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California Landlord-Tenant Practice

The definitive book whether you are representing landlords or tenants, or involved in transactional or litigation practice.

The definitive book whether you are representing landlords or tenants, or involved in transactional or litigation practice.

  • Drafting leases; owner and tenant strategies
  • Short term tenancies; local laws and lease clauses
  • Medical marijuana in commercial and residental units
  • Mobilehome leases, special notices, and evictions
  • Terminating tenancies, notice forms, and eviction pleadings
  • Warranty of habitability, subleasing, and roommates
  • Tenant bankruptcies; stay relief, rent claims
  • Local rent and eviction controls; discrimination law
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The definitive book whether you are representing landlords or tenants, or involved in transactional or litigation practice.

  • Drafting leases; owner and tenant strategies
  • Short term tenancies; local laws and lease clauses
  • Medical marijuana in commercial and residental units
  • Mobilehome leases, special notices, and evictions
  • Terminating tenancies, notice forms, and eviction pleadings
  • Warranty of habitability, subleasing, and roommates
  • Tenant bankruptcies; stay relief, rent claims
  • Local rent and eviction controls; discrimination law

1

Creating the Tenancy

Patricia H. Tirey

E. Houston Touceda

  • I.  NATURE OF LANDLORD-TENANT RELATIONSHIP
    • A.  Created by Agreement; Terminology  1.1
    • B.  Dual Character of Landlord-Tenant Agreement  1.2
    • C.  Distinguished From Other Relationships
      • 1.  Proprietor-Lodger  1.3
        • a.  Under Common Law  1.4
        • b.  Under CC §1940  1.5
        • c.  Exclusions Under CC §1940  1.6
        • d.  Effect on Evictions and Abandoned Personal Property  1.7
      • 2.  Employer-Employee  1.8
      • 3.  Seller-Purchaser  1.9
      • 4.  Licenses  1.10
      • 5.  Tenant Roommates  1.11
        • a.  As Tenants of Owner  1.12
        • b.  As Subtenants of Tenant  1.13
      • 6.  Cotenant Owners  1.14
  • II.  TYPES OF TENANCIES
    • A.  Fixed-Term Tenancy  1.15
    • B.  Periodic Tenancy  1.16
    • C.  Tenancy at Will  1.17
    • D.  Tenancy at Sufferance  1.18
    • E.  Trespassers  1.19
  • III.  DRAFTING LANDLORD-TENANT AGREEMENT
    • A.  Option to Use Preprinted Forms  1.20
    • B.  Written or Oral Agreement?
      • 1.  Legal Requirements  1.21
      • 2.  Advantages and Disadvantages
        • a.  For Landlord  1.22
        • b.  For Tenant  1.23
    • C.  Requisites of Agreement
      • 1.  Parties
        • a.  Capacity to Enter Into Lease  1.24
        • b.  Execution
          • (1)  By Spouses  1.25
          • (2)  By Joint Tenants or Tenants in Common  1.26
          • (3)  By Corporations and Other Entities  1.27
          • (4)  By Agents  1.28
        • c.  Listing All Tenants  1.29
        • d.  Required Agent and Service of Process Information; Copy of Lease; CC §1962   1.30
      • 2.  Rent   1.31
      • 3.  Description of Premises
        • a.  Basic Parameters   1.32
        • b.  Condition of the Premises
          • (1)  Joint Pre-Possession Inspection   1.33
          • (2)  Carbon Monoxide Detectors  1.34
          • (3)  Form: Move-In/Move-Out Itemized Statement (California Apartment Association Form 16.0)  1.35
          • (4)  Form: Furniture Inventory (California Apartment Association Form 16.1)  1.36
      • 4.  Screening Fees, Security Deposits, Key Money  1.37
      • 5.  Term   1.38
      • 6.  Use of Premises   1.39
      • 7.  Required Disclosures  1.40
    • D.  Prohibited Provisions  1.41
    • E.  Special Considerations in Jurisdictions With Rent Control Ordinances  1.42
    • F.  Special Requirements for Government-Owned and Government-Subsidized Rental Housing   1.43
      • 1.  Public Housing
        • a.  HUD Requirements Imposed on Public Housing Authority   1.44
        • b.  Regulations Governing Tenant Conduct  1.45
      • 2.  HUD-Subsidized Rental Programs   1.46
      • 3.  Section 8 Programs   1.47
  • IV.  SELECTED CLAUSES FOR RESIDENTIAL LEASE OR RENTAL AGREEMENT
    • A.  Rent
      • 1.  Form: Monthly Amount; Due Date; Manner of Payment  1.48
      • 2.  Form: Late Charges  1.49
      • 3.  Form: Rent Check Returned for Insufficient Funds  1.50
      • 4.  Form: Notice That Failure to Pay Rent on Time May Be Reported to Credit Record Agencies  1.51
    • B.  Occupants
      • 1.  Form: Identification; Joint Liability  1.52
      • 2.  Form: Guests, Boarders, Lodgers, and Roommates  1.53
    • C.  Form: Indemnification of Landlord  1.54
    • D.  Form: Assignment and Subletting  1.55
    • E.  Form: Utilities  1.56
    • F.  Tenant Obligations and Restrictions
      • 1.  Form: Tenant’s Obligation to Maintain and Protect Landlord’s Property  1.57
      • 2.  Form: Tenant’s Obligations to Refrain from Disturbance, Smoking, Unlawful Conduct, and Waste  1.58
      • 3.  Form: Tenant’s Obligation to Comply With All Laws and Rules and Regulations  1.59
      • 4.  Form: Conditions Governing Tenant Repairs and Alterations  1.60
      • 5.  Form: Pets and Service or Support Animals  1.61
      • 6.  Form: Waterbeds  1.62
      • 7.  Form: No Automobile Repair  1.63
    • G.  Form: Tenant’s Death or Disability  1.64
    • H.  Form: Landlord’s Entry on Premises; Notice, Changing Locks  1.65
    • I.  Breach of Covenant
      • 1.  Form: Covenants Are Material and Reasonable  1.66
      • 2.  Form: Consequences of Tenant’s Breach; Service of Notice  1.67
    • J.  Form: Misrepresentation in Tenant’s Application  1.68
    • K.  Form: Tenant’s Termination for Cause Under Fixed-Term Lease  1.69
    • L.  Form: Attorney Fees  1.70
    • M.  Form: No Waiver  1.71
    • N.  Form: Service of Notices  1.72
  • V.  SAMPLE RESIDENTIAL LEASES AND RENTAL AGREEMENTS   1.73
    • A.  Form: Rental Agreement (Month-to-Month) (California Apartment Association Form 2.0)  1.74
    • B.  Form: Lease Agreement (California Apartment Association Form 2.1)  1.75
    • C.  Form: Disclosure of Information on Lead-Based Paint and Lead-Based Paint Hazards (California Apartment Association Form LEAD1)  1.76
    • D.  Form: Residential Lease-Rental Agreement and Deposit Receipt (Professional Publishing Form 105)  1.77
    • E.  Form: Carbon Monoxide Agreement (California Apartment Association Form 27.1)  1.78

2

Fair Housing Considerations

James Morales

Michael Rawson

Paul E. Smith

  • I.  IMPACT OF FAIR HOUSING LAWS ON LANDLORDS’ CHOICE OF TENANTS, MANAGEMENT, AND EVICTIONS
    • A.  Comprehensive Application of Federal, State, and Local Law  2.1
    • B.  Legal and Administrative Remedies  2.2
  • II.  SCREENING PROSPECTIVE TENANTS
    • A.  Landlord’s Objectives  2.3
    • B.  Legal Constraints in Applying Screening Factors  2.4
      • 1.  Selection Standards Must Not Have Disparate Impact on Protected Classes  2.5
        • a.  Tenants Receiving Rental Subsidies  2.5A
        • b.  Tenants Who Have Criminal Records  2.5B
        • c.  Tenants Who Have Limited English Proficiency  2.5C
        • d.  Citizenship, Alienage, or Immigration Status Discrimination Under Fair Housing Act and Civil Rights Act of 1866  2.5D
      • 2.  Were Permissible Factors Used to Reject Applicant or Evict Tenant?  2.6
      • 3.  First Amendment Considerations for Roommates  2.6A
  • III.  SELECTION AND MANAGEMENT CRITERIA; REASONABLE ACCOMMODATIONS  2.7
    • A.  Tenant Character and Safety Issues  2.8
    • B.  Ability to Pay Rent
      • 1.  Credit and Income Information  2.9
      • 2.  Minimum Income Requirements  2.9A
      • 3.  Source of Income Protections; Section 8  2.9B
      • 4.  Income and Marital Status  2.9C
      • 5.  Income and Disability  2.9D
    • C.  Subjective Criteria Should Be Avoided  2.10
    • D.  Special Criteria Applicable to Public and Subsidized Housing  2.11
      • 1.  Some Immigrants Barred From Subsidized Housing  2.12
      • 2.  Discrimination on the Basis of Sexual Orientation, Marital Status, or Gender Identity in HUD Housing Programs  2.12A
      • 3.  Authority to Select Tenants  2.13
        • a.  By Public Housing Authority
          • (1)  Specific Selection Criteria and Preferences  2.14
          • (2)  Residency Preferences  2.14A
          • (3)  Checking Criminal Background of Applicants; Controlled Substances, Alcohol Abuse  2.15
          • (4)  Denial of Admission or Eviction Based on Status as Domestic Violence Victim Is Prohibited  2.15A
        • b.  Private Landlord and Housing Authority: Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Programs
          • (1)  Applicant Eligibility Determined by Public Housing Authority  2.16
          • (2)  Private Landlord’s Discretion in Tenant Selection  2.17
        • c.  Under Other Federal or State Subsidized Programs  2.18
        • d.  Under State and Federal Tax Credit Programs  2.18A
    • E.  Prohibited Selection Factors  2.19
    • F.  Protected Categories
      • 1.  Summary; Authorizing Legislation  2.20
      • 2.  Protected Categories Created by Unruh Act’s Arbitrary Discrimination Proscription  2.21
      • 3.  Familial Status Protections  2.22
        • a.  Statutory Definitions  2.23
        • b.  Effect of Occupancy Standards  2.24
        • c.  Senior Housing Exceptions  2.25
          • (1)  Fair Housing Act (Federal) Exemptions  2.25A
          • (2)  California (State) Exemptions  2.25B
          • (3)  Application of State vs. Federal Exemptions  2.25C
      • 4.  Protections for Persons With Disabilities
        • a.  Impairments Covered by Statutory Definitions  2.26
        • b.  Exception: Persons Engaging in Criminal Activity Because of Disability  2.26A
        • c.  Proscribed Inquiries by Prospective Landlords  2.26B
        • d.  Reasonable Accommodations and Modifications  2.27
          • (1)  Reasonable Accommodations  2.27A
          • (2)  Service Animals Distinguished From Companion and Support Animals  2.27B
          • (3)  Accommodation Requests From Tenants Receiving Rental Assistance  2.27C
          • (4)  Reasonable Physical Modifications  2.27D
          • (5)  Accessibility  2.27E
          • (6)  Accommodation and Modification Request Procedures; Interactive Process  2.27F
        • e.  Attorney Fees  2.27G
      • 5.  Gender Protections  2.27H
        • a.  Sex Harassment  2.27I
        • b.  Domestic Violence Discrimination  2.27J
        • c.  Gender Identity Discrimination  2.27K
      • 6.  Denial of Insurance Coverage Based on Presence of Protected Classes  2.27L
    • G.  Harassment Against Members of Protected Classes  2.27M
  • IV.  CHARTS, POSTERS, AND FORMS: FAIR HOUSING AND ANTIDISCRIMINATION LAWS  2.28
  • V.  ENFORCING FEDERAL ANTIDISCRIMINATION AND FAIR HOUSING LAWS; SCOPE AND PROCEDURES  2.29
    • A.  Fair Housing Act
      • 1.  Scope
        • a.  Application, Protections, and Requirements  2.30
        • b.  Exemptions  2.31
      • 2.  Enforcement  2.32
        • a.  Administrative Action
          • (1)  Preparing and Filing Complaint
            • (a)  Filing With HUD  2.33
            • (b)  Filing With USDA  2.33A
          • (2)  Where to File Housing Discrimination Complaint (HUD Form 903)  2.34
          • (3)  Response to Complaint  2.35
          • (4)  Investigation and Conciliation of Dispute  2.36
          • (5)  Issuance of a Charge or Dismissal  2.37
          • (6)  Charge Issued: Election of Civil Action; Administrative Hearing  2.38
        • b.  Civil Action Under 42 USC §3613  2.39
        • c.  U.S. Attorney General “Pattern-or-Practice” Action  2.40
    • B.  Civil Rights Act of 1866
      • 1.  Application  2.41
        • a.  No State Action Requirement  2.42
        • b.  The Protected Classes  2.43
      • 2.  Enforcement
        • a.  Litigating Claims Under the Act  2.44
        • b.  Remedies
          • (1)  Damages  2.45
          • (2)  Injunctive Relief  2.46
          • (3)  Attorney Fees  2.47
    • C.  Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964  2.47A
    • D.  Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1974  2.47B
    • E.  Title II, Subtitle A, of the Americans with Disabilities Act  2.47C
  • VI.  ENFORCING CALIFORNIA ANTIDISCRIMINATION AND FAIR HOUSING LAWS; SCOPE AND PROCEDURES  2.48
    • A.  California Fair Employment and Housing Act
      • 1.  Scope  2.49
      • 2.  Prohibited Forms of Housing Discrimination  2.50
      • 3.  Enforcement Options  2.51
        • a.  Involving DFEH in Claim
          • (1)  Filing Complaint With DFEH  2.52
          • (2)  DFEH Investigation of Complaint  2.53
          • (3)  Conciliation or Mediation  2.54
          • (4)  Court Action on Complaint After DFEH Investigation  2.55
        • b.  Filing Individual Civil Action; Form of Relief; Attorney Fees  2.56
    • B.  Unruh Civil Rights Act  2.57
      • 1.  Application to Enumerated Protections  2.57A
      • 2.  Broad Application to Other Arbitrary Conduct  2.58
      • 3.  Enforcement and Remedies  2.59
    • C.  Equal Access Requirements for Persons With Disabilities  2.60
    • D.  Protections for Immigrants and Noncitizens
      • 1.  Prohibited Acts (CC §1940.3; CCP §1161.4)  2.60A
      • 2.  Defenses; Presumptions (CCP §1161.4)  2.60B
      • 3.  Remedies  2.60C
  • VII.  PROSECUTING AND DEFENDING A RENTAL DISCRIMINATION CASE
    • A.  Evidence Required to Establish Illegal Discrimination  2.61
      • 1.  Overt Discrimination  2.62
      • 2.  Disparate Treatment  2.63
      • 3.  “Mixed Motives” Versus “A Motivating Factor”  2.64
      • 4.  Disparate Impact  2.65
    • B.  Use of Testers  2.66
    • C.  Who Has Standing to Bring Action  2.67
    • D.  Owner’s Responsibility for Agent’s or Third Party’s Discriminatory Acts  2.68
    • E.  Statute of Limitations Under Federal Law  2.69
    • F.   Statute of Limitations Under State Law  2.69A

