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2018 Practice Under the California Family Code: Dissolution, Legal Separation, Nullity

Gain a complete command of everything needed to handle dissolution, legal separation, nullity, and parentage actions from both judicial and attorney perspectives—kept current with the latest cases, legislation, and court rules. Includes the companion pamphlet: Case and Legislation Highlights 2018.

 

“Almost everything you need to know, and were afraid to ask, is in that book!”
Barbara E. McNamara, Attorney-at-Law, CFLS, Huntington Beach
“I have my own family law firm, and I always give CEB's book to employees I'm training. I use it on a regular basis. It's an important part of my practice.”
Douglas Robin, Attorney-at-Law, CFLS, Robin, Ferguson & Kempton, Menlo Park

Gain a complete command of everything needed to handle dissolution, legal separation, nullity, and parentage actions from both judicial and attorney perspectives—kept current with the latest cases, legislation, and court rules. Includes the companion pamphlet: Case and Legislation Highlights 2018.

  • Petitioning and responding
  • Handling evidentiary issues and presentations
  • Obtaining temporary and longer orders
    • Child custody, visitation, and parentage
    • Child and spousal support
    • Attorney fees/costs; and DVPA related
  • Modifying and enforcing orders
  • Complying with mandatory disclosure and discovery rules
  • Characterizing, valuing, and dividing community property
  • Recognizing bankruptcy, ethical, immigration, and psychological issues in family law
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“Almost everything you need to know, and were afraid to ask, is in that book!”
Barbara E. McNamara, Attorney-at-Law, CFLS, Huntington Beach
“I have my own family law firm, and I always give CEB's book to employees I'm training. I use it on a regular basis. It's an important part of my practice.”
Douglas Robin, Attorney-at-Law, CFLS, Robin, Ferguson & Kempton, Menlo Park

Gain a complete command of everything needed to handle dissolution, legal separation, nullity, and parentage actions from both judicial and attorney perspectives—kept current with the latest cases, legislation, and court rules. Includes the companion pamphlet: Case and Legislation Highlights 2018.

  • Petitioning and responding
  • Handling evidentiary issues and presentations
  • Obtaining temporary and longer orders
    • Child custody, visitation, and parentage
    • Child and spousal support
    • Attorney fees/costs; and DVPA related
  • Modifying and enforcing orders
  • Complying with mandatory disclosure and discovery rules
  • Characterizing, valuing, and dividing community property
  • Recognizing bankruptcy, ethical, immigration, and psychological issues in family law

1

Achieving Professional Camaraderie in Family Law Practice

M. Dee Samuels, Esq.

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  1.1
  • II.  IMPORTANCE OF WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN FAMILY LAW  1.2
  • III.  AN APPROACH TO CAMARADERIE WITH OTHER FAMILY LAW ATTORNEYS  1.3

2

A View From the Family Law Bench

Hon. Frederick A. Mandabach

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  2.1
  • II.  BE PREPARED  2.2
  • III.  DEVELOP AN APPROPRIATE STYLE  2.3
  • IV.  MAINTAIN A HELPFUL ATTITUDE  2.4
  • V.  WHO IS THE JUDGE?  2.5
  • VI.  KNOW YOUR JUDGE  2.6
  • VII.  KNOW YOUR OPPONENT  2.7
  • VIII.  PRESENTING YOUR EVIDENCE  2.8
  • IX.  PROTECT YOUR CREDIBILITY AND REPUTATION  2.9
  • X.  CONSERVING YOUR TIME AND ENERGY  2.10
  • XI.  WHAT TO DO ABOUT "GAMING"  2.11
  • XII.  LITIGATION STRATEGIES AND ALTERNATIVES TO CONSIDER  2.12
  • XIII.  ASSISTANCE FOR SELF-REPRESENTED LITIGANTS  2.13
  • XIV.  CONCLUSION  2.14

3

Dissolution, Legal Separation, and Nullity

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  3.1
  • II.  APPLICATION OF CHAPTER TO REGISTERED DOMESTIC PARTNERS  3.1A
  • III.  DISSOLUTION AND LEGAL SEPARATION
    • A.  Grounds  3.2
    • B.  Dissolution Residency Requirement; Legal Separation Petition to Avoid Delay  3.3
    • C.  Legal Separation Judgment Requires Consent or Default  3.4
    • D.  Effect of Judgment on Parties' Marital Status  3.5
    • E.  Availability of Other Orders  3.6
  • IV.  NULLITY
    • A.  Grounds
      • 1.  Marriage Must Be Void or Voidable  3.7
      • 2.  Particular Grounds: Void Marriage
        • a.  Incest  3.8
        • b.  Bigamy  3.9
      • 3.  Particular Grounds: Voidable Marriage
        • a.  Minority  3.10
        • b.  Bigamy  3.11
        • c.  Unsound Mind  3.12
        • d.  Fraud  3.13
        • e.  Force  3.14
        • f.  Physical Incapacity  3.15
    • B.  No Statutory Residency Requirement  3.16
    • C.  No Requirement of Consent or Default  3.17
    • D.  Effect of Judgment on Parties' Marital Status  3.18
    • E.  Availability of Other Orders
      • 1.  Putative Marriage Doctrine  3.19
      • 2.  Particular Issues
        • a.  Division of Property  3.20
        • b.  Support for Putative Spouse  3.21
        • c.  Attorney Fees and Costs  3.22
        • d.  Child Custody, Child Support, Restraining Orders, and Restoration of Former Name  3.23
  • V.  SUMMARY DISSOLUTION
    • A.  Statutory Prerequisites  3.24
    • B.  Standard Dissolution Contrasted  3.25
    • C.  Procedures
      • 1.  Discussion  3.26
      • 2.  Form: Joint Petition for Summary Dissolution (Judicial Council Form FL-800)  3.27
      • 3.  Form: Sample Worksheet for Determining Value and Division of Community Property  3.28
      • 4.  Form: Sample Worksheet for Determining Value of Separate Property  3.29
      • 5.  Form: Sample Worksheet for Determining Community Obligations and Their Division  3.30
      • 6.  Form: Marital Property Agreement  3.31
      • 7.  Form: Request for Judgment, Judgment of Dissolution of Marriage, and Notice of Entry of Judgment (Judicial Council Form FL-820)  3.32
      • 8.  Form: Judgment of Dissolution and Notice of Entry of Judgment (Judicial Council Form FL-825)  3.32A
      • 9.  Form: Notice of Revocation of Petition for Summary Dissolution (Judicial Council Form FL-830)  3.33
    • D.  Attorney's Role  3.34
  • VI.  TERMINATING DOMESTIC PARTNERSHIP WITHOUT COURT ACTION  3.34A
  • VII.  CHOOSING FORM OF ACTION
    • A.  Dissolution Versus Legal Separation  3.35
    • B.  Dissolution Versus Nullity  3.36
    • C.  Standard Dissolution Versus Summary Dissolution  3.37
  • VIII.  LIMITED SCOPE REPRESENTATION  3.38
    • A.  Nature of Limited Representation
      • 1.  Undisclosed Representation for Drafting Documents  3.39
      • 2.  Noticed Representation for Court Appearance  3.40
      • 3.  Form: Notice of Limited Scope Representation (Judicial Council Form FL-950)  3.41
    • B.  On Completion of Limited Representation  3.42
  • IX.  USE OF COLLABORATIVE LAW PROCESS  3.43

4

Jurisdiction and Venue

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  4.1
  • II.  JURISDICTION
    • A.  Subject Matter Jurisdiction
      • 1.  General Superior Court Jurisdiction Over All Marital Actions  4.2
      • 2.  Civil Actions Between Spouses Distinguished  4.2A
    • B.  Marital Status  4.3
    • C.  Financial and Property Issues
      • 1.  Child Support, Spousal Support, and Attorney Fees and Costs  4.4
      • 2.  Division of Property  4.5
    • D.  Child Custody and Visitation Issues  4.6
    • E.  Inconvenient Forum Distinguished  4.7
  • III.  VENUE  4.8

5

Property

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  5.1
  • II.  WHAT "PROPERTY" ENCOMPASSES  5.2
  • III.  TYPES OF PROPERTY
    • A.  Community and Separate  5.3
    • B.  Quasi-Community  5.4
    • C.  Quasi-Marital  5.5
    • D.  Joint Tenancy  5.6
    • E.  Tenancy in Common  5.7
    • F.  Partnership  5.8
    • G.  Community Property With Right of Survivorship  5.8A
  • IV.  CHARACTERIZATION
    • A.  Context and Approach  5.9
    • B.  Factors Considered
      • 1.  Time of Acquisition
        • a.  Before Marriage  5.10
        • b.  During Marriage and Before Separation  5.11
        • c.  During Marriage But After Separation  5.12
        • d.  When Property Is "Acquired"  5.13
      • 2.  Method of Acquisition
        • a.  Gift or Inheritance  5.14
        • b.  Rents, Issues, and Profits
          • (1)  General Rule  5.15
          • (2)  Exception: Spouse's Efforts Devoted to Property
            • (a)  Before Separation  5.16
            • (b)  After Separation  5.17
        • c.  Loan or Extension of Credit  5.18
      • 3.  Title
        • a.  "Common Law" Presumption From Form of Title  5.19
        • b.  Property Acquired in Joint Form During Marriage  5.20
        • c.  Property Acquired as "Husband and Wife"  5.21
        • d.  Property Acquired by Married Woman by Written Instrument Before 1975  5.22
      • 4.  Source of Funds
        • a.  Commingling and Tracing  5.23
        • b.  Payments on Separate Property From Community Funds  5.24
          • (1)  Property Acquired Before Marriage  5.25
          • (2)  Property Acquired During Marriage  5.26
      • 5.  Agreements Between the Parties
        • a.  Before Marriage  5.27
        • b.  During Marriage  5.28
      • 6.  Special Rules for Specific Types of Property
        • a.  Personal Injury Damages  5.29
        • b.  Employment-Related Assets
          • (1)  Retirement Benefits
            • (a)  Determining Community and Separate Interests in General  5.30
            • (b)  Defined Benefit Plans  5.30A
            • (c)  Defined Contribution Plans  5.30B
          • (2)  Stock Options  5.31
          • (3)  Disability Pay
            • (a)  Pensions  5.32
            • (b)  Private Insurance  5.33
          • (4)  Termination Pay  5.34
          • (5)  Retiree Health Insurance  5.35
          • (6)  Workers' Compensation Benefits  5.36
          • (7)  Other Miscellaneous Employee Benefits  5.36A
      • 7.  Federal Preemption  5.37
        • a.  Military Retirement Benefits  5.38
        • b.  Social Security Benefits  5.39
        • c.  Military Life Insurance Policies  5.40
  • V.  VALUATION
    • A.  "Value" Defined  5.41
    • B.  When Required  5.42
    • C.  Time
      • 1.  General Rule  5.43
      • 2.  Alternate Valuation Date  5.44
    • D.  Determination of Value  5.45
      • 1.  Methods of Proof Generally
        • a.  Special Evidence Code Rules  5.46
        • b.  Expert Testimony  5.47
        • c.  Owner Testimony  5.48
        • d.  Sales Price  5.49
        • e.  Comparable Sales  5.50
        • f.  Agreements Between Co-Owners  5.51
        • g.  Offers to Buy or Sell  5.52
        • h.  Tax Valuations  5.53
      • 2.  Specific Assets
        • a.  Real Property  5.54
          • (1)  Valuation Methods  5.55
          • (2)  Costs of Sale  5.56
        • b.  Retirement and Other Deferred Compensation
          • (1)  Defined Benefit Plans  5.57
          • (2)  Defined Contribution Plans  5.58
        • c.  Small Businesses and Professional Practices  5.59
          • (1)  Accounts Receivable  5.60
          • (2)  Goodwill  5.61
          • (3)  Closely Held Corporations  5.62
        • d.  Stock  5.63
        • e.  Promissory Notes  5.64
        • f.  Life Insurance
          • (1)  Term Insurance  5.65
          • (2)  Whole Life Insurance  5.66
        • g.  Automobiles  5.67
        • h.  Furniture, Furnishings, and Tools  5.68
  • VI.  DIVISION
    • A.  Extent of Court's Authority  5.69
    • B.  Equal-Division Requirement
      • 1.  Basic Rule  5.70
      • 2.  Exceptions to Basic Rule
        • a.  Agreement of Parties  5.71
        • b.  Deliberate Misappropriation  5.72
        • c.  Low-Asset Case in Which One Party Cannot Be Located  5.73
        • d.  Personal Injury Damages  5.74
        • e.  Particular Debts  5.75
        • f.  Award of Retirement Benefits to Victim of Attempted Murder by Spouse; Related Law  5.76
        • g.  Judgment for Civil Damages for Domestic Violence by One Spouse Against Other  5.76A
      • 3.  Statutory Scheme for Assignment of Debts  5.77
        • a.  Incurred Before Marriage  5.78
        • b.  Incurred During Marriage and Before Separation  5.79
        • c.  Incurred After Separation but Before Entry of Judgment  5.80
        • d.  Incurred After Entry of Judgment but Before Termination of Marital Status  5.81
        • e.  Reimbursement for Debts Paid After Separation but Before Trial  5.82
        • f.  Special Rule: Education Loans  5.83
        • g.  Special Rule: Tort Liability Incurred While Acting Other Than for Benefit of Community  5.84
    • C.  Methods  5.85
      • 1.  In-Kind Division  5.86
      • 2.  Asset Distribution (or "Cash Out")  5.87
      • 3.  Sale and Division of Proceeds  5.88
      • 4.  Continued Co-Ownership as Tenants in Common  5.89
    • D.  Specific Assets
      • 1.  Family Residence: Deferred Sale  5.90
      • 2.  Out-of-State Real Property  5.91
      • 3.  Defined Benefit Retirement Plan
        • a.  Methods of Division  5.92
        • b.  Gillmore Election  5.93
      • 4.  Business or Professional Practice  5.94
    • E.  Reimbursement
      • 1.  Separate Property Contributions to Acquisition of Community Property  5.95
      • 2.  Separate Property Contributions to Acquisition of Other Spouse's Separate Property Estate  5.95A
      • 3.  Community Property Contributions to Education or Training  5.96
      • 4.  "Liability of Marital Property" Statutes  5.97
      • 5.  Separate Property Used for Community Purposes
        • a.  Before Separation  5.98
        • b.  After Separation
          • (1)  To Pay Community Debts  5.99
          • (2)  To Improve Community Property  5.100
      • 6.  Community Property Used for Separate Purposes  5.101
      • 7.  Community Property Payments in Connection With Separate Property Personal Injury Claim  5.102
    • F.  Tax Aspects
      • 1.  Consideration by Court  5.103
      • 2.  Nonrecognition of Gain or Loss on Transfers Between Parties "Incident to Divorce"  5.104
      • 3.  Exclusion or Deferral of Gain on Sale of Family Home to Third Party
        • a.  Current Law  5.105
        • b.  Former Law  5.106
      • 4.  Exemptions From Property Tax Reassessment and Documentary Transfer Tax  5.107
      • 5.  Disposition of Retirement Benefits  5.108
      • 6.  Whether Court May Order Parties to File Joint Returns  5.109

