M. GRAHAM is the update author of chapter 13. See biography in the About the Authors section.

PETER A. KLEINBRODT is the update author of chapter 12. See biography in the About the Authors section.

TERESA BUCHHEIT KLINKNER is the update author of chapter 9. See biography in the About the Authors section.

DAVID M. MAJCHRZAK is the update author of chapter 18. See biography in the About the Authors section.

DAVID M. MARCUS is the update author of chapter 2. See biography in the About the Authors section. Mr. Marcus was assisted in the update of this chapter by his associate, Victoria B. Shapiro.

J. SCOTT MILLER, the update coauthor of chapter 7, is an associate with Klinedinst PC, Sacramento. He received his B.A. degree from Rhodes College, his Masters from the University of Tennessee, and his J.D. degree from Vanderbilt University Law School. Mr. Miller is a litigator specializing in professional negligence defense, insurance coverage and bad faith actions, environmental law, and business cases. He served as a judicial extern for the Honorable Marvin R. Baxter of the Supreme Court of California.

DAVID L. ROTH is the update author of chapters 1, 5, and 15. See biography in the About the Authors section.

JOSEPH W. SCALIA is the update author of chapter 11. See biography in the About the Authors section.

MARY CATHERINE WIEDERHOLD is the update author of chapter 6. See biography in the About the Authors section.

DENNIS A. YNIGUEZ is the update author of chapter 4. See biography in the About the Authors section.

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