3

Rights and Duties During Tenancy

Scott A. Freedman

Ted Kimball

Nancy C. Lenvin

Myron Moskovitz

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  3.1
  • II.  LANDLORD’S LIMITED RIGHT OF ENTRY
    • A.  Nature and Extent  3.2
    • B.  Procedure for Entry; Notice Requirements  3.3
    • C.  Form: Notice of Landlord’s Intention to Enter Dwelling Unit  3.3A
    • D.  Remedies  3.4
  • III.  QUIET ENJOYMENT AND USE
    • A.  Implied Covenant of Quiet Enjoyment
      • 1.  Nature  3.5
      • 2.  When Is Covenant Breached?  3.6
      • 3.  Remedies  3.7
    • B.  Statutes Regulating Use Of Premises
      • 1.  Posting Political Signs  3.7A
      • 2.  Smoking on the Premises; State, Local, and Federal Law  3.7B
      • 3.  Gardening or Personal Agriculture  3.7C
      • 4.  Electric Vehicle Charging Stations
        • a.  Residential Property  3.7D
        • b.  Commercial Property  3.7E
      • 5.  Clotheslines and Drying Racks  3.7F
    • C.  Notice of Pesticide Application  3.7G
  • IV.  LANDLORD’S DUTY TO MAINTAIN AND REPAIR PREMISES  3.8
    • A.  Express Promise to Repair  3.9
    • B.  Housing Code Obligations and Enforcement
      • 1.  Enforcement Process  3.10
      • 2.  Housing Statutes, Regulations, and Codes
        • a.  Statutory Tenantability; CC §§1941, 1941.1  3.11
        • b.  Door and Window Locks; CC §§1941.3, 1941.5–1941.6  3.11A
        • c.  Toxic Mold and Other Health and Safety Statutes  3.11B
        • d.  Department of Housing Regulations  3.11C
        • e.  Uniform Housing Code  3.11D
      • 3.  Certificate of Occupancy Violations  3.11E
    • C.  “Repair-and-Deduct” Remedy; CC §1942
      • 1.  Statutory Basis  3.12
      • 2.  Procedure  3.13
      • 3.  Waiver Not Permitted  3.14
      • 4.  Commercial Tenancies  3.15
    • D.  Statutory Action for Damages and Abatement; CC §1942.4  3.15A
    • E.  Constructive Eviction Action  3.15B
    • F.  Nuisance Action  3.15C
    • G.  Implied Warranty of Habitability
      • 1.  Development  3.16
      • 2.  Application
        • a.  Single-Family Homes  3.17
        • b.  Commercial Tenancies  3.18
        • c.  Government-Owned Housing  3.19
        • d.  Common Areas  3.20
        • e.  Premises Uninhabitable at Inception of Tenancy  3.21
        • f.  Premises Become Uninhabitable After Tenant Is Required to Vacate  3.22
      • 3.  Waiver  3.23
      • 4.  Breach of Warranty of Habitability
        • a.  Actionable Defects
          • (1)  Defects Covered by Housing Codes or CC §§1941.1 and 1941.3  3.24
          • (2)  Defects Not Covered by Housing and Building Codes  3.25
          • (3)  Defects Caused by Tenant  3.26
          • (4)  Severity of Defects  3.27
          • (5)  Evidence of Defects  3.28
          • (6)  Notice of Defects  3.29
        • b.  Reasonable Time to Repair  3.30
        • c.  Sale of Premises  3.31
        • d.  Remedies for Breach of Implied or Statutory Warranty
          • (1)  Defense to Unlawful Detainer Suit
            • (a)  Summary of Procedure  3.32
            • (b)  Complaint Need Not Allege Compliance With Implied Warranty  3.33
            • (c)  Protective Orders  3.34
          • (2)  Actions for Damages; Statutes of Limitations  3.35
            • (a)  Statutory Damages; Abatement  3.36
            • (b)  General Damages
              • (i)  Difference in Value or Percentage Reduction of Rent  3.37
              • (ii)  Discomfort and Annoyance  3.38
              • (iii)  Personal Injury Damages  3.38A
            • (c)  Special Damages  3.39
            • (d)  Punitive Damages  3.40
            • (e)  Costs and Attorney Fees  3.41
          • (3)  Injunctive Relief  3.42
          • (4)  Termination and Rescission  3.43
          • (5)  Declaratory Relief  3.44
      • 5.  Tactical Considerations  3.45
        • a.  Contract or Tort Action  3.46
        • b.  Gathering and Preserving Evidence  3.46A
        • c.  Availability of Insurance Coverage  3.47
        • d.  Monetary Versus Equitable Claims  3.48
    • H.  Form: Complaint for Damages for Breach of Warranty of Habitability and Related Torts, Specific Performance, and Injunctive Relief  3.48A
    • I.  Checklist: Tenant Causes of Action and Remedies for Habitability Violations and Nuisances  3.48B
  • V.  ASSIGNMENT AND SUBLETTING
    • A.  Transfer of Leasehold Interests  3.49
    • B.  Assignment and Subletting Distinguished  3.50
    • C.  Effect of Transfer  3.51
    • D.  Rights and Liabilities Following Transfer
      • 1.  Assignment
        • a.  Assignee and Landlord  3.52
        • b.  Assignor and Landlord  3.53
      • 2.  Subletting
        • a.  Sublessee and Landlord  3.54
        • b.  Sublessor and Landlord  3.55
    • E.  Restricting Transfer of Leasehold Interests
      • 1.  Lease Covenants Restricting Transfer  3.56
      • 2.  Waiver of Covenant  3.57
      • 3.  Landlord’s Withholding of Consent  3.58
      • 4.  Subleasing in Jurisdictions With Rent Control  3.58A
      • 5.  Interaction With CC §1951.4 Remedy  3.59
    • F.  Effect of Tenant Bankruptcy on Lease Assignment  3.59A
  • VI.  EXTENSION AND RENEWAL OF LEASE
    • A.  Tenant’s Right to Extend or Renew  3.60
    • B.  Covenants to Extend or Renew
      • 1.  Legal Requirements  3.61
      • 2.  Exercise of Election to Renew  3.62
      • 3.  Automatic Renewal; Required Language in Lease (CC §1945.5)  3.63
    • C.  Form: Notice of Nonrenewal of Lease (California Apartment Association Form 45.0)  3.63A
    • D.  Tenant’s Holding Over  3.64
  • VII.  CHANGING TERMS OF TENANCY
    • A.  Periodic Tenancy
      • 1.  30-day Notice of Change in Terms  3.65
      • 2.  60-Day Notice of Residential Rent Increase Over 10 Percent  3.65A
      • 3.  Effect of Notice  3.65B
    • B.  Fixed-Term Tenancy  3.66
    • C.  Terminating Government Rent Subsidy Contracts in Rent Control Jurisdictions  3.66A
    • D.  Rent Increases Under Government Subsidy Contracts  3.66B
    • E.  Rent Increases Following Emergencies and Disasters  3.66C
  • VIII.  LANDLORD LIABILITY FOR PERSONAL INJURY AND PROPERTY DAMAGE
    • A.  Liability to Tenant
      • 1.  Negligent Failure to Correct Defects  3.67
      • 2.  Failure to Maintain Common Areas  3.67A
      • 3.  Injuries Caused by Criminal Acts of Third Parties  3.68
        • a.  Public Housing Projects  3.68A
        • b.  Privately Owned Apartment Buildings  3.68B
        • c.  Privately Owned Commercial Buildings  3.68C
        • d.  Public Buildings  3.68D
      • 4.  Exculpatory Clauses  3.69
      • 5.  Strict Liability  3.70
      • 6.  Liability for Sexual Harassment  3.70A
    • B.  Liability to Third Parties
      • 1.  Liability for Negligence Regardless of Plaintiff’s Status  3.71
      • 2.  Liability for Acts of Tenant  3.72
  • IX.  TENANT LIABILITY FOR PROPERTY DAMAGE AND PERSONAL INJURY
    • A.  Duty to Repair  3.73
    • B.  Injury to Third Parties  3.74
  • X.  IMPLIED COVENANT OF GOOD FAITH AND FAIR DEALING  3.75

4

Counseling the Landlord

Nancy C. Lenvin

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  4.1
  • II.  RETAINER AGREEMENTS
    • A.  Written Fee Agreement  4.2
    • B.  Limited Scope Representation
      • 1.  Applicable Law  4.2A
      • 2.  Checklist: Landlord Fee Agreement  4.2B
    • C.  Disclosure Regarding Professional Liability Insurance  4.2C
  • III.  SOLICITING AND CHOOSING TENANTS
    • A.  Advertising Vacant Units  4.3
    • B.  Identification of Prospective Tenants  4.3A
    • C.  Screening Applicants
      • 1.  Purpose  4.4
      • 2.  Written Rental Applications  4.5
        • a.  Format of Application  4.6
        • b.  Information Requested in Application  4.7
        • c.  Checklist: Tenant Information  4.8
        • d.  Credit Checks and Other Investigations  4.9
        • e.  Form: Application to Rent (California Apartment Association Form 3.0-R)  4.10
      • 3.  Screening Fees  4.11
      • 4.  Verifying Application  4.12
      • 5.  Responding to Inquiries  4.13
      • 6.  Evaluating Application and Selecting Tenant
        • a.  Antidiscrimination Requirements  4.14
        • b.  Occupancy Limits  4.15
        • c.  Minimum Income Standards; Verification of Income  4.15A
        • d.  Whether to Allow Animals in Rental Unit  4.15B
      • 7.  Retaining Application  4.16
  • IV.  MANDATORY DISCLOSURES
    • A.  Environmental and Other Hazards  4.16A
      • 1.  Lead  4.16B
      • 2.  Methamphetamine Contamination  4.16C
      • 3.  Mold  4.16D
      • 4.  Pest Control Disclosure Notice  4.16E
      • 5.  Bed Bug Disclosure and Notice  4.16F
    • B.  Dual Agency Disclosure  4.16G
    • C.  Seismic Retrofit Work  4.16H
  • V.  RENTAL AGREEMENT
    • A.  Advantages of Written Over Oral Agreement  4.17
    • B.  Use of Printed Rental Agreement Forms
      • 1.  Advantages  4.18
      • 2.  Disadvantages  4.19
      • 3.  Leasing a Condominium  4.19A
    • C.  Drafting Considerations and Strategies
      • 1.  Length of Rental Term: Periodic or Fixed-Term Tenancy
        • a.  Distinctions  4.20
        • b.  Anticipating Tenant’s Failure to Vacate at End of Term  4.21
        • c.  Effect of Rent Control  4.22
      • 2.  Security Deposits
        • a.  Characterization   4.23
        • b.  Amount of Security Deposit  4.24
        • c.  Interest on Security Deposit   4.25
        • d.  Limits on Residential Landlord’s Use of Security Deposits  4.26
        • e.  Replenishment and Increase of Deposit During Tenancy  4.27
        • f.  Return of Security Deposit  4.28
          • (1)  Residential Tenancies
            • (a)  Notice of Right to Inspection  4.28A
            • (b)  Return of Deposit  4.28B
          • (2)  Commercial Tenancies; Return of Deposit  4.28C
          • (3)  Drafting Tips  4.28D
        • g.  Effect of Termination of Landlord’s Interest in Premises  4.29
      • 3.  Key Money; Commercial Tenancies  4.29A
      • 4.  Rent Provisions
        • a.  Manner of Receiving Rent
          • (1)  Form of Payment
            • (a)  Personal Check or Cash Equivalent   4.30
            • (b)  “Labor-for-Rent” Arrangements  4.31
          • (2)  Date of Payment  4.32
          • (3)  Mode of Delivery  4.33
        • b.  Issues in Establishing Rent for Vacant Units  4.34
        • c.  User Fees  4.35
        • d.  Rent Increases  4.36
      • 5.  Federally Required Lead Disclosures and Abatement  4.37
      • 6.  Restrictions on or Requirements for Use of Premises  4.38
      • 7.  Waiver of Tenant’s Rights  4.39
      • 8.  Parties to Lease; Occupants; Guests  4.40
        • a.  Assignment and Subletting  4.40A
        • b.  Vacancy Decontrol and Roommates   4.40B
      • 9.  Options to Renew  4.41
      • 10.  Utility Charges and Ratio Utility Billing
        • a.  Jurisdiction  4.41A
        • b.  Water and Sewer Billing Methods  4.41B
        • c.  Gas and Electricity Charges  4.41C
        • d.  Other Charges  4.41D
        • e.  Miscellaneous Regulatory Issues  4.41E
      • 11.  Other Provisions
        • a.  Attorney Fees  4.42
        • b.  Landlord’s Right of Entry  4.43
        • c.  Late Fees  4.43A
        • d.  Renters’ Insurance  4.43B
        • e.  Address for Notices  4.43C
  • VI.  COPING WITH DRUG-RELATED AND FIREARM ACTIVITY ON THE PREMISES  4.44
    • A.  Nuisance Law  4.44A
    • B.  Medicinal Marijuana Law; State and Local Controls  4.44B
      • 1.  Effect on Tenant and Landlord Rights  4.44C
      • 2.  Effect on Land Use, Insurance, and Secured Lending  4.44D
      • 3.  Ethical Issues and Risks for Attorneys  4.44E
    • C.  Recreational Marijuana Law  4.44F
  • VII.  PROPERTY MANAGEMENT  4.45
    • A.  Resident Property Managers
      • 1.  Employee or Independent Contractor?  4.46
      • 2.  Compensation  4.47
      • 3.  Termination and Eviction  4.48
      • 4.  Landlord’s Liability for Acts of Manager  4.49
    • B.  Renting Illegal Units  4.49A
    • C.  Insurance Issues for Owners  4.49B
    • D.  Making Repairs; Code Compliance  4.50
    • E.  Regulating Tenant’s Use, Activities, and Special Alterations
      • 1.  Tenant’s Posting of Political Signs  4.50A
      • 2.  Smoking on the Premises  4.50B
      • 3.  Gardening or Personal Agriculture  4.50C
      • 4.  Installation of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations  4.50D
      • 5.  Installation of Clotheslines and Drying Racks  4.50E
      • 6.  Tenant Operating Bed-and-Breakfast or Transient Occupancy Business  4.50F
      • 7.  Tenant's Water Use; Submeter Billing, Monitoring, and Conservation Fixtures  4.50G
    • F.  Relocation Assistance Following Casualty  4.50H
    • G.  Security Deposit Issues on Termination of Tenancy  4.51
  • VIII.  PRESALE AND DEVELOPMENT ISSUES  4.52

5

Counseling the Tenant

Myron Moskovitz

Sonya Bekoff Molho

  • I.  COUNSELING INDIVIDUAL TENANTS
    • A.  Overall Strategy
      • 1.  Developing a Tenant Profile: The “Big Picture”  5.1
      • 2.  Devising a Strategy  5.2
        • a.  Litigation as an Option  5.3
        • b.  Settlement as an Option  5.4
      • 3.  Attorney and Tenant Resources  5.4A
    • B.  Limited Scope Representation
      • 1.  Applicable Law  5.4B
      • 2.  Checklist: Tenant Fee Agreement  5.4C
    • C.  Enforcing Tenant’s Rights During Tenancy
      • 1.  Defeating Rent Increase  5.5
        • a.  Retaliation Prohibited  5.6
        • b.  Discrimination Prohibited  5.7
        • c.  Improper Service of Notice of Rent Increase  5.8
        • d.  Effect of Breach of Warranty of Habitability on Increase  5.9
      • 2.  Remedies for Uninhabitable Conditions; Preserving Evidence  5.10
        • a.  Informing Building or Health Inspector of Conditions  5.11
        • b.  Contacting the Landlord  5.12
        • c.  “Repair-and-Deduct” Remedy  5.13
        • d.  Petitioning Rent Control Board for Rent Decrease  5.14
        • e.  Rent Withholding  5.15
        • f.  Action for Breach of Implied Warranty of Habitability  5.16
      • 3.  Redressing Illegal Landlord Entry
        • a.  Possible Legal Remedies  5.17
        • b.  Checklist: Permissible Reasons for Landlord’s Entry Under CC §1954  5.17A
        • c.  Self-help Remedy: Changing Locks  5.18
      • 4.  Protection Under Anti-SLAPP Statute
        • a.  Tenant’s Motion  5.18A
        • b.  Landlord’s Motion  5.18B
        • c.  Malicious Prosecution Actions  5.18C
        • d.  Strategies for Defending Anti-SLAPP Motions  5.18D
      • 5.  Affirmative Suit Against Landlord; Enjoining Eviction  5.18E
      • 6.  Posting or Displaying Political Signs  5.18F
      • 7.  Smoking on the Premises  5.18G
    • D.  “Breaking” a Lease  5.19
    • E.  Lockouts and Other “Self-Help” Evictions  5.20
      • 1.  Recovering Possession  5.21
      • 2.  Amount of Damages  5.22
      • 3.  Joining Claims  5.23
    • F.  Legal Eviction Procedure
      • 1.  Unlawful Detainer Action Required  5.24
        • a.  Required Notices  5.24A
        • b.  Summary Remedy  5.24B
        • c.  Unlawful Detainer Judgment  5.24C
        • d.  Tenant Damages on Reversal of Judgment  5.24D
      • 2.  Stipulated Judgments  5.25
      • 3.  Effect on Tenant’s Creditworthiness  5.25A
      • 4.  Landlord Actions in Propria Persona  5.26
      • 5.  Representing Occupant Not Named in Eviction Action  5.27
    • G.  Roommates  5.28
      • 1.  Landlord’s Consent  5.29
      • 2.  Nature of Relationship; Right to Evict  5.30
      • 3.  Effect of Local Rent Control Ordinance  5.31
      • 4.  Written Occupancy Agreement  5.32
  • II.  COUNSELING TENANT ORGANIZATIONS
    • A.  Attorney’s Role  5.33
    • B.  Right to Organize on Premises  5.33A
    • C.  Strategy and Tactics  5.34
      • 1.  Obtaining Information About Landlord  5.35
      • 2.  Petitioning the Landlord  5.36
      • 3.  Picketing and Publicity  5.37
      • 4.  Rent Strikes  5.38
      • 5.  Lawsuits Against Landlord  5.39
      • 6.  Negotiations  5.40
      • 7.  Agreement Negotiated Between Landlord and Tenant Union
        • a.  Parties; Effectiveness  5.41
        • b.  Form: Sample Collective Bargaining Agreement  5.42