6

Spousal Support

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  6.1
  • II.  TEMPORARY SUPPORT
    • A.  When Available  6.2
    • B.  Determining Amount
      • 1.  Approach Generally  6.3
      • 2.  Use of Guideline Formula  6.4
    • C.  Duration  6.5
    • D.  Modification, Termination, or Set Aside  6.6
  • III.  LONG-TERM SUPPORT
    • A.  Statutory Authority  6.7
    • B.  Considerations in Making Award  6.8
      • 1.  Must Be Based on Marital Standard of Living  6.9
      • 2.  Circumstances Court Must Consider  6.10
    • C.  Retention of Jurisdiction  6.11
    • D.  Forms of Orders  6.12
      • 1.  Modifiable Amount for Indefinite Term  6.13
      • 2.  Modifiable Amount for Definite Term  6.14
      • 3.  Modifiable Amount for Specified Period; Reservation of Jurisdiction  6.15
      • 4.  Modifiable Amount for Specified Period; Burden on Supported Party to Avoid Termination  6.16
      • 5.  Decreasing Amounts  6.17
      • 6.  No Amount Payable Now; Reservation of Jurisdiction  6.18
      • 7.  Jurisdiction Terminated  6.19
    • E.  Modification
      • 1.  Statutory Authority  6.20
      • 2.  Limitations on Court's Authority
        • a.  Judgment in Short-Term Marriage That Neither Awards Support Nor Reserves Jurisdiction  6.21
        • b.  Parties' Agreement Precluding Modification  6.22
        • c.  Order for Definite Term  6.23
      • 3.  Change of Circumstances Requirement  6.24
      • 4.  Effect of Particular Changes
        • a.  Supporting Party's Ability to Pay  6.25
        • b.  Supported Party's Nonmarital Cohabitation  6.26
        • c.  Termination of Child Support  6.26A
    • F.  Termination  6.27
  • IV.  TAX ASPECTS
    • A.  Requirements for Payments to Be Includable in Payee's Gross Income and Deductible by Payer  6.28
      • 1.  Payments in Cash  6.29
      • 2.  Received by or on Behalf of Spouse or Former Spouse  6.30
      • 3.  Received Under Judgment, Written Agreement, or Order  6.31
      • 4.  Not Designated as Nontaxable  6.32
      • 5.  If Judgment Entered, Parties Must Not Be Members of Same Household  6.33
      • 6.  No Liability for Payments or Substitute for Payments After Payee's Death  6.34
      • 7.  Not Fixed as Payable for Child Support; Possibility of Family Support  6.35
      • 8.  No Joint Return  6.36
    • B.  Recapture of Front-Loaded Spousal Support  6.37

7

Child Custody and Visitation

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  7.1
  • II.  JURISDICTION  7.2
    • A.  Marital Actions Generally  7.3
    • B.  Interstate and International Conflicts
      • 1.  Governing Law
        • a.  Interstate  7.4
        • b.  International
          • (1)  UCCJEA and Other Acts May Apply  7.4A
          • (2)  Hague Convention on Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction  7.4B
          • (3)  Criminal Sanctions  7.4C
      • 2.  Initial Custody Determination
        • a.  Bases for Jurisdiction  7.5
          • (1)  California Is Child's Home State  7.6
          • (2)  No Other State Exercising Jurisdiction; California Has Significant Connection and Substantial Evidence  7.7
          • (3)  All Courts of Other States With Jurisdiction Have Deferred to California  7.8
          • (4)  Jurisdiction in No Other State  7.9
          • (5)  Emergency Custody Determination  7.9A
        • b.  Declining Exercise of Jurisdiction  7.10
          • (1)  Proceeding Pending in Another State  7.11
          • (2)  Inconvenient Forum  7.12
          • (3)  Petitioner's Unjustifiable Conduct  7.13
      • 3.  Modification of Custody Determination
        • a.  Bases for Jurisdiction  7.14
        • b.  Declining Exercise of Jurisdiction  7.15
  • III.  CUSTODY
    • A.  Types of Orders  7.16
      • 1.  Physical Custody  7.17
      • 2.  Legal Custody  7.18
    • B.  Considerations in Making Awards
      • 1.  Statutory Guidelines
        • a.  Frequent and Continuing Contact With Both Parents  7.19
        • b.  Child's Best Interest  7.20
        • c.  No Preference for Sole or Joint Custody in Contested Proceedings  7.21
        • d.  Child's Health, Safety, and Welfare  7.22
        • e.  Abuse; Domestic Violence  7.23
        • f.  Contact With Parents  7.24
        • g.  Contact With Siblings  7.24A
        • h.  Use of Controlled Substances or Alcohol  7.25
        • i.  Parent's Gender  7.26
        • j.  Child's Preference  7.27
        • k.  Person Required to Register as Sex Offender or Convicted of Child Abuse Crime  7.28
        • l.  Person Convicted of Rape  7.28A
        • m.  Person Convicted of First-Degree Murder  7.28B
        • n.  Existing Restraining Orders  7.29
        • o.  Award to Nonparent if Parental Custody Detrimental to Child  7.29A
      • 2.  Other Factors
        • a.  Child's Need for Stability and Continuity; "Move-Away" Cases  7.30
          • (1)  When Parent Seeking to Move Has Sole Physical Custody  7.30A
          • (2)  When Parent Seeking to Move Shares Joint Physical Custody  7.30B
        • b.  Emotional Bonds  7.31
        • c.  Race  7.32
        • d.  Sexual Conduct  7.33
        • e.  Sexual Orientation  7.34
        • f.  Religious Practices  7.35
        • g.  Physical Handicap  7.36
        • h.  Disparity of Incomes  7.37
        • i.  Parents' Agreement  7.38
    • C.  Mediation
      • 1.  When Required  7.39
      • 2.  Purposes  7.40
      • 3.  Mediator  7.41
      • 4.  Confidentiality  7.42
      • 5.  Exclusion of Counsel  7.43
      • 6.  Interview of Child  7.44
      • 7.  Special Provisions for Parties With History of Domestic Violence  7.45
      • 8.  Mediator's Recommendations  7.46
      • 9.  Agreements  7.47
      • 10.  Uniform Standards of Practice  7.48
    • D.  Evaluation and Report  7.49
    • E.  Court-Ordered Mental Health Examinations  7.50
    • F.  Appointment of Attorney for Child  7.51
    • G.  Court-Ordered Counseling  7.52
    • H.  Calendar Preference  7.53
    • I.  Testimony by Electronic Means in Immigration Deportation or Detention Cases  7.53A
    • J.  Notice of Change of Residence  7.54
    • K.  Accusations of Abuse or Neglect  7.55
    • L.  Financial Compensation for Noncompliance With Order  7.56
    • M.  Birth Certificate May Be Required  7.57
  • IV.  VISITATION
    • A.  Noncustodial Parent  7.58
    • B.  Stepparent, Grandparent, and Sibling  7.58A
  • V.  MODIFICATION
    • A.  Authority  7.59
    • B.  Change of Circumstances  7.60
  • VI.  TERMINATION  7.61
  • VII.  CHILDREN'S SURNAMES  7.62
  • VIII.  TAX ASPECTS  7.63
  • IX.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Declaration of Counsel for a Child Regarding Qualifications (Judicial Council Form FL-322)  7.64
    • B.  Form: Order Appointing Counsel for a Child (Judicial Council Form FL-323)  7.65
    • C.  Form: Order Appointing Child Custody Evaluator (Judicial Council Form FL-327)  7.66

8

Child Support

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  8.1
  • II.  AUTHORITY
    • A.  General Authority for Parental Support  8.2
    • B.  Limitations on Parents' Rights Regarding Payment of Support  8.3
    • C.  Support by Stepparents and Other Third Parties  8.4
    • D.  Treatment of Child Support Arrearages  8.5
  • III.  PARENTAGE ISSUES AND SUPPORT  8.6
  • IV.  STATEWIDE UNIFORM GUIDELINE  8.7
    • A.  Calculation of Guideline Formula Amount  8.8
      • 1.  Preliminary Determinations
        • a.  Net Monthly Disposable Income  8.9
          • (1)  Gross Income
            • (a)  Items Generally Included in Gross Income  8.10
            • (b)  Items Generally Excluded From Gross Income  8.10A
            • (c)  Consideration of Earning Capacity in Determining Income  8.10B
          • (2)  Deductions from Gross Income  8.11
        • b.  Respective Periods of Primary Physical Responsibility for Children  8.12
      • 2.  Application of Formula  8.13
    • B.  Low-Income Adjustment  8.14
    • C.  Rebuttable Presumption That Formula Amount Is Correct Amount  8.15
    • D.  Factors on Which Rebuttal May Be Based  8.16
      • 1.  Parties' Stipulation  8.17
      • 2.  Rental Value of Family Residence Subject to Deferred Sale Order  8.18
      • 3.  Payer's Extraordinarily High Income  8.19
      • 4.  Parent Not Contributing at Level Commensurate With Custodial Time  8.20
      • 5.  Application of Formula Amount Would Be Unjust or Inappropriate Due to Special Circumstances  8.21
    • E.  Consideration of Income of Subsequent Spouse or Nonmarital Partner  8.22
    • F.  Addition of Amounts for Related Expenses  8.23
      • 1.  Mandatory Additions  8.24
      • 2.  Discretionary Additions  8.25
    • G.  Adjustment to Accommodate Seasonal or Fluctuating Income  8.26
    • H.  Family Support  8.27
    • I.  Required Findings  8.28
  • V.  NOTIFICATION REGARDING EMPLOYMENT  8.29
  • VI.  REQUIRED ATTENDANCE AT JOB TRAINING AND PLACEMENT PROGRAMS  8.30
  • VII.  MODIFICATION
    • A.  Standard Orders  8.31
    • B.  Military Servicemembers  8.31A
  • VIII.  TERMINATION  8.32
  • IX.  SET ASIDE  8.32A
    • A.  Requisite Findings for Granting of Relief  8.32B
    • B.  Relief Available  8.32C
    • C.  Grounds and Time Limits  8.32D
    • D.  No Effect on Specified Family Code Sections  8.32E
    • E.  Form: Request for Hearing and Application to Set Aside Support Order Under Fam C Section 3691 (Judicial Council Form FL-360)  8.32F
    • F.  Form: Responsive Declaration to Application to Set Aside Support Order (Judicial Council Form FL-365)  8.32G
    • G.  Form: Order After Hearing on Motion to Set Aside Support Order (Judicial Council Form FL-367)  8.32H
  • X.  HEALTH INSURANCE  8.33
  • XI.  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHILD SUPPORT AND VISITATION  8.34
  • XII.  TAX ASPECTS  8.35

8A

Parentage

Diane M. Goodman, Esq.