6

Mobilehome Park Tenancies

Ronald S. Javor

Terry R. Dowdall

Robert S. Coldren

Linda J. Lester

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  6.1
  • II.  APPLICABILITY OF MOBILEHOME RESIDENCY LAW (MRL)  6.2
    • A.  Type of Structure  6.3
      • 1.  Mobilehomes  6.4
      • 2.  Recreational Vehicles  6.5
      • 3.  Factory-Built Housing  6.6
      • 4.  Commercial Modulars  6.7
      • 5.  Multifamily Manufactured Homes  6.8
    • B.  Location of Mobilehome  6.9
      • 1.  Installation in Park  6.10
      • 2.  Installation on Individual Lot  6.11
    • C.  Parties to Rental Agreement  6.12
  • III.  OTHER LAWS AFFECTING MOBILEHOMES
    • A.  State Legislation Specific to Mobilehomes  6.13
    • B.  Landlord-Tenant Statutes  6.14
    • C.  Antidiscrimination Statutes  6.15
    • D.  Local Ordinances Regulating Mobilehomes  6.16
    • E.  Public Rental Assistance Programs  6.17
  • IV.  DECISIONAL LAW GOVERNING MOBILEHOME PARK TENANCIES
    • A.  Implied Warranties  6.18
    • B.  Retaliatory Eviction Protections  6.19
    • C.  Adults-Only Restrictions  6.20
  • V.  CREATION OF TENANCY
    • A.  Types of Tenancies  6.21
    • B.  Resident and Mobilehome Admissions Criteria  6.22
    • C.  Lease or Rental Agreement  6.23
  • VI.  MOBILEHOME PARK RENTAL AGREEMENT FOR HOMEOWNER TENANTS
    • A.  Legal and Practical Considerations  6.24
      • 1.  Term of Agreement; Initial Disclosures
        • a.  Homeowner’s Options  6.25
        • b.  Reporting and Disclosure Requirements  6.26
        • c.  Limits on Renewal  6.27
        • d.  Nonprincipal Residences  6.28
      • 2.  Rent and Rent Increases  6.29
        • a.  Notice of Rent Increase  6.30
        • b.  Methods of Rent Increase in Long-Term Agreements
          • (1)  Objective Factors  6.31
          • (2)  Pass-Throughs  6.32
        • c.  Inclusion of Utilities or Taxes in Rent  6.33
        • d.  Statutory Limitations on Rent, Fees, and Charges  6.34
        • e.  Impact of Local Rent Control Regulations  6.35
        • f.  Local Limitations on Vacancy Decontrol  6.36
      • 3.  Fees, Service Charges, and Utilities  6.37
        • a.  Permissible Fees
          • (1)  Common Area Landscaping and Maintenance Fees  6.38
          • (2)  Fees Imposed by Governmental Entities  6.39
        • b.  Limitations on Fees
          • (1)  Supplying Lease  6.40
          • (2)  Pets  6.41
          • (3)  Occupancy  6.42
          • (4)  Installation, Development, and Initial Landscaping  6.43
          • (5)  Assessments and Awards Against Management  6.44
          • (6)  Enforcing Park Rules and Regulations  6.45
        • c.  Amortization of Fees  6.46
        • d.  Utilities Charges  6.47
      • 4.  Security Deposits  6.48
      • 5.  Park Rules
        • a.  Adoption and Amendment of Rules  6.49
        • b.  Limitation on Park Rules  6.50
      • 6.  Park Management Responsibilities  6.51
      • 7.  Fixtures and Alterations  6.52
      • 8.  Uses and Changes of Use, Zoning, or Master Lease
        • a.  Disclosures  6.53
        • b.  Change of Use
          • (1)  Definition  6.54
          • (2)  Implementation  6.55
          • (3)  Park Conversions  6.56
          • (4)  Failure to Follow Procedures  6.57
          • (5)  Antidiscrimination Laws  6.57A
        • c.  Sale of Park  6.58
      • 9.  Sale or Lease of Mobilehomes
        • a.  Management Rights and Duties  6.59
        • b.  Form: Information for Prospective Homeowners  6.60
        • c.  Limitations on Right to Withhold Approval  6.61
        • d.  Failure to Execute Rental Agreement  6.62
        • e.  Management’s Role in Sales or Listings  6.63
        • f.  Seller Disclosures  6.64
        • g.  Required Removal of Mobilehome After Sale  6.65
      • 10.  Cotenants, Sublessees, and Subsequent Tenants  6.66
        • a.  Cotenants  6.67
        • b.  Sublessees  6.68
    • B.  Statutory Remedies in Mobilehome Park Tenancies
      • 1.  Termination of Tenancy
        • a.  Scope of MRL  6.69
        • b.  Permissible Grounds  6.70
          • (1)  Failure to Comply With Laws  6.71
          • (2)  Conduct Constituting Substantial Annoyance  6.72
          • (3)  Conviction for Specified Crimes  6.73
          • (4)  Failure to Comply With Park Rules and Regulations  6.74
          • (5)  Nonpayment of Rent or Charges for Services or Utilities  6.75
          • (6)  Condemnation of Park  6.76
          • (7)  Change of Use of Park; Closure of Park  6.77
        • c.  Impermissible Grounds
          • (1)  Grounds Established by MRL  6.78
          • (2)  Retaliation  6.79
          • (3)  Expiration of Stated Term  6.80
          • (4)  Lapsed or Suspended Permit to Operate  6.81
        • d.  Notices of Termination  6.82
        • e.  Special Concerns When Secured Lenders or Heirs Are Involved  6.83
      • 2.  Eviction; Execution of Judgment; Lien Enforcement
        • a.  Procedures for Eviction  6.84
        • b.  Execution of Money Judgment Against Mobilehome  6.85
        • c.  Prohibition on Acquiring Lien or Security Interest in Mobilehome  6.86
        • d.  Warehouse Lien
          • (1)  Definition  6.87
          • (2)  Warehouse Lien Procedure  6.88
            • (a)  Termination Notice  6.89
            • (b)  Response Options to Termination Notice  6.90
          • (3)  Foreclosing a Warehouse Lien  6.91
        • e.  Judicial Declaration of Abandonment (CC §798.61)  6.92
      • 3.  Additional Remedies
        • a.  By Tenants
          • (1)  Public Nuisance  6.93
          • (2)  Management’s Willful Violations and Illegal Business Practices  6.94
          • (3)  Other Remedies  6.95
        • b.  By Management  6.96
        • c.  Attorney Fees and Penalties  6.97
        • d.  Arbitration of Disputes  6.98
    • C.  Form Disclosures Regarding Rent Control for Mobilehome Park Homeowner Tenants
      • 1.  Form: Rent Control Exemption Notice  6.99
      • 2.  Form: Notice of Option to Void Rental Agreement  6.100
    • D.  Form Clauses for Mobilehome Park Rental Agreement: Homeowner Tenants
      • 1.  Initial Information
        • a.  Form: Park Name/Address and Space Number/Address  6.101
        • b.  Form: Identity of Homeowner and Residents  6.102
        • c.  Form: Identity of Park Owner and Management  6.103
        • d.  Term
          • (1)  Form: Beginning of Term  6.104
          • (2)  Form: Length of Term  6.105
        • e.  Form: Amount of Rent  6.106
        • f.  Form: Services  6.107
        • g.  Form: Facilities  6.108
        • h.  Form: Chart Showing Fees for Utilities and Services  6.109
        • i.  Deposit
          • (1)  Form: Amount  6.110
          • (2)  Form: Payment of Deposit Amounts  6.111
        • j.  Form: Zoning and Land Use Disclosures  6.112
        • k.  Form: Mobilehome Ownership Information  6.113
        • l.  Form: Other Information  6.114
      • 2.  Form: Agreement to Lease  6.115
      • 3.  Form: Term of Agreement  6.116
      • 4.  Rent and Rent Increases
        • a.  Form: Indexed Rent Increases (Long-Term Rental Agreement Only)  6.117
        • b.  Form: Due Date of Rent Payments; Notice of Increase  6.118
        • c.  Form: Tender of Rent  6.119
        • d.  Form: Charges for Late Payment of Rent  6.120
      • 5.  Form: Fees, Service Charges, and Utilities  6.121
      • 6.  Form: Security and Default Deposits  6.122
      • 7.  Form: State Law and Park Rules; Procedure for Amending Park Rules  6.123
      • 8.  Form: Park Management Responsibilities for Physical Facilities, Services, Utilities, and Compliance With Law  6.124
      • 9.  Form: Fixtures: Ownership, Maintenance, and Liability  6.125
      • 10.  Form: Right of Entry  6.126
      • 11.  Form: Changes in Zoning, Use Permits, or Master Lease  6.127
      • 12.  Form: Sale or Subletting of Mobilehome  6.128
      • 13.  Form: General Prohibitions (Residential Use, Guests, Abandonment, Subletting, and Assignments or Encumbrances)  6.129
      • 14.  Form: Termination and Eviction  6.130
      • 15.  Form: Waivers  6.131
      • 16.  Form: Notices  6.132
      • 17.  Form: Consultation With Homeowner  6.133
      • 18.  Form: Liability Indemnification  6.134
      • 19.  Form: Management’s Right to Make Payments  6.135
      • 20.  Form: Ownership of Mobilehome  6.136
      • 21.  Form: Multiple Mobilehome Ownership  6.137
      • 22.  Form: Enforcement of Agreement  6.138
      • 23.  Form: Attorney Fees  6.139
      • 24.  Miscellaneous Provisions
        • a.  Form: Time of the Essence  6.140
        • b.  Form: Interpretation and Severability  6.141
        • c.  Form: Entirety of Agreement  6.142
        • d.  Form: Alterations or Amendments  6.143
      • 25.  Acknowledgments
        • a.  Form: Acknowledgment Is Voluntary; Caveat  6.144
        • b.  Form: Inspection Made to Corroborate Management’s Representation of Space and Facilities  6.145
        • c.  Form: Receipt and Understanding of Mobilehome Residency Law  6.146
        • d.  Form: Charges for Month-to-Month Agreement  6.147
        • e.  Charges for Term Agreement  6.148
        • f.  Form: Acceptance of Commercial Goods or Services Not Required  6.149
        • g.  Form: Consent to Entry  6.150
        • h.  Form: Attachments  6.151
      • 26.  Form: Notice of Rights and Responsibilities  6.152
      • 27.  Form: Execution  6.153
      • 28.   Form: Flood Hazard Disclosure  6.153A
  • VII.  RULES AND REGULATIONS
    • A.  Importance  6.154
    • B.  Checklist: Common Provisions  6.155
  • VIII.  MANAGEMENT-TENANT RELATIONS
    • A.  Tenant Organizations  6.156
    • B.  Management Organizations  6.157

7

Practicing Under Rent and Eviction Control Laws

Scott A. Freedman

Nancy C. Lenvin

Sonya Bekoff Molho

Myron Moskovitz

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Overview  7.1
    • B.  Resources  7.2
  • II.  BASIC CONCEPTS  7.3
    • A.  Vacancy Control or Decontrol  7.4
    • B.  Base Rent  7.5
    • C.  Retroactive Application of Enactments  7.6
  • III.  HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND LEGAL CHALLENGES
    • A.  Wartime Rent Controls and the “Emergency Requirement”  7.7
    • B.  Rise of Peacetime Controls  7.8
    • C.  Facial Challenges  7.9
      • 1.  Constitutional Challenges  7.10
      • 2.  Mobilehome Park Rent Control Ordinances  7.11
      • 3.  Other Bases for Facial Challenges  7.12
    • D.  Fair Return Issues  7.13
    • E.  “As Applied” Due Process Challenges  7.14
    • F.  Damage Actions Under 42 USC §1983  7.14A
    • G.  Kavanau and Galland Decisions Applied  7.14B
    • H.  Actions Regarding Rent Controls  7.14C
  • IV.  EXEMPTIONS  7.15
    • A.  Single-Family Homes, Condominiums, and Small Buildings  7.16
    • B.  Owner-Occupied Dwellings  7.17
    • C.  New Construction  7.18
    • D.  Federally Assisted Housing  7.19
    • E.  Care Facilities  7.20
    • F.  Hotels  7.21
    • G.  Luxury Units  7.22
    • H.  Substantially Rehabilitated Units  7.23
    • I.  Tenants Who Do Not Make the Unit Tenant’s Principal Residence  7.23A
    • J.  Other Exemptions  7.24
  • V.  VACANCY DECONTROL: COSTA-HAWKINS RENTAL HOUSING ACT
    • A.  Preemption of Local Vacancy Controls  7.25
    • B.  Phasing Out Existing Local Vacancy Controls  7.25A
    • C.  Preemption of Local Laws Affecting Collateral Rights Under Costa-Hawkins  7.25B
    • D.  Subletting and Assignment: When Does a Vacancy Occur?  7.26
      • 1.  Former Law on Subletting  7.27
      • 2.  Subletting After the Costa-Hawkins Act  7.28
      • 3.  Eviction Issues After Costa-Hawkins  7.28A
  • VI.  RENT INCREASE MECHANISMS
    • A.  Base Rents
      • 1.  Determining Base Rent  7.29
      • 2.  Changing Base Rent  7.30
      • 3.  Base Rents for Newly Covered Rental Units  7.31
      • 4.  Evidentiary Problems in Establishing Base Rents  7.32
    • B.  Annual Base Rent Adjustments  7.33
    • C.  Individual Adjustments
      • 1.  Increases in Operating and Maintenance Expenses  7.34
      • 2.  Utility and Capital-Improvement Pass-Throughs  7.35
      • 3.  Cost of Professional Services to Prove Need for Rent Increase  7.36
      • 4.  Limits on Individual Increases  7.37
      • 5.  “Fair Return” Adjustments  7.38
      • 6.  Tenant Does Not Occupy Unit As Principal Residence  7.38A
  • VII.  TENANT PETITIONS FOR RENT DECREASES OR REFUNDS
    • A.  Reductions in Services  7.39
    • B.  Inadequate Maintenance  7.40
    • C.  Refund of Rent Overpayments  7.40A
  • VIII.  PRACTICING BEFORE RENT CONTROL BOARDS
    • A.  Introduction  7.41
    • B.  Powers of Rent Boards
      • 1.  Rule Making  7.42
      • 2.  Adjudicating Petitions  7.43
      • 3.  Registration of Rental Units  7.44
      • 4.  Registration of Rents  7.45
    • C.  Representing Clients at Administrative Hearings  7.46
      • 1.  Evidence  7.47
      • 2.  Preservation of Record  7.48
      • 3.  Costs of Preparing for and Attending a Hearing  7.49
      • 4.  Findings and Conclusions Required  7.50
    • D.  Judicial Review: Administrative Mandamus  7.51
    • E.  Arbitration  7.52
  • IX.  RESTRICTIONS ON EVICTIONS
    • A.  Overview  7.53
    • B.  Just Cause for Eviction or Termination of Housing Services  7.54
      • 1.  “Good Faith” Requirements  7.55
      • 2.  Protection for Subtenants  7.55A
    • C.  Permissible Grounds for Just Cause Evictions
      • 1.  Tenant’s Breach
        • a.  Failure to Pay Rent  7.56
        • b.  Failure to Cure Violation of Rental Agreement  7.57
        • c.  Conduct Constituting a Nuisance  7.58
        • d.  Use of Premises for Illegal Purpose  7.59
        • e.  Refusal to Permit Access to Landlord  7.60
        • f.  Refusal to Execute New Lease  7.61
        • g.  Improper Subletting; Transient Occupancy  7.62
      • 2.  Renovation or Rehabilitation  7.63
      • 3.  Demolition or Conversion Under Ellis Act; Relocation Assistance  7.64
        • a.  Constitutionality of Ellis Act Upheld  7.64A
        • b.  Basic Provisions of Ellis Act
          • (1)  Allows Withdrawal of Housing Accommodations From Market  7.64B
          • (2)  Authorizes Local Restrictions and Notices to Tenants on Subsequent Rental  7.64C
          • (3)  Requires Reasonable Review of Permit Applications and Fair Return on Demolished and Reconstructed Units  7.64D
          • (4)  Does Not Prohibit Multiple Owner Occupancy Use  7.64E
          • (5)  Notice and Reporting Requirements  7.64F
        • c.  Eviction Actions Under Ellis Act  7.64G
        • d.  Local Requirements and Restrictions on Evictions  7.64H
      • 4.  Occupancy by Owner or Owner’s Relative
        • a.  Typical Ordinance Provisions  7.65
        • b.  Statutory Provisions; CC §1947.10  7.66
        • c.  “Good Faith” Intent to Occupy  7.67
        • d.  Counseling Potential Buyers Who Plan to Occupy Rented Premises  7.68
    • D.  Grounds Not Set Forth in Ordinance
      • 1.  Tenant Eviction Not Allowed After Foreclosure  7.69
      • 2.  Termination of Manager  7.70
      • 3.  Tenant Gives Notice of Termination or Agrees to Vacate But Fails to Vacate  7.71
      • 4.  Death of Tenant  7.72
    • E.  Notice and Pleading Requirements
      • 1.  Eviction Notices  7.73
      • 2.  Must Compliance With Ordinance Be Alleged in Complaint?  7.74
    • F.  Burdens of Proof and Presumptions  7.75
    • G.  Defenses to Evictions Provided by Local Ordinance  7.76
    • H.  Required Payments to Tenants on Eviction  7.76A
  • X.  CIVIL DAMAGES AND OFFSETS FOR ORDINANCE VIOLATIONS
    • A.  Damages for Rent Overcharges  7.77
    • B.  Damages for Unlawful Evictions  7.78
      • 1.  Litigation Privilege Defense  7.78A
      • 2.  Motion to Strike; CCP §425.16  7.78B
      • 3.  Successful Tenant Actions  7.78C
      • 4.  Calculating Damages  7.78D
    • C.  Attorney Fees  7.79
    • D.  Liability of New Owner  7.80