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  8A.1
  • II.  GENERAL PARENTAGE CONCEPTS, LEGAL EFFECTS, AND COURT PROCEEDINGS
    • A.  Terminology: "Parentage" Versus "Paternity"  8A.2
    • B.  How Parental Status May Arise  8A.3
    • C.  Legal Effects of Parentage  8A.4
    • D.  Court Proceedings in Which Parentage May Be at Issue
      • 1.  Actions Under UPA to Determine Parentage  8A.5
      • 2.  Dissolution, Legal Separation, Nullity
        • a.  Married Couples  8A.6
        • b.  Registered Domestic Partners  8A.7
      • 3.  Adoption Proceedings  8A.8
      • 4.  Dependency Proceedings  8A.9
      • 5.  Probate Proceedings  8A.10
      • 6.  Domestic Violence (DVPA) Proceedings  8A.10A
  • III.  ADOPTION AND CONSTRUCTION OF CALIFORNIA'S UPA
    • A.  UPA's Adoption in California  8A.11
    • B.  Importance of Case Law in Construing UPA
      • 1.  Role of Common Law Authority  8A.12
      • 2.  Case Law Trends
        • a.  Recognition of Existing Relationships Over Biology  8A.13
        • b.  Applying UPA in Gender-Neutral Fashion  8A.14
  • IV.  CLASSIFICATION OF PARENTS BASED ON PRESUMPTIONS AND OTHER FACTORS AND RELATIONSHIP TO STANDING  8A.15
    • A.  Persons Deemed "Presumed" Parents; Rebuttal and Exceptions
      • 1.  "Conclusive" Presumption Based on Fam C §7540
        • a.  Presumption Described  8A.16
        • b.  Rebutting Presumption; Order for Genetic Tests
          • (1)  Statutory Authorization Under Fam C §7541  8A.17
          • (2)  Order for Genetic Tests Under Fam C §§7550€“7558
            • (a)  Introduction  8A.18
            • (b)  Paternity as Relevant Fact  8A.19
            • (c)  Appointment of Examiners  8A.20
            • (d)  Demand for Additional Examiners; Testimony  8A.21
            • (e)  Sanctions for Noncompliance  8A.22
      • 2.  Presumptions Based on Fam C §§7610€“7611 and Related Statutes
        • a.  Maternity Under Fam C §7610(a) and Fam C §7650(b)  8A.23
        • b.  Presumptions of Fam C §7611 and Rebuttal
          • (1)  Presumptions Described  8A.24
          • (2)  Rebuttal and Treatment of Conflicting Presumptions  8A.25
      • 3.  Presumption Based on Voluntary Declaration of Paternity  8A.26
      • 4.  Statutory Exceptions to Presumptions
        • a.  Child Conceived as Result of Rape  8A.27
        • b.  Assisted Reproduction Procedure  8A.28
        • c.  Written Promise of Support by Alleged or Presumed Parent  8A.29
    • B.  "Alleged" Parents   8A.30
    • C.  Kelsey S. and Quasi-Presumed Parents  8A.30A
    • D.  "Natural" Versus "Biological" Parents  8A.31
    • E.  Other Classifications of Parents Distinguished
      • 1.  "De Facto" Parents in Dependency Cases  8A.32
      • 2.  "Parentage by Estoppel"  8A.33
  • V.  PARENTAGE ISSUES ARISING FROM ASSISTED REPRODUCTION AND SURROGACY
    • A.  Assisted Reproduction Agreements  8A.34
    • B.  Surrogacy
      • 1.  Traditional Surrogacy  8A.35
      • 2.  Gestational Surrogacy  8A.36
  • VI.  PROCEDURAL CONSIDERATIONS IN BRINGING UPA ACTIONS
    • A.  Jurisdiction and Venue
      • 1.  Jurisdiction  8A.37
      • 2.  Venue  8A.38
    • B.  Standing to Bring Action and Related Issues
      • 1.  Standing Rules Summarized; Naming Potential Parties  8A.39
      • 2.  Importance of Including All Necessary Parties; Joinder and Notice  8A.40
      • 3.  Consolidation  8A.41
      • 4.  Parties' Agreement No Bar to Action  8A.42
    • C.  Additional Considerations in Surrogacy and Assisted Reproduction Cases  8A.43
    • D.  Timing of Action in Relation to Child's Birth  8A.44
    • E.  Role of Genetic Testing; Information on Vacating or Setting Aside Judgment  8A.45
    • F.  Confidentiality of Hearing  8A.46
    • G.  Attorney Fees and Costs  8A.47
    • H.  Effect of Judgment; Contents  8A.48
    • I.  Child's Name Change and Birth Certificate  8A.49
  • VII.  PATERNITY SET ASIDES UNDER FAM C §§7645€“7649.5  8A.50
  • VIII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Petition to Establish Parental Relationship (Uniform Parentage) (Judicial Council Form FL-200)  8A.51
    • B.  Form: Summons (Parentage–Custody and Support) (Judicial Council Form FL-210)  8A.52
    • C.  Form: Response to Petition to Establish Parental Relationship (Uniform Parentage) (Judicial Council Form FL-220)  8A.53
    • D.  Form: Declaration for Default or Uncontested Judgment (Uniform Parentage, Custody and Support) (Judicial Council Form FL-230)  8A.54
    • E.  Form: Advisement and Waiver of Rights re: Establishment of Parental Relationship (Uniform Parentage) (Judicial Council Form FL-235)  8A.55
    • F.  Form: Stipulation for Entry of Judgment re: Establishment of Parental Relationship (Parentage) (Judicial Council Form FL-240)  8A.56
    • G.  Form: Judgment (Uniform Parentage–Custody and Support) (Judicial Council Form FL-250)  8A.57

9

Attorney Fees and Costs

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  9.1
  • II.  AUTHORITY  9.2
  • III.  TYPES OF AWARDS
    • A.  Based on Relative Circumstances of Parties  9.3
    • B.  As Sanction for Frustrating Policy of Law to Promote Settlement and Encourage Cooperation or for Violation of Court Rules  9.4
    • C.  As Sanction for Bad Faith Actions or Tactics  9.5
    • D.  In Support Enforcement Proceedings  9.6
    • E.  As Sanction for Attempted Murder of Spouse  9.7
  • IV.  AWARD PAYER  9.8
  • V.  AWARD PAYEE  9.9
  • VI.  ATTORNEY'S REAL PROPERTY LIEN
    • A.  Discussion  9.10
    • B.  Form: Notice of Family Law Attorney's Real Property Lien  9.11
  • VII.  TAX ASPECTS  9.12
  • VIII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Request for Attorney's Fees and Costs Attachment (Judicial Council Form FL-319)  9.13
    • B.  Form: Supporting Declaration for Attorney's Fees and Costs Attachment (Judicial Council Form FL-158)  9.14
    • C.  Form: Attorney's Fees and Costs Order Attachment (Judicial Council Form FL-346)  9.15

10

Petition, Response, and Related Matters

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  10.1
  • II.  INITIATING THE ACTION
    • A.  Petition and Supplemental Papers
      • 1.  Petition
        • a.  Discussion  10.2
          • (1)  Court  10.3
          • (2)  Parties  10.4
          • (3)  Nature of Action and Parties' Legal Relationship (Caption and Item 1)  10.5
          • (4)  Residence (Item 2)  10.6
          • (5)  Statistical Facts (Item 3)  10.7
          • (6)  Minor Children (Item 4)  10.8
          • (7)  Legal Grounds (Item 5) and Other Orders Requested by Petitioner  10.8A
            • (a)  Child Custody, Visitation, and Support (Items 6€“7)  10.8B
            • (b)  Spousal or Domestic Partner Support (Item 8)  10.8C
            • (c)  Separate Property (Item 9)  10.9
            • (d)  Community and Quasi-Community Property (Item 10)  10.10
            • (e)  Other Requests and Acknowledgment of Restraining Orders (Items 11€“12)  10.11
        • b.  Form: Petition–Marriage/Domestic Partnership (Judicial Council Form FL-100)  10.12
        • c.  Form: Petition–Domestic Partnership/Marriage (Judicial Council Form FL-103) [Deleted]  10.12A
      • 2.  Summons
        • a.  Discussion  10.13
        • b.  Form: Summons (Judicial Council Form FL-110)  10.14
      • 3.  Confidential Counseling Statement
        • a.  Discussion  10.15
        • b.  Form: Confidential Counseling Statement (Marriage) (Judicial Council Form 1284) [Deleted]  10.16
      • 4.  Declaration Under Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction Act
        • a.  Discussion  10.17
        • b.  Form: Declaration Under Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act (Judicial Council Form FL-105/GC-120)  10.18
        • c.  Form: Attachment to Declaration Under Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act (Judicial Council Form FL-105(A)/GC-120(A))  10.18A
      • 5.  Property Declaration
        • a.  Discussion  10.19
        • b.  Form: Property Declaration (Judicial Council Form FL-160)  10.20
        • c.  Form: Continuation of Property Declaration (Judicial Council Form FL-161)  10.21
      • 6.  Using Request for Order for Temporary Orders  10.22
      • 7.  Lis Pendens
        • a.  Discussion  10.23
        • b.  Form: Lis Pendens  10.24
      • 8.  Local Requirements  10.25
    • B.  Service of Process  10.26
      • 1.  Papers to Be Served  10.27
      • 2.  Effect of Failure to Make Proper Service  10.28
      • 3.  Who May Serve  10.29
      • 4.  Persons on Whom Summons May Be Served  10.30
      • 5.  Manner of Service
        • a.  Within California
          • (1)  Personal Service  10.31
          • (2)  Substituted Service  10.32
          • (3)  Service by Mail and Acknowledgment of Receipt
            • (a)  Discussion  10.33
            • (b)  Form: Notice and Acknowledgment of Receipt (Judicial Council Form FL-117)  10.34
          • (4)  Service by Publication
            • (a)  Discussion  10.35
            • (b)  Form: Application for Order for Publication of Summons  10.36
            • (c)  Form: Declaration in Support of Application for Order for Publication of Summons  10.37
            • (d)  Form: Order for Publication of Summons  10.38
        • b.  Outside California
          • (1)  Within United States  10.39
            • (a)  Service by Mail and Return Receipt  10.40
            • (b)  Service as Prescribed by Local Law  10.41
          • (2)  Outside United States  10.42
    • C.  Return of Service
      • 1.  Discussion  10.43
      • 2.  Form: Proof of Service of Summons (Judicial Council Form FL-115)  10.44
  • III.  RESPONDING TO PETITION
    • A.  Response and Supplemental Papers
      • 1.  Response
        • a.  Discussion  10.45
          • (1)  Nature of Action  10.46
          • (2)  Parties' Legal Relationship, Residence Requirements, and Statistical Facts (Items 1€“3)  10.47
          • (3)  Minor Children (Item 4)  10.48
          • (4)  Legal Grounds (Item 5)  10.49
          • (5)  Specific Types of Orders Requested (Items 6€“10)  10.50
          • (6)  Other Requests (Item 11)  10.51
        • b.  Form: Response–Marriage/Domestic Partnership (Judicial Council Form FL-120)  10.52
        • c.  Form: Response–Domestic Partnership/Marriage (Judicial Council Form FL-123) [Deleted]  10.52A
      • 2.  Confidential Counseling Statement  10.53
      • 3.  Declaration Under Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction Act  10.54
      • 4.  Property Declaration  10.55
      • 5.  Using Request for Order for Temporary Orders  10.56
      • 6.  Moving for Other Relief  10.57
      • 7.  Lis Pendens  10.58
      • 8.  Local Requirements  10.59
    • B.  Motions Available to Respondent Using Request for Order  10.60
      • 1.  Motion to Quash Service of Summons  10.61
      • 2.  Motion to Quash Proceeding  10.62
      • 3.  Motion for Change of Venue  10.63
      • 4.  Motion to Stay or Dismiss Action on Ground of Inconvenient Forum  10.64
      • 5.  Motion to Strike  10.65
  • IV.  MOTIONS AVAILABLE TO PETITIONER USING REQUEST FOR ORDER
    • A.  Motion to Quash Respondent's Request for Affirmative Relief  10.66
    • B.  Motion to Strike  10.67
  • V.  AMENDED AND SUPPLEMENTAL PLEADINGS  10.68
  • VI.  PROCEEDING IN FORMA PAUPERIS
    • A.  Applications for Fee Waivers; Reimbursement  10.69
    • B.  Form: Request to Waive Court Fees (Judicial Council Form FW-001)  10.70
    • C.  Form: Order on Court Fee Waiver (Superior Court) (Judicial Council Form FW-003)  10.71
  • VII.  RIGHT TO REQUEST SEALING OF PLEADINGS CONTAINING FINANCIAL INFORMATION
    • A.  Discussion  10.72
    • B.  Form: Ex Parte Application and Order to Seal Financial Forms (Judicial Council Form FL-316) [Deleted]  10.73