8

Terminating the Tenancy

Scott A. Freedman

Myron Moskovitz

  • I.  METHODS OF TERMINATING TENANCY  8.1
    • A.  Expiration of Term  8.2
    • B.  By Actions of Landlord or Tenant  8.3
    • C.  Death of Landlord or Tenant  8.4
    • D.  Destruction of Premises; Governmental Regulation  8.5
    • E.  Eminent Domain  8.6
    • F.  Sale of Premises  8.7
    • G.  Squatting  8.7A
  • II.  TERMINATION BY TENANT
    • A.  Abandonment
      • 1.  Definition  8.8
      • 2.  Establishing Abandonment
        • a.  Under CC §§1951.2–1951.3  8.9
          • (1)  Form: Notice of Belief of Abandonment Pursuant to CC §1951.3(d)  8.10
          • (2)  Service of Notice  8.11
          • (3)  Countering Notice of Abandonment  8.12
        • b.  At Common Law  8.13
      • 3.  Remedies
        • a.  Termination of Lease (CC §1951.2)  8.14
        • b.  Continuation of Lease (CC §1951.4)  8.15
        • c.  Liquidated Damages; Equitable Relief; Nonexclusivity of Remedies  8.16
    • B.  Surrender
      • 1.  Historical Significance  8.17
      • 2.  Implied Surrender  8.18
    • C.  Landlord’s Breach of Lease Covenant  8.19
    • D.  Tenant’s Termination of Periodic Tenancy (CC §§1946, 1946.1)  8.20
    • E.  Death of Tenant  8.21
    • F.  Relief for Servicemembers  8.22
    • G.  Victim of Domestic Violence  8.23
  • III.  TERMINATION BY LANDLORD: NOTICE ISSUES
    • A.  Termination for No Stated Reason, for Tenant’s Breach, or Because Landlord Is Going Out of Business
      • 1.  Periodic Tenancies  8.24
      • 2.  Pending Sale of Residential Unit  8.25
      • 3.  Tenant Breaches  8.26
      • 4.  Domestic Violence and Other Abuses  8.27
      • 5.  Ellis Act Evictions  8.28
    • B.  Common Pitfalls  8.29
    • C.  Strict Compliance With Notice Provisions Required for Unlawful Detainer  8.30
    • D.  Remedies When No Notice Given: Ejectment; Quiet Title  8.31
  • IV.  TERMINATION FOR TENANT’S BREACH: 3-DAY NOTICE
    • A.  Notice Required Before Filing Unlawful Detainer Action  8.32
    • B.  Effect of Debt Collection Practices Act  8.33
    • C.  Effect of Lease Provision Altering Notice Requirements  8.34
    • D.  Computation of Notice Period
      • 1.  Computation Rules (CCP §1161)  8.35
      • 2.  Computation When Notice Served by Mail  8.36
    • E.  Form and Content of Notice
      • 1.  In Writing; Signature Not Required  8.37
      • 2.  Description of Premises  8.38
      • 3.  Description of Breach; Demand for Cure  8.39
      • 4.  Unequivocal Demand for Possession  8.40
      • 5.  Tenant Has 3 Days to Pay Rent or Perform Covenant  8.41
      • 6.  Election of Forfeiture  8.42
      • 7.  Content Required by Eviction Control Ordinances  8.43
    • F.  Bases for Termination With 3 Days’ Notice
      • 1.  Failure to Pay Rent: Purpose and Effect of Notice  8.44
        • a.  Demand for Rent
          • (1)  Stated “In the Alternative”  8.45
          • (2)  Amount Due: Residential Leases  8.46
          • (3)  Amount Due: Commercial Leases  8.47
          • (4)  To Whom and Where Rent Must Be Paid  8.48
          • (5)  Compliance With CC §1962  8.49
          • (6)  Limitation to Rent Due Within Year Preceding Notice  8.50
        • b.  Demand for Interest and Late Charges
          • (1)  Interest and Late Charges May Be Includable in Notice  8.51
          • (2)  Avoiding Excessive Late Charges  8.52
        • c.  Form: 3-Day Notice to Pay Rent or Quit  8.53
        • d.  Timing Service of Notice  8.54
        • e.  Effect of Tender of Rent
          • (1)  Before Service of Notice  8.55
          • (2)  During Notice Period  8.56
          • (3)  After Expiration of Notice Period  8.57
      • 2.  Tenant’s Breach of Lease Covenant
        • a.  Statutory Provision  8.58
        • b.  Breaches Covered
          • (1)  Breach of Express Covenant Only  8.59
          • (2)  Minor Breach Not Sufficient  8.60
        • c.  Waiver and Estoppel  8.61
        • d.  Form of Notice
          • (1)  Alternative of Performing or Vacating  8.62
          • (2)  Stating the Breach  8.63
        • e.  Effect of Tenant’s Performance  8.64
        • f.  Form: 3-Day Notice to Perform Covenant of Lease or Quit (Curable Breach)  8.65
        • g.  Form: 3-Day Notice to Quit for Breach of Covenant (Noncurable Breach)  8.66
      • 3.  Breaches or Acts That Constitute Unlawful Detainer Under CCP §1161(4)  8.67
        • a.  Breach of Covenant Against Subletting, Assignment, or Waste
          • (1)  Covenant Must Be Express; Notice Considerations  8.68
          • (2)  Tenant Operating Bed-and-Breakfast or Transient Occupancy Business  8.68A
          • (3)  Evidence Required to Establish Waste  8.69
        • b.  Nuisance  8.70
        • c.  Unlawful Purpose  8.71
      • 4.  Termination of Possession After Sale or Foreclosure  8.72
    • G.  Service of Notice
      • 1.  Statutory Requirements  8.73
        • a.  Service by Mail Alone  8.74
        • b.  “Substituted” Service  8.75
        • c.  “Conspicuous” Service  8.76
      • 2.  Actual Receipt of Improperly Served Notice  8.77
      • 3.  Service on Cotenants or Subtenants  8.78
      • 4.  Service on Rent Board  8.79
      • 5.  Withdrawal of Notice  8.80
  • V.  TERMINATION AFTER SALE OR FORECLOSURE (CCP §§1161a, 1161b)
    • A.  Property Owners and Commercial Tenants (3-Day Notice)  8.81
    • B.  Residential Tenants
      • 1.  Foreclosure Sale
        • a.  Notice of Foreclosure Before Sale  8.82
        • b.  Notice of Termination of Tenancy (90-Day Notice); Additional Rights For Fixed-Term Leases; Cover Sheet Requirements  8.83
        • c.  Occupant or Tenant Claims of Right to Possession  8.83A
      • 2.  Voluntary Sale  8.84
    • C.  Lease Priority Issues After Foreclosure  8.85
    • D.  Protecting Tenants at Foreclosure Act of 2009: Effect on Evictions After Foreclosure  8.86
    • E.  Form: Notice to Renters (Following Foreclosure Against Owner’s Interest)  8.87
  • VI.  TERMINATION OF MONTH-TO-MONTH TENANCY: 30-DAY OR 60-DAY NOTICE
    • A.  Statutory Requirements  8.88
    • B.  Alteration of Notice Period; Commercial Tenancies  8.89
    • C.  Format and Contents of Notice
      • 1.  Description of Premises; Signature  8.90
      • 2.  Residential Tenancy Notice Requirements  8.91
      • 3.  Grounds for Termination  8.92
      • 4.  30 or 60 Days to Vacate; Service in Middle of Term  8.93
    • D.  Serving 30-Day or 60-Day Notice
      • 1.  Method of Service  8.94
      • 2.  Withdrawal of Notice  8.95
      • 3.  Service on Subtenants  8.96
      • 4.  When Tenant Must Vacate  8.97
    • E.  Notice Period Must Expire Before Filing of Complaint  8.98
    • F.  Terminating a Tenancy at Will  8.99
    • G.  Form: 30-Day, 60-Day, or 90-Day Termination Notice  8.100
    • H.  Notice to Renters Following Foreclosure  8.101
  • VII.  UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTIONS THAT REQUIRE NO NOTICE
    • A.  Tenant Gives Notice, But Remains After Notice Expires  8.102
    • B.  Expiration of Fixed-Term Lease  8.103
    • C.  Hotel and Motel Guests  8.104
    • D.  Employees  8.105
  • VIII.  TERMINATION BY LANDLORD UNDER GOVERNMENT-SPONSORED PROGRAM
    • A.  Eviction Procedures Mandated by Federal Law  8.106
    • B.  Attorney Resources  8.107
  • IX.  LIMITATIONS ON LANDLORD’S ABILITY TO TERMINATE TENANCY
    • A.  Retaliatory Eviction  8.108
      • 1.  Several Sources of Law May Apply  8.109
        • a.  Retaliation Statute (CC §1942.5)
          • (1)  Tenant Exercising Statutory or Habitability Rights (CC §1942.5(a))
            • (a)  Protected Acts  8.110
            • (b)  Limitations on Protection (CC §1942.5(a)–(b))  8.111
          • (2)  Immigration Status Protection (CC §1942.5(c), (e))  8.111A
          • (3)  Tenant Union Activity or “Rights Under Law” (CC §1942.5(d))  8.112
          • (4)  Tenant Cannot Waive Rights (CC §1942.5(f))  8.113
          • (5)  Notice and Burden of Proof (CC §1942.5(g))  8.114
          • (6)  Remedies (CC §1942.5(h)–(i))  8.115
          • (7)  Remedies Not Exclusive (CC §1942.5(j))  8.116
        • b.  Unruh Civil Rights Act (CC §51)
          • (1)  Arbitrary Conduct Prohibited by Act’s Discrimination Protections  8.117
          • (2)  “Arbitrary” Defined  8.118
          • (3)  Burden of Proof  8.119
          • (4)  Remedies  8.120
        • c.  California Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA)  8.121
        • d.  Federal Statutes  8.122
        • e.  Other Statutes  8.123
        • f.  Common Law  8.124
        • g.  Local Ordinances  8.125
        • h.  Constitutional Protections  8.126
        • i.  Applicability of Law to Retaliatory Eviction in Commercial Tenancies  8.127
      • 2.  Proof of Retaliatory Motive
        • a.  Sole or Dominant Motive  8.128
        • b.  Presumptions and Burden of Proof  8.129
        • c.  Evidence
          • (1)  Typically Circumstantial and Inferential  8.130
          • (2)  Analogy to Labor Law Cases  8.131
      • 3.  Remedies for Retaliation
        • a.  Defense to Unlawful Detainer Action  8.132
        • b.  Injunctive and Declaratory Relief  8.133
        • c.  Action for Damages  8.134
      • 4.  Beyond Retaliatory Eviction: Good Cause to Evict  8.135
    • B.  Local Rent and Eviction Controls  8.136
    • C.  “Self-Help” and Harassment Evictions; Tenant Remedies  8.137
      • 1.  Forcible Entry and Detainer  8.138
        • a.  Elements of Cause of Action
          • (1)  Forcible Entry
            • (a)  Tenant’s Possession Prerequisite  8.139
            • (b)  Statutory Definitions and Judicial Applications  8.140
          • (2)  Forcible Detainer  8.141
        • b.  Kinds of Occupants Protected  8.142
        • c.  Affirmative Defenses  8.143
        • d.  Remedies  8.144
        • e.  Procedure  8.145
        • f.  Form: Complaint for Forcible Entry and Forcible Detainer  8.146
      • 2.  Denial of Tenant’s Use of, or Access to, Premises
        • a.  Utility Cutoffs  8.147
        • b.  Access to Premises; Removal of Personal Property  8.148
        • c.  Remedies Under CC §789.3  8.149
        • d.  Remedies Under Public Utilities Code and CC §1942.2  8.150
        • e.  Restraining Order Against Tenant  8.151
      • 3.  Suit for Tort of “Wrongful Eviction”  8.152
      • 4.  Harassment of Tenant by Landlord
        • a.  Harassment Under CC §1940.2  8.153
        • b.  Enhanced Remedies for Harassment Under CC §1940.35  8.153A
      • 5.  Other Injuries to Premises; Common Law Remedies  8.154
      • 6.  Criminal Prosecution  8.155
      • 7.  Strategies on “Self-Help” Eviction Remedies  8.156
    • D.  Affirmative Suits Against Landlord
      • 1.  Tenant’s Suit to Enjoin Eviction  8.157
      • 2.  Tenant’s Suit for Damages for Wrongful Eviction  8.157A
  • X.  EFFECTS OF TERMINATION
    • A.  Tenant’s Personal Property
      • 1.  Statutory Requirements After Unlawful Detainer, Abandonment, or Vacation by Tenant  8.158
        • a.  Landlord Must Store Tenant’s Property  8.159
        • b.  Notice to Tenant Required  8.160
        • c.  Return of Property on Payment of Storage Costs  8.161
        • d.  Disposition of Unclaimed Property  8.162
        • e.  Form: Notice to Tenant of Right to Reclaim Abandoned Property (CC §1984)  8.163
        • f.  Form: Notice to Owner Other Than Tenant of Right to Reclaim Abandoned Property (CC §1985)  8.164
      • 2.  Enforcement of Landlord’s Lien (CC §§1861–1861a)  8.165
    • B.  Disposition of Fixtures  8.166
      • 1.  Rule: Fixtures Are Part of Real Property (CC §1013)  8.167
      • 2.  Tenant’s Limited Right to Remove Fixtures (CC §1013.5)  8.168
      • 3.  Tenant’s Right to Remove Trade Fixtures (CC §1019)  8.169
      • 4.  Disposition of Encumbered Fixtures  8.170
    • C.  Disposition of Tenant’s Security Deposit
      • 1.  Statutory Framework
        • a.  Summary of Security Deposit Law  8.171
        • b.  What Payments Are Covered?  8.172
        • c.  Statutory Ceiling  8.173
        • d.  Landlord’s Duty to Maintain Deposit; Interest on Deposit  8.174
        • e.  Priority of Tenant’s Claim  8.175
        • f.  Termination of Landlord’s Interest in Unit  8.176
      • 2.  After Termination of Tenancy
        • a.  Tenant’s Right to Request Inspection of Premises and to Cure Deficiencies  8.177
        • b.  Form: Notice of Right to Request Inspection of Premises and to Reclaim Abandoned Property  8.178
        • c.  Landlord’s Duty to Give Itemized Statement and Return Deposit  8.179
          • (1)  Items to Which Deposit May Be Applied  8.180
          • (2)  When Landlord Must Deliver Itemized Statement and Deposit Refund  8.181
          • (3)  Contents of Itemized Statement  8.182
          • (4)  When Repairs Cannot Be Finished Within Required Time  8.183
          • (5)  Exceptions to Required Documentation  8.184
          • (6)  Form: Waiver of Right to Receive Documents With Security Deposit Refund  8.185
          • (7)  Form: Security Deposit Disposition Agreement (California Apartment Association Form 18.3)  8.186
        • d.  Remedies for Landlord’s Improper Retention of Deposit  8.187
        • e.  “Nonrefundable” Deposits and Waivers in Leases Prohibited  8.188
        • f.  Effect on Unlawful Detainer Action  8.189
        • g.  Effect on Subsequent Action Against Tenant  8.190

9

Unlawful Detainer: Preparing and Filing the Action

Andrew J. Wiegel

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  9.1
    • B.  Statutory Authority  9.2
    • C.  Applicability of Unlawful Detainer Remedy
      • 1.  Grounds In General  9.3
      • 2.  Termination of Landlord-Tenant Relationship  9.4
  • II.  NATURE OF UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTIONS
    • A.  Suit for Possession  9.5
    • B.  Summary Remedy  9.6
      • 1.  Expedited Procedures; Trial Priority  9.7
      • 2.  Issues Limited  9.8
      • 3.  Application of Other Procedures  9.9
    • C.  Compare: Other Actions for Possession  9.10
      • 1.  Common Law Ejectment  9.11
      • 2.  Quiet Title  9.12
    • D.  Effect of Local Rent and Eviction Control
      • 1.  Legal Background  9.13
      • 2.  Recurring Issues in Evictions
        • a.  Retroactivity of Ordinance  9.14
        • b.  Estoppel Effect of Administrative Decision  9.15
        • c.  Pleading and Proving Just Cause to Evict  9.16
          • (1)  Pleading in Complaint and Answer  9.16A
          • (2)  Burden of Producing Evidence  9.16B
          • (3)  Burden of Proof  9.16C
        • d.  Pleading and Proving Compliance With Local Ordinance  9.16D
  • III.  SETTLEMENT AND STIPULATIONS
    • A.  Counseling and Negotiation  9.17
    • B.  CCP §998 Offers to Settle  9.17A
    • C.  Participation by Parties Is Essential  9.18
    • D.  Settlement Terms and Conditions
      • 1.  Judgment Versus Dismissal  9.18A
      • 2.  Disadvantages of Stipulated Judgment  9.18B
      • 3.  Stipulated Judgment Procedure  9.18C
      • 4.  Duty to Inform Court of Stay or Settlement  9.18D
    • E.  Form: Stipulation for Entry of Judgment or Dismissal (Attorney-Drafted)  9.19
    • F.  Form: Stipulation for Entry of Judgment (Unlawful Detainer) (Judicial Council Form UD-115)  9.19A
  • IV.  REPRESENTING LANDLORDS IN EVICTIONS
    • A.  Ethical Considerations for Attorney
      • 1.  Rules of Professional Conduct  9.20
      • 2.  Communicating With Tenant  9.21
    • B.  Initial Meeting With Landlord  9.22
      • 1.  Actions In Propria Persona  9.23
      • 2.  Fee Agreement and Limited Scope Representation  9.23A
      • 3.  Wrongful Eviction  9.24
      • 4.  Information Necessary to Pursue Eviction  9.25
        • a.  Defendants Other Than Known Tenant  9.26
        • b.  Form: Sample Eviction Questionnaire  9.27
    • C.  Role of Insurance
      • 1.  Wrongful Eviction Coverage  9.28
      • 2.  Tenant Claim for Punitive Damages  9.29
  • V.  PREPARING THE COMPLAINT
    • A.  Form of Pleading Optional  9.30
    • B.  Form: Complaint—Unlawful Detainer (Judicial Council Form UD-100)  9.31
    • C.  Selecting the Court
      • 1.  Subject Matter Jurisdiction; Limited Versus Unlimited Civil Case  9.32
      • 2.  Venue and Trial Court Location  9.33
    • D.  Proper Parties
      • 1.  Plaintiffs  9.34
      • 2.  Defendants
        • a.  Tenant and Subtenant  9.35
        • b.  Occupant Unnamed in Complaint  9.35A
        • c.  Lender Holding Security Interest in Lease  9.35B
    • E.  Relationship of Parties  9.36
    • F.  Summary of Essential Allegations  9.37
    • G.  Monetary Relief
      • 1.  Eviction Based on Rent Default  9.38
      • 2.  Eviction Based on Other Grounds  9.39
      • 3.  Malicious Holdover, Fraud, Force, or Violence  9.40
    • H.  Relief Other Than Possession and Damages  9.41
    • I.  Verification  9.42
    • J.  Amendments  9.43
  • VI.  FILING AND SERVING THE ACTION
    • A.  When to File Unlawful Detainer Complaint  9.44
    • B.  Service of Summons and Complaint
      • 1.  Legal Requirements  9.45
      • 2.  Form: Summons (Unlawful Detainer) (Judicial Council Form SUM-130)  9.46
      • 3.  Methods of Service
        • a.  Personal Delivery (CCP §415.10)  9.47
        • b.  Substituted Service (CCP §415.20(b)–(c))  9.48
        • c.  Posting and Mailing (CCP §415.45)  9.49
        • d.  Certified Mail After Response to Notice of Abandonment  9.50
      • 4.  Occupants Not Named in Complaint: Prejudgment Claim of Right to Possession  9.51
        • a.  Investigating for Occupants Unnamed in Complaint  9.52
        • b.  Serving Unnamed Occupants  9.53
        • c.  Filing Prejudgment Claim: 10-Day Limit  9.54
      • 5.  Form: Prejudgment Claim of Right to Possession (Judicial Council Form CP10.5)  9.55
      • 6.  Filing Proof of Service  9.55A
    • C.  Writ of Immediate Possession  9.56

10

Unlawful Detainer: Responsive Pleadings

Sonya Bekoff Molho

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Shortened (5-Day) Response Time  10.1
    • B.  Local Rules Preempted  10.2
    • C.  Relief for Underpayment of Filing Fee  10.3
  • II.  ATTORNEY ETHICS
    • A.  Delaying Tactics; Bankruptcy  10.4
    • B.  Group Representation  10.5
    • C.  Fee Agreement and Limited Scope Representation  10.6
    • D.  Paying Rent for the Tenant  10.7
  • III.  COURT FEES; IN FORMA PAUPERIS PROCEDURES  10.8
  • IV.  MOTION TO QUASH
    • A.  Statutory Basis and Tactical Considerations  10.9
    • B.  Grounds
      • 1.  Defective Service of Summons  10.10
      • 2.  Defective Complaint
        • a.  No Cause of Action Stated in Unlawful Detainer
          • (1)  Judicial Reasoning  10.11
          • (2)  Reconciling Delta Imports and Borsuk   10.11A
          • (3)  Compare: Demurrer  10.12
        • b.  Unauthorized Relief Sought in Unlawful Detainer
          • (1)  Judicial Reasoning  10.13
          • (2)  Compare: Motion to Strike  10.14
    • C.  Procedure
      • 1.  Shortened Hearing Notice  10.15
      • 2.  Supporting Documents  10.16
      • 3.  Order After Hearing  10.17
      • 4.  Review by Writ of Mandate  10.18
    • D.  Form: Notice of Motion to Quash Service of Summons; Supporting Memorandum and Declaration  10.19
  • V.  DEMURRER
    • A.  Legal Basis and Grounds  10.20
    • B.  Practical Considerations and Tactics  10.21
    • C.  Checklist: Demurrable Defects in Complaint  10.22
    • D.  Procedure
      • 1.  Scheduling the Hearing  10.23
      • 2.  Supporting Documents  10.24
      • 3.  Order After Hearing
        • a.  Demurrer Overruled  10.25
        • b.  Demurrer Sustained  10.26
    • E.  Form: Demurrer to Complaint; Memorandum Supporting Demurrer (Defective 3-Day Notice Case)  10.27
    • F.  Frivolous Demurrers  10.28
  • VI.  MOTION TO STRIKE
    • A.  Legal Basis and Tactical Considerations
      • 1.  Under CCP §§435–437 (Irrelevant, False, or Improper Matter)  10.29
      • 2.  Under CCP §425.16 (Anti-SLAPP Motion)  10.30
    • B.  Grounds  10.31
      • 1.  Improper Request for Damages  10.32
      • 2.  Improper Request for Back Rent  10.33
      • 3.  Lack of Allegations for Statutory Damages  10.34
      • 4.  No Attorney Fees in Rental Agreement  10.35
      • 5.  Irrelevant, False, or Improper Matter  10.36
      • 6.  Unverified Complaint  10.37
    • C.  Procedure  10.38
    • D.  Form: Notice of Motion to Strike; Memorandum Supporting Motion to Strike Allegations of Improper Damages  10.39
  • VII.  EXTENSION OF TIME TO PLEAD
    • A.  Legal Basis  10.40
    • B.  Form: Application for Order Extending Time to Respond; Order  10.41
  • VIII.  ANSWER TO COMPLAINT
    • A.  Legal Basis  10.42
    • B.  Form: Answer—Unlawful Detainer (Judicial Council Form UD-105)  10.43
    • C.  Denials  10.44
    • D.  Principal and Affirmative Defenses  10.45
      • 1.  Title Dispute, Improper Foreclosure, or Improper Notice Following Foreclosure  10.46
      • 2.  Landlord Fraud  10.47
      • 3.  Breach of Covenant of Quiet Enjoyment  10.48
      • 4.  Setoff for Preexisting Debt  10.49
      • 5.  Equitable Defenses  10.50
      • 6.  Violation of Rent Control Ordinance  10.51
      • 7.  Waiver or Estoppel  10.52
      • 8.  Breach of Express Promise to Repair  10.53
      • 9.  Lack of Certificate of Occupancy  10.54
      • 10.  Rental Agreement Not Translated Into Required Language  10.55
      • 11.  Breach of Implied Warranty of Habitability  10.56
      • 12.  Retaliatory Eviction  10.57
      • 13.  Lack of Good Cause to Evict From Government Housing  10.58
      • 14.  Discriminatory Eviction
        • a.  Unruh Civil Rights Act  10.59
        • b.  Other Fair Housing Acts and Protections  10.60
        • c.  Dispensing or Using Medical Marijuana  10.60A
        • d.  Immigration or Citizenship Status   10.60B
      • 15.  Notice Served More Than 1 Year After Rent Due  10.61
      • 16.  Fair Debt Collection Practices Act  10.62
    • E.  Verification of Answer  10.63
    • F.  Amendment to Answer  10.64
  • IX.  AFFIRMATIVE RELIEF  10.65
    • A.  Right to Cross-Complain Limited  10.66
    • B.  Exception: If Tenant Has Vacated Premises  10.67
    • C.  Failure to Object to Cross-Complaint  10.68
    • D.  Procedure  10.69
  • X.  CHECKLIST: COMMON DEFECTS IN PREPARING AND SERVING UNLAWFUL DETAINER COMPLAINT  10.70

11

Unlawful Detainer: Pretrial Proceedings

Sonya Bekoff Molho

Andrew J. Wiegel

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  11.1
  • II.  LANDLORD’S DEMURRER TO ANSWER OR MOTION TO STRIKE  11.2
  • III.  DISCOVERY
    • A.  Tactical Considerations  11.3
    • B.  Statutory Authority
      • 1.  Discovery Enabling Statutes  11.4
      • 2.  Limitations on Discovery; CC §3339.10  11.4A
    • C.  Scheduling Unlawful Detainer Discovery and Discovery Motions
      • 1.  Shorter Response Periods  11.5
      • 2.  Discovery and Trial-Setting Conflicts  11.6
    • D.  Depositions
      • 1.  Legal Basis; Methods  11.7
      • 2.  Procedure  11.8
      • 3.  Inspecting Documents at Deposition  11.9
      • 4.  Taking Deposition Before Action Filed  11.10
    • E.  Written Interrogatories
      • 1.  Nature, Purpose, and Use
        • a.  Advantages; Disadvantages  11.11
        • b.  Depositions on Written Questions Distinguished  11.12
        • c.  Scope and Use Restrictions  11.13
        • d.  Number Generally Limited to 35  11.14
        • e.  Considerations When Non-Individual Entities Are Responding  11.15
      • 2.  Form: Form Interrogatories—Unlawful Detainer (Judicial Council Form DISC-003/UD-106)  11.16
      • 3.  Procedure
        • a.  Time for Service and Response  11.17
        • b.  Answers and Objections to Interrogatories  11.18
        • c.  Protective Orders  11.19
    • F.  Inspection of Documents or Property
      • 1.  Demands Addressed to a Party
        • a.  Making the Demand  11.20
        • b.  Responding to the Demand  11.21
      • 2.  Demands Addressed to a Nonparty  11.22
    • G.  Requests for Admissions
      • 1.  Use and Procedure
        • a.  Making the Request  11.23
        • b.  Responding to the Request  11.24
        • c.  Consequences of Failure to Respond  11.25
        • d.  Withdrawing Admission; Relief From Default  11.26
      • 2.  Form: Requests for Admissions (Judicial Council Form DISC-020)  11.27
    • H.  Discovery Sanctions and Protective Orders
      • 1.  Punishable Conduct  11.28
      • 2.  Types of Sanctions  11.29
      • 3.  Protective Orders  11.30
  • IV.  MOTION FOR SUMMARY JUDGMENT
    • A.  Nature and Purpose
      • 1.  Granted If No Triable Issue of Material Fact  11.31
      • 2.  Burden of Proof
        • a.  Plaintiff as Moving Party
          • (1)  Requires Plaintiff to Only Establish Prima Facie Case  11.32
          • (2)  Statute Ambiguous on Defendant’s Burden  11.33
        • b.  Defendant as Moving Party  11.34
      • 3.  Oral Testimony  11.35
    • B.  Hearing Procedures; Deadlines for Filing and Service
      • 1.  5-day Notice of Motion  11.36
      • 2.  Filing and Serving Opposition  11.37
    • C.  Supporting Documents of Moving Party  11.38
    • D.  Opposing Documents; Oral Opposition  11.39
  • V.  MOTION FOR JUDGMENT ON PLEADINGS  11.40
  • VI.  SETTING CASE FOR TRIAL
    • A.  Request for Trial Setting
      • 1.  Procedure  11.41
      • 2.  Form: Request/Counter-Request to Set Case for Trial—Unlawful Detainer (Judicial Council Form UD-150)  11.41A
    • B.  20-Day Mandatory Trial Setting  11.42
    • C.  Notice of Trial  11.43
    • D.  Extension of Trial Date  11.44
      • 1.  Good Cause for Extension  11.45
      • 2.  Probability That Landlord Will Prevail  11.46
      • 3.  Amount of Landlord’s Damages  11.47
      • 4.  Potential Offsets to Damages  11.48
      • 5.  Order to Deposit Damages  11.49
      • 6.  Trial Date Advanced Upon Default  11.50
    • E.  Effect of Tenant’s Vacating Before Trial  11.51
    • F.  Case Management and Settlement Conferences  11.52
  • VII.  JURY TRIAL
    • A.  Right to Jury Trial; Procedure  11.53
    • B.  Waiver  11.54
    • C.  No Right to Jury Trial on Equitable Issues  11.55
  • VIII.  MOTIONS TO ESCROW RENT PENDING TRIAL
    • A.  Mandatory Orders (CCP §1170.5)  11.56
    • B.  Discretionary Orders; Habitability Cases
      • 1.  Purposes  11.57
      • 2.  Legal Basis  11.58
      • 3.  Required Showing  11.59
      • 4.  Amount of Rent to Be Escrowed  11.60
      • 5.  Stipulation for Rent Deposit  11.61
  • IX.  RELATED ACTIONS: PRELIMINARY INJUNCTIONS, CONSOLIDATION, AND COORDINATION
    • A.  Nature of Related Actions  11.62
    • B.  Injunctive Relief
      • 1.  Legal Basis; Grounds  11.63
      • 2.  The Newby Exception: Adequate Remedy at Law  11.63A
      • 3.  Overcoming Newby Limitations  11.63B
      • 4.  Procedure; Bond Required  11.64
    • C.  Consolidation
      • 1.  Multiple Actions Pending in Same Court  11.65
      • 2.  Multiple Actions Pending in Different Courts  11.66
      • 3.  Effect of Consolidation Order  11.67
      • 4.  Consolidation for Trial of Related Issues Only  11.68
    • D.  Coordination by Judicial Council  11.69

12

Unlawful Detainer: Trial

Sonya Bekoff Molho

Andrew J. Wiegel

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  12.1
  • II.  DISQUALIFYING THE JUDGE
    • A.  Challenge for Cause  12.2
      • 1.  Procedures for Challenging for Cause  12.3
      • 2.  Standard for Disqualification in Contested Challenge for Cause  12.4
    • B.  Peremptory Challenge  12.5
      • 1.  Procedures for a Peremptory Challenge  12.6
      • 2.  Deadline for Making Peremptory Challenge
        • a.  Before Trial Commences; After Appeal on Remand  12.7
        • b.  Before Other Proceedings  12.7A
        • c.  Effect of Intervening Decisions  12.7B
      • 3.  Effect of Exercise of Peremptory Challenge  12.8
    • C.  Appealing the Challenge Motion  12.8A
    • D.  Tactical Considerations in Deciding Whether to Challenge Judge  12.9
  • III.  COMPELLING PARTY AND NONPARTY ATTENDANCE AT TRIAL
    • A.  Nonparty Witness
      • 1.  Subpoena Required  12.10
      • 2.  Service of Subpoena  12.11
    • B.  Parties
      • 1.  Notice to Appear or Subpoena  12.12
      • 2.  Service of Notice to Appear  12.13
    • C.  Statutory Witness and Mileage Fees  12.14
  • IV.  COMPELLING PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS AND OTHER MATERIALS
    • A.  Nonparty Witnesses: Subpoena Duces Tecum  12.15
    • B.  Parties: Notice to Produce or Subpoena Duces Tecum  12.16
    • C.  Production of Original Document; Stipulations Regarding Duplicates or Photocopies  12.17
  • V.  PENALTIES FOR DISOBEYING SUBPOENA  12.18
  • VI.  PLAINTIFF’S CASE
    • A.  Elements of Unlawful Detainer  12.19
      • 1.  Proving Service of Notice; Statutory Presumptions Regarding Return of Service  12.20
      • 2.  Proving Case When Tenant Fails to Appear at Trial  12.21
    • B.  Elements to Be Proved for Unlawful Detainer Based on Nonpayment of Rent
      • 1.  Proof of Rent Due
        • a.  Landlord Has Burden of Proof  12.22
        • b.  Use of Books and Records to Prove Amount or Receipt of Rent  12.23
          • (1)  To Refresh Witness’s Memory  12.24
          • (2)  Introduction as a Past Recollection Recorded  12.25
          • (3)  Admissible Under Business Records Exception to Hearsay Rule  12.26
      • 2.  Proof of Damages
        • a.  Damages Limited to Period From Termination of Tenancy Through Judgment  12.27
        • b.  Damages Based on Reasonable Rental Value  12.28
          • (1)  Determination of Reasonable Rental Value; Opinions of Landlord or Expert  12.29
          • (2)  Damage Award in Absence of Request for Such Relief  12.30
        • c.  Special Damages  12.31
          • (1)  Pleading Statutory Damages
            • (a)  Proof of Statutory Damages for Defendant’s Malice  12.32
            • (b)  Establishing Malice  12.33
          • (2)  Difficulty in Obtaining Award of Statutory Damages  12.34
  • VII.  PRINCIPAL STRATEGIES AND DEFENSES
    • A.  That Elements of Unlawful Detainer Not Proved  12.35
    • B.  Breach of Warranty of Habitability in Nonpayment of Rent Cases
      • 1.  General Elements of Defense  12.36
      • 2.  Adjudication of Reasonable Rent  12.37
    • C.  Retaliatory Eviction for Tenant’s Exercise of Legal Rights  12.38
  • VIII.  AMENDMENTS TO CONFORM TO PROOF
    • A.  Liberality in Granting Amendments  12.39
    • B.  Scope of Amendment Under CCP §1173; Supplemental Versus Amended Complaint  12.40
  • IX.  JURY INSTRUCTIONS
    • A.  General Sources of Jury Instructions  12.41
    • B.  Specific Instructions for Unlawful Detainer Cases  12.42
    • C.  Procedure for Filing Proposed Instructions; Filing Deadlines  12.43
    • D.  Format  12.44
    • E.  Sample Jury Instructions  12.45
      • 1.  Form: Sample Instruction on Burden of Proof, Preponderance of Evidence  12.46
      • 2.  Form: Sample Instruction on Facts Plaintiff Must Establish  12.47
      • 3.  Form: Sample Instruction on Service of Notices; Computation of Time  12.48
      • 4.  Rent and Damages
        • a.  Form: Sample Instruction on Calculation of Rent and Damages  12.49
        • b.  Form: Sample Instruction on Definition of “Fair Rental Value” for Assessing Damages  12.50
        • c.  Form: Sample Instruction on Witnesses’ Opinions Concerning Fair Rental Value  12.51
        • d.  Form: Sample Instruction on Statutory Damages; Definition of Malice  12.52
      • 5.  Habitability of Premises  12.53
        • a.  Sample Instruction on Definition of “Habitability”
          • (1)  Form: Landlord’s Instruction  12.54
          • (2)  Form: Tenant’s Instruction  12.54A
        • b.  Form: Sample Instruction on Breach of Warranty—Factors to Consider; Notice of Defects  12.55
        • c.  Drafting Instructions on Computing “Reasonable Rent” Owed When Warranty Breached  12.56
          • (1)  Form: Sample Instruction on Calculation of Reasonable Rent—Percentage-Reduction-in-Use Method  12.57
          • (2)  Form: Sample Instruction on Calculation of Reasonable Rent—Difference-in-Value Method  12.58
          • (3)  Form: Sample Instruction on Calculation of Reasonable Rent—Factoring in Tenant’s Discomfort and Annoyance  12.59
      • 6.  Retaliatory Eviction  12.60
        • a.  Form: Sample Instruction on Elements of Retaliatory Eviction (Month-to-Month Tenancy)  12.61
        • b.  Burden of Proof
          • (1)  Form: Sample Instruction When Tenant Bears Entire Burden of Proof on DefenseCopyed: needs to be finished in clearing.bcm  12.62
          • (2)  Form: Sample Instruction When Tenant Establishes Rebuttable Presumption Exists That Landlord Evicted Tenant Because ofin Retaliation for Tenant’s Immigration or Citizenship Status  12.62A
          • (3)  Form: Sample Instruction When Landlord Bears Burden of Disproving IntentCopyed: needs to be finished in clearing.bcm  12.63
      • 7.  Miscellaneous Defenses
        • a.  Form: Sample Instruction on Breach of Implied Covenant of Quiet Enjoyment  12.63A
        • b.  Form: Sample Instruction on Waiver  12.63B
        • c.  Form: Sample Instruction on Estoppel  12.63C
        • d.  Form: Sample Instruction on Landlord’s Refusal of Rent  12.63D
  • X.  COURT TRIAL: STATEMENT OF DECISION
    • A.  Party Must Request Statement of Decision  12.64
    • B.  Deadlines for Request; Determining Whether Statement Must Be Written or Oral  12.65
    • C.  Counsel’s Role Regarding Ambiguous or Inadequate Statement of Decision  12.66
  • XI.  JURY TRIAL
    • A.  Jury Verdict; General and Special Verdicts  12.67
    • B.  Judgment Based on Jury Verdict  12.68
  • XII.  DEFAULTS AT TRIAL  12.69

13

Unlawful Detainer: Judgment and Posttrial Proceedings

Sonya Bekoff Molho

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  13.1
  • II.  DEFAULT
    • A.  When Defendant Is in Default  13.2
    • B.  Procedure for Obtaining Default Judgment
      • 1.  Entry of Default  13.3
      • 2.  Immediate Judgment for Possession  13.4
      • 3.  Judgment for Monetary Relief  13.5
    • C.  Form: Copyed: newly revised form in this cycle.bcmRequest for Entry of Default (Judicial Council Form CIV-100)  13.6
    • D.  Relief From Default
      • 1.  Grounds Under CCP §473(b)
        • a.  Fault of Defendant Party or Attorney; Discretionary Relief  13.7
        • b.  Fault of Attorney; Mandatory Relief  13.8
        • c.  Default Obtained by Fraud  13.9
      • 2.  Procedure Under CCP §473(b)
        • a.  Noticed Motion  13.10
        • b.  Time Limits for Motion
          • (1)  Usually 6 Months  13.11
          • (2)  90-Day Exception  13.12
          • (3)  Fraud and Other Exceptions  13.13
      • 3.  Conditions for Relief Under CCP §473(b)  13.14
      • 4.  Other Grounds and Procedures for Relief From Default
        • a.  Lack of Actual Notice of Suit  13.15
        • b.  Limited Civil Case Omnibus Rule  13.16
      • 5.  Effect of Default Set-Aside on Sealing of Court Records  13.16A
  • III.  JUDGMENT
    • A.  When Plaintiff Prevails
      • 1.  Forfeiture of Possession and Leasehold Rights  13.17
      • 2.  Back Rent  13.18
      • 3.  Damages Caused by Unlawful Detainer  13.19
      • 4.  Prejudgment Interest  13.20
      • 5.  Costs
        • a.  Awarded to Prevailing Party  13.21
        • b.  Allowable Costs and Expenses  13.22
        • c.  Procedure for Claiming Costs  13.23
        • d.  Limitations on Costs  13.24
      • 6.  Attorney Fees
        • a.  Basis for Recovery  13.25
        • b.  Determining Who Is Prevailing Party
          • (1)  Party Recovering “Greater Relief”  13.26
          • (2)  Effect of Dismissal  13.27
        • c.  Limits on Recovery by Prevailing Party
          • (1)  Attorney Representing Self  13.28
          • (2)  In-House or Pro Bono Representation  13.28A
          • (3)  Effect of Tenant Tendering Full Amount of Rent Owing  13.28B
          • (4)  If Attorney Files Action in Wrong Court  13.28C
          • (5)  Actions Not Arising From Lease  13.28D
        • d.  Determining Amount of Fees  13.29
        • e.  Fees for Services Before Complaint Filed  13.30
        • f.  Award of Fees Against Successors in Interest  13.31
        • g.  Attorney Fees on Appeal  13.32
        • h.  Procedure for Claiming Fees  13.33
          • (1)  Basis of Award Governs Procedure
            • (a)  Contractual Attorney Fees  13.33A
            • (b)  Statutory Attorney Fees  13.33B
          • (2)  Time Limits for Claiming Attorney Fees  13.33C
      • 7.  Landlord Posttrial Inspections  13.33D
      • 8.  Form: Judgment for Plaintiff (Attorney-Drafted)  13.34
    • B.  When Defendant Prevails
      • 1.  Tenant’s Retention of Possession; Court Records Sealed  13.35
      • 2.  Warranty of Habitability Damages  13.36
        • a.  Assessing Only Against Delinquent Rent  13.37
        • b.  Assessing Against All Rent Due After Notice  13.38
      • 3.  Res Judicata Effect  13.39
      • 4.  Attorney Fees and Costs
        • a.  Under Contract  13.40
        • b.  Under Anti-SLAPP Statute  13.40A
        • c.  Under Other Statutes or Ordinances  13.40B
      • 5.  Form: Judgment—Unlawful Detainer (Judicial Council Form UD-110)  13.40C
      • 6.  Form: Judgment—Unlawful Detainer Attachment (Judicial Council Form UD-110S)  13.40D
      • 7.  Form: Order for Judgment for Defendant—Warranty of Habitability (Attorney-Drafted)  13.41
    • C.  Successive Actions Not Barred by Appeal  13.42
  • IV.  POSTTRIAL PROCEEDINGS
    • A.  Posttrial Motions Generally  13.43
      • 1.  Motion for New Trial  13.44
      • 2.  Judgment Notwithstanding Verdict  13.45
      • 3.  Motion to Vacate and Enter Different Judgment  13.46
      • 4.  Motion to Correct Clerical Error  13.47
    • B.  Stay of Execution  13.48
      • 1.  5-Day Stay; Restoring Possession on Unexpired Lease (CCP §1174(c))  13.49
        • a.  Mandatory Stay  13.50
        • b.  Discretionary Stay  13.51
      • 2.  Court’s Inherent Power (CCP §918)
        • a.  Grounds  13.52
        • b.  Length and Conditions of Stay  13.53
      • 3.  Form: Ex Parte Application for Stay of Execution  13.54
      • 4.  Form: Tenant’s Declaration of Hardship  13.55
    • C.  Relief From Forfeiture (CCP §1179)
      • 1.  Statutory Requirements  13.56
      • 2.  Form: Application for Relief From Forfeiture  13.57
    • D.  Appeal
      • 1.  Governing Statutes and Rules of Court  13.58
      • 2.  Procedure and Time Limits  13.59
      • 3.  Stay Pending Appeal (CCP §1176)  13.60
      • 4.  Restitution of Possession; Effect of Tenant’s Vacating Pending Appeal  13.61
      • 5.  Form: Notice of Motion for Stay of Execution Pending Appeal  13.62
    • E.  Extraordinary Writs  13.63
  • V.  ENFORCING THE JUDGMENT
    • A.  For Possession
      • 1.  Writ of Possession; Procedure  13.64
        • a.  Contents of Writ  13.65
        • b.  Service of Writ  13.66
        • c.  Eviction Under the Writ  13.67
        • d.  Effect of Bankruptcy; CCP §715.050  13.68
      • 2.  Form: Copyed: newly revised form in this cycle.bcmWrit of Execution (Judicial Council Form EJ-130)  13.69
      • 3.  Postjudgment Claim of Right to Possession
        • a.  Notice Procedure and Limitations on Use  13.70
        • b.  Filing of Postjudgment Claim  13.71
        • c.  Hearing on Postjudgment Claim  13.72
      • 4.  Form: Claim of Right to Possession and Notice of Hearing (Judicial Council Form CP10)  13.73
      • 5.  Eviction By Writ Not Subject to Collateral Attack  13.73A
    • B.  For Rent and Damages  13.74
    • C.  Credit Reporting Issues  13.75
    • D.  Fair Debt Collection Practices Act  13.76