11

Temporary Orders

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  11.1
  • II.  AVAILABLE ORDERS
    • A.  Consideration of Procedural Context  11.1A
    • B.  Child Custody and Visitation  11.2
    • C.  Child Support  11.3
    • D.  Spousal Support  11.4
    • E.  Attorney Fees and Costs  11.5
    • F.  Protective Orders  11.6
    • G.  Property Restraints  11.7
    • H.  Property Control  11.8
    • I.  Payment of Debts  11.9
    • J.  Other Relief  11.10
  • III.  METHODS OF OBTAINING ORDERS
    • A.  Use of DVPA
      • 1.  Relation of DVPA to Marital Proceedings  11.10A
      • 2.  Persons Covered by DVPA Remedies  11.10B
    • B.  Automatic Temporary Restraining Orders (ATROs) on Commencement of Marital Action  11.11
    • C.  Stipulations
      • 1.  Using Stipulations  11.12
      • 2.  Form: Stipulation and Order  11.13
      • 3.  Form: Stipulation to Establish or Modify Child Support and Order (Judicial Council Form FL-350)  11.14
    • D.  Ex Parte Motion  11.15
    • E.  Noticed Motion
      • 1.  Moving Party's Papers
        • a.  Using Request for Order as Order to Show Cause or Notice of Motion  11.16
        • b.  Preparation of Papers
          • (1)  Completion of Request for Order as Order to Show Cause
            • (a)  Discussion  11.17
            • (b)  Form: Request for Order (Judicial Council Form FL-300)  11.18
          • (2)  Completion of Request for Order as Notice of Motion
            • (a)  Discussion  11.19
            • (b)  Form: Notice of Motion (Judicial Council Form FL-301) [Deleted]  11.20
          • (3)  Specific Orders Requested and Supporting Declaration
            • (a)  Discussion  11.21
            • (b)  Form: Application for Order and Supporting Declaration (Judicial Council Form FL-310) [Deleted]  11.22
          • (4)  Temporary Restraining Orders
            • (a)  Discussion  11.23
            • (b)  Form: Temporary Emergency Court Orders (Judicial Council Form FL-305)  11.24
            • (c)  Form: Declaration Regarding Notice and Service of Request for Temporary Emergency (Ex Parte) Orders (Judicial Council Form FL-303)   11.24A
          • (5)  Income and Expense Declaration
            • (a)  Discussion  11.25
            • (b)  Form: Income and Expense Declaration (Judicial Council Form FL-150)  11.26
            • (c)  Income Information [Deleted]  11.27
            • (d)  Expense Information [Deleted]  11.28
            • (e)  Child Support Information [Deleted]  11.29
          • (6)  Simplified Financial Statement
            • (a)  Discussion  11.30
            • (b)  Form: Financial Statement (Simplified) (Judicial Council Form FL-155)  11.31
          • (7)  Request for Protective Order
            • (a)  Discussion  11.31A
            • (b)  Form: Request for Domestic Violence Restraining Order (Domestic Violence Prevention) (Judicial Council Form DV-100)  11.31B
          • (8)  Notice of Hearing and Temporary Restraining Order
            • (a)  Discussion  11.31C
            • (b)  Form: Notice of Court Hearing (Domestic Violence Prevention) (Judicial Council Form DV-109)  11.31D
            • (c)  Form: Temporary Restraining Order (CLETS–TRO) (Domestic Violence Prevention) (Judicial Council Form DV-110)  11.31E
          • (9)  Memorandum of Points and Authorities  11.32
          • (10)  Declaration Regarding Notice When Ex Parte Relief Sought  11.33
        • c.  Service and Filing  11.34
      • 2.  Responding Party's Papers
        • a.  Preparation of Papers
          • (1)  Responsive Declarations
            • (a)  Discussion  11.35
            • (b)  Form: Responsive Declaration to Request for Order (Judicial Council Form FL-320)  11.36
            • (c)  Form: Response to Request for Domestic Violence Restraining Order (Judicial Council Form DV-120)  11.36A
          • (2)  Income and Expense Declaration  11.37
        • b.  Service and Filing  11.38
          • (1)  Form: Stipulation Acknowledging Service of Papers and Waiving Service and Filing Requirement  11.39
          • (2)  Form: Application for Order Shortening Time and Order  11.40
      • 3.  Moving Party's Reply Papers  11.41
      • 4.  Hearing
        • a.  Continuances  11.42
          • (1)  Form: Stipulation for Continuance  11.43
          • (2)  Form: Application for Continuance and Order  11.44
        • b.  "Meet and Confer" Requirements; Production of Financial Documents  11.45
        • c.  Peremptory Challenge of Hearing Judge
          • (1)  Discussion  11.46
          • (2)  Form: Peremptory Challenge  11.47
        • d.  Presence of "Support Person" When Protective Orders Sought  11.48
        • e.  Conduct of Hearing
          • (1)  Temporary Judge as Hearing Officer  11.49
          • (2)  Time Allotted  11.50
          • (3)  Procedure  11.51
      • 5.  Order After Hearing
        • a.  Statement of Decision; Findings  11.52
        • b.  Form of Order  11.53
          • (1)  Form: Restraining Order After Hearing (CLETS–OAH) (Order of Protection) (Judicial Council Form DV-130)  11.54
          • (2)  Form: Findings and Order After Hearing (Judicial Council Form FL-340)  11.55
          • (3)  Form: Child Custody and Visitation (Parenting Time) Order Attachment (Judicial Council Form FL-341)  11.56
          • (4)  Form: Supervised Visitation Order (Judicial Council Form FL-341(A))  11.57
          • (5)  Form: Child Support Information and Order Attachment (Judicial Council Form FL-342)  11.58
          • (6)  Form: Non-Guideline Child Support Findings Attachment (Judicial Council Form FL-342(A))  11.58A
          • (7)  Form: Spousal, Partner, or Family Support Order Attachment (Judicial Council Form FL-343)  11.59
          • (8)  Form: Property Order Attachment to Findings and Order After Hearing (Judicial Council Form FL-344)  11.60
          • (9)  Form: Other Orders (Domestic Violence Prevention) (Judicial Council Form DV-170) [Deleted]  11.61
        • c.  Filing and Service  11.62
        • d.  Form: Proof of Personal Service (CLETS) (Domestic Violence Prevention) (Judicial Council Form DV-200)  11.63
        • e.  Form: Proof of Service by Mail (CLETS) (Domestic Violence Prevention) (Judicial Council Form DV-250)  11.63A
        • f.  Form: Proof of Personal Service (With Information Sheet) (Judicial Council Form FL-330)  11.63B
        • g.  Form: Proof of Service by Mail (With Information Sheet) (Judicial Council Form FL-335)  11.63C
        • h.  Child Support Case Registry Form
          • (1)  Discussion  11.63D
          • (2)  Form: Child Support Case Registry Form (Judicial Council Form FL-191)  11.63E
  • IV.  DURATION  11.64
  • V.  ATTACKS ON TEMPORARY ORDERS  11.65

12

Joinder

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  12.1
  • II.  JOINDER OVERVIEW  12.2
    • A.  Parties Who May Be Joined  12.3
    • B.  Requirement of a Pleading  12.4
    • C.  Jurisdiction and Venue  12.5
    • D.  Removal to Federal Court  12.6
  • III.  JOINDER OF EMPLOYEE BENEFIT PLANS  12.7
    • A.  State Law and Federal Preemption  12.8
    • B.  Whether to Request Joinder
      • 1.  Notice of Adverse Interest  12.9
      • 2.  Plans Governed by ERISA  12.10
      • 3.  State Pension Plans  12.11
      • 4.  Federal Pension Plans  12.12
      • 5.  Nonresident Pension Plans  12.13
      • 6.  Form: Retirement Plan Joinder–Information Sheet (Judicial Council Form FL-318-INFO)  12.13A
      • 7.  Enforcement of Support Orders  12.14
    • C.  Procedure for Joinder  12.15
      • 1.  Request and Order for Joinder
        • a.  Discussion  12.16
        • b.  Form: Request for Joinder of Employee Benefit Plan and Order (Judicial Council Form FL-372)  12.17
      • 2.  Pleading on Joinder–Employee Benefit Plan
        • a.  Discussion  12.18
        • b.  Form: Pleading on Joinder–Employee Benefit Plan (Judicial Council Form FL-370)  12.19
      • 3.  Service of Summons and Other Documents
        • a.  Discussion  12.20
        • b.  Form: Summons (Joinder) (Judicial Council Form FL-375)  12.21
      • 4.  Notice of Appearance and Response
        • a.  Discussion  12.22
        • b.  Form: Notice of Appearance and Response of Employee Benefit Plan (Judicial Council Form FL-374)  12.23
      • 5.  Default  12.24
      • 6.  Procedure After Appearance or Default  12.25
  • IV.  JOINDER OF PARTIES OTHER THAN EMPLOYEE BENEFIT PLANS
    • A.  Parties Who May Be Joined  12.26
      • 1.  Interest Claimed in Marital Property  12.27
      • 2.  Claim of Custody or Visitation Rights  12.28
        • a.  Stepparent Visitation  12.29
        • b.  Grandparent Visitation  12.30
      • 3.  Person Served With Restraining Order  12.31
      • 4.  Indispensable or Necessary Party  12.32
    • B.  Procedure for Joinder
      • 1.  When to Request Joinder  12.33
      • 2.  Notice of Motion and Declaration for Joinder
        • a.  Discussion  12.34
          • (1)  Notice of Motion  12.35
          • (2)  Declaration for Joinder  12.36
        • b.  Form: Notice of Motion and Declaration for Joinder (Judicial Council Form FL-371)  12.37
      • 3.  Pleading
        • a.  Discussion  12.38
        • b.  Form: Complaint for Joinder  12.39
      • 4.  Service of Notice of Motion and Other Documents  12.40
      • 5.  Responsive Declaration
        • a.  Discussion  12.41
        • b.  Form: Responsive Declaration to Motion for Joinder and Consent Order of Joinder (Judicial Council Form FL-373)  12.42
      • 6.  Hearing on Contested Motion  12.43
      • 7.  Order After Hearing  12.44
      • 8.  Service of Summons and Other Documents  12.45

13

Discovery and Declarations of Disclosure

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  13.1
  • II.  DISCOVERY
    • A.  Uses
      • 1.  Temporary Orders  13.2
      • 2.  Settlement Negotiations  13.3
      • 3.  Trial  13.4
      • 4.  Modification  13.5
    • B.  Client's Role
      • 1.  In Gathering Information
        • a.  Discussion  13.6
        • b.  Checklist of Documents  13.7
      • 2.  In Developing the Discovery Plan  13.8
    • C.  Developing a Plan
      • 1.  Identify Issues  13.9
      • 2.  Ascertain Information Required  13.10
      • 3.  Identify Potential Sources  13.11
      • 4.  Determine Methods and Sequences  13.12
    • D.  Implementing Plan
      • 1.  Informal Discovery  13.13
        • a.  From Other Party  13.14
        • b.  From Third Parties
          • (1)  Discussion  13.15
          • (2)  Form: Authorization and Request for Release of Information and Documents  13.16
        • c.  From Public Records  13.17
      • 2.  Formal Discovery  13.18
        • a.  Methods
          • (1)  Oral Deposition
            • (a)  Discussion  13.19
            • (b)  Form: Notice of Deposition  13.20
            • (c)  Form: Deposition Subpoena for Personal Appearance (Judicial Council Form SUBP-015)  13.21
            • (d)  Form: Deposition Subpoena for Personal Appearance and Production of Documents and Things (Judicial Council Form SUBP-020)  13.21A
          • (2)  Deposition for Production of Business Records
            • (a)  Discussion  13.22
            • (b)  Form: Deposition Subpoena for Production of Business Records (Judicial Council Form SUBP-010)  13.23
            • (c)  Form: Notice to Consumer or Employee and Objection (Judicial Council Form SUBP-025)  13.24
          • (3)  Interrogatories
            • (a)  Discussion  13.25
            • (b)  Form: Interrogatories  13.26
            • (c)  Form: Form Interrogatories–Family Law (Judicial Council Form FL-145)  13.27
            • (d)  Form: Schedule of Assets and Debts (Judicial Council Form FL-142)  13.28
          • (4)  Requests for Admission
            • (a)  Discussion  13.29
            • (b)  Form: Request for Admission (Judicial Council Form DISC-020)  13.30
            • (c)  Form: Requests for Admission (Sample Form)  13.31
          • (5)  Demand for Production of Documents
            • (a)  Discussion  13.32
            • (b)  Form: Demand for Production of Documents  13.33
          • (6)  Motion for Physical, Mental, or Vocational Examination  13.34
          • (7)  Demand for Exchange of Expert Trial Witness Information
            • (a)  Discussion  13.35
            • (b)  Form: Demand for Exchange of Expert Trial Witness Information  13.36
          • (8)  Postjudgment Request for Production of Income and Expense Declaration
            • (a)  Discussion  13.37
            • (b)  Form: Request for Production of an Income and Expense Declaration After Judgment (Judicial Council Form FL-396)  13.38
            • (c)  Form: Request for Income and Benefit Information From Employer (Judicial Council Form FL-397)  13.39
        • b.  Limitations on Discovery of Specific Information
          • (1)  Relevance  13.40
          • (2)  Privilege and Work Product  13.41
        • c.  Time Limits for Completion of Discovery  13.42
        • d.  Compelling Discovery; Sanctions  13.43
        • e.  Other Sanctionable Conduct  13.43A
  • III.  DECLARATIONS OF DISCLOSURE  13.44
    • A.  Preliminary Declaration of Disclosure  13.45
    • B.  Continuing Duty of Disclosure  13.45A
    • C.  Final Declaration of Disclosure  13.46
    • D.  Effects of Noncompliance
      • 1.  Entry and Set Aside of Judgment  13.47
      • 2.  Complying Party's Remedies  13.48
    • E.  Form: Declaration of Disclosure (Judicial Council Form FL-140)  13.49
    • F.  Form: Declaration Regarding Service of Declaration of Disclosure and Income and Expense Declaration (Judicial Council Form FL-141)  13.50
    • G.  Form: Request for Orders Regarding Noncompliance With Disclosure Requirements (Judicial Council Form FL-316)  13.51

14

Uncontested Proceedings

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  14.1
  • II.  SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR COUNSEL IN UNCONTESTED PROCEEDINGS
    • A.  Representing Both Parties  14.2
    • B.  Dealing With Unrepresented Party  14.3
    • C.  Declarations of Disclosure  14.4
  • III.  CIRCUMSTANCES GIVING RISE TO UNCONTESTED PROCEEDINGS  14.5
    • A.  Default
      • 1.  When Available  14.6
      • 2.  Extension of Time to Respond; Advantages  14.7
      • 3.  When to Request Entry of Default  14.8
      • 4.  Scope of Relief on Default  14.9
      • 5.  Submitting Forms
        • a.  Request to Enter Default
          • (1)  Attachments  14.10
          • (2)  Declaration of Mailing  14.11
          • (3)  Memorandum of Costs  14.12
          • (4)  Declaration of Nonmilitary Status  14.13
          • (5)  Form: Request to Enter Default (Judicial Council Form FL-165)  14.14
        • b.  Additional Forms  14.15
      • 6.  Entry of Default  14.16
    • B.  Stipulation  14.17
      • 1.  Appearance, Stipulations, and Waivers
        • a.  Discussion  14.18
        • b.  Form: Appearance, Stipulations, and Waivers (Judicial Council Form FL-130)  14.19
      • 2.  Additional Forms  14.20
    • C.  Other Uncontested Matters  14.21
  • IV.  METHOD OF PROOF
    • A.  Statutory Proof Requirement  14.22
    • B.  Proof by Declaration
      • 1.  Discussion  14.23
      • 2.  Form: Declaration for Default or Uncontested Dissolution or Legal Separation (Judicial Council Form FL-170)  14.24
      • 3.  Form: Spousal or Partner Support Declaration Attachment (Judicial Council Form FL-157)  14.24A
    • C.  Proof by Hearing
      • 1.  Setting the Hearing  14.25
      • 2.  Hearing Officer  14.26
      • 3.  Proof of Service  14.27
      • 4.  Notice of Trial  14.28
      • 5.  Proof of Facts  14.29
        • a.  Statutory Grounds and Residency Requirement: Dissolution and Legal Separation  14.30
        • b.  Statutory Grounds and Special Requirements: Nullity  14.31
        • c.  Family Code §2336 Requirements  14.32
        • d.  Factual Basis for Relief Requested
          • (1)  When Parties Have Written Agreement  14.33
          • (2)  When No Agreement Exists  14.34
          • (3)  Documentary Evidence  14.35
  • V.  UNCONTESTED JUDGMENT  14.36
    • A.  When No Agreement Exists  14.37
    • B.  When Parties Have an Agreement  14.38
      • 1.  Making Enforceable Record of Agreement  14.39
      • 2.  Choosing Form of Agreement
        • a.  Stipulated Judgment  14.40
        • b.  Marital Settlement Agreement  14.41
          • (1)  Incorporation of Agreement in Judgment  14.42
          • (2)  Approval of Agreement by Court  14.43
          • (3)  Merger of Agreement Into Judgment  14.44
          • (4)  Execution  14.45
        • c.  Considerations in Choosing Form of Agreement
          • (1)  Enforcement  14.46
          • (2)  Expense  14.47
          • (3)  Stage of Proceeding  14.48
          • (4)  Privacy  14.49
      • 3.  Judicial Discretion to Reject Agreement  14.50
    • C.  Preparing the Judgment
      • 1.  Discussion  14.51
        • a.  Marital Status  14.52
        • b.  Restoration of Former Name  14.53
        • c.  Other Orders  14.54
        • d.  Judgment of Legal Separation or Nullity  14.55
      • 2.  Form: Judgment (Family Law) (Judicial Council Form FL-180)  14.56
      • 3.  Form: Pension Benefits–Attachment to Judgment (Judicial Council Form FL-348)  14.56A
    • D.  Notice of Entry of Judgment
      • 1.  Discussion  14.57
      • 2.  Form: Notice of Entry of Judgment (Judicial Council Form FL-190)  14.58
  • VI.  BIFURCATION OF MARITAL STATUS ISSUE  14.59
    • A.  Reasons for Bifurcation  14.60
    • B.  Conditional Bifurcation  14.61
    • C.  Procedure  14.62
      • 1.  Stipulation for Bifurcation
        • a.  Discussion  14.63
        • b.  Form: Stipulation for Bifurcation and Order  14.64
      • 2.  Motion to Bifurcate  14.65
        • a.  Application for Separate Trial
          • (1)  Discussion  14.66
          • (2)  Form: Request or Response to Request for Separate Trial (Judicial Council Form FL-315)  14.67
        • b.  Response  14.68
        • c.  Findings and Order After Hearing  14.69
      • 3.  Status-Only Judgment
        • a.  Discussion  14.70
        • b.  Form: Bifurcation of Status of Marriage or Domestic Partnership–Attachment (Judicial Council Form FL-347)  14.70A
    • D.  Disposition of Reserved Issues  14.71
      • 1.  Dismissal of Action  14.72
      • 2.  Judgment on Reserved Issues  14.73

15

Pretrial Procedures and Trial Preparation

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  15.1
  • II.  PRETRIAL PROCEDURES  15.2
    • A.  Family Centered Case Resolution Plan  15.3
    • B.  Case Management Conference  15.4
    • C.  Trial-Setting Conference  15.5
    • D.  Settlement Conference  15.6
    • E.  Trial Continuances  15.7
  • III.  TRIAL PREPARATION
    • A.  Timing and Importance  15.8
    • B.  Preliminary Considerations
      • 1.  Impact of Emotion  15.9
      • 2.  Multiplicity of Issues  15.10
    • C.  Mechanics of Preparation
      • 1.  Identify Issues  15.11
      • 2.  Proceed Issue by Issue
        • a.  Ascertain What Is to Be Proved and Prepare Presentation of Evidence  15.12
        • b.  Anticipate and Prepare to Meet Opponent's Evidence  15.13
      • 3.  Organize Materials  15.14
      • 4.  Secure Attendance of Witnesses and Production of Documents  15.15
  • IV.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Case Information–Family Law (Judicial Council Form FL-172)  15.16
    • B.  Form: Family Centered Case Resolution Order (Judicial Council Form FL-174)  15.17

16

Trial

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  16.1
  • II.  PEREMPTORY CHALLENGE OF JUDGE  16.2
  • III.  NATURE OF FAMILY LAW TRIALS  16.3
    • A.  Similarity to Civil Trials Generally
      • 1.  Elements of Proof  16.4
      • 2.  Rules of Evidence  16.5
      • 3.  Applicability of Rules of Court  16.6
    • B.  Differences From Civil Trials Generally
      • 1.  Multiplicity of Issues  16.7
      • 2.  Relative Informality  16.8
      • 3.  Emotional Aspects  16.9
      • 4.  Judicial Attitude  16.10
      • 5.  No Right to Jury Trial  16.11
    • C.  Closure of Proceedings; Exclusion of Witnesses  16.12
  • IV.  PRETRIAL CHAMBERS CONFERENCE  16.13
    • A.  Identification of Issues  16.14
    • B.  Order of Proof  16.15
    • C.  Stipulations  16.16
    • D.  Motions in Limine  16.17
    • E.  Settlement  16.18
  • V.  PRESENTING CASE AT TRIAL
    • A.  Stylistic Considerations
      • 1.  Decorum  16.19
      • 2.  Effect of Overtrying Case  16.20
    • B.  Issues to Be Decided  16.21
    • C.  Evidence
      • 1.  Witnesses  16.22
      • 2.  Documentary and Demonstrative Evidence  16.23
      • 3.  Use of Pretrial Discovery  16.24
    • D.  Oral Argument  16.25
  • VI.  REQUEST FOR STATEMENT OF DECISION  16.26
  • VII.  TENTATIVE DECISION  16.27

17

Judgment After Trial

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  17.1
  • II.  TENTATIVE DECISION  17.2
    • A.  Nature and Effect  17.3
    • B.  Modification  17.4
  • III.  STATEMENT OF DECISION  17.5
    • A.  Nature
      • 1.  Legal and Factual Basis  17.6
      • 2.  Principal Controverted Issues  17.7
      • 3.  Rulings on Motions  17.8
    • B.  Importance  17.9
      • 1.  Appellate Review  17.10
      • 2.  Modification of Custody or Support  17.11
    • C.  Required "Findings" Distinguished  17.12
      • 1.  Child Custody Orders  17.13
      • 2.  Child Support Orders  17.14
      • 3.  Spousal Support Orders  17.15
      • 4.  Orders Dividing Property  17.16
    • D.  Procedure  17.17
      • 1.  Request  17.18
        • a.  When to Request
          • (1)  Trials of 1 Day or Less  17.19
          • (2)  Trials of More Than 1 Day  17.20
        • b.  Content and Form
          • (1)  Discussion  17.21
          • (2)  Form: Request for Statement of Decision (Sample Form)  17.22
        • c.  Waiver  17.23
        • d.  Failure to Render When Requested  17.24
      • 2.  Proposals on Content  17.25
      • 3.  Proposed Statement of Decision
        • a.  Discussion  17.26
        • b.  Form: Proposed Statement of Decision (Sample Form)  17.27
      • 4.  Objections  17.28
      • 5.  Hearing  17.29
      • 6.  Final Statement of Decision  17.30
      • 7.  Extension of Time Limits  17.31
  • IV.  JUDGMENT  17.32
    • A.  Single Judgment  17.33
    • B.  Finality and Modifiability of Judgment  17.34
      • 1.  Marital Status  17.35
      • 2.  Division of Property
        • a.  Not Modifiable  17.36
        • b.  Effective Date of Division  17.37
      • 3.  Child Custody and Support  17.38
      • 4.  Spousal Support  17.39
      • 5.  Provisions and Events Affecting Finality
        • a.  Time for Filing Notice of Intention to Move for New Trial or Notice of Appeal  17.40
        • b.  Reconciliation  17.41
        • c.  Death of Party  17.42
    • C.  Preparing the Judgment  17.43
      • 1.  Who Prepares; When Submitted  17.44
      • 2.  Discussion  17.45
        • a.  Type of Proceeding  17.46
        • b.  Marital Status  17.47
        • c.  Hearing  17.48
        • d.  Jurisdiction Over Respondent  17.49
        • e.  Type of Judgment  17.50
        • f.  Restoration of Former Name  17.51
        • g.  Entry of Judgment Nunc Pro Tunc  17.52
        • h.  Reservation of Jurisdiction  17.53
        • i.  Other Orders  17.54
    • D.  Signature and Filing  17.55
    • E.  Entry of Judgment  17.56
      • 1.  Procedure  17.57
      • 2.  Service on Opposing Party  17.58
  • V.  SPECIAL TYPES OF JUDGMENTS
    • A.  Judgment Nunc Pro Tunc  17.59
      • 1.  Who May Apply  17.60
      • 2.  When Applicable  17.61
        • a.  Invalid Subsequent Marriage  17.62
        • b.  Death of Party Before Judgment Is Final  17.63
      • 3.  Procedure  17.64
    • B.  Bifurcated Judgment  17.65
      • 1.  Preparation of Judgment  17.66
      • 2.  Motion for New Trial and Appeal  17.67
    • C.  Qualified Domestic Relations Order (QDRO)  17.68
      • 1.  Statutory Requirements  17.69
        • a.  Mandatory Provisions  17.70
        • b.  Prohibited Provisions  17.71
        • c.  Surviving Spouse Provisions  17.72
      • 2.  Nonstatutory Protections  17.73
      • 3.  Determination of QDRO Status  17.74
        • a.  Pre-1985 Orders  17.75
        • b.  First in Time  17.76
        • c.  Amendment of Plan or Law  17.77
      • 4.  Preparing the QDRO
        • a.  Discussion  17.78
        • b.  Form: Qualified Domestic Relations Order  17.79
        • c.  Form: Qualified Domestic Relations Order for Support (Judicial Council Form FL-460)  17.79A
        • d.  Form: Attachment to Qualified Domestic Relations Order for Support (Judicial Council Form FL-461)  17.79B
    • D.  Orders Dividing Public Pension Benefits  17.80
      • 1.  Federal Pension Plans  17.81
      • 2.  State Pension Plans
        • a.  Public Employees' Retirement System (PERS)  17.82
        • b.  State Teachers' Retirement System (STRS)  17.83
    • E.  Final Judgment After Interlocutory  17.84
      • 1.  Discussion  17.85
      • 2.  Form: Request and Declaration for Final Judgment of Dissolution of Marriage (Judicial Council Form FL-970)  17.86
  • VI.  WITHDRAWAL OF ATTORNEY AFTER JUDGMENT
    • A.  Discussion  17.87
    • B.  Form: Notice of Withdrawal of Attorney of Record (Judicial Council Form FL-960)  17.88

18

Attack on Judgment in the Trial Court

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  18.1
  • II.  MOTION FOR NEW TRIAL  18.2
    • A.  When Motion Is Available
      • 1.  Statutory Grounds  18.3
      • 2.  Proceedings to Which Applicable  18.4
    • B.  Procedure  18.5
      • 1.  Notice of Intention  18.6
        • a.  Time for Filing  18.7
        • b.  Statement of Grounds  18.8
        • c.  Points and Authorities  18.9
        • d.  Supporting Affidavits  18.10
        • e.  Format  18.11
      • 2.  Hearing on Motion  18.12
      • 3.  Ruling on Motion  18.13
        • a.  Order Denying New Trial  18.14
        • b.  Order Granting New Trial  18.15
  • III.  MOTION TO VACATE AND ENTER DIFFERENT JUDGMENT  18.16
    • A.  Statutory Basis  18.17
    • B.  Procedure
      • 1.  Notice of Intention  18.18
        • a.  Time for Filing  18.19
        • b.  Format  18.20
      • 2.  Hearing and Ruling on Motion  18.21
        • a.  Order Denying Motion to Vacate  18.22
        • b.  Order Granting Motion to Vacate  18.23
  • IV.  RELIEF FROM JUDGMENT UNDER CCP §473  18.24
    • A.  Setting Aside Judgment for Mistake, Inadvertence, Surprise, or Neglect
      • 1.  Proceedings to Which Applicable  18.25
      • 2.  Statutory Basis for Relief
        • a.  Error of Party  18.26
        • b.  Error of Attorney  18.27
        • c.  No Relief From Judicial Error  18.28
      • 3.  Procedure
        • a.  Notice of Motion  18.29
          • (1)  Time for Filing  18.30
          • (2)  Accompanying Documents  18.31
          • (3)  Format  18.32
        • b.  Ruling on Motion  18.33
    • B.  Setting Aside Void Judgment  18.34
    • C.  Correcting Clerical Error  18.35
  • V.  EQUITABLE RELIEF FROM JUDGMENT ENTERED BEFORE JANUARY 1, 1993  18.36
    • A.  When Relief Is Available
      • 1.  Time for Filing  18.37
      • 2.  Grounds for Relief
        • a.  Extrinsic Fraud  18.38
          • (1)  Intrinsic Fraud Distinguished  18.39
          • (2)  Concealment of Assets  18.40
        • b.  Extrinsic Mistake  18.41
        • c.  Duress  18.42
    • B.  Procedure
      • 1.  Motion or Independent Action  18.43
      • 2.  Judgment Based on Agreement  18.44
      • 3.  Preparation of Motion  18.45
      • 4.  Preparation of Independent Action  18.46
  • VI.  RELIEF UNDER FAM C §§2120€“2129 FROM JUDGMENT ENTERED ON OR AFTER JANUARY 1, 1993  18.47
    • A.  When Relief Is Available
      • 1.  Requisite Findings for Granting of Relief  18.48
      • 2.  Grounds and Time Limits for Action or Motion to Set Aside Judgment  18.49
      • 3.  Effect of Attorney's Negligence  18.50
    • B.  Procedures  18.51
    • C.  Extent of Relief  18.52
    • D.  When Statement of Decision Required  18.53
    • E.  Rules for Subsequent Division of Assets or Liabilities  18.54
  • VII.  OTHER STATUTORY RELIEF FROM JUDGMENT
    • A.  Setting Aside Default When No Actual Notice  18.55
    • B.  Division of Property Omitted From Judgment  18.56
    • C.  Breach of Fiduciary Responsibility in Management of Community Property  18.57
    • D.  Discharge of Judgment Obligations in Bankruptcy  18.58
    • E.  Violation of Servicemembers Civil Relief Act  18.59
    • F.  Assumption of Jurisdiction by Court Over Attorney's Practice  18.60
    • G.  Fraudulent Transfer  18.61