14

Tenant Bankruptcies: Relief From Stay, Rent Claims, and Lease Issues

Nancy J. Newman

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Chapter Scope  14.1
      • 1.  Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 (BAPCPA)  14.1A
      • 2.  BAPCPA Effective Dates  14.1B
    • B.  Bankruptcy Notices and Forms  14.2
    • C.  When Tenant Files Bankruptcy  14.3
  • II.  AUTOMATIC STAY AFFECTS LEASE RIGHTS
    • A.  Stay Arises on Filing of Bankruptcy Petition  14.4
      • 1.  Repeated Bankruptcy Filings  14.4A
      • 2.  Notice of Stay of State Court Proceedings  14.5
      • 3.  Violation of Automatic Stay Carries Serious Consequences  14.6
      • 4.  Automatic Stay May Not Be Waived in Advance  14.7
    • B.  Scope of Automatic Stay Is Broad
      • 1.  Activity Subject to Stay
        • a.  All Litigation, Administrative Procedures, and Informal Actions Against Debtor  14.8
        • b.  Acts of Landlord  14.9
        • c.  Acts of State Court  14.10
      • 2.  Property Protected by Stay
        • a.  Lease Rights  14.11
        • b.  Security Deposits  14.12
      • 3.  Persons Shielded by Stay  14.13
    • C.  Exceptions to Automatic Stay
      • 1.  Expired Commercial Leases  14.14
      • 2.  Declaratory Relief and Dischargeability Actions Not Subject to Stay  14.15
      • 3.  Possessory Rights After Termination of Lease or Entry of Judgment  14.16
      • 4.  Actions Against Chapter 13 Debtors on Postpetition Obligations After Plan Confirmation  14.16A
      • 5.  Eviction Action Against Residential Tenant for Endangerment of Property or Illegal Use of Controlled Substance  14.16B
  • III.  AVOIDING EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC STAY
    • A.  When Order for Relief From Stay Is Required  14.17
    • B.  Motion for Relief From Stay
      • 1.  Grounds for Relief From Stay  14.18
        • a.  Property Interests Defined by State Law  14.19
        • b.  State Judgment Given Collateral Estoppel Effect  14.20
        • c.  Eviction Following Foreclosure  14.21
      • 2.  Procedure for Motion for Relief From Stay  14.22
        • a.  Format and Supporting Documents  14.23
        • b.  Filing Motion for Relief From Stay  14.24
        • c.  Serving Motion for Relief From Stay  14.25
        • d.  Scheduling and Attending the Hearing  14.26
      • 3.  Defending Stay Relief Motion
        • a.  Bankruptcy Discharge of Delinquent Rent in Public or Subsidized Housing  14.27
        • b.  Other Defenses  14.28
        • c.  Responsive Pleadings  14.28A
      • 4.  Relief Granted on Conditions  14.29
    • C.  Stipulation for Relief From Stay  14.30
    • D.  Application for Surrender of Premises  14.31
    • E.  Motion to Dismiss Bankruptcy  14.32
  • IV.  RESIDENTIAL LEASE ASSUMPTION OR REJECTION
    • A.  Purpose  14.33
    • B.  60-Day Limit for Assumption or Rejection  14.34
    • C.  Effect of Lease Assumption
      • 1.  Rights of Assuming Trustee or Debtor  14.35
      • 2.  Obligations of Assuming Trustee or Debtor
        • a.  Curing Existing Defaults  14.36
        • b.  Prepetition Rent Workouts  14.37
    • D.  Effect of Rejection
      • 1.  Rejection Implies Voluntary Termination  14.38
      • 2.  Postpetition Rent Must Be Paid  14.39
      • 3.  Landlord Claim Issues  14.40
    • E.  Exceptions: Expired or Terminated Leases  14.41
    • F.  Government Housing Cases  14.42
  • V.  NONRESIDENTIAL LEASE ASSUMPTION OR REJECTION
    • A.  Overview  14.43
    • B.  Time Limits
      • 1.  Decision or Extension Required in 120 Days  14.44
      • 2.  Debtor Must Remain Current on Postpetition Rent; Proration Versus Payment Date Approach  14.45
      • 3.  Performance of Nonmonetary Obligations  14.45A
      • 4.  Priority Claim for Postpetition Rent  14.46
      • 5.  Extensions of Time and Grounds for Objection
        • a.  Extension for Cause  14.47
        • b.  Prejudice to Landlord; Stipulations to Extend  14.48
    • C.  Assumption and Assignment Procedures
      • 1.  Motion Required  14.49
      • 2.  Conditions for Granting of Motion and Grounds for Objection  14.50
      • 3.  Recovering Attorney Fees to Enforce Lease  14.51
      • 4.  Effect of Assumption and Assignment  14.52
    • D.  Rejection of Lease
      • 1.  Automatic Rejection or Noticed Motion  14.53
      • 2.  Requires Relinquishment of Possession  14.54
      • 3.  Effect on Rights Held by Nondebtor Parties  14.54A
      • 4.  Landlord’s Claim for Rejection Damages; Unsecured Claim  14.55
        • a.  Proof of Claim Required  14.55A
        • b.  Claim Amount Capped  14.55B
          • (1)  Charges Equivalent to “Rent”  14.55C
          • (2)  Damages Arising From Lease Termination  14.55D
          • (3)  Damages Arising From Other Causes  14.55E
          • (4)  Escalated Rental Damages  14.55F
        • c.  Security Deposit Deduction From Capped Claim  14.55G
  • VI.  SANCTIONS AND ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS  14.56
  • VII.  BANKRUPTCY FORMS
    • A.  Form: Notice of Stay of Proceedings (Judicial Council Form CM-180; Mandatory)  14.57
    • B.  Form: Request for Special Notice and Proof of Service  14.58
    • C.  Landlord’s Claim Forms
      • 1.  Form: Proof of Claim (Official Bankruptcy Form 410)  14.59
      • 2.  Form: Landlord’s Request for Payment of Postpetition Administrative Rent; Sample Letter to Debtor’s Counsel  14.60
      • 3.  Form: Motion for Allowance and Payment of Administrative Rent Claim; Supporting Memorandum; Supporting Declarations  14.61
    • D.  Sample Landlord Objections
      • 1.  Form: Objection of Landlord to Debtor’s Motion to Extend Date to Assume or Reject Nonresidential Lease  14.62
      • 2.  Form: Objection to Debtors’ Motion on Proposed Going Out of Business Sale  14.62A
      • 3.  Form: Objection to Proposed Expedited Procedures for Assumption and Rejection of Leases  14.62B
    • E.  Motion for Relief From Automatic Stay
      • 1.  Form: Motion to Terminate or Modify Stay; Supporting Memorandum; Supporting Declaration  14.63
      • 2.  Form: Order Granting Motion to Terminate or Modify Automatic Stay  14.64
      • 3.  Form: Motion for Relief From the Automatic Stay Under 11 USC §362 (Central District Form F 4001–1.RFS.UD.MOTION; Unlawful Detainer; Mandatory)  14.65
      • 4.  Form: Order Granting Motion for Relief From Stay Under 11 USC §362 (Central District Form F 4001–1.RFS.UD.ORDER; Unlawful Detainer; Mandatory)  14.66
      • 5.  Form: Order Denying Motion for Relief From the Automatic Stay Under 11 USC §362 (Central District Form F 4001–1.RFS.DENY.ORDER; Mandatory)  14.66A
    • F.  Form: Stipulation and Order for Relief From Automatic Stay  14.67
    • G.  Form: Notice of Termination or Modification of Stay (Judicial Council Form CM-181; Mandatory)  14.67A
    • H.  Application for Order to Vacate Premises
      • 1.  Form: Ex Parte Application  14.68
      • 2.  Form: Order to Vacate Real Property  14.69
      • 3.  Form: Memorandum in Support of Application for Order to Surrender Property  14.70
    • I.  BAPCPA Forms; Residential Evictions
      • 1.  Form: Initial Statement About an Eviction Judgment Against You (Official Bankruptcy Form 101A)  14.70A
      • 2.  Form: Statement About Payment of an Eviction Judgment Against You (Official Bankruptcy Form 101B)  14.70B
      • 3.  Additional Official Bankruptcy and Central District Forms  14.71

 

CALIFORNIA LANDLORD-TENANT PRACTICE

(2d Edition)

April 2018

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

File Name

Book Section

Title

CH01

Chapter 1

Creating the Tenancy

01-048

§1.48

Monthly Amount; Due Date; Manner of Payment

01-049

§1.49

Late Charges

01-050

§1.50

Rent Check Returned for Insufficient Funds

01-051

§1.51

Notice That Failure to Pay Rent on Time May Be Reported to Credit Record Agencies

01-052

§1.52

Identification; Joint Liability

01-053

§1.53

Guests, Boarders, Lodgers, and Roommates

01-054

§1.54

Indemnification of Landlord

01-055

§1.55

Assignment and Subletting

01-056

§1.56

Utilities

01-057

§1.57

Tenant’s Obligation to Maintain and Protect Landlord’s Property

01-058

§1.58

Tenant’s Obligations to Refrain from Disturbance, Smoking, Unlawful Conduct, and Waste

01-059

§1.59

Tenant’s Obligation to Comply With All Laws and Rules and Regulations

01-060

§1.60

Conditions Governing Tenant Repairs and Alterations

01-061

§1.61

Pets and Service or Support Animals

01-062

§1.62

Waterbeds

01-063

§1.63

No Automobile Repair

01-064

§1.64

Tenant’s Death or Disability

01-065

§1.65

Landlord’s Entry on Premises; Notice, Changing Locks

01-066

§1.66

Covenants Are Material and Reasonable

01-067

§1.67

Consequences of Tenant’s Breach; Service of Notice

01-068

§1.68

Misrepresentation in Tenant’s Application

01-069

§1.69

Tenant’s Termination for Cause Under Fixed-Term Lease

01-070

§1.70

Attorney Fees

01-071

§1.71

No Waiver

01-072

§1.72

Service of Notices

CH03

Chapter 3

Rights and Duties During Tenancy

03-003A

§3.3A

Notice of Landlord’s Intention to Enter Dwelling Unit

03-048A

§3.48A

Complaint for Damages for Breach of Warranty of Habitability and Related Torts, Specific Performance, and Injunctive Relief

03-048B

§3.48B

Checklist: Tenant Causes of Action and Remedies for Habitability Violations and Nuisances

CH04

Chapter 4

Counseling the Landlord

04-002B

§4.2B

Checklist: Landlord Fee Agreement

04-008

§4.8

Checklist: Tenant Information

CH05

Chapter 5

Counseling the Tenant

05-004C

§§5.4C-5.17A

Checklist: Tenant Fee Agreement

 

§5.17A

Checklist: Permissible Reasons for Landlord’s Entry Under CC §1954

05-042

§5.42

Sample Collective Bargaining Agreement

CH06

Chapter 6

Mobilehome Park Tenancies

06-060

§6.60

Information for Prospective Homeowners

06-099

§§6.99-6.153

Rent Control Exemption Notice

 

§6.100

Notice of Option to Void Rental Agreement

 

§6.101

Park Name/Address and Space Number/Address

 

§6.102

Identity of Homeowner and Residents

 

§6.103

Identity of Park Owner and Management

 

§6.104

Beginning of Term

 

§6.105

Length of Term

 

§6.106

Amount of Rent

 

§6.107

Services

 

§6.108

Facilities

 

§6.109

Chart Showing Fees for Utilities and Services

 

§6.110

Amount

 

§6.111

Payment of Deposit Amounts

 

§6.112

Zoning and Land Use Disclosures

 

§6.113

Mobilehome Ownership Information

 

§6.114

Other Information

 

§6.115

Agreement to Lease

 

§6.116

Term of Agreement

 

§6.117

Indexed Rent Increases (Long-Term Rental Agreement Only)

 

§6.118

Due Date of Rent Payments; Notice of Increase

 

§6.119

Tender of Rent

 

§6.120

Charges for Late Payment of Rent

 

§6.121

Fees, Service Charges, and Utilities

 

§6.122

Security and Default Deposits

 

§6.123

State Law and Park Rules; Procedure for Amending Park Rules

 

§6.124

Park Management Responsibilities for Physical Facilities, Services, Utilities, and Compliance With Law

 

§6.125

Fixtures: Ownership, Maintenance, and Liability

 

§6.126

Right of Entry

 

§6.127

Changes in Zoning, Use Permits, or Master Lease

 

§6.128

Sale or Subletting of Mobilehome

 

§6.129

General Prohibitions (Residential Use, Guests, Abandonment, Subletting, and Assignments or Encumbrances)

 

§6.130

Termination and Eviction

 

§6.131

Waivers

 

§6.132

Notices

 

§6.133

Consultation With Homeowner

 

§6.134

Liability Indemnification

 

§6.135

Management’s Right to Make Payments

 

§6.136

Ownership of Mobilehome

 

§6.137

Multiple Mobilehome Ownership

 

§6.138

Enforcement of Agreement

 

§6.139

Attorney Fees

 

§6.140

Time of the Essence

 

§6.141

Interpretation and Severability

 

§6.142

Entirety of Agreement

 

§6.143

Alterations or Amendments

 

§6.144

Acknowledgment Is Voluntary; Caveat

 

§6.145

Inspection Made to Corroborate Management’s Representation of Space and Facilities

 

§6.146

Receipt and Understanding of Mobilehome Residency Law

 

§6.147

Charges for Month-to-Month Agreement

 

§6.148

Charges for Term Agreement

 

§6.149

Acceptance of Commercial Goods or Services Not Required

 

§6.150

Consent to Entry

 

§6.151

Attachments

 

§6.152

Notice of Rights and Responsibilities

 

§6.153

Execution

06-153A

§6.153A

Flood Hazard Disclosure

06-155

§6.155

Checklist: Common Provisions

CH08

Chapter 8

Terminating the Tenancy

08-010

§8.10

Notice of Belief of Abandonment Pursuant to CC §1951.3(d)

08-053

§8.53

3-Day Notice to Pay Rent or Quit

08-065

§8.65

3-Day Notice to Perform Covenant of Lease or Quit (Curable Breach)

08-066

§8.66

3-Day Notice to Quit for Breach of Covenant (Noncurable Breach)

08-087

§8.87

Notice to Renters (Following Foreclosure Against Owner’s Interest)

08-100

§8.100

30-Day, 60-Day, or 90-Day Termination Notice

08-146

§8.146

Complaint for Forcible Entry and Forcible Detainer

08-163

§8.163

Notice to Tenant of Right to Reclaim Abandoned Property (CC §1984)

08-164

§8.164

Notice to Owner Other Than Tenant of Right to Reclaim Abandoned Property (CC §1985)

08-178

§8.178

Notice of Right to Request Inspection of Premises and to Reclaim Abandoned Property

08-185

§8.185

Waiver of Right to Receive Documents With Security Deposit Refund

CH09

Chapter 9

Unlawful Detainer: Preparing and Filing the Action

09-019

§9.19

Stipulation for Entry of Judgment or Dismissal (Attorney-Drafted)

09-027

§9.27

Sample Eviction Questionnaire

CH10

Chapter 10

Unlawful Detainer: Responsive Pleadings

10-019

§10.19

Notice of Motion to Quash Service of Summons; Supporting Memorandum and Declaration

10-022

§10.22

Checklist: Demurrable Defects in Complaint

10-027

§10.27

Demurrer to Complaint; Memorandum Supporting Demurrer (Defective 3-Day Notice Case)

10-039

§10.39

Notice of Motion to Strike; Memorandum Supporting Motion to Strike Allegations of Improper Damages