19

Appeals and Writs

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  19.1
  • II.  PRINCIPLES OF APPELLATE REVIEW
    • A.  Governing Law  19.2
    • B.  Appealable Judgments and Orders  19.3
      • 1.  Appeal From Order in Pending Action  19.4
        • a.  Appeal From Temporary Order  19.5
        • b.  Appeal in Bifurcated Proceeding  19.6
      • 2.  Appeal From Judgment  19.7
      • 3.  Appeal From Order After Judgment  19.8
      • 4.  Other Appealable Orders  19.9
    • C.  Standing to Appeal  19.10
      • 1.  Standing of Nonparty  19.11
      • 2.  No Standing as Attorney of Record  19.12
    • D.  Evaluating Prospects for Appeal  19.13
      • 1.  Errors of Law and Fact  19.14
      • 2.  Reversible Error  19.15
      • 3.  Record on Appeal  19.16
      • 4.  Appellate Standards of Review  19.17
        • a.  Question of Law  19.18
        • b.  Substantial Evidence Rule  19.19
        • c.  Abuse of Discretion  19.20
      • 5.  Waiver of Right to Appeal  19.21
        • a.  Failure to Raise Issue at Trial  19.22
        • b.  Failure to Object to Error  19.23
        • c.  Express and Implied Waiver; Invited Error  19.24
        • d.  Waiver by Consent  19.25
        • e.  Failure to Take Timely Appeal  19.26
        • f.  Waiver by Contempt  19.27
        • g.  Acceptance of Benefits Under Judgment  19.28
      • 6.  Practical Considerations  19.29
      • 7.  Frivolous Appeals  19.30
  • III.  STAYS AND ORDERS PENDING APPEAL  19.31
    • A.  Immediate Temporary Stays  19.32
    • B.  Automatic Stays  19.33
    • C.  Stays Effective on Posting of Security  19.34
      • 1.  Judgment or Order for Payment of Money, Including Payment of Support  19.35
      • 2.  Judgment or Order for Transfer of Personal Property  19.36
      • 3.  Judgment or Order for Transfer of Real Property  19.37
    • D.  Discretionary Stays  19.38
      • 1.  Child Custody; Temporary Dwelling Exclusion  19.39
      • 2.  Appeal From Bifurcated Issue  19.40
    • E.  Power of Trial Court to Make Orders Pending Appeal
      • 1.  Matters Not Affected by a Stay  19.41
      • 2.  Discretionary Orders  19.42
    • F.  Power of Reviewing Court to Stay Proceedings  19.43
      • 1.  When Stay Is Appropriate  19.44
      • 2.  Procedure  19.45
  • IV.  STANDARD PROCEDURE ON APPEAL
    • A.  Notice of Appeal  19.46
      • 1.  Time for Filing  19.47
        • a.  Entry of Judgment or Order  19.48
        • b.  Extension of Time to File  19.49
          • (1)  Motion for Reconsideration  19.50
          • (2)  Motion for New Trial  19.51
          • (3)  Motion to Vacate Judgment  19.52
          • (4)  Cross-Appeal  19.53
          • (5)  Amended Judgment  19.54
      • 2.  Form and Contents  19.55
      • 3.  Filing and Service Requirements  19.56
    • B.  Record on Appeal  19.57
      • 1.  Reporter's Transcript  19.58
        • a.  Preparation of Reporter's Transcript  19.59
        • b.  Partial Transcript  19.60
      • 2.  Clerk's Transcript  19.61
        • a.  Preparation of Clerk's Transcript  19.62
        • b.  Alternatives to Clerk's Transcript
          • (1)  Appendix  19.63
          • (2)  Superior Court File  19.64
          • (3)  Judgment Roll  19.65
      • 3.  Agreed Statement  19.66
      • 4.  Settled Statement  19.67
      • 5.  Transmission of Exhibits  19.68
      • 6.  Power of Reviewing Court to Affect Record
        • a.  Augmentation or Correction  19.69
        • b.  Factual Determinations  19.70
        • c.  Remedies for Failure to Produce Record  19.71
    • C.  Prehearing Conference and Settlement  19.72
    • D.  Appellate Briefs  19.73
      • 1.  Time for Filing  19.74
      • 2.  Form and Contents  19.75
        • a.  Appellant's Opening Brief  19.76
        • b.  Respondent's Brief  19.77
        • c.  Reply Brief  19.78
        • d.  Cross-Appeals  19.79
      • 3.  Filing and Service Requirements  19.80
    • E.  Hearing and Determination on Appeal
      • 1.  Oral Argument  19.81
      • 2.  Decision and Remittitur  19.82
      • 3.  Recovery of Costs  19.83
      • 4.  Attorney Fees and Sanctions  19.84
      • 5.  Rehearing  19.85
      • 6.  Publication  19.86
    • F.  Supreme Court Review  19.87
  • V.  PROCEDURE ON APPEAL OF BIFURCATED ISSUE  19.88
    • A.  Certification by Trial Court  19.89
    • B.  Acceptance and Determination by Court of Appeal  19.90
  • VI.  REVIEW BY EXTRAORDINARY WRIT  19.91
    • A.  Types of Writs  19.92
      • 1.  Mandate  19.93
      • 2.  Prohibition  19.94
      • 3.  Certiorari  19.95
    • B.  Availability of Writs
      • 1.  No Adequate Remedy at Law  19.96
      • 2.  Authorization by Statute  19.97
      • 3.  Application in Marital Actions  19.98
        • a.  Custody and Visitation  19.99
        • b.  Jurisdiction  19.100
        • c.  Discovery  19.101
        • d.  Contempt  19.102
        • e.  Other Family Law Issues  19.103
    • C.  Procedure
      • 1.  Petition for Writ  19.104
        • a.  Time for Filing  19.105
        • b.  Supporting Documents  19.106
        • c.  Filing and Service Requirements  19.107
      • 2.  Preliminary Opposition  19.108
      • 3.  Action on Petition by Reviewing Court  19.109
        • a.  Summary Denial  19.110
        • b.  Temporary Stay  19.111
        • c.  Notice That Peremptory Writ May Issue  19.112
        • d.  Issuance of Alternative Writ or Writ of Certiorari  19.113
      • 4.  Return on Writ  19.114
      • 5.  Reply  19.115
      • 6.  Hearing and Determination on Merits
        • a.  Mandate and Prohibition  19.116
        • b.  Certiorari  19.117
      • 7.  Rehearing; Remittitur  19.118
      • 8.  Review by California Supreme Court
        • a.  Petition for Original Writ  19.119
        • b.  Transfer of Pending Cause  19.120
        • c.  Review of Court of Appeal Decision  19.121

20

Enforcement

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  20.1
  • II.  METHODS OF ENFORCEMENT
    • A.  Earnings Assignment Order for Support  20.2
      • 1.  Assignment Order; Stay of Service
        • a.  When Support Order Made on or After July 1, 1990  20.3
        • b.  When Support Order Made Before July 1, 1990  20.4
        • c.  Form: Income Withholding for Support (Judicial Council Form FL-195) and Instructions (FL-196)  20.5
        • d.  Form: Earnings Assignment Order for Spousal or Partner Support (Judicial Council Form FL-435)  20.5A
        • e.  Form: Stay of Service of Earnings Assignment Order (Judicial Council Form FL-455)  20.6
        • f.  Form: Ex Parte Application to Issue, Modify, or Terminate Earnings Assignment Order (Judicial Council Form FL-430)  20.7
        • g.  Form: Notice of Intent to Seek Earnings Assignment Order for Support  20.8
      • 2.  Service; Employer's Responsibilities  20.9
      • 3.  Priorities  20.10
      • 4.  Motion to Quash  20.11
      • 5.  Obligor's Change of Employment  20.12
      • 6.  Obligee's Change of Address  20.13
      • 7.  Modification  20.14
      • 8.  Termination of Service  20.15
    • B.  Electronic Funds Transfer for Payment of Child Support  20.16
    • C.  Writ of Execution  20.17
      • 1.  Uses  20.18
      • 2.  Property Subject to Execution  20.19
      • 3.  Restrictions on Execution Against Unpaid Earnings  20.20
      • 4.  Preparation
        • a.  Discussion  20.21
        • b.  Form: Writ of Execution (Judicial Council Form EJ-130)  20.22
      • 5.  Submission
        • a.  Discussion  20.23
        • b.  Form: Declaration in Support of Issuance of Writ of Execution  20.24
        • c.  Form: Application for Earnings Withholding Order (Wage Garnishment) (Judicial Council Form WG-001)  20.25
        • d.  Form: Earnings Withholding Order (Wage Garnishment) (Judicial Council Form WG-002)  20.26
        • e.  Form: Earnings Withholding Order for Support (Wage Garnishment) (Judicial Council Form WG-004)  20.27
        • f.  Form: Confidential Statement of Judgment Debtor's Social Security Number (Judicial Council Form WG-035)  20.27A
      • 6.  Priorities  20.28
      • 7.  Execution Against Community Property  20.29
      • 8.  Claim of Exemption  20.30
      • 9.  Motion to Quash  20.31
    • D.  Judgment Lien on Real Property  20.32
      • 1.  Procedure  20.33
        • a.  Form: Abstract of Support Judgment (Judicial Council Form FL-480)  20.34
        • b.  Form: Abstract of Judgment–Civil and Small Claims (Judicial Council Form EJ-001)  20.35
      • 2.  Duration  20.36
      • 3.  Deed of Trust Securing Equalizing Payment  20.36A
    • E.  Contempt Proceedings
      • 1.  Nature of Action  20.37
      • 2.  Orders Enforceable; Constitutional Limitations  20.38
      • 3.  Elements of Contempt
        • a.  Valid Prior Order  20.39
        • b.  Knowledge of Order  20.40
        • c.  Ability to Comply  20.41
        • d.  Willful Failure to Comply  20.42
      • 4.  Order to Show Cause and Attachments
        • a.  Discussion  20.43
        • b.  Form: Order to Show Cause and Affidavit for Contempt (Judicial Council Form FL-410)  20.44
        • c.  Form: Affidavit of Facts Constituting Contempt–Financial and Injunctive Orders (Judicial Council Form FL-411)  20.44A
        • d.  Form: Affidavit of Facts Constituting Contempt–Domestic Violence/Custody and Visitation (Judicial Council Form FL-412)  20.44B
        • e.  Filing and Service  20.45
      • 5.  Citee's Response
        • a.  Answer to Charge  20.46
        • b.  Motion for Discharge  20.47
        • c.  Failure to Appear  20.47A
      • 6.  Conduct of Hearing; Orders
        • a.  Due Process Considerations  20.48
        • b.  Evidence  20.49
        • c.  Court's Orders  20.49A
      • 7.  Punishment  20.50
      • 8.  Attorney Fees and Costs  20.51
    • F.  Deposit of Assets to Secure Child Support Payments  20.52
      • 1.  Obligee's Application  20.53
      • 2.  Order for Deposit  20.54
      • 3.  Use or Sale of Deposited Assets  20.55
      • 4.  Obligor's Opposition  20.56
      • 5.  Return of Assets  20.57
    • G.  Child Support Security Deposit  20.58
      • 1.  Notice and Hearing  20.59
      • 2.  Order for Deposit and Establishment of Account  20.60
      • 3.  Order for Disbursement and Replenishment  20.61
      • 4.  Dissolution of Account  20.62
      • 5.  Application of Statute  20.63
      • 6.  Form: Order for Child Support Security Deposit and Evidence of Deposit (Judicial Council Form FL-400)  20.64
      • 7.  Form: Application for Disbursement and Order for Disbursement From Child Support Security Deposit (Judicial Council Form FL-401)  20.65
    • H.  Health Insurance Coverage Assignment  20.66
      • 1.  Application and Order
        • a.  Discussion  20.67
        • b.  Form: Application and Order for Health Insurance Coverage (Judicial Council Form FL-470)  20.68
        • c.  Form: Notice of Intent to Seek Health Insurance Coverage Assignment  20.69
      • 2.  Service; Employer's Responsibilities  20.70
      • 3.  Motion to Quash  20.71
        • a.  Form: Request and Notice of Hearing Regarding Health Insurance Assignment (Judicial Council Form FL-478)  20.71A
        • b.  Form: Information Sheet and Instructions for Request and Notice of Hearing Regarding Health Insurance Assignment (Judicial Council Form FL-478-INFO)  20.71B
      • 4.  Termination  20.72
    • I.  Collection From State or Local Public Entity Owing Money to Judgment Debtor  20.73
      • 1.  Enforcing Party's Procedures
        • a.  Judgment for Other Than Support  20.74
        • b.  Judgment for Support
          • (1)  Local Child Support Agency Enforcing Obligation  20.75
          • (2)  Local Child Support Agency Not Enforcing Obligation  20.76
            • (a)  Form: Application for Notice of Support Arrearage (Judicial Council Forms 1297.90 and 1297.91)  20.77
            • (b)  Form: Notice of Support Arrearage and Notice to Judgment Debtor (Judicial Council Forms 1297.92 and 1297.93)  20.78
      • 2.  Judgment Debtor's Response
        • a.  Local Child Support Agency Processing Claim for Support Through Department of Child Support Services  20.79
        • b.  Judgment Creditor Processing Claim for Support in Underlying Action  20.80
        • c.  Other Instances  20.81
    • J.  Proceeding Against Military Personnel and Retirees
      • 1.  Direct Payment of Military Retirement Benefits  20.82
      • 2.  Garnishment of Military Pay or Retirement Benefits: Certain Disability Benefits Distinguished  20.83
    • K.  Nonissuance of License for Noncompliance With Child Support Order
      • 1.  Certification of Noncompliance by Local Child Support Agency  20.84
      • 2.  Notice Procedures  20.85
      • 3.  Obligor's Response; Administrative and Judicial Review  20.86
      • 4.  Obligor's Other Remedies Preserved  20.87
      • 5.  Form: Notice of Motion for Judicial Review of License Denial (Judicial Council Form FL-670)  20.88
      • 6.  Form: Order After Judicial Review of License Denial (Judicial Council Form FL-675)  20.89
    • L.  Debtor's Examination  20.90
    • M.  Appointment of Receiver  20.91
    • N.  Charging Order Against Partnership or Limited Liability Company Interest  20.92
    • O.  Assignment Order  20.93
    • P.  Penalties for Unpaid Child Support  20.94
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Delinquency (Judicial Council Form FL-485)  20.95
      • 2.  Form: Application to Determine Arrearages (Judicial Council Form FL-490)  20.96
    • Q.  Defenses to Enforcement  20.97
    • R.  Private Child Support Collectors  20.98

21

Modification

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  21.1
  • II.  MODIFIABILITY OF ORDERS
    • A.  Legal Basis for Modification
      • 1.  Spousal Support  21.2
      • 2.  Child Support  21.3
      • 3.  Child Custody and Visitation  21.4
      • 4.  Attorney Fees and Costs  21.5
      • 5.  Division of Marital Property  21.6
    • B.  Change of Circumstances Requirement  21.7
      • 1.  Temporary Orders  21.8
      • 2.  Long-Term Orders  21.9
  • III.  PROCEDURE
    • A.  Preliminary Considerations
      • 1.  Deciding Whether to Seek Modification  21.10
      • 2.  Substitution of Attorney  21.11
      • 3.  Venue  21.12
      • 4.  Foreign Judgments  21.13
      • 5.  Mediation of Custody and Visitation Issues  21.14
      • 6.  Stipulation for Modification  21.15
      • 7.  Discovery  21.16
    • B.  Motion for Modification
      • 1.  Moving Party's Papers
        • a.  Using Request for Order Form as Order to Show Cause or Notice of Motion  21.17
        • b.  Supporting Declaration  21.18
        • c.  Additional Documents
          • (1)  Income and Expense Declaration and Attachments  21.19
          • (2)  Memorandum of Points and Authorities  21.20
          • (3)  When Custody Is in Issue  21.21
        • d.  Service and Filing  21.22
        • e.  Form: Declaration Regarding Address Verification–Postjudgment Request to Modify a Child Custody, Visitation, or Child Support Order (Judicial Council Form FL-334)  21.22A
      • 2.  Responding Party's Papers
        • a.  Responsive Declaration  21.23
        • b.  Additional Documents  21.24
        • c.  Service and Filing  21.25
      • 3.  Moving Party's Reply Papers  21.26
      • 4.  Hearing  21.27
      • 5.  Order After Hearing  21.28
      • 6.  Attack on Order After Hearing
        • a.  Motion for Reconsideration  21.29
        • b.  Motion to Set Aside Order  21.30
        • c.  Appeal  21.31
    • C.  "Simplified" Procedure to Modify Support
      • 1.  Discussion  21.31A
      • 2.  Form: Notice of Motion and Motion for Simplified Modification of Order for Child, Spousal, or Family Support (Judicial Council Form FL-390)  21.31B
      • 3.  Form: Information Sheet–Simplified Way to Change Child, Spousal, or Family Support (Judicial Council Form FL-391)  21.31C
      • 4.  Form: Responsive Declaration to Motion for Simplified Modification of Order for Child, Spousal, or Family Support (Judicial Council Form FL-392)  21.31D
      • 5.  Form: Information Sheet–How to Oppose a Request to Change Child, Spousal, or Family Support (Judicial Council Form FL-393)  21.31E
    • D.  Support Modification by Servicemember on Active Deployment
      • 1.  Discussion  21.32
      • 2.  Form: Notice of Activation of Military Service and Deployment and Request to Modify a Support Order (Judicial Council Form FL-398)  21.33

22

Family Law and Bankruptcy

Steven J. Schwartz

David A. Tilem

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  22.1
  • II.  EFFECT OF BANKRUPTCY ON MARITAL DISSOLUTION PROCEEDINGS
    • A.  Automatic Stay and 11 USC §362(a)  22.2
      • 1.  Filing of Petition for Dissolution
        • a.  Dissolution Filing Not Precluded by Automatic Stay  22.3
        • b.  Dissolution Filing Affects Property of Bankruptcy Estate  22.4
      • 2.  Summons and Automatic Stay
        • a.  Automatic Stay Does Not Prevent Issuance or Service of Summons  22.5
        • b.  Automatic Temporary Restraining Orders (ATROs)  22.6
    • B.  Termination of Marital Status  22.7
      • 1.  Joint Bankruptcy Petitions; Consolidation of Joint Cases  22.8
      • 2.  Bankruptcy Exemptions
        • a.  One Set of Exemptions for Both Spouses  22.9
        • b.  Selecting Exemptions  22.10
        • c.  Exemption Challenges  22.11
      • 3.  Relief From Stay Not Required to Terminate Marital Status  22.12
    • C.  Child Custody Matters and Emergency Situations
      • 1.  Child Custody and Visitation  22.13
      • 2.  Emergency Situations  22.14
    • D.  Spousal and Child Support–Paying Spouse Is in Bankruptcy  22.15
      • 1.  Domestic Support Obligations  22.16
      • 2.  Support Payments Made Shortly Before Bankruptcy  22.17
      • 3.  Collecting Support Outside of Bankruptcy: Relief From Stay Not Required  22.18
        • a.  Enforcement by Contempt  22.19
        • b.  Enforcement by Levy and Execution  22.20
          • (1)  Characterization of Property  22.21
          • (2)  Community and Separate Property as Property of Bankruptcy Estate  22.22
            • (a)  Property Under Debtor's Management and Control  22.23
            • (b)  Property Liable for Claims Against Debtor  22.24
          • (3)  Special Allocation Rules for Specific Types of Assets
            • (a)  Tax Refunds  22.25
            • (b)  Allocating Other Assets  22.26
      • 4.  Collecting Support Claims Through Bankruptcy  22.27
        • a.  "Debt" and "Claim" Treated as Broadly Inclusive and Coextensive  22.28
        • b.  Paying Support Claims and Other Claims Through Bankruptcy  22.29
        • c.  Interest on Support Claims Accruing During Bankruptcy  22.30
        • d.  Chapter 7
          • (1)  Payment of Prebankruptcy Domestic Support Obligations by Bankruptcy Estate  22.31
          • (2)  Debtor Can Remain in Bankruptcy to Satisfy Support Obligations  22.32
          • (3)  Ongoing Non-Bankruptcy Collection Efforts  22.33
          • (4)  Notification  22.34
        • e.  Chapters 12 and 13
          • (1)  Failure to Pay Support Claims During Case  22.35
          • (2)  Ongoing Non-Bankruptcy Collection Efforts  22.36
          • (3)  Treatment of Domestic Support Obligations in Repayment Plan  22.37
          • (4)  Repayment Plan Approval  22.38
          • (5)  Bankruptcy Discharge  22.39
          • (6)  Notification  22.40
        • f.  Chapter 11
          • (1)  Failure to Pay Support Claims During Case  22.41
          • (2)  Ongoing Non-Bankruptcy Collection Efforts  22.42
          • (3)  Treatment of Domestic Support Obligations in Chapter 11 Plan  22.43
          • (4)  Repayment Plan Approval  22.44
          • (5)  Bankruptcy Discharge  22.45
          • (6)  Notification  22.46
    • E.  Spousal and Child Support–Receiving Spouse Is in Bankruptcy
      • 1.  Property of Bankruptcy Estate  22.47
        • a.  Support Arrearages as Property of Bankruptcy Estate  22.48
        • b.  Future Support as Property of Bankruptcy Estate  22.49
      • 2.  Exemption of Support Arrearages  22.50
        • a.  703-Series Exemptions  22.51
        • b.  704-Series Exemptions  22.52
    • F.  Property and Property Division Issues in Bankruptcy  22.53
      • 1.  Treatment of Community Property as Property of Bankruptcy Estate  22.54
      • 2.  Community Property Before Bankruptcy  22.55
      • 3.  Property Division After Bankruptcy
        • a.  If Both Spouses File Bankruptcy
          • (1)  Chapter 7  22.56
          • (2)  Chapters 11, 12, and 13  22.57
        • b.  If Only One Spouse Files Bankruptcy
          • (1)  Chapter 7  22.58
          • (2)  Chapters 11, 12, and 13  22.59
      • 4.  Property Divisions During Bankruptcy  22.60
      • 5.  Property Divisions Before Bankruptcy  22.61
        • a.  Divisions Outside Context of Dissolution or Separation  22.62
          • (1)  Premarital Agreements  22.63
          • (2)  Transmutation Agreements  22.64
        • b.  Avoiding Property Transfers Between Spouses
          • (1)  The "Strong Arm" Clause  22.65
          • (2)  Preferential Transfers  22.66
            • (a)  Transfer of Debtor's Property  22.67
            • (b)  Transfer for Benefit of Creditor, for Antecedent Debt  22.68
            • (c)  Timing of and Consideration for Transfer  22.69
          • (3)  Fraudulent Transfers  22.70
          • (4)  Avoiding Liens  22.71
        • c.  Equalization Obligations  22.72
          • (1)  Obligations Owed to Debtor  22.73
          • (2)  Obligations Owed by Debtor  22.74
            • (a)  Dischargeability of Equalization Obligations  22.75
            • (b)  Payment of Equalization Obligations  22.76
      • 6.  Distinguishing Support Claims From Nonsupport Claims  22.77
        • a.  Concurrent Jurisdiction of State and Federal Courts  22.78
        • b.  Federal Law Is Controlling  22.79
        • c.  Determining "Support" Under Federal Law  22.80
          • (1)  Claim Payable to Spouse, Former Spouse, or Children  22.81
            • (a)  Attorney Fee Awards  22.82
            • (b)  Need-Based Awards to Other Family Law Professionals  22.83
            • (c)  Parentage Cases
              • (i)  Unmarried Parents Included in Group of Eligible Support Recipients  22.84
              • (ii)  Proper Creation of Obligation  22.85
          • (2)  Indemnity Obligations  22.86
          • (3)  Residential Real Estate  22.87
          • (4)  Assignment of Obligation  22.88
        • d.  Attorney Fees for Litigating Support Issue  22.89
      • 7.  Distribution of Community Property in Bankruptcy  22.90
        • a.  Use of Community Property for Administrative Expenses  22.91
        • b.  Use of Community Property for Community and Noncommunity Liabilities  22.92
        • c.  Order of Distribution of Community Property Among Sub-Estates  22.93
        • d.  Community Property Not Used for Community Claims  22.94
    • G.  Personal Conduct Issues  22.95
      • 1.  Automatic Stay in Domestic Violence Cases  22.96
      • 2.  Automatic Stay in Other Personal Conduct Proceedings  22.97
      • 3.  Civil Liability Claims for Debtor's Improper Conduct  22.98
      • 4.  Debtor's Claims for Improper Prebankruptcy Conduct  22.99
      • 5.  Other Family Law Personal Conduct Orders  22.100
  • III.  PARENTAGE ACTIONS  22.101
  • IV.  DISCHARGEABILITY OF INTERSPOUSAL DEBTS  22.102
    • A.  When Nondebtor Spouse's Claims Arise
      • 1.  Timing of Dissolution Claim  22.103
      • 2.  Community Property Discharge for Nondebtor Spouse  22.104
      • 3.  Indemnity, Reimbursement, and Subrogation Claims of Nondebtor Spouse  22.105
    • B.  Specific Grounds for Nondischargeability  22.106
      • 1.  Fraud Debts  22.107
        • a.  Interspousal Torts  22.108
        • b.  If Spouses Are Joint Tortfeasors  22.109
        • c.  Reimbursement for Use of Community Property  22.110
      • 2.  Fiduciary Duty Obligations  22.111
      • 3.  Domestic Support Obligations  22.112
      • 4.  Intentional Tort Obligations  22.113
        • a.  Interspousal Injury  22.114
        • b.  Both Spouses Caused Injury, Liability Assigned to Debtor Spouse  22.115
        • c.  Debtor Caused Injury, Nondebtor Spouse Seeks Reimbursement for Community Property Used to Satisfy Obligation  22.116
      • 5.  Debts Incurred to Pay Nondischargeable Taxes  22.117
      • 6.  Nonsupport Dissolution Debts  22.118
  • V.  DOMESTIC PARTNERSHIPS  22.119
  • VI.  STRATEGIC CONSIDERATIONS
    • A.  Control Over Estate Property  22.120
    • B.  Effect of Discharged Debt on Nondebtor Spouse  22.121
    • C.  Valuation of Assets
      • 1.  Goodwill  22.122
      • 2.  Professional Degrees  22.123
    • D.  Separate Legal Entities  22.124
    • E.  Former Spouses as "Insiders"  22.125