10-041

§10.41

Application for Order Extending Time to Respond; Order

10-070

§10.70

CHECKLIST: COMMON DEFECTS IN PREPARING AND SERVING UNLAWFUL DETAINER COMPLAINT

CH12

Chapter 12

Unlawful Detainer: Trial

12-046

§12.46

Sample Instruction on Burden of Proof, Preponderance of Evidence

12-047

§12.47

Sample Instruction on Facts Plaintiff Must Establish

12-048

§12.48

Sample Instruction on Service of Notices; Computation of Time

12-049

§12.49

Sample Instruction on Calculation of Rent and Damages

12-050

§12.50

Sample Instruction on Definition of “Fair Rental Value” for Assessing Damages

12-051

§12.51

Sample Instruction on Witnesses’ Opinions Concerning Fair Rental Value

12-052

§12.52

Sample Instruction on Statutory Damages; Definition of Malice

12-054

§12.54

Landlord’s Instruction

12-054A

§12.54A

Tenant’s Instruction

12-055

§12.55

Sample Instruction on Breach of Warranty—Factors to Consider; Notice of Defects

12-057

§12.57

Sample Instruction on Calculation of Reasonable Rent—Percentage-Reduction-in-Use Method

12-058

§12.58

Sample Instruction on Calculation of Reasonable Rent—Difference-in-Value Method

12-059

§12.59

Sample Instruction on Calculation of Reasonable Rent—Factoring in Tenant’s Discomfort and Annoyance

12-061

§12.61

Sample Instruction on Elements of Retaliatory Eviction (Month-to-Month Tenancy)

12-062

§12.62

Sample Instruction When Tenant Bears Entire Burden of Proof on DefenseCopyed: needs to be finished in clearing.bcm

12-062A

§12.62A

Sample Instruction When Tenant Establishes Rebuttable Presumption Exists That Landlord Evicted Tenant Because ofin Retaliation for Tenant’s Immigration or Citizenship Status

12-063

§12.63

Sample Instruction When Landlord Bears Burden of Disproving IntentCopyed: needs to be finished in clearing.bcm

12-063A

§12.63A

Sample Instruction on Breach of Implied Covenant of Quiet Enjoyment

12-063B

§12.63B

Sample Instruction on Waiver

12-063C

§12.63C

Sample Instruction on Estoppel

12-063D

§12.63D

Sample Instruction on Landlord’s Refusal of Rent

CH13

Chapter 13

Unlawful Detainer: Judgment and Posttrial Proceedings

13-034

§13.34

Judgment for Plaintiff (Attorney-Drafted)

13-041

§13.41

Order for Judgment for Defendant—Warranty of Habitability (Attorney-Drafted)

13-054

§13.54

Ex Parte Application for Stay of Execution

13-055

§13.55

Tenant’s Declaration of Hardship

13-057

§13.57

Application for Relief From Forfeiture

13-062

§13.62

Notice of Motion for Stay of Execution Pending Appeal

CH14

Chapter 14

Tenant Bankruptcies: Relief From Stay, Rent Claims, and Lease Issues

14-058

§14.58

Request for Special Notice and Proof of Service

14-060

§14.60

Landlord’s Request for Payment of Postpetition Administrative Rent; Sample Letter to Debtor’s Counsel

14-061

§14.61

Motion for Allowance and Payment of Administrative Rent Claim; Supporting Memorandum; Supporting Declarations

14-062

§14.62

Objection of Landlord to Debtor’s Motion to Extend Date to Assume or Reject Nonresidential Lease

14-062A

§14.62A

Objection to Debtors’ Motion on Proposed Going Out of Business Sale

14-062B

§14.62B

Objection to Proposed Expedited Procedures for Assumption and Rejection of Leases

14-063

§14.63

Motion to Terminate or Modify Stay; Supporting Memorandum; Supporting Declaration

14-064

§14.64

Order Granting Motion to Terminate or Modify Automatic Stay

14-067

§14.67

Stipulation and Order for Relief From Automatic Stay

14-068

§14.68

Ex Parte Application

14-069

§14.69

Order to Vacate Real Property

14-070

§14.70

Memorandum in Support of Application for Order to Surrender Property

 

Selected Developments

April 2018 Update

Immigrant and Citizenship Status Protection for Tenants. In the past year, comprehensive legislation, Stats 2017, ch 489, added a large matrix of new protections for tenants to both the conventional landlord-tenant laws and the statutes governing evictions. Civil Code §§1940.05, 1940.2, 1940.3, 1940.35, and 1942.5 prohibit threats to disclose (or actual disclosure of) information related to the immigration or citizenship status of a tenant, occupant, or other person known to the landlord to be associated with a tenant or occupant, in order to influence a tenant to vacate a dwelling, to harass or intimidate a tenant or prospective tenant, to retaliate against a tenant for the exercise of his or her rights, or to recover possession of the dwelling, with specified exceptions. Civil Code §§1940.35 and 1942.5 provide financial penalties for violations. The bill also added CCP §1161.4 to preclude eviction of a tenant or occupant because of the immigration or citizenship status of the tenant or occupant, unless the landlord is complying with any legal obligation under any federal government program that provides for rent limitations or rental assistance to a qualified tenant; this section also established an affirmative defense and rebuttable presumptions with respect to the immigration issue. For discussion, see §§2.12, 2.19, 2.60A–2.60C, 6.14–6.15, 8.111–8.111A, 8.145, 8.149, 8.153–8.153A, 10.60B, 11.4A, 12.62A.

Leasing Disclosures, Lease Provisions, and Insurance. The lease or rental agreement should clearly specify the amount and manner of rent payment. If the landlord directs the manner in which the rent is to be delivered and the tenant remits rent in that manner, the landlord bears the risk of loss. Sleep EZ v Mateo (2017) 13 CA5th Supp 1. See §§1.31, 4.33, 8.46.

Effective January 1, 2018, all leases in California must contain a warning if the premises are located in “a special flood hazard area or an area of potential flooding, if the owner has actual knowledge of that fact.” Govt C §8589.45. See §1.40.

Effective June 14, 2017, housing providers must provide a HUD form (Notice of Occupancy Rights under the Violence Against Women Act) and a self-certification form to applicants for (or tenants of) housing assisted under a covered housing program. See §§1.44, 1.47, 2.15A.

On December 22, 2017, the California Tax Credit Allocation Committee (CTCAC) issued a memorandum to all property owners and management agents of Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) properties to implement the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013 (VAWA). While the IRS has yet to release official guidance, CTCAC began to require, on January 1, 2018, that tax credit properties in California comply with CTCAC's “Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013 LIHTC Information and Checklist.” See §1.44.

Some landlords are willing to permit small pets such as birds or cats and others are expanding their acceptance of animals because of statutory requirements regarding companion or support animals or the prospect of charging more rent. See newly amended lease clause in §1.61.

Landlords must consider insurance needs from numerous perspectives. Primarily, as owners, landlords must decide what type of insurance coverage to purchase for protecting themselves from various risks, damages, and claims, and whether a requirement in the lease that the tenant purchase insurance is enforceable. See newly amended §4.49B.

Fair Housing. If the grounds for lease termination involve criminal activity or material noncompliance with the lease or state landlord-tenant laws, tenants in HUD-assisted and project-based Section 8 units must be served with a notice according to state law and the rental agreement. This usually means a 3-day notice for tenants in most HUD-assisted programs but a 30-day notice for tenants in Section 202 or Section 811 programs. See Long Beach Brethren Manor, Inc. v Leverett (2015) 239 CA4th Supp 24. See §2.8.

A consensus among federal courts has been reached that both public and private landlords may not discriminate against persons on the basis of their immigration or citizenship status under the Civil Rights Act of 1866 (42 USC §1981) or under related protected categories (i.e., race or national origin) under the Fair Housing Act. See newly added discussion in §2.5D.

Landlords with tenants receiving disability income may need to grant tenants’ requests to alter the due date of rental payment to reasonably accommodate tenants’ commonly late receipt of government benefits. See Fair Hous. Rights Ctr. in Southeastern Pennsylvania v Morgan Props. Mgmt. Co. (ED Penn, Apr. 11, 2017, No.16-4677) 2017 US Dist Lexis 55249). See §2.9D.

Public entities may not prohibit landlords from offering or continuing to offer accommodations for rent or lease, or otherwise take any action regarding or based on the immigration or citizenship status of a tenant, prospective tenant, occupant, or prospective occupant of residential rental property. CC §1940.3; initially effective in 2009, §1940.3 was substantially amended, effective January 1, 2018, to increase protections for tenants. See §§2.19, 2.60A.

Local ordinances and policies that cause disparate impact or deliberately target protected immigrant classes by prohibiting overcrowding in rental housing and by promoting excessive and selective enforcement of building codes against owners that rent to immigrants may be challenged under 11 USC §1983. See Avenue 6E Invs., LLC v City of Yuma (D Ariz 2017) 217 F Supp 3d 1040. See §§2.19, 2.65.

Allowing an emotional-support animal (ESA) may be a reasonable accommodation under fair housing laws. On documentation required to support accommodation requests made by persons with disabilities to their landlords or homeowners associations to allow ESAs or assistance animals to accompany or live with them on the premises, see §2.27B.

In Smith v Avanti (D Colo 2017) 249 F Supp 3d 1194, the court recognized discrimination based on nonconformity with gender stereotypes as actionable under the Fair Housing Act (FHA). See §2.27K.

In addition to prohibiting discrimination and harassment against members of protected classes, the FHA also bars retaliation against persons who aid or encourage housing rights under the Act. Linkletter v Western & S Fin. Group, Inc. (6th Cir. 2017) 851 F3d 632. See §2.27M.

A party’s claim under the FHA survives the death of that party. Revock v Cowpet Bay West Condominium Ass’n (3d Cir 2017) 853 F3d 96. See §2.30.

A federal district court cannot enjoin the enforcement of an unlawful detainer judgment issued by a state court on the basis of the tenant’s assertion that the eviction violated the FHA. Warda v Santee Apts. LP (SD Cal, Apr. 11, 2017, No. 17cv648-WQH-JMA) 2017 US Dist Lexis 55529. See §§2.39, 13.73A.

Procedures for defending evictions arising from discrimination on the basis of a tenant’s immigration or citizenship status are in newly enacted CCP §1161.4, which allows a tenant or occupant to raise, as an affirmative defense in the unlawful detainer action, that the landlord violated §1161.4. It is a rebuttable presumption that a tenant or occupant has established the defense if the landlord commits specified acts. See discussions in §§2.60B, 8.145, 8.149, 8.153, 10.60B, 11.4A, and 12.38, and new jury instruction in §12.62A.

Rights and Obligations Before, During, and After Tenancy. To encourage the conservation of water in multifamily residential rental buildings, the legislature enacted the utility submetering law, operative January 1, 2018, which permits a landlord to use a submeter to charge a tenant separately for water service to an individual dwelling unit and imposes requirements on landlords. Under CC §1954(a)(5), a landlord may enter a dwelling unit for specified purposes relating to a submeter or water fixture if certain requirements are met. See §§3.2, 4.50G.

The tenant may be able to recover punitive damages in an action for breach of the implied warranty of habitability under CC §3294 if the landlord’s conduct was willful, oppressive, or malicious. Fernandes v Singh (2017) 16 CA5th 932. See §§3.40, 5.16, 5.20, 8.115–8.116, 12.38.

Recreational use of marijuana in California was legalized beginning November 9, 2016, by Proposition 64, commonly known as the Adult Use of Marijuana Act. It allows persons who are 21 years of age and older to (1) possess, process, transport, purchase, obtain, or give away (without compensation) up to 28.5 grams of nonconcentrated cannabis and up to 8 grams of concentrated cannabis and (2) possess, plant, cultivate, harvest, dry, or process up to six living plants. See §4.44F. The new law builds on and utilizes many aspects of the comprehensive regulatory structure for commercial medical cannabis. California anticipates a likely rise of marijuana use at residential properties statewide; creating procedures and policies to minimize nuisance allegations and to respond to resident complaints will be important to consider and will be similar to those issues landlords face in response to medical marijuana, discussed in §§4.44B–4.44E.

When a secured lender of the tenant acquires the leasehold estate by foreclosing against that estate, the lender is not liable to the landlord for the payment of rent owing for the remainder of the lease term after the lender relinquishes possession, unless the lender expressly assumed the lease. BRE DDR BR Whittwood CA LLC v Farmers & Merchants Bank (2017) 14 CA5th 992. See §§3.51–3.52.

The Consumer Credit Reporting Agencies Act (CCRAA) and the Investigative Consumer Reporting Agencies Act (ICRAA) govern a landlord’s use of consumer credit or investigative reports as a basis for accepting or rejecting tenants. Because the interplay of these laws is unclear, it is more prudent for landlords to comply with both the CCRAA and the ICRAA when ordering investigative reports on rental applicants. See Cunha v IntelliCheck (ND Cal 2017) 254 F Supp 3d 1124, discussed in §4.9.

While it has been the long-standing practice of most landlords to prohibit all pets in their rental properties, many property owners have started to re-think their antipathy to allowing tenants to have pets. There is also an expanded use of service animals, and other animals that provide companionship, comfort, and support to their owners, among those seeking to rent housing units. It must be remembered that such animals are not considered under the law to be “pets.” See newly added discussion in §4.15B.

In 2017, the Medicinal and Adult-Use Cannabis Regulation and Safety Act (MAUCRSA) repealed the 2015 Medical Cannabis Regulation and Safety Act (MCRSA) and amended the 2016 Adult Use of Marijuana Act (AUMA). See SB 94 (Stats 2017, ch 27), discussed in §§4.44B–4.44F.

The exception from the attorney-client privilege for situations in which an attorney’s services were sought to enable or aid the client to plan or commit a crime will not apply to legal services that comply with state or local laws on medicinal or adult-use cannabis, and confidential communications provided for the purpose of rendering those services are confidential as between client and attorney, as long as the attorney also advises the client on conflicts with respect to federal law. See Evid C §956(b) (added by Stats 2017, ch 530, effective Jan. 1, 2018), cited in §4.44E.

Property owners are sometimes faced with a disaster that seriously damages their rental property and forces tenants to vacate the rental units. Such events can be caused by events clearly beyond the control of the owner or can arise from deterioration of elements of the building (e.g., a water pipe breaks). On whether the landlord needs to determine whether there is any obligation to provide relocation assistance to the tenants, see newly added §4.50H.

In Ayala v Dawson (2017) 13 CA5th 1319, the tenants were collaterally estopped from bringing a suit for fraud claims when the underlying allegations of fraud were presented in prior unlawful detainer actions, were extensively and fully litigated, and the trial courts had made detailed findings of fact in rejecting the claims. See §§5.23, 8.82, 9.8, 13.39.

Anti-SLAPP Motions. Under CCP §425.16(c), the court must award attorney fees and costs to a prevailing defendant on an anti-SLAPP motion. See 569 E. County Blvd. LLC v Backcountry Against the Dump, Inc. (2017) 6 CA5th 426. See §5.18A.

In Hart v Darwish (review granted Sept. 13, 2017; superseded opinion at 12 CA5th 218), the court of appeal ruled that although a denial of an anti-SLAPP motion in an underlying lawsuit does not bar malicious prosecution liability for the underlying lawsuit, the denial of a motion for nonsuit on the merits in the underlying unlawful detainer action “conclusively establishes” that the prior suit was legally tenable, thus precluding a subsequent action for malicious prosecution; the supreme court will review that decision. See §5.18C.

Mobilehome Park Tenancies. A new protection for mobilehome sellers or transferors, beginning in 2018, is a law providing the opportunity for a seller or transferor to record a notice of transfer and release of liability with the Housing and Community Development Department and not be personally responsible for fees or taxes after the date of recordation of that notice. Health & S C §18107. See §6.12.

The California Public Utilities Commission created in 2014 a 3-year pilot Mobilehome Park Utility Upgrade Program to convert 10 percent of master metered gas and electric services to direct service from local utilities. This program was extended through 2019 by CPUC Resolution E–4878 (Sept. 28, 2017). See §6.13.

Issues related to government funding of both mobilehome parks and mobilehome acquisitions and rehabilitation may become a more common issue in the future, because of initiatives such as Stats 2017, ch 727, which enacted Gov C §65852.35 to require all state and local programs designed to facilitate home ownership or residence to include manufactured housing, to the extent feasible. See §6.17.

In addition to the form required by CC §798.75.5(b), newly enacted Govt C §8589.45 requires for any lease entered into on or after July 1, 2018, a disclosure in the lease related to whether the owner has actual knowledge, as defined by that law, that the park property is in a special flood hazard area or an area of potential flooding, and the lease must provide specified additional information. See §§6.26, 6.154.

Civil Code §798.34 provides for four types of co-residents for homeowners in mobilehome parks with significant changes adopted by Stats 2017, ch 767 (SB 147). See §6.42.

Civil Code §799.9, governing mobilehome subdivisions and resident-owned parks, was amended to enhance antidiscrimination protections for caregivers, See §6.42.

Local Eviction Controls and Constitutional Issues. San Francisco Rent Board Rules and Regulations §12.20, which prohibits evictions for violations of unilateral changes to lease agreements, is not preempted by CC §827, the statute that requires 30 days’ prior notice for unilateral changes to rental agreements. The Rent Board did not exceed its authority in promulgating Rule 12.20, because the Board has the power to promulgate regulations to effectuate the purposes of the rent ordinance. Foster v Britton (2015) 242 CA4th 920. See §§7.25, 7.53, 7.57.

In California Bldg. Indus. Ass’n v City of San Jose (2015) 61 C4th 435, the supreme court held that San Jose’s inclusionary housing ordinance that applied to builders of housing for sale was a valid regulation of land under the city’s broad police power and that the validity of the ordinance did not depend on showing that the restrictions are reasonably related to the impact of a particular development, but need only be reasonably related to the broad general welfare purposes for which the ordinance was enacted. The legislature enacted Govt C §65850(g), effective January 1, 2018, which comports with this decision. See §§7.14, 7.25, 7.25B.

Numerous sections of the San Francisco Residential Rent Stabilization and Arbitration Ordinance were amended in June and July 2017 to require a landlord to calculate Ellis Act relocation benefits based on all lawful occupants in the unit regardless of age and to strengthen protections for tenants in owner move-in evictions. See §7.53.

Tenant buyout agreements, when properly negotiated, reported, and documented, trump eviction control ordinances that otherwise preclude tenant waivers of rights (such as good or just cause for a move out). Geraghty v Shalizi (2017) 8 CA5th 593. See §§7.54, 7.65, 7.67–7.68, 8.113.

A minor child may be a lawful occupant of a rental unit, but is not a tenant to whom relocation assistance must be separately paid. Danger Panda, LLC v Launiu (2017) 10 CA5th 502, 516, interpreting San Francisco Residential Rent Stabilization and Arbitration Ordinance, SF Admin C, chap 37. See §§7.64, 7.64F, 7.64H, 7.76A.

In Coyne v City & County of San Francisco (2017) 9 CA5th 1215, the court ruled that the city’s attempt to have the landlord pay an enhanced tenant relocation assistance payment based on the difference between the tenant’s current rent and the prevailing market-rate rent imposed a prohibitive price on landlords exiting the residential rental business and was preempted by the Ellis Act. See §§7.64, 7.64H.