23

Professional Responsibility in Family Law Practice

  • I.  ATTORNEY FEE AGREEMENTS
    • A.  No Illegal or Unconscionable Fees  23.1
    • B.  General Need for Written Agreement  23.2
    • C.  Contingent Fee Agreements  23.3
    • D.  Treatment of Retainer Fees  23.4
    • E.  Payment of Attorney Fees by Someone Other Than Client  23.5
    • F.  Fees in Limited Scope Representation Cases  23.6
  • II.  AVOIDING CONFLICTING INTERESTS
    • A.  Affirmative Duty to Avoid Conflicting Interests
      • 1.  Conflicting Interests Summarized  23.7
      • 2.  Avoidance of Dual Representation and Related Arbitration and Mediation Issues  23.8
      • 3.  Dealing With Represented and Unrepresented Parties  23.9
      • 4.  Adverse Legal, Business, Financial, Professional, or Personal Interests
        • a.  Relationship With Client  23.10
        • b.  Relationship With Party or Witness  23.11
        • c.  Relationship With Another Party's Attorney  23.12
    • B.  Attorney Withdrawal and Disqualification as Result of Conflict
      • 1.  Withdrawal  23.13
      • 2.  Disqualification  23.14
    • C.  Representation With Informed Written Consent Despite Conflict  23.15
  • III.  DUTY TO PROVIDE EFFECTIVE REPRESENTATION
    • A.  Necessary Learning and Skill to Take Case  23.16
    • B.  Proper Supervision of Others Working on Case  23.17
    • C.  Effective Assistance of Counsel  23.18
  • IV.  DUTY TO KEEP CLIENT INFORMED ABOUT CASE  23.19
  • V.  DUTY TO KEEP CLIENT'S CONFIDENCES AND SECRETS  23.20
  • VI.  OTHER DUTIES
    • A.  Duty to Court  23.21
    • B.  Duty to Opposing Counsel  23.22
    • C.  Duty to Minor as Appointed Counsel  23.23
  • VII.  CONCLUDING ATTORNEY-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP
    • A.  Withdrawal From Representation
      • 1.  Withdrawal During Representation
        • a.  Withdrawal by Mutual Agreement  23.24
        • b.  Mandatory and Permissive Withdrawal; Court Approval
          • (1)  Mandatory Withdrawal  23.25
          • (2)  Permissive Withdrawal  23.26
          • (3)  Need for Court Approval to Withdraw  23.27
      • 2.  Withdrawal at Conclusion of Representation  23.28
    • B.  Release of Files to Clients  23.29
    • C.  Termination of Representation on Attorney's Death, Incapacity, or Suspension  23.30
  • VIII.  MANDATORY FEE ARBITRATION WHEN DISPUTE OVER FEES  23.31
  • IX.  FORM: GENERAL LETTER AGREEMENT FOR REPRESENTATION ON HOURLY BASIS  23.32

24

Psychological Aspects of Dissolution

  • I.  RECOGNIZING PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF DISSOLUTION
    • A.  Taking Holistic View of Each Client's Circumstances  24.1
    • B.  Understanding Common Attitudes Regarding Dissolution
      • 1.  Filing Party  24.2
      • 2.  Responding Party  24.3
      • 3.  Parties' Children  24.4
    • C.  Counsel's Own Limitations in Counseling Client
      • 1.  Provider of Legal, Not Psychological, Guidance; Referral to Other Professionals  24.5
      • 2.  Avoiding Transference and Countertransference Issues
        • a.  Transference  24.6
        • b.  Countertransference  24.7
    • D.  Special Issues
      • 1.  Domestic Violence  24.8
      • 2.  Substance Abuse  24.9
      • 3.  Personality Disorders and Related Mental Health Issues  24.10
  • II.  USE OF PSYCHOLOGISTS AND OTHER MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS
    • A.  Role of Mental Health Expert
      • 1.  When Expert Needed; Focus on Custody  24.11
      • 2.  Establishing Facts  24.12
      • 3.  Educating Trier of Fact  24.13
      • 4.  Formulating Expert Opinion Based on Facts  24.14
    • B.  Authority to Appoint Expert to Examine Parents or Child  24.15
    • C.  Authority to Order Examination by Expert Retained by One Party
      • 1.  Motion Required  24.16
      • 2.  Limitations
        • a.  Condition in Controversy  24.17
        • b.  Physical Exam  24.18
        • c.  Mental Exam  24.19
        • d.  Not for Alcohol or Drug Testing  24.20
      • 3.  Exchange of Medical Reports; Waiver of Privilege  24.21
    • D.  Joint Retention of Expert to Conduct Examination  24.22
    • E.  Privately Retained Consulting Expert  24.23
    • F.  Background Qualifications of Most Commonly Used Experts
      • 1.  Psychologist  24.24
      • 2.  Psychiatrist and Physician  24.25
      • 3.  Marriage and Family Therapist  24.26
      • 4.  Social Worker  24.27
    • G.  Selecting Expert  24.28
    • H.  Role of Psychologist
      • 1.  Custody Evaluation
        • a.  Conducting Evaluation  24.29
        • b.  Preparing Party for Evaluation  24.30
          • (1)  Anticipating Evaluator's Questions  24.31
          • (2)  Formulating Party's Issues and Concerns  24.32
          • (3)  Identifying Problems and Making Referrals for Treatment  24.33
        • c.  Reviewing Evaluation  24.34
      • 2.  Mediation
        • a.  Preparing Party for Mandatory Mediation Through Family Court Services  24.35
        • b.  Assisting Party in Formulating Parenting Plan  24.36
      • 3.  Counseling  24.37
      • 4.  Special Master  24.38
      • 5.  Therapeutic Visitation  24.39
    • I.  Role of Psychiatrist  24.40
    • J.  Role of Physician  24.41
    • K.  Role of Social Worker  24.42
    • L.  Role of Other Specialists  24.43

25

Evidence Issues and Presentations in Family Law Proceedings

Ritzel Starleigh Ngo

  • I.  PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS IN ASSESSING FAMILY LAW EVIDENCE ISSUES
    • A.  Rules of Evidence and Procedure Applicable in Family Law Proceedings  25.1
    • B.  Importance of Considering Evidentiary Issues From Outset of Case  25.2
    • C.  Summary of Matters Potentially Requiring Evidentiary Support  25.3
    • D.  Potential Need for Discovery Despite Compliance With Disclosure Requirements  25.4
    • E.  Identifying Sources of Evidence to Prove Case
      • 1.  Information Directly From Witnesses  25.5
      • 2.  Documentary Evidence in General
        • a.  Frequently Sought Types of Documentary Evidence  25.6
        • b.  Form of Documents to Be Sought
          • (1)  Documents in Tangible (Hard Copy) Form  25.7
          • (2)  Documents in Electronic Form (Electronically Stored Information€“€“ESI)
            • (a)  Electronically Stored Information (ESI) Defined  25.8
            • (b)  E-Documents  25.9
            • (c)  Social Media Posts  25.10
            • (d)  Computer Hardware  25.11
      • 3.  No Use of Information From Illegal Eavesdropping or Intrusion Into Private E-Mail  25.12
    • F.  Using Specific Discovery Methods to Obtain Evidence
      • 1.  Depositions
        • a.  Oral Depositions  25.13
        • b.  Deposition Subpoenas for Production of Business Records  25.14
        • c.  Subpoenas of Employment Records
          • (1)  Private Employees  25.15
          • (2)  Government Employees  25.16
      • 2.  Interrogatories
        • a.  Overall Value of Interrogatories  25.17
        • b.  Judicial Council Form Interrogatories  25.18
        • c.  Specially Prepared Interrogatories  25.19
      • 3.  Demands for Production or Inspection  25.20
      • 4.  Requests for Admission  25.21
      • 5.  Other Discovery Methods  25.22
  • II.  PROCEDURAL AND SUBSTANTIVE ISSUES IN PLANNING EVIDENCE PRESENTATIONS
    • A.  Short Cause Hearings and Longer Trials Distinguished  25.23
    • B.  Procedural Matters Affecting Presentation of Family Law Evidence
      • 1.  Pretrial Motions and Motions in Limine  25.24
      • 2.  Preparing for and Disclosing Witnesses
        • a.  Securing Attendance of Witnesses and Witness Preparation  25.25
        • b.  Disclosing Witnesses  25.26
      • 3.  Preparing Exhibits  25.27
    • C.  Planning Order of Presenting Evidence  25.28
    • D.  Entering Into Stipulations  25.29
    • E.  Anticipating Need for Offers of Proof  25.30
  • III.  GENERAL RULES FOR INTRODUCTION OF EVIDENCE
    • A.  General Criteria for Admissibility of Evidence
      • 1.  Only Relevant Evidence Admissible  25.31
      • 2.  Evidence Must Be Authenticated  25.32
      • 3.  Witnesses Must Be Competent to Testify
        • a.  General Standards for All Witnesses  25.33
        • b.  Lay Witnesses  25.34
        • c.  Expert Witnesses  25.35
      • 4.  Evidence Must Not Be Not Subject to Exclusion on Statutory or Policy Grounds
        • a.  Hearsay and Nonhearsay Evidence Distinguished  25.36
        • b.  Privileged and Confidential Communications  25.37
        • c.  Other Grounds  25.38
    • B.  Business and Official Records
      • 1.  Business Records  25.39
      • 2.  Official Records  25.40
    • C.  Reports
      • 1.  Expert's Reports  25.41
      • 2.  Child Custody Evaluation Reports  25.42
    • D.  Tax Returns  25.43
    • E.  Deposition Testimony  25.44
    • F.  Matters Judicially Noticed  25.45
  • IV.  INTRODUCING ELECTRONIC (INCLUDING SOCIAL MEDIA) EVIDENCE
    • A.  Overall Role of Declarations and Exhibits That Refer to ESI
      • 1.  Declarations Filed With Court  25.46
      • 2.  Exhibits  25.47
    • B.  Admissibility of ESI as Evidence
      • 1.  Importance of Following Court Rules  25.48
      • 2.  ESI Must Meet Standard Relevancy Requirements  25.49
      • 3.  ESI Authentication Issues
        • a.  Burden on Proponent to Show Authenticity  25.50
        • b.  Computer Hardware and Software  25.51
        • c.  Social Media Posts, E-Mail, and Text Messages  25.52
        • d.  Websites  25.53
      • 4.  Hearsay Issues in ESI Context
        • a.  Distinguishing Hearsay From Nonhearsay Uses of ESI  25.54
        • b.  Frequently Used Hearsay Exceptions for ESI  25.55
    • C.  Chart of Sample Social Media and Informational Websites  25.56

26

Immigration Issues in Family Law Cases

Lisa Kobayashi

  • I.  IMPORTANCE OF CONSIDERING IMMIGRATION ISSUES  26.1
  • II.  EFFECT OF MARITAL TERMINATION
    • A.  Potential for Loss of Immigration Status  26.2
    • B.  Evaluating Party's Immigration Status in Relation to Marital Dissolution
      • 1.  Holder of Fiancé Visa
        • a.  Fiancé Visa Described  26.3
        • b.  Fiancé Visa Holder Enters U.S. But Does Not Marry  26.4
        • c.  Fiancé Visa Holder Enters U.S. and Marries
          • (1)  Dissolution Before Adjustment of Status Filed  26.5
          • (2)  Dissolution After Adjustment of Status Filed  26.6
      • 2.  Conditional Permanent Residency Within First 2 Years of Marriage
        • a.  Nature of Conditional Permanent Residency Through Marriage  26.7
        • b.  Termination of Conditional Residency Within 2-Year Period  26.8
        • c.  Petitioning to Remove Conditions
          • (1)  Joint Filing Requirement  26.9
          • (2)  Waiver of Joint Filing Requirement  26.10
        • d.  Effect of Dissolution
          • (1)  Before Removal of Conditions  26.11
          • (2)  After Removal of Conditions  26.12
      • 3.  Bona Fide Marriage and Consequences of Marriage Fraud
        • a.  Marriage Fraud Under Immigration Law  26.13
        • b.  Consequences of Marriage Fraud  26.14
      • 4.  Other Statuses
        • a.  Derivative Status Based on Spouse's Nonimmigrant Visa  26.15
        • b.  Undocumented Status  26.16
    • C.  Support Obligation Under Federal Affidavit of Support (Form I-864)
      • 1.  Affidavit of Support Described: Obligations and Termination  26.17
      • 2.  Effect of Dissolution on Support Obligation  26.18
      • 3.  Enforceability of Support Obligation
        • a.  Overview  26.19
        • b.  Arguing Against Enforceability  26.20
        • c.  Limiting Enforceability  26.21
        • d.  Jurisdiction  26.22
    • D.  Child Custody and Visitation
      • 1.  Immigration Status May Not Be Considered  26.23
      • 2.  Rights of Detained or Deported Parent  26.24
      • 3.  Parent Moving Out of State or Abroad  26.25
  • III.  IMMIGRATION ISSUES RELATED TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
    • A.  Overview  26.26
    • B.  Issues Faced by Victims of Domestic Violence  26.27
      • 1.  Fear of Enforcement Action Against Victim Based on Perpetrator's Information  26.28
      • 2.  Options for Victim Who Is Conditional Permanent Resident
        • a.  Joint Petition Required to Remove Victim's Conditional Status  26.29
        • b.  Waiver of Joint Petition Requirement  26.30
      • 3.  Victim's Rights Under Violence Against Women Act
        • a.  Right to Self-Petition  26.31
        • b.  VAWA Remedies for Victims in Removal Proceedings  26.32
      • 4.  Special Visas Under Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act  26.33
        • a.  U Visas  26.34
        • b.  T Visas  26.35
      • 5.  Other Options for Victims of Domestic Violence  26.36
    • C.  Issues Faced by Perpetrator of Domestic Violence  26.37
  • IV.  CHILDREN ELIGIBLE FOR SPECIAL IMMIGRANT JUVENILE STATUS (SIJS)  26.38
  • V.  FORM: AFFIDAVIT OF SUPPORT UNDER SECTION 213A OF THE INA (USCIS FORM I-864)  26.39
Products specifications
PRACTICE AREA Family Law
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Products specifications
PRACTICE AREA Family Law
PRODUCT GROUP Publication