To discourage owners from falsely removing rent-controlled units from the market and then attempting to return them to the rental market at current market rates, the Ellis Act employs a three-tiered timeline, during which an owner who returns previously withdrawn units to the market suffers a penalty for doing so. See, e.g., City of West Hollywood v Kihagi (2017) 16 CA5th 739, cited in §7.64C.

Terminating Tenancies and Eviction Actions. Procedures for defending evictions arising from discrimination on the basis of a tenant’s immigration or citizenship status are in newly enacted CCP §1161.4, which allows a tenant or occupant to raise, as an affirmative defense in the unlawful detainer action, that the landlord violated §1161.4. It is a rebuttable presumption that a tenant or occupant has established the defense if the landlord commits specified acts. See discussions in §§2.60B, 8.145, 8.149, 8.153, 10.60B, 11.4A, and 12.38, and new jury instruction in §12.62A.

A tenant has the right to a jury trial on the affirmative defense of the implied warranty of habitability. Guttman v Chiazor (2017) 15 CA5th Supp 57. See §§3.32, 11.55, 12.36–12.37, 13.36.

A summary remedy to eject squatters (CCP §§527.11–527.12) expired on January 1, 2018; it applied only to residences of up to four units in the cities of Palmdale and Lancaster in Los Angeles County and the City of Ukiah in Mendocino County. See §§8.7A, 9.10.

In Scott v Kaiuum (2017) 8 CA5th Supp 1, with respect to a tenant renting a residential unit with Section 8 program assistance, a demand to pay rent or quit was found to be excessive and invalid because it (1) demanded rent that was not owing because of uncorrected habitability violations and (2) specified the full market rent rather than the lesser amount of rent the tenant actually paid, which then was subsidized by the local housing authority through the Section 8 program. See §§8.46, 10.56.

When the eviction action is based on two different reasons that each require a different notice, the complaint must allege and the landlord must prove facts sufficient to show that a judgment for possession is warranted on at least one of those reasons . See The CBM Group, Inc. v Llamas (2017) 12 CA5th Supp 34. See §§8.58, 8.63, 8.68, 9.37.

Under state law, a landlord may terminate a tenancy if the tenant maintains, commits, or permits a nuisance on the premises. In public housing, repeated violations of nonsmoking lease provisions may suffice without it impacting others under 24 CFR §966.4(f)(12)(i)(B). See §8.70.

In an eviction action following foreclosure, a court of appeal held that the purchaser at a foreclosure sale need not await recordation of the trustee’s deed before serving the notice to quit on a tenant whose lease was extinguished by the foreclosure. The court held, however, that the deed should be recorded before the unlawful detainer action is filed. See Dr. Leevil, LLC v Westlake Health Care Ctr. (review granted June 14, 2017; superseded opinion at 9 CA5th 450). See §§8.81, 9.37, 10.46, 14.21.

In proceedings or discovery undertaken in forcible entry and forcible detainer actions, or in any civil action involving a tenant’s housing rights, the “immigration or citizenship status” of any person “is irrelevant to any issue of liability or remedy.” CC §3339.10(a). Thus, no inquiry is permitted into a person’s immigration or citizenship status, unless the tenant’s asserted claims or defenses place the person’s immigration or citizenship status directly in dispute or the person seeking to make such inquiry demonstrates by clear and convincing evidence that it is necessary to comply with federal immigration law. CC §3339.10(b)(1). See §§8.145, 8.149, 8.153, 11.4A.

Effective January 1, 2018, the legislature added CCP §415.20(c), which provides that if the only address reasonably known for the person to be served is a private mailbox in a commercial mail receiving agency, service may be effected on the first delivery attempt by leaving a copy of the summons and complaint with the mail receiving agency in the manner specified. This amendment will have limited effect in most unlawful detainer actions because the leased premises is a known address. See §§9.48, 10.10.

The California Supreme Court held that when the trial court denies a request for a jury trial in a civil action, the decision is immediately reviewable before trial by way of a petition for an extraordinary writ, and that the party requesting the jury need not wait until after a bench trial to appeal the issue. Shaw v Superior Court (2017) 2 C5th 983. See §11.53.

An unlawful detainer judgment does not preclude the landlord from filing a separate civil action for collection of back-due rent that accrued in months other than the one month for which damages were awarded in the unlawful detainer action. Hong Sang Market, Inc. v Peng (2018) 2018 Cal App Lexis 117. See §§11.62, 13.39.

The trial court’s denial of a tenant’s motion for nonsuit on the merits under CCP §631.8 in an unlawful detainer action “conclusively establishes” that the action was legally tenable, even if the tenant ultimately prevailed at trial, thus precluding a subsequent action for malicious prosecution by the tenant. Hart v Darwish (review granted Sept. 13, 2017; superseded opinion at 12 CA5th 218). See §12.35.

A court must vacate a default or default judgment on grounds of attorney mistake, inadvertence, surprise, or neglect whenever an application for relief is made no more than 6 months after entry of judgment and is accompanied by the attorney’s sworn affidavit, unless the court finds that the default was not in fact caused by the attorney. See Gee v Greyhound Lines, Inc. (2016) 6 CA5th 477 (mandatory relief properly granted to set aside dismissal after counsel failed to pay fees for change of venue). See §13.8.

When a contractual attorney fee provision by its language is limited to actions “brought to enforce” the contract, the successful assertion of the contract as an affirmative defense does not constitute an “action” entitling the defendant to attorney fees. Mountain Air Enters., LLC v Sundowner Towers, LLC (2017) 3 C5th 744. See §13.26.

A voluntary dismissal does not always exculpate a plaintiff from liability for attorney fees. Khan v Shim (2016) 7 CA5th 49 (CC §1717 did not preclude fee award on tort claims that were voluntarily dismissed). See §13.27.

In Lafitte v Robert Half Int'l, Inc. (2016) 1 C5th 480, the supreme court found that a trial court did not abuse its discretion in using a percentage method for its primary calculation of an attorney fee award in a common fund case. Further, the court found that cross-checking the reasonableness of a percentage fee award through a lodestar calculation was within the trial court’s discretion. See §13.29.

Like a directed verdict, a judgment notwithstanding the verdict is proper only when the court determines that there is insufficient evidence to support a verdict for the nonmoving party, after viewing the evidence in the light most favorable to that party and disregarding conflicting evidence. See the supreme court’s decision in Webb v Special Elec. Co. (2016) 63 C4th 167 (reversing trial court’s grant of judgment notwithstanding verdict when substantial evidence supported jury verdict). See §13.45.

Tenant Bankruptcies and Stay Relief to Complete Eviction. Bankruptcy law limits the availability of the automatic stay to individual or joint debtors who are repeat bankruptcy filers and whose previous bankruptcy cases were recently dismissed. See, e.g., In re Keeler (Bankr ND Ga 2016) 561 BR 804 (stay terminates as to debtor and property of estate only to allow landlord to regain possession of leased premises but not to collect past due rent). See §14.4A.

For stay violations that occur in the context of real property foreclosures and resulting evictions, the consequences can be severe. See, e.g., Sundquist v Bank of America (In re Sundquist) (Bankr ED Cal 2017) 566 BR 563 (bank liable for actual and punitive damages for willfully violating stay by, among other things, foreclosing on home and prosecuting unlawful detainer action after borrowers filed bankruptcy petition, forcing them to move, secretly rescinding foreclosure, failing to secure home from looting, and refusing to pay for personal property loss). See §14.6.

While not directly ruling on whether CCP §715.050 was preempted by the Bankruptcy Code, the Ninth Circuit held that a debtor (the former property owner) had no legal or equitable interest in the real property after issuance of the state court’s unlawful detainer judgment and writ of possession following a foreclosure; thus, the automatic stay created by the debtor’s subsequent bankruptcy was not violated by the eviction. Eden Place, LLC v Perl (In re Perl) (9th Cir 2016) 811 F3d 1120. See §§14.9, 14.16–14.19, 14.21.

Residential tenants filing bankruptcy must disclose in their petitions if a judgment for possession of their residence has been entered. Filing a certification with the petition that circumstances exist under which he or she would be permitted to cure, under applicable nonbankruptcy law, the entire monetary default that gave rise to the judgment for possession allows the tenant to retain the protection of the automatic stay for 30 days after the petition is filed, with specified exceptions. For a newly adopted certification form, see Initial Statement About an Eviction Judgment Against You (Official Bankruptcy Form 101A), discussed and reprinted in §§14.16, 14.70A.

In the federal courts in the Central District of California, under CD Cal Local Bankr R 4001–1(c)(1)(A), if a stay relief motion seeks an order allowing the moving party to proceed with an unlawful detainer action involving a residential property with a month-to-month tenancy, a tenancy at will, or a tenancy terminated by an unlawful detainer judgment, the moving party need serve only the debtor and debtor’s counsel (if any). See §14.25.

Some debtors try to avoid the dismissal of the bankruptcy on the creditor’s or the court’s motion by attempting to voluntarily dismiss the case before the hearing on the motion. This is not allowed in the Ninth Circuit if the debtor had filed the bankruptcy in bad faith, but other courts recognize a debtor’s absolute right to voluntarily dismiss its case, and some of them also recognize their authority to sanction the debtor when dismissing the case. See In re Ross (3d Cir 2017) 858 F3d 779, cited with other similar cases in §14.32.

The reciprocal right to attorney fees under CC §1717 presents risk to creditors in bankruptcy litigation, since a losing debtor may not have the resources to pay fees, but may be allowed to recover fees against a losing creditor that is solvent. See, e.g., Cardenas v Shannon (In re Shannon) (BAP 9th Cir 2016) 553 BR 380 (debtors’ right to attorney fees for defeating nondischargeability action depends on whether litigation involved state law issues rather than federal nondischargeability issues). But if the issues in the nondischargeability action do not involve enforcing a contractual right, fees are not recoverable. See Bos v Board of Trustees (9th Cir 2016) 818 F3d 486. See §14.51.

When the landlord is the debtor in bankruptcy, some courts have held that a sale free and clear of the landlord’s property does not divest the subordinate tenant of possessory rights, even though state foreclosure law would have. But in 2017, the Ninth Circuit reached a different result in Pinnacle Restaurant at Big Sky LLC v CH SP Acquisitions, LLC (In re Spanish Peaks Holdings II, LLC) (9th Cir 2017) 872 F3d 892 (trustee for debtor landlord conducted sale of debtor’s real property “free and clear” of liens and encumbrances, without rejecting lease). See §14.54A.

About the Authors

MYRON MOSKOVITZ, who received his law degree in 1964 from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law, coauthored chapters 3, 5, 7, and 8 and continued to update those chapters annually for this edition through 2017. He served as law clerk to Justice Raymond E. Peters of the California Supreme Court, Chief Attorney of the National Housing Law Project, and Chairman of the State Commission of Housing & Community Development. He was a Professor of Law at Golden Gate University in San Francisco for more than 40 years. He is currently the Legal Director of Moskovitz Appellate Team in Piedmont; he has written several books on appellate law and teaches MCLE courses for attorneys on the subject.

SONYA BEKOFF MOLHO, B.A., 1971, San Fernando Valley College (now California State University, Northridge); J.D., 1977, Loyola Law School, Los Angeles, has worked as an update author on chapters 5, 7, 10, and 12 of this book since 2000. Ms. Molho has been a sole practitioner in Los Angeles continuously since 1978, representing primarily tenants. Her familiarity with tenant protection laws in both local ordinances and rent control regulations for the cities of Santa Monica and Los Angeles is especially helpful to the readers of this book. In 2012, she was given the annual Spirit of CEB award for her contributions to CEB landlord-tenant titles. She is also on the annual update team for CEB’s California Eviction Defense Manual (2d ed Cal CEB) and has been a speaker for both CEB and Rutter Group MCLE programs.

NANCY C. LENVIN, B.A., 1966, Barnard College, Columbia University; J.D., 1969, Rutgers University, coauthored chapters 3, 7, and 9 and continued to update those chapters annually for this edition until 2016. She wrote chapter 4 and continues to update that chapter annually. Ms. Lenvin is a partner with Utrecht & Lenvin LLP, San Francisco. She primarily represents residential property owners and commercial property owners and tenants. Currently, her practice focuses on the negotiation and drafting of leases and other contracts, providing management reviews to assist clients in problem avoidance, and representing clients before administrative agencies including the San Francisco Rent Stabilization and Arbitration Board. Ms. Lenvin has served as an officer and director of the San Francisco Apartment Association and the California Apartment Association, and as a member of the Board of the Small Property Owners Association, for whom she prepared a standard lease and other forms.

RONALD S. JAVOR, B.A., 1967, University of California, Los Angeles; J.D., 1974, University of Southern California, coauthored chapter 6 and has been updating the chapter since 1998. Now semi-retired, Mr. Javor was formerly the General Counsel, a senior legal counsel, and an Assistant Deputy Director with the California Department of Housing and Community Development in Sacramento. That affiliation is provided for identification only; opinions in chapter 6 do not represent those of the Department or the State of California.

NANCY J. NEWMAN, B.A., 1980, University of California, Santa Cruz; J.D., 1983, University of California, Davis, School of Law, began annually updating chapter 14 in 1999 and has substantially rewritten the chapter. Ms. Newman is a partner with Hanson Bridgett LLP, San Francisco, specializing in commercial and real estate litigation for more than 30 years. She counsels clients on rights and remedies,and handles litigation to recover money or regain possession of property. She represents landlords in tenant bankruptcies nationwide and has particular expertise using provisional remedies. Ms. Newman has written and spoken on a variety of topics in business and lease litigation, including creative use of creditors’ remedies and bankruptcy strategies.

MOHAMMAD WALIZADEH, B.A., 2000, University of California, Los Angeles; J.D., 2004, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law, began annually updating chapter 14 in 2015. Mr. Walizadeh is a partner with Hanson Bridgett LLP, San Francisco, specializing in real property and commercial litigation. He handles a diverse range of litigation, including lease and contract actions, debt collection cases, bankruptcy matters, class actions, and probate and trust cases. Mr. Walizadeh represents landlords and property owners in national bankruptcy matters. He is active in the Bar Association of San Francisco’s Courthouse Landlord/Tenant Project and has conducted multiple settlement negotiations on behalf of low income tenants defending against evictions.

PAUL E. SMITH, B.A., University of California, Berkeley; J.D., Golden Gate University School of Law, San Francisco, is currently Chief of the Intake Branch, Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), in San Francisco. Before working at HUD, he was the Fair Housing Program Director at Midpeninsula Citizens for Fair Housing. The views expressed in chapter 2 are solely those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Housing and Urban Development or those of the United States Government.

SCOTT A. FREEDMAN, B.A., Tulane University, 2000; J.D., Santa Clara University School of Law, 2005, currently updates chapters 3, 7, and 8. Mr. Freedman is a partner with Zachs & Freedman, San Francisco, where he specializes in litigation, including real estate suits, landlord-tenant matters, construction defect cases, and business and partnership disputes. He is experienced in all aspects of litigation and has significant trial experience. Mr. Freedman is a member of the Small Property Owners of San Francisco (SPOSF), participates in SPOSF’s “ask-a-lawyer” program, and has contributed numerous articles to SPOSF’s newsletter.

PATRICIA H. TIREY, B.A., University of California, Santa Barbara; J.D., University of San Diego Law School, has worked as an annual update author on chapters 1, 11, and 13 since 2001. Ms. Tirey is a senior partner with Kimball, Tirey & St. John, San Diego, specializing in unlawful detainer litigation and appeals, both residential and commercial. She has lectured extensively on the subject of landlord-tenant law to property owners and managers and to other attorneys in MCLE courses.

JAMES MORALES, B.A., 1976, University of California, Berkeley; J.D., 1979, University of Michigan, wrote chapter 2. Mr. Morales was the Director of the San Francisco Redevelopment Agency (SFRA), and is currently employed in the Successor Agency to the SFRA. At the time he wrote this chapter, he was a staff attorney with the National Center for Youth Law, San Francisco.

MICHAEL RAWSON, B.A., 1975, University of California, Santa Barbara; J.D., 1980, Golden Gate University School of Law, San Francisco, was the principal update author of chapter 2 from 1998 to 2010. Mr. Rawson is the director of the California Public Interest Law Project in Oakland, where he handles impact litigation on state and federal land use, community redevelopment, fair housing, and tenant-landlord law. He contributed substantial new material to chapter 2 during the 1998 and 1999 book updates.

TED KIMBALL, B.S., 1973, Arizona State University; J.D., 1977, Western State University, coauthored chapter 3 and for several years (1998–2001) worked as an update author on this edition. Mr. Kimball is a senior partner with Kimball, Tirey & St. John, San Diego, specializing in landlord-tenant law (commercial and residential), leases and related document review, opinion letters, and fair housing counseling.

TERRY R. DOWDALL, B.A., 1973, J.D., 1977, University of Southern California, coauthored chapter 6. Mr. Dowdall is the owner of Dowdall Law Offices, Orange, specializing in representing mobilehome park owners.

E. HOUSTON TOUCEDA, B.A., 1959, B.S., 1960, North Texas State University; L.L.B., 1981, San Fernando Valley College of Law, coauthored chapter 1. Mr. Touceda is the owner of the Law Offices of E. Houston Touceda, Los Angeles.

ROBERT S. COLDREN, B.A., 1975, University of Denver; J.D., 1978, Loyola Law School, worked on the annual updates for chapter 6 from 2004 through 2006. Mr. Coldren is a founding partner in Coldren Law Offices, APLC, Santa Ana, specializing in business and real estate issues, including landlord and tenant disputes, homeowners association law, manufactured housing and RVs, and broker commission disputes. Mr. Coldren enjoys a special reputation in the area of property rights, land use, and regulatory “taking” issues.

LINDA J. LESTER, B.A., 1971, Loyola Marymount University; J.D., 1978, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law, worked on the annual updates for chapter 6 from 2004 through 2006. Ms. Lester, now inactive, was an associate attorney in Hart, King & Coldren, Santa Ana, and represented owners of manufactured housing parks in unlawful detainer actions, including evictions based on substantial annoyance, in bankruptcy court to obtain relief from stay to complete evictions, and in foreclosures and warehousemen’s liens against mobilehomes. She has defended owners in suits based on violations of the Fair Housing Act.

ANDREW J. WIEGEL, B.A., 1972, M.A., 1974, California State University, San Francisco; J.D., 1977, Golden Gate University School of Law, San Francisco, coauthored chapters 9–13 and sometimes consults on annual updates. He is a principal with Wiegel Law Group, PLC, San Francisco, specializing in real property litigation with an emphasis on landlord-tenant law.